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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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    ASSIGNMENT: HOOKER FURNITURE MATERIAL HANDLING AND PACKAGING Hi, Bunky, Your next assignment: ABC is now interested in learning about Hooker Furniture’s material handling and packaging situation. Once again, you will not be able to access this company on the inside. You will need to use your abilities to determine information based on your knowledge of the products and processes that are in play to manufacturer upholstered furniture. Your Deliverable: a report that provides guidelines on the kind of material handling and packaging methods that Hooker should be using and an analysis of possible issues and challenges. ABC will use this information if/when it has the opportunity to investigate Hooker directly. The report should include: Consideration of the incoming raw materials used in the production of upholstered furniture: wood, leather, fabric, foam and other filling material, high carbon spring steel, bar and wire stock and other raw materials Consideration of the finished products, packaging and packing for shipping and delivery Identify and discuss the following: specific product characteristics of the raw materials - receiving and unpacking raw materials finished goods packaging materials what functional trade-offs should be considered and what labeling requirements and hazardous materials should be considered
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    Your Topic Goes Here Your Name Your University Your Topic Goes Here Start with the attention-grabbing story: Capture your readers’ attention right away with a detailed story, an anecdote about the problem, or another technique. You will explain that if this happened, there must be a problem that should be solved. Identify the topic: This idea lets your readers know what your paper is about in general terms. Express the purpose: This idea allows readers to understand the purpose of your paper. Establish your credibility: You may have some experience with this topic, and this is your opportunity to tell about it briefly. You may not be an expert, but you have included the ideas of experts in your paper; identify two or three standout sources that lend credibility to the topic. Emphasize why the topic is important: Few readers will care about a topic unless you make them care. Briefly identify effects and indirect effects that you will develop in the second section. End with your thesis statement. Be clear and concise about your solution and why it will succeed; start with your solution and then identify reasons for why it will work. Problem Analysis Problem Analysis: This section details the history, causes, and effects of the problem. Offer background information: Historical or background information will put your topic into a broader context. You will detail how and when the problem began and continued to be a problem. Detail causes of the problem: You will identify, explain, and support with research the causes of the problem. Explain effects of the problem: The negative effects of the problem, including indirect effects, will be explained using research. Be sure to include a visual, with a title, caption, and source information. See the Week 5 Lecture for more information. Include the visual closest to where you will explain it further or connect it to an idea. An example follows. Figure 1: No Child Left Behind Act Being Signed into Law, 2002 /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQEASwBLAAD/2wBDAAUDBAQEAwUEBAQFBQUGBwwIBwcHBw8LCwkMEQ8S EhEPERETFhwXExQaFRERGCEYGh0dHx8fExciJCIeJBweHx7/2wBDAQUFBQcGBw4ICA4eFBEU Hh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh4eHh7/wAAR CAEsAZADASIAAhEBAxEB/8QAHQAAAQUBAQEBAAAAAAAAAAAABwMEBQYIAgEACf/EAF0QAAEC BAQDBAYFBgcLCgQHAAECAwAEBREGEiExBxNBIlFhcQgUMoGRoRUjQrHBFiRSk9HTFyUzNLLS 4TViY2RygoOSo7PwGCZDRFRzdJSiwidFVbQ3RlNWdZWk/8QAGwEAAgMBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAAA AgMBBAUABgf/xAA1EQABBAEDAgMGBgICAwEAAAABAAIDEQQSITEFQRMiUQYUFTJCYSMzcYGh 8JHRUrEWJDTh/9oADAMBAAIRAxEAPwDNtLp8k5TZVapJhSlMoJJbBJNhDtFJp5BvJS1+n1Sf 2QYOGXBp2r4To9Vn6slliZkmHktsourKptKhcnY6wUKPwkwZIIHNp651YFyt90m/uGkX4unz SfZKf1HFi2u1lRFJp+Y/xfLd1uSmHsrhluZXaXoqHh3Ilcx+6NiUzCeGZNxwytCkEEZT/N0k jTyidZl5ZpJDMs22kgaIQE/dFhvSnfUUh3W4hs1ix5TeFFfn8vIwmQlVrKdl0tg+8iLTT/R+ qTtjONUiU0vl5YWr5CNPGylGwsEajTaOUlIF+qibw9nTIh826rydZlPytAWd2PR+piHUImph
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Two Minutes Easy Speech Ethos Ethos, a term with Greek origin, can be used to refer to the values, morals, and beliefs of a person or a culture. It is also one of the rhetorical appeals used in literature where it is a skill to credit and author or a literary presenter. There are two main forms of ethos; extrinsic ethos and intrinsic ethos where the former deals with education, authority and experience of an author or a speaker where the latter refers to the style a speaker uses to persuade their audience whether they be skilled or unskilled with terminology and language. Ethos is a rhetorical device which employs contents in arguments with the goal of appealing to ethics, the aim being to convince the audience to adopt the stance that aligns to their ethical responsibilities. An example of application of ethos is when a doctor is hired to teach their audience about hygiene or about healthcare in an organization, or when an engineer is hired to take a refresher course on technological development in an organization. Speakers need to the establish ethos from the beginning of their presentation to earn confidence of their audience. Earning confidence of the audience using ethos may entail the use of moral competence only although it can also include knowledge and competence. In many occasions, ethos is limited to the speech of the speaker, however, ethos can extend to the history of the speaker and their moral character. The audience can confirm ethos of a speaker by checking their character before they begin speaking. Ethos is a rhetorical mode of persuasion which has been used on various occasions and an example is politics. Politicians use ethos to ear confidence of voters by identifying with them; when a politician wants to woo farmers, they pick points that and tell how they have engaged in farming to increase their intrinsic ethos. iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAucAAAGvCAIAAAB3huwDAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF7M/dmTZkl2H4hl7BG571vtvaG3ARpLD7FwGXBEcTQUDSZIFLfRAx9oEh80YybT6M+QmUSa 3vRA2RgF2ZhICgDBoSg0SIocAWigsfVSXV1da2blvmdk7BH6nd/vnOPn+r1fZFSDlOnWV5H3 u59f9+Nn9+PH3eduvPv9uYNjuOaO7c/h78GxOfzDr/YPL/ywz0L8aW5+zv49mDvGR14OT+bx 7rG5/QNWh2L4dsCH9hw1zPOxvXdwbB+FrIE5L4DfDvAYFc9ZSweo3tqwF/GEEPFunv/xAcoD qj1UPIfPsYV9K2wvHeyhhj2rDr8eHFiLeGXBQN3fs1fn7V1cqA61GeAGNN63RgMbBhjhZWGC inatxPz8vgHI/whjXnqmrwf76F97FSUBhFVkcAF0+8cwvqAOGR4NfmJHV/wLSNAJe9+qnp87 ICLRN13z6B/xNL9/MCeisSJDNGmU9ahWq40Ixa8Ntf4eHnm16COZwb+j8J4RzXoBzAAFqBt/ 9gAVWUIENHwbEu0/+0YAALJXWv5hT4fP9w8WFhb39qxjCwvz++gOyW//B1QGtugSP0WVfRNd 1/giypBzee0bgUhTv7yV+XniN/iuAklEk5Mmr4MDvAv4KQXgSaunQm44CdII/1Yfaasa2WHy tmHPwZhui0+NlHpRePJvfL01bNIBiFiExHG0H1BEG3/Ec+991KAiQi8aJC8OEWA0j2eJLiI2 ayeDO4TRpsk+n5lAOC1ENWMxq9B4be/Y4t78yv6xhegk+yBaun4IlWWPJEwOX+UBAdbEQerL sdf6EzqtY80JIqD1pY5IKb2mj0y/UWKsj2y5Y5sEMsAQ+Qwj0iwUvyGygXxUJy3CIhOSNYNh Gk7yLVOgUYNaLN0Ho1C1JJZGbZnGTGVFbSN0poRK1VWWcDasOingsk6ZvqbuonVosAUYlaCG B+PGWQDSABCdC5RE71zis+fiCbS9FL1j/PgrCxPC22skYx4vNlAyVWVI6lLAJeKyEdQRuqRB khWygqIq/ceiiWGQU3lULjK8xP+u/2UK6+U8TYkmoxRICFnfnis77wDsLjtgZHGm6YRDnNR8 EK//YIH9vfPu99TtdFMCg9YO6A6UuZxIpoh7k6bK0PqJeg7WjoCYSqQfExpZboApTZgj4zf1
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    Name: Tutor: Class: Date: Literally Journalism Essay Blacks have had an acceptance challenge since time immemorial. Therefore, being a black in a predominantly white school poses greater challenges in children’s lives especially the ones engaging in athletic activities like basketball. Societies chose not to understand a black basketball player’s needs, aspirations, admirations, potential and net worth as a human being. Instead, color and gender discrimination overrule the good that such a young talent can offer to the same society. The right to have a sense of belonging is a humane thing and manipulating someone to fight for that right is definitely wrong. Research shows that the enrollment of black students in white campuses keep improving since the 1954 rule was enacted. Much as that offers a sense of relief, the hurdles to surviving in there are still not as easy. This paper seeks to explore the identity of a college basketball player, their experience of being a black student in an all-white campus, their rituals, their characteristics and beliefs and finally it gives a standpoint on their significance to me as an individual and the rest of the world. Identity is the distinctiveness of an individual from the others. As personal as it sounds, identity is influenced by a lot of factors namely; environment, peers, background and the community. Blacks are generally known as street smart/tough people. This driving force kept them pushing until they overcame the barrier of not being accepted in an all while campus. According to (Haniff 1991), Black and whites used to attend different schools before the 1954 ruling was passed. The basic knowledge of this right motivated them to aspire for better and pursue success in schools they couldn’t set foot in before. Contrary to popular belief, the enrolled students struggled further until they were able to participate in athletic activities just like other students. Changing the norms is not an easy task. Therefore, the black basketball players have to work twice as hard to earn their titles, place and sense of belonging. First of all, they have to face off the rather harsh institutional climate created by their peers giving rise to microaggression (D’ Augelli & Hershberger 1993). Their actions are judged and looked down upon. Some of these actions carry on even after school. Their credentials are doubted by the society. Secondly, Racism in the United States and the UK is so bad. Joining an all-white school as a black student makes it even worse. Most of these student ends up being isolated and are treated as laughing stocks. Thirdly, over the years, most blacks apply for enrollment in all-white campuses but they are declined to chance to join. Similarly, most of those who try to join basketball are denied the chance as well making them invisible. Successful candidates battle with lack of support, demoralization and unhealthy social relationships. Fourthly, According to (Stewart 2009), their identity development is inhibited. Most students identify and develop their identity while in campus. The free will accorded to them helps them to engage in various activities that shape up and bring out their true identity. A black basketball player in an all-white school has limited levels of engagement, involvement and integration (Harper & Quaye 2009). Fifthly, Achieving success in such hostile condition is a huge task. (Steele 2003) portrays that black athletes experience lots of pressure from the society. They are mostly affected by the need to achieve and meet the expectations of their guardians and friends back at home. Similarly, the gap between the professionally successful basketball player and them is too large. They therefore have to learn through observation and without mentors. Finally, they have to deal with conflicting roles and timings. To succeed in both fields, one has to put in a lot of hard work, determination, time and consistency. A clash in schedule affects one’s performance. As a result, the level of satisfaction, their persistence, determination and success in general is daunted. All the above challenges affect one’s identity. Worldwide, NCAA Division 1 Men’s basketball championship is very popular. Black college basketball players are therefore under duress to win so that they can join such competitions. To fully explore one’s identity, a black student needs to conform to social norms, scale the heights of education and engage in co-curricular activities. The pressure to win overshadows all other opportunities they have in campus to explore maturity and growth in their personal identity (Person & LeNoir 1997). Sports have a greater economic value. At school, they generate lots of revenues to the school but if not looked into may cause greater damage to the participants. Most students spend all their time practicing and engaging in competitions leaving very little time for their classwork. Neglecting academic work hampers career development. Therefore, such students are not capable of developing their careers once they get out of school. Given the fact that black basketball students lack mentors and motivators; their risk of failing after school if they do not make it in the sports industry is very high. (Mahor 1993) says that most of these students are not able to avoid identity foreclosure. Intercollegiate athletics also play a major role in hampering the students from furthering their careers. (Ferrante 1991) states categorically that most black basketball players are less prepared to pursue careers after school due to their participation in competitive basketball. Their careers therefore, mature at a slower pace compared to other students. On the other hand, identifying with sports is a distinguishing factor. Some of the renowned black basketball players have made a name for themselves with the sport. As a matter of fact, it comes with fame and money. A good example of a person that followed his passion for sports straight from high school is Kobe Bryant. As a black person; in a white institution, color dictates one’s identity. As such they are treated. Their beliefs as well tell who they are. The generally perception is, what you do and what you have defines you. In this case, the black basketball player’s achievement and the activities they engage in are used to judge and stigmatize them. Sincerely, one’s personality should be the parameter through which and individual’s identity is derived from. Since that does not happen in this day and age, a black player will continually struggle to seek sense of belonging. Societal class, peer pressure and societal perception of who they really are will continually keep them from exploring who they really are. To survive as a black player in an all-white school, one needs to have internal motivation. Rituals practiced at home or by players that one looks up to go a long way in boosting one’s morale. Much as the relationship between the rituals and winning do not co-relate, the belief in them superstitiously invokes good luck. The rituals perform various roles. Some of them are to foster identity. Cultural activities always bring us together and show where we belong. The rituals as well have cultural grounds. On the side, they generate money for the institutions especially where the fans are involved. This is one of the socio-economic benefits of rituals and sports. At the beginning of the game, the rituals help the players to prepare for the game. They also act as supplications to God for good luck. As the fans join in, the players are encouraged to keep fighting on and not to be discouraged. As the game goes on, the players are reminded of the support base they have and their simple mandate of winning. They also foster competition amongst teams through championships. Negatively, they lead to rivalry if the competition is unhealthy and controlling. The songs and chants keeps going on as the games continue until the winning team is declared. As part of the celebrations, insults can be hurled at the losing team for them to concede defeat. Positive competition does not promote abusive songs. Celebrations are conducted peacefully and the rituals are undertaken as usually to give thanks to the gods for the good luck. Lastly, rituals promote unison among players. As a black player, this really helps. It boosts one’s esteem while at the game. The problem is, once the game is over and long forgotten, such support is no longer there. One goes back to being isolated and invisible again. Black basketball players ought to have the named below characteristics. One, they should be positive minded. As we earlier discussed, blacks face a lot of challenges especially in enrolling for schools and basketball. To rise above such hindrances, they need to be optimistic. (May 2008) sheds more light on how overcoming insecurities, discrimination and inequality make them role models. Two, they should be willing to share in the American Dream. Living in a white populated community, blacks have no option but to conform to this subtle rule. Smith, (2008) elaborates on how each successful black basketball player is termed to have achieved the American dream. The media as well play a major role in in sighting the same (Tucker 2003). Although most of them are portrayed on a negative front of criminality; fame and popularity is bestowed on them (Berry & Smith 2000). Young players still look up to them with the prerogative of picking their good traits. Other players use such identities to create their reputation. Media approval has skewed most of the players’ identity. Others go to the extent of accepting titles like, “Nigga Imagery” for them to gain popularity. The symbolism is not only insultive; but it is also racist and slavery. Due to lack of genuine support, unfortunately, most players conform to it to remain relevant. Successful Black players should have a giving heart. Giving back to the society is a sign of gratitude to the community that brought you up. It also helps to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor by increasing the number of students that access reputable institution through mentorship and sponsorships. Another trait is consistency. For one to achieve anything, they need to be persistent and keep doing what works for them at all times. Studies have shown that, all successful black players have a common schedule. They all practice a lot, diet healthy and appropriately and stick to their schedules. Hardworking is another trait that symbolizes a black basketball player. Opportunities to engage in such sports in a white school don’t come easy. To remain relevant, they therefore have to work hard. At times they have to do shady jobs for them to suffice. Also, they still have to work extra hard for them to maintain their identity. They have to be performers. In this case, they have to portray their A game at all times. Success to them is not offered in a silver plate. For them not to be sub-benchers, they ought to outsmart most of the team members and elucidate high integrity. Finally, they have to be skillful, have a good personality and be individually motivated. Intrinsic motivation is a key factor that propels one towards success. Skills help one to navigate the difficulties in the industry and overcome challenges. A good personality on the other hand helps one to co-exist with others harmoniously. Belief is the trust of unseen things. Such confidence is mandatory for any black basketball player to succeed. Most of them believe in the willingness beat all odds. Their street tough mentality helps them to build on their resilience while practicing and playing. Adages like, “when the going gets tough, the tough gets going “is so common to them. Therefore, they do not despair easily. They also believe in aluta continua. They keep moving on no matter what. This spearheads them towards achieving their objectives. Coupled up with being true to one’s self and others, they portray admirable character to their juniors and the rest of the world. Of late, most of them believe in fame and riches. As men, they seek to be recognized as talented individuals through their sporting activities. To achieve this, they work diligently and dexterously just to seem empowered and successful. I am in favor of black basketball players being given a fair chance to experience school without intimidation, stigmatization, racism, sexism, stereotyping and isolation. As any other kid, when they grow up, they contribute to the gross national product of the state and the social well-being of the society. As a matter of fact, inhibiting them to participate in formal education and sporting activities warrants them to continually participate in criminal activities. This in returns leads to high crime rates and incarcerations. The trickle-down effect is higher budgets to national governments to rehabilitate them and accommodate them in prisons. Alienating black people promotes decentralization. This creates enemity between community members instead of fostering peace. Development in such a society is hard to attain. I believe, every child whether black or white have a right to belong, a right to access good education, a right to freedom and a right to express self-will without coercion. Every kid has potential and if we could put our hate aside, we could all make the world a better place to live in. Therefore, accommodating the black basketball player will benefit everyone in general. It will promote healthier competitions in school. It will create an enabling environment for all students to identify their trues identities and it eventually offer economic value to the state once the students are exercising their careers outside school. To this juncture, I admit professional basketball players are a big name in the outside world. Within the confines of an all-white institution that still is a dream come true. Efforts are underway to empower the black basketball player to do better in the future but the constraints are equally as many. The identity of a black player is still dictated by where they come from and their rituals. The society keeps isolating and stigmatizing the black player making it hard for them to freely and fully identifying their personality and potential. Negative perception of who a black player can be in the society after school ruins their reputation way before they join the industry. Conflicting roles, financial stresses and the pressure to make it lest they are cast out instills fear and lowers their self-esteem. This in return dwindles their performance. Clear cut schedules that do not conflict with school work and co-curricular activities may go a long way in developing their career long after school. Hard work, determination, resilience, consistency and persistency remain to be the only way out for black basketball players to make it in predominantly white institutions.
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: A Book Review of Vaneetha Rinser’s “the scars that have shaped my life” The scars that have shaped me is a book written by Vaneetha Rendall Rinser and published in 2016. The book is based on the life experiences of Vaneetha from birth to the point she is at in life at the time of writing. The book is quite a piece of art created with utmost creativity and keenness. Vaneetha writes her Bible-based book about her sufferings and how they shaped her life into what it is like now. The book expresses all her sufferings in absolute transparency and without the element of fixation. The book was fundamentally written to be a source of encouragement both to those enduring suffering at the moment and also those who are well up. The book is written out of a true life experience which makes it a very good tool for encouraging those at a low point in life with a very practical example. The book was published by a Christian publishing company known as Desiring God. This company she says played a very central role in her writing of the book. What inspired Vaneetha to write the book was the strong bid to reach out to the many Christians and non-Christians. To give them a tool which they can refer to in tough times to have a hope for a brighter future in their situation. This paper seeks to do a review of the book so as to give a good picture of what it is about and also to expose it in fewer words. The Scars That Have Shaped me is divided into three parts each with a crucial significance other than building on the plot of the book. The first part is titled fearfully and wonderfully made (Rinser 22). This part is the most crucial in building on what the book is all about. It shows all the life experiences that Vaneetha has had from earlier in her life to way into her marriage life (Rinser 22). The book talks of the scars that Vaneetha has on both of her legs which she did not like showing off. Although many people would show the mark left by what they endured, Vaneetha cannot stand the look of the scars on her feet. The scars remind her much about her past and of how she is different from normal. She acclaims that her scars keep reminding her of how she was damaged from just after birth. The peak of her disappointment in her body stature was when she was a teenager a time in life when everyone has a perfect body (Rinser 22). Just after birth, Vaneetha contracted polio but because polio had already been eradicated in India, her condition was misdiagnosed. Following a misdiagnosis, Vaneetha was treated with medication that caused her paralysis. After the paralysis, the doctors in India tried everything they could possibly do for her. Eventually, Indian doctors gave up on her condition referring her to the West for further and more advanced treatment. While in the United States she underwent 21 surgeries by the age of 13. At such a tender age, the number of surgeries she had undergone would to many seem a torture. As a teenager, Vaneetha believed that the world would accept her better if they did not know what her scars were like. She believed that showing them off would be a display of all that she had gone through. To add on to her suffering, Vaneetha was bullied at school (Rinser 28). Many students made her know that she was a cripple but this did not bother her much. It worked to strengthen her even more. By the time she wrote her book, Vaneetha was already reconciled to her past. She got over hiding her scars and realised that they were her trademark; a mark of what God did for her. Later in her life, Vaneetha contracted post-polio syndrome which caused her a lot of pain (Rinser 29). This condition led to her degenerating in strength and also accounted for a constant increase in pain in her life. Her arms became partially paralysed so that she could only use them for the essential activities. Soon after the second diagnosis, Vaneetha started becoming a dependant since there were various tasks she could not do without a helper (Rinser 29). Eventually, she also lost her son and was divorced by her husband. Life became a living hell for her especially having children under her care yet she could not take care of herself. This was nothing short of a blow to the face for her. Through all this, she kept her hope on Jesus who was the source of her strength and hope in life. She based her life on Jesus since she needed her a lot as both a saviour and a helper. Her experiences drove her deeper into worshipping God as opposed to further away which was the most probable and easy option. The second part is dubbed look on my affliction, where Vaneetha cries out her to God for an unrelenting remembrance (Rinser 54). It is named from a Bible Verse, Psalms 119:153, which is a cry from David to God asking him to look at his infirmities and come to his rescue. The verse plays a very crucial role in ordering Vaneetha’s thoughts even as she presents her afflictions to God (Rinser 54). It works to ensure she is within a Biblical context which is the main aim for basing the book on the Bible. Before Vaneetha was able to cry her heart out to God, she believed that the best attitude was to remain joyful at all times to honour God. She could fake joy even in the deepest of pain and fear of the uncertainties of the future. She claims to have been made to believe that joy in times of sorrow and pain was what God wanted from her especially since she was in the company of people who had very little knowledge on Jesus. On her newly discovered path, lamenting was more honouring and glorifying to God more than the hypocrisy she had been practising could ever do in decades. In view of the book of Ruth, Naomi was always seen as the weaker one with Ruth being the hero of the book. Vaneetha being in the shoes of Naomi was better placed to respect the love and trust she had in God. Vaneetha learnt to offer a lament that glorifies God yet reducing the intensity of her afflictions (Rinser 56). Naomi is the clearest display of a woman facing many life calamities yet she is firmly rooted in God’s love. She gets broken down by every new challenge that comes her way and she does not hide it from God (Rinser 56). When in pain she expresses it in worship and faithfulness to God. This is the example Vaneetha decided to follow to the later so as to please God and draw many people to Him just as Naomi drew Ruth to God. Finally, part III; joy comes with the morning, is a part based on Psalms 30:5 which expresses the hope for a brighter tomorrow morning even if today’s night presents a series of tares and weeping (Rinser 160). At this point, Vaneetha presents a very thankful heart to God for a revelation of the higher reward and rest. She thanks God for seeing her that far amidst all her infirmities and disabilities. She expresses how hard living in thanksgiving was such a hard task for her (Rinser 162). When she set out on the path of thanksgiving, Vaneetha was doing it merely as an act of obedience rather than giving it truly from the heart. This has ever since changed because a very special spot for Thanksgiving was created in her heart. In the journey of thanksgiving, Vaneetha thought that the first act of thanksgiving would be one of expressing God’s provision which she was wrong since it turned out to be a session of worship and faith (Rinser 163). Finally, she expresses the value of being in suffering in the Christian life as a point of growth and exaltation to the next level in life. This is clearly shown in the life of Job whose everything was shaken and taken away to be later returned in a double portion after he came out of the affliction victorious. Vaneetha aimed at reaching the many Christians and even more the non-Christians as aforementioned. In writing the book Vaneetha wanted to present her life as a living testimony of a person whose life was a complete mess yet she still put her trust on God. She places her hope on God as the source of her strength a chapter in her life which did not come as easily as merely saying it. In her book, she made sure to present her life as it was without bringing it out as a poetic piece since it would lose its meaning. She Purposes to present a personal companion copy of a practical manual through suffering. Although her case could be different from her readers ‘cases, she had a mission to present a practical example and testimony that one can overcome. In serving her purpose, Vaneetha did it in a good style which has overwhelmed me with powerful emotions yet teaching me the Biblical doctrine of suffering and endurance. I fully believe and know that Vaneetha accomplished what she wanted to pass across. Moreover, she went to more than presenting a story, to giving it life and power by including very crucial Biblical teachings as she used then in the turning point of her life.
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    Name: Tutor: Class: Date: Symbolic Analytic Work Symbolic analytic work is an ongoing online activity that entails researching, identifying relationships, creating and sharing knowledge with the identified connections. The activity marks the identity of the participant and goes a long way in establishing and setting future trends (Ogden 173). Symbolic-Analytic work is quite different from other kinds of work; first, it does not need physical availability in an office or geographical location. Online presence in this case is key. One can, therefore, work from anywhere. Secondly, it does not have structured working schedules and times. Patterns of the profession one chooses to engage in are dutifully studied and appropriate timings for targeted audience identified prior to launch one’s work (Pigg 69). The participant then strikes a balance of the two parameters and comes up with their working schedules and times. Third, it cuts across multiple expertise and communication lines. Symbolic analysts delve into research to understand issues, complex and alike, then process the same and share with others in a simplified, relatable manner. Most of their time is spent in reading related contents and visiting multiple sites to understand social norms (Christopher and Hester 11). Content generation is their key role. This is achieved through accessing and understanding discursive norms. Finally, they publish their works and build relationships with their followers and other workers cross-referencing related articles and content. They have to maintain the built relationships by understanding the current trends to leverage norms towards future actions through their online presence (Pigg 83). Conclusively, Symbolic Analysts are termed as “knowledge workers.” The underlying reason is because they navigate through various online platforms to learn from ongoing conversations, understand and develop new contents which they share with others. Works Cited Christopher, Elphis, and Hester McFarland Solomon. "Introduction." Contemporary Jungian Clinical Practice. Routledge, 2018. 3-14. Ogden, Thomas H. "The analytic third: Working with intersubjective clinical facts." The Analytic Field. Routledge, 2018. 169-198. Pigg, Stacey. "Coordinating constant invention: Social media's role in distributed work." Technical Communication Quarterly23.2 (2014): 69-87.
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    Quantitative Research Proposal Institutional Affiliation Name Introduction It is prudent that the new policy in Saudi Arabia to allow women to drive in the kingdom will attract different views from both the men and women in the kingdom. The law to allow women to drive in Saudi Arabia started to be effectual in the kingdom from June 24th 2018 and the government set out all the necessary requirements to see the fruition of the policy. The policy came as a result of royal decree where the royal leadership ended the ban of women to drive which had been in existence in the country for a period of ten years; this made the country to have enacted a law banning women driving in the kingdom. The royal decree came into effect after years of advocacy from women in the country where they wanted to be granted the right to drive and expand their economic space in the kingdom. Additionally, the other reason why the decree came into force successfully is because of the gloomy economic future of the country due to the depletion of the oil reserves making it necessary for the country to seek alternative means of growing its economy. This necessitates involving more women into the workforce to engage in economic activities. The new law applies to all women over the age of 18 years and the government has reacted in response to the same by setting up women driving schools in five cities. In the women driving schools, teachers are Saudi females that acquired their driving licenses abroad. Additionally, the kingdom has set a separate process which allows women that acquired their driving licenses abroad to apply for local driving licenses. The separate process assesses the driving abilities and competencies of the Saudi females. Statistics reveal that most women in the kingdom own driving licenses from abroad and women in the country have petitioned the government for a long period of time to lift women driving in the country. The petition to the government to lift the ban had degenerated into protests where women had taken it to the streets on various occasions with the view of seeing lifting of the ban. Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, 32, yielded to the increasing protests and petition and lifted the ban and this is part of the reforms that the kingdom despite the fact that the kingdom is very conservative in its cultures and systems. The reform to lift the ban is in alignment with the preparations that the kingdom make in readiness to the post-oil era; this is because the kingdom aims at increasing the percentage of women in the workforce to at least one third from the current 22%. Driving will provide women with the ease of mobility to their places of work, and this is in addition to the freedom that the women had been granted to be able to start businesses without seeking permission from males. Despite the positive responses from the females in the kingdom, activists reveal that the social changes is bound to be cosmetic because if the rigid guardianship system that exists in the kingdom which requires the women in the kingdom to have permission from male relatives to travel, study and carry out other activities. Due to the conflicting views of the new law, there is a need to carry out an examination of perceptions of both men and women about the new law which gives women the right to drive in the kingdom. Moreover, this paper also seeks to examine the social and economic effects of the law to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Problem Statement The kingdom of Saudi Arabia lifted the ban on women driving for various reasons but the main reason is to strengthen the role of women in the society of Saudi Arabia. The lifting of the ban came as a result of continuous protests by women activities that advocated for lifting of the ban. It is thought that lifting of the ban would have various positive effects on the women in the kingdom among them being the increase in opportunities for women in the public sector, relaxation of women’s strict dress code, extending the suffrage of women, giving the women the opportunity to stand as candidates in the kingdom’s elections and decrease male dominance in the kingdom due to the strict guardianship system. The guardianship system requires the women in the country to get assent from males before making major decisions in their lives. Weeks before the lift of the ban saw various women activists being arrested and this casted doubt on approval of the kingdom’s leadership to lift the ban. This means that the lifting of the ban sought to ends the continuous women protests that were being witnessed in the kingdom an relaxed the rules which prevented women’s participation in the economic and social events in the country. Moreover, the lifting of the ban was meant to relax the social control on women in the country where the social frameworks are weak. The new law also helped to get approval from religious groups that advocated against mistreatment of women in the kingdom and aimed at creating a level-playing field for both men and women in the kingdom. Despite the country being very conservative and male dominance over women has taken place for a long period of time. The change is meant to create equal opportunity for both men and women to take part in the growth and development of the economy. This is because the change is meant to make the females more productive in building the economy. The economic future of the country is not very promising due to the depletion of oil reserves that the country has enjoyed for a period of more than 60 years. In the past 60 years, the country has recorded tremendous growth in its economy where it has been able to build a cradle-to-coffin welfare system in addition to free housing in addition to other lucrative features which has made the citizens to have well-paying jobs, have few demands, long vacations and early retirement. The system that the country to build was worthwhile as long as the population remained small and revenue from oil production continued to flow in. However, the country has recorded various changes where there has been a steady increase in population and the same is expected to proceed in the foreseeable future. Currently, 60% of the total 22 million Saudi population is below the age of 30 years, an issue which needs keen attention. Additionally, the way price of oil has plummeted from the year 2014 has also exposed the country to various economic effects as it has negative effects on economic growth of the kingdom. In response to the foreseeable economic challenges that are bound to affect the country in the coming years, there is a need to increase participation of the population in economic development, and this has called for the lifting of the ban on women driving to allow the women to engage in the building of the economy. With more women engaging in the building of the economy, there is abound to be realized great economic developments to accommodate changes in revenue from oil. Purpose of the Study There are various benefits of conducting the study, and one of them is that it will enlighten the population on the social benefits of lifting the ban in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia and highlight the changes that will come with the same. Additionally, this study aims at explaining economic benefits that will come with the suggested change in the policy of the country and how the opportunities that women will be created will aid in fostering economic development and improve their engagement in the economy. Third, there will be examined difference in the perspectives of both men and women in the kingdom and how the different views between the men and women will affect the new law. This is because the males in the kingdom have a negative perception of the new law despite the fact that women welcome the move to open up the space for them and give them more freedom to carry out their duties and engage in the building of the society. Furthermore, there will be examined the necessary changes that need to be included to make the law effective and beneficial to the population. Finally, there will be investigated interruptions that the new law will create in the rigid guardianship system where the females are expected to get approval from male relatives in the process of making major decisions in their lives. This is because as much as the new law is in place, patriarchy is still widespread in the kingdom and this will require social changes to take place to create give more freedom to the females to make their decisions without influence of their male counterparts. The social changes need not only be cosmetic but they should have positive impacts on the society and the wellbeing of the population. The analysis will be quantitative in nature which will involve collection of numerical data and to correlate conflict resolution with lifting of the ban on women driving. In this manner, the three variables will be general perception, economic perception and social perception where there will be studies the impact of the lifting of the ban on the changes in perception of women, how the lift affects the economy and how it affects changes the social perception in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the analysis, the lifting of the ban will serve as independent variable while general perception, economic perception and social perception will be dependent variables as they are affected by lifting of the ban. Literature Review Economic and Social Effects of the Law To examine the differences in the perspectives of both men and women on the issue of lifting of driving ban for women, there is a need to understand the causes of the ban and the main intent of the ban. It is evident that the main reason for lifting the ban was not to champion for the right of women but to boost economic performance of the country. The ban on women driving in the country was mainly in line with Saudi Vision 2030 which was outlined by crown prince in the year 2017. The vision is thought to be one of the most radical reforms that the county has witnessed. The main aim of the vision was to aid in the transformation of the country from one that depended majorly on oil to one which would involve other sectors of the economy in response and in readiness to the post-oil era. Statistics reveal that of the total 12 million paid jobs in the county, only 5 million of them are held by Saudis while the remaining 7 million are held by immigrants. The other critical ingredient of Vision 2030 is that employment will be based on merit and not on family or tribal connections. The women are of great importance to the economy of the country because statistics of the country reveal that women are better educated than their male counterparts which give them better chances to perform better than men in the economy. Additionally, the women in Saudi Arabia are less reluctant to take on the jobs available for the Saudis in the country; this makes them suitable to fit in the vacant positions such as nursing or other service jobs which the migrants held. Additionally, the women are underemployed and this is apparent in that one out of five Saudis employed are females, this is a gesture that women involvement in the economy needs to be improved as this is the lowest ratio globally. The low representation of the females in the economy of Saudi Arabia is due to cultural traditions and religious interpretations which require the females to take care of their homes while the makes engage in jobs outside the houses. One challenge that has impeded women’s involvement in the growth of the economy is transport services. The transport is a big issue in Saudi Arabia because the country’s climate is hot which makes it challenging for the population to work in the sun. Additionally, the country is made in the American style where there are long distances between the places of work, homes, shopping and services. This means that even with the absence of cultural and religious barriers, the women find it problematic to work without the right forms of transport. This meant that the government had to first address the issue of transport for women to give them the freedom to engage in economic development with ease. A major problem with the transport sector in the kingdom is that public transport is underdeveloped and taxis are not culturally acceptable for women but only allowed when two or more women travel together. The ban has made it challenging for the women to travel across the country and engage in economic activities. The other issue of absentee men at work is another problem that led to an increase support to lift the ban on women driving in the kingdom. Despite the fact that buying a car is cheap, there is the challenge of hiring a driver for the females. The ban had made the men to be ineffective at work because men without drivers are obliged to take their women shopping, attend doctor’s appointments making them to be absent at work in most cases. The lifting of the ban will provide the freedom that the women need to travel in various places in the country and give men ample time to engage effectively in professional duties. The improvement of transport services in the country as a result of lifting the ban will make the country very effective in the long run. It will aid to bring more productive women in the labor market while at the same time increasing the efficiency of men in their places of work. The other change that is needed in the society is to allow both men and women occupy same spaces of work; this will lead to an increase in efficiency and productivity in the economy. Perspectives of Males and Females After the examination of economic and social effects of the law, there is a need to analyze the different perspective between the males and females in the society. Although females were very happy with the development in the county, it is evident that the males will have different opinions due to the end of the guardianship system that has existed in the kingdom. The men have the feeling that respect for the males is bound to be affected due to the expanded democratic space for the females. There will be not the respect that the males have enjoyed over the years which will affect the foundational principles of the Arab beliefs. There have been the dominance of the males in the society will be affected and which will in turn affect their authorities that they have enjoyed in the past. On the other hand, the new law has attracted positive responses among the females and this is apparent in the number of applications that driving schools have received. Statistics reveal that one of the driving schools that had been opened for the females received about 165,000 applications in only three days. This shows the degree of readiness women have to take on their new responsibilities that come with driving. Moreover, the car industry which is expected to benefit largely from the new law has received new law wholeheartedly because the new law would lead to an increase in the demand of cars. Additionally, there will be an increase in prices of cars due to the higher demand of the commodity. This proves that the males that dominate the car industry accept the new law as it will aid them to expand the market for the better. Economic experts, who are mostly males, also had a positive response to the new law because the new law would play a critical role in the increase of gross domestic product by 65%. This is because allowing women to drive and engage actively in the growth of the economy will aid in reviving other sectors among them being retail and automotive. Such sectors will record higher productivity as the new law will make the women to enjoy working and improve the efficiency of movement around the country. The tourism industry will also expand with the inception of the new law because it will create a different view among the tourist who will no longer view Saudi Arabia as a bastion of male dominance but as a pluralist society which gives both males and females equal changes. The increase in the number of tourists will lead to an increase in revenue from tourism.
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    The Patient Portal and Patient Access to their Health Information Institutional Affiliation Name Introduction It is evident that the level of technological development in the contemporary world has enabled consumers to become more knowledgeable and interested in the management of their personal health. Thus is because the internet has provided a means through which the consumers engage in the research of health topics online and they seek electronic access to their health information which enables them to have a better communication and engagement with healthcare providers (Furukawa, King, Patel, Hsiao, Adler-Milstein & Jha, 2014). The result is that they become more informed and participate better in the process of making healthcare decisions. This establishes the need to have a better understanding of a patient portal and the way it works towards the improvement of health of the population and the need for researchers to engage in the betterment of patient portals to ensure that patients receive better treatment from their healthcare providers (Kruse, Argueta, Lopez & Nair, 2015). A patient portal is an online website of a mobile application which enables patients to have access to their personal health information. It is a secure window which enables patients to access, review, understand, use and share their Electronic Health Records (EHR), this means that patient portals have a direct link to HER systems of healthcare providers (Wolff, Darer, Berger, Clarke, Green, Stametz & Walker, 2017). Patients have the freedom to access their health information at any time of the day hence providing a means through which they can have a continuous access and examination of their health information. There are various benefits of patient portals and one of them is that it can help avoid mistakes during emergencies, improve accuracy during review, and the better understanding ensures strict adherence to protocol (Ancker, Witteman, Hafeez, Provencher, Van de Graaf & Wei, 2015). The other benefits of patient portals is that they improve interactions between healthcare providers and personal care management and better transition between healthcare providers in other facilities and settings for better provision of services. History and Evolvement in the Healthcare Field Some people love it, some people hate it, but everyone has to deal with it because it is the future of healthcare. Patient portals and electronic health records are the digital version of paper charts of patients and are patient-centered records that allow for easy and instant access to patient data and information for better collection of information and understanding of the same (Gordon & Hornbrook, 2016). The idea of patient portals started in 1920s and this begun by the emergence of medical health records and Health Information Management (HIM), it started when medical professionals started to use medical records to document complications, details and outcomes of patient care. The American College of Surgeons (ACOS) established the Association of Record Librarians of North America (ARLNA), currently known as American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) to help in standardizing medical records (Mandl & Kohane, 2016). The main aim of the standardization process was to streamline the use of medical records and the process of documentation of information therein. Forty years after the establishment of ARLNA, there were various tremendous developments made and which helped to improve quality of service provision and documentation and access to information. This was because technological developments came into play and led to the shift from the use of paper records to technical platforms through the use of computers (Turvey, Klein, Fix, Hogan, Woods, Simon & Wakefield, 2014). This led to a new beginning in the new approaches to the Health Information Management (HIM) hence influencing the standardization and sharing of medical records. Dr. Lawrence Weed effected standardization of medical records through the creation of problem-oriented medical record (POMR) for the purposes of organizing information used in medical records. The progress enabled clinicians to access the whole history of patients and the system also allowed access to third parties to view medical history of patients and verify diagnoses (Irizarry, Dabbs & Curran, 2015). The introduction of Medicare and Medicaid became a reality in the year 1965 which then furthered the development of health information system because reimbursement made it a priority to keep accurate medical records. The use of computers in the collection and management of medical records was becoming a rare investment for the health fraternity but the trend began to change in the year 1965 when the use of electronic health records was implemented in a total of 73 hospitals. Health information technology was very expensive to implement and only the major hospitals and healthcare facilities could afford it for the purposes of record keeping (de Lusignan, Mold, Sheikh, Majeed, Wyatt, Quinn & Blakey, 2014). One of the early adopters of the technology was The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. The period of 1970 saw the emergence of Health Information Management and this was due to the development of computers that helped to further advancement of health information management systems. The first pioneer ion the trend was the Lockheed Corporation which created the Eclipsys in the year 1971, Eclipsys is a computerized physician ordering system for the El Camino Hospital based in California (Kruse, Bolton & Freriks, 2015). The second pioneering advancement in Health Information Management (HIM) was the collaboration of University of Utah, 3M and Latter Day Saints Hospital towards the development of Health Evaluation through Logical Processing (HELP), a system which helps to make decisions (Mold, de Lusignan, Sheikh, Majeed, Wyatt, Quinn & Kataria, 2015). Third was the collaboration of Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital to develop Computer Stored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR). The final pioneering invention was the creation of Regenstrief Medical Record System in 1972 by Regenstrief Institute in Indianapolis. The pioneering advancements were of great importance in the development of health information technology but the technology was lowly accepted for years (Hamine, Gerth-Guyette, Faulx, Green & Ginsburg, 2015). The government also helped in the development of health information technology by investing in Veterans Health Information System and Technology Architecture (VisTA). However, VisTA was not rolled out for use by the public yet and waited for a decade. Health Information Management then became revolutionized by the introduction of desktop personal computers in 1980s; this is because it made it easy for doctors to invest in systems that could touch on the health of their patients and doctors also had the opportunity to acquire the computers to revolutionize the industry (Tieu, Sarkar, Schillinger, Ralston, Ratanawongsa, Pasick & Lyles, 2015). In the year 1982, Dragon systems developed a voice recognition prototype to the cheers of medical assistants. In the late 1980s, the use of personal computer and Windows-based software became common in offices of physicians although they were mostly used for scheduling treatment and billing but not for electronic medical records (Jhamb, Cavanaugh, Bian, Chen, Ikizler, Unruh & Abdel-Kader, 2015). In hospitals, the widespread use of computerized registration improved the efficiency of patient check-ins but was negated by segmentation of hospital computers in departments. The 1980s and 1990s saw an increased awareness of benefits of electronic health records in the society which in turn led to its widespread use in the society. This was effective when Institute of Medicine (IOM) started a study on health records and benefits of the electronic medical records (Sarkar & Bates, 2014). The study was not published until the year 1991 and this was because the study found various issues with EMR among them being the security issues associated with the same, lack of standards and high cost of implementation. In turn, IOM set the right standards that the society expects from the system. The introduction of Master Patient index (MPI) took effect in 1980 with the sole purpose of keeping track of patients and their medical data, the progress created a suitable platform for Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC), a Health Information Exchange (HIE) which was operated by Indiana Health Information Exchange (Tierney, Alpert, Byrket, Caine, Leventhal, Meslin & Schwartz, 2015). The platform helped in leveraging an internally developed MPI which currently incorporates 100 hospitals that represents 38 health systems; 12,000 practices with more than 20,000 providers; 1100 Veterans Administration sites and 12 million patients. Progressively, the development of the World Wide Web took place in the year 1990, which, despite the fact that it did not affect the healthcare, it introduced a new technology in the web and browser to access, share and navigate information. This was then furthered by World Health Organization’s adoption of ICD-10 coding standard which was a standard for diagnosis codes and helped in expanding the number of codes which can be employed in medical records (Bailey, O'conor, Bojarski, Mullen, Patzer, Vicencio & Wolf, 2015). The 2000s saw a rise in meaningful use of health information technology followed by HITECH use of the same in various hospitals and medical facilities. This was after the revelation by the Institute of Medicine that preventable medical errors led to death of between 44,000 and 98,000 hospitalized Americans. What followed is President Bush calling for computerized health records in the year 2004 State of the Union Address (Lyles, Schillinger & Sarkar, 2015). The revelations of IOM increased the support for calls to give most Americans access to electronic health records in a period of 10 years. In the year 2009, President Obama signed the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act as part of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to ensure that electronic health records was adopted by the year 2014 thereby setting the right stages for the adoption of the same (Otte-Trojel, de Bont, van de Klundert & Rundall, 2014). Electronic health records became a commonplace by the year 2010 where the year 2011 saw the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology collaborating with 62 Regional Extension Centers (RECs) all over the country to aid healthcare providers move to electronic healthcare record system. In the process, RECs documented all the challenges that healthcare providers faced in the process of seeking proper use of the same (Tieu, Schillinger, Sarkar, Hoskote, Hahn, Ratanawongsa & Lyles, 2017). By the year 2015, statistics revealed that adoption of EHR had doubled in a period of seven years and that 96% of hospitals and 87% of physician practices were using EHR. Current Literature and Research Studies Functions of Patient Portals With the benefits that Health information Technology (HIT), especially patient portals and patient access to health records, there have been various studies and surveys conducted with the view of examining the effects of the same and improve their effectiveness in the modern society (Furukawa, King, Patel, Hsiao, Adler-Milstein & Jha, 2014). It is prudent that patient portals has been widely adopted in the society owing to its benefits to the population and a study done in the year 2016 by American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) reveals that the four out of five consumers take advantage of patient portal from their healthcare provider. The study which involved a total of 167 consumers prove that there is an opportunity for the healthcare providers and the health information management (HIM) professionals to engage their patients much better in accessing and utilizing their personal health information (PHI) for more and more effective delivery of healthcare services (Kruse, Argueta, Lopez & Nair, 2015). Trends in the Use of Patient Portals According to Jhamb, Cavanaugh, Bian, Chen, Ikizler, Unruh & Abdel-Kader, (2015) enabling patients and the society in general to access their health information helps in the delivery of high quality healthcare services. This calls for health information management (HIM) professionals and healthcare providers to the exploit technology and accommodate the high demand for personal health information both papers and electronic (Jhamb, Cavanaugh, Bian, Chen, Ikizler, Unruh & Abdel-Kader, 2015). The use of electronic health records increased significantly from the year 2009 when HITEC Act was signed into law and allowed consumers to access their health information more securely and meaningfully. Furthermore, Wolff, Darer, Berger, Clarke, Green, Stametz & Walker, (2017) posit that the cases of consumers being charged to access their personal health information has been on a decline and this is due to the increase in availability of portals and a moderate use of Personal Health Records (PHR), this means that consumers exploit the availability and benefits of patient portals and physicians acknowledge the benefits of the same in the contemporary world. Wolff, Darer, Berger, Clarke, Green, Stametz & Walker, (2017) also reveal that 82% of consumers accessed their electronic health records through the portal of their healthcare provider in the year 2016 contrary to less than 5% of consumers that accesses their electronic health records in the year 2013. Some of main information that consumers source from the electronic health records includes viewing laboratory results (35%), placing a request for medical renewal (19%), placing requests for appointments (22%)a securing messaging (19%) and others (5%). During the study, it was also found out the 83% of the respondents had access to the patient portals and that 90% of the users were either satisfied or very satisfied. Furthermore, it was also revealed that only 10% of consumers were charged to acquire copies of their personal health information as opposed to 65% of consumers who were charged for the same services (Wolff, Darer, Berger, Clarke, Green, Stametz & Walker, 2017). This means that the application of patient portals is greatly increasing and consumers are exploiting the availability of the same in the contemporary world. Finally, 49% of respondents reveal that they maintain a PHR in either paper or electronic form. With the great use of patient portals and information stored therein, Ancker, Witteman, Hafeez, Provencher, Van de Graaf & Wei, (2015) suggest that there is a great opportunity for both consumers and healthcare professionals get proper education on how to access information from the platform. Despite the fact that there has been realized a great improvement in the engagement of patients with PHI, there is a need to improve the same and address inequities found with the system for better service delivery. The health information management professionals have the duty of assisting consumers in accessing and managing their personal health record (Ancker, Witteman, Hafeez, Provencher, Van de Graaf & Wei, 2015). Additionally, the top-ten tech trends reveal that there have been various developments aimed at improving the quality of patient information in the patient portals. Information that patients can view from patient portals are numerous and they include recent doctor visits, discharge summaries, medications, immunizations, allergies and laboratory results. Additionally, there are some patient portals that can carry out special functions which include securing messages with doctors, requesting prescription refills, scheduling non-urgent appointments, checking benefits and coverage, updating contact information, making payments, downloading and completing forms and viewing educational materials (Gordon & Hornbrook, 2016). Some of the most important functions of patient portals are that they enable consumers to be in control of their health and care and they help in saving time on the occasions when patients want to book for appointments with their doctors and support care. Governments need to improve the application of the patient portals as it is believed that electronic patient engagement would help in the improvement of quality of services in the society. HIPAA give consumers the opportunity to ask questions and get clarifications on issues not clear to them. Advanced patient portals allow for an opportunity to exchange emails between consumers and healthcare providers, make requests for prescription refill, schedule appointments with healthcare providers, reviewing coverage for benefits, invoice payments and carrying out patient education (Mandl & Kohane, 2016). The additional features serve to ensure that there is better engagement and communication between patients and healthcare providers. Benefits of patient Portals Although the application of patient portals has been very effective and successful, there is a need to ensure that consumers are satisfied with eth system; this is because research reveals that there are mixed reactions on matters patient satisfaction. GGG refers to a survey conducted of 150 consumers where they were engage in an interview of 12 questions where 82% of respondents acknowledge to have gained access to portals of their healthcare providers at least once (Turvey, Klein, Fix, Hogan, Woods, Simon & Wakefield, 2014). This highlights the need to examine benefits of patient portals in the contemporary world. The first benefit of patient portals is that by enabling consumers to view their own data, they gain ownership of their wellness and become more prepared to engage and interact with their healthcare providers to improve their health conditions and wellbeing. The other benefit is that they help healthcare providers to maintain customer loyalty and increase profits and revenue for providers that have the services. This is because patient portal helps consumers to feel comfortable and valued by their healthcare providers (Irizarry, Dabbs & Curran, 2015).
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    Science Institutional Affiliation Name Introduction The study of science is of great importance to the population and there is a need to encourage learning of the same to equip the young generation with the necessary skills that can help them to engage in the necessary innovations and help in the improvement of the society and help in tackling the modern-day challenges with the view of improving quality of life (Tsakiris, 2014). The world is moving towards a technically-conscious era where people will be required have proper knowledge on technology and technical resources to carry on with their normal lives. The world is moving towards a stage where robots will do duties that human beings do in the current era and functions of human beings will be very limited thereby establishing the need to ensure that the society acquires the right technical know-how to fit in the future societies (Wang, 2015). iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAA2YAAAJDCAIAAADvoZCYAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF6M/Xm4JOd13gnmFhkRGbmvd19r3wu1AAWABEmQAFeRhCRSkqWWNZLHku222nZb48ee6T/G M+2Ztvvp7hnPdI89sluWTUskJVIkuIEUARBbFYDa96pbdfd7c98jIyMzI2N+Jy5A+3E/PTNF EEvVvXlj+b7znfOe932P3xfyBdVQKhqLpdIDxykXi8Nh3+f6fQGfX1MSujoc+obOUFFDo+Fw MBy6w7Fv7PMFAnyjbzT2BYK+oOsL+n226+NXkP/7w0GFf4yckRsMqEGl3+/5/HwcX8DH+n2u TwtEpgozhw4f3N7arLcr3aHt+Nxut+uOHE3XhvzIYCjoC8WjiVw6p4yDzsiptkq21U6lJ5KJ ZLNUdX2Dc0+ec8Oja2+80+oPTcvtuaZcwWDoc1yf3+8L+31jfpa/kJmYSMXv3l8Z+MepeD6Z jJtuP+gLjLqjRCz35Ze+mIgbb118850bN0a+USaeevLss3a9dOn6u3137B8FkxMTp5fOPn3+ /OxU/qdvvHLx3ddu3LrK/QZCgUg44g4GvfFwrPoTTsSvGINB1gjHjh9f+vVf/43PffGjAdf5 J//4H7/yk/dSqUPPfeLM7//eL6SzKR/3/8GvwIf/Pva7AcfvBrlsHtH/f79cl5fkH3ORfj// vvp4s91sHjx0KBDwj32uqirjMe/JCQaV0cgJBPlfQL7F779358H1yxv5ieSREwf8oVGvN0hG o7qucUeuzwmHQo7Dt7qhEJczdrkwxxlxi3r4F1/6K2+9c+e//Id/52Mfe6q4vvFf/YN/uFvZ HCcDbiB0cObQJz/1/B9/4xvTU7FqvdwbWlur67GIwq06w5Flj/nBcrP8NxfF3xV/NKwMx44b CPL5vH1NC0UjWmEqnZ0M9XrD1fJGPp3PxrSgG7Q6ltXrb1da3c44wM36XP4+4ntcuUglFByP nWQiVpicWF29H9Ejve7Q75dF6Zi9zsiXi0QKifhoaJWdvhbXFN8onYj3zbZphqrl9ngYZMm4 7ohF43PHgUBw6IzC8fDidM4NuqqfxxloFOtBXZtfmtnZ3Iwo4abZKvUGuj8Ui2h+vxOw+0GV P4+vVcvcZq/vOgNWvy8SCxjhkPeZoZHDKx53LX6Kj+dq9lyf4tMNfyaq9rr2wHJVI9wxBwO+ 0fVFEkHWg2kOVc0flBcXtNl5Y58R88djmjse8dITUd0dDBs7o25lrGtGOKxH9HAkrLKD2mbX DQXsUNdR7BE7cugLB0NKWBkHbB50r+cOnPD8/Lxptsf9ES+7btdUJRhStUBQkX3M4x6PQ0pQ
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    Outline Introduction NIKE’s Global Business Environment Fierce Competition Heightened Expectations of Customers Continuing Advances in Communication and Transportation Technologies Introduction of New Products Cost Impact of Managing Inventory at NIKE
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    IMPACTS OF PERSONALITIES AND DIVERSITY iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAt8AAAHcCAIAAACBFFGgAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF7sXQeA3cTR1uvXe7HvfO69d1NM772FQCAQWgidECAhgYSEJH9IAUINBEKAUAKhFwPGVNu4 926f2/l6b+9ef+8fSStpq6T37p1xinLBd9Lu7MzsaufTzOyuY//6X0rGlZASvD+Mm+RvCay0 XE/5k/qPTg8rzCtCUdYIMexo5ah/0Z/aPzzGgDWyFKIt39T+j93CVIE9pQpqApOaoHkjuGGU RrGOdYfMMSWJzCq3j1ghFN74jGmFSeIEZaUIX8kqhwxrplKTbBMKF6iUbV5XtjGm9AFHjBds LLH649A1xqMqmUGMN2A4fUL0mfKHw6Hec2i/aEXk+/pDvB5ZElWXlH8d6j/Kb+r/tb+MJ8R9 tlGDAJ8UwypewWgRF81gTJPVEEfmC6+FS2BHFk1MSnxaGcnIwiFl9IRQliQYILuG6AJEhehK bBwYvWnQwHrZFilmYLCkWFkwyuQYs5KFxyc5hETjX503mFkNDR16QsJfEHEt3jRp1DSjSU95 ei3OvIFTNKEpEs2cSSBOWzb+LYND9Te6OcI48IsIamGzJql2/C/GJtjTM2NhtWqcyd+g6MSI Ew3zLJMxVcsjTABNlKFHjj/5L6yurlNGHaggPXyVtgiieEeitowmeYxh/FIDS2vTeD0o9jFu OO8VpQlMcKR3nBtKaZpeMNbJ7qAk0VSrsUp2GPXOKxITGsaUpqiTfsOIca1oXB3GmiDEICVq a00b/zJSE41peqR0r3eBISgzkAjMSLers4veSs5IIMXSByqmKLI3CAZAodbQBGZ8PjSB+ToZ aKIUV2jpNhhRUEyDch8HKqrM8gMSFhDYRjOTFMqBOlwTSIEMXDSdAQqaKAxgnCExDJ41Pk1h lm5ISVK4MjTgRiM2VhZNbQRgwmRReZPpsLLg+qd6g4aMemVcmZr4VsgAYwDjw44scnGjim1Z BMgMDQwrbMQrhg0hE2gStwVNqMmMMijYTGT1ShKTGvVdlwI0QaYIhwjkzCay66bzBmU1DFNE TWgMEiCncEKz+OxNMUVzjFs4s96hbAJBVahnVQS6P5Fl4dzGVJvQ0QlhxxgcRz1lpUW6oLWl MkHjO9r8k0pnaDDKxHuPHg1czMT0qmHfRaMJs8zi5qjhrTFqWHRScq5kYtWSxbXRpjHMeYq/ tKzW1af8jrL0mWEatLDQzIATdR9H80pdWlBcYJ6yBArku3YI4lh/ad1NEuMMZ7PxAs8wXMLa
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    PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE (PLC) A vital process of marketing plan Helps to keep products and services thriving in the industry iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAf8AAAGLCAIAAABGIAw+AAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF7s3Qe8LVdVP/B3372vpiekQKhSQy+C0kQEUSkBadIR6dIUBfmDgoggvRepShOkKGBBmiK9 ixA6oYSQhPS85L28/v7fm4WbnZk5c+bMzDn33PdmPsn7nHvOzJ5df2ut31p77YV9+/atWbPm /PPP92/Ndfjhh9f8Ojw+dF1lDwzTZtTEGJbMsGRWfMmsrQf94dehB4YeGHpg6IH9sgcG9N8v h3Vo1NADQw8MPTCmBwb0H6bI0ANDDww9cCD2wID+B+KoD20eemDogaEHFs477zy9UO+dc0O9 k2p4vLVLfOi6oesqe2BYcaMmxrBk+loyg+4/aABDDww9MPTAgdgDA/ofiKM+tHnogaEHhh4Y 0H+YA0MPDD0w9MCB2AMD+h+Ioz60eeiBoQeGHhjQf5gDQw8MPTD0wIHYAwP6H4ijPrR56IGh B4YeGNB/mANDDww9MPTAgdgDA/ofiKM+tHnogaEHhh4Y0H+YA0MPDD0w9MCB2AMD+h+Ioz60 eeiBoQeGHlgY8vsPmdZrlsGQoH9U5wzTZpg2lT2wipbMoPsPGsDQA0MPDD1wIPbAgP4H4qgP bR56YOiBoQcG9B/mwNADQw8MPXAg9sCA/gfiqA9tHnpg6IGhBwb0H+bAVHpgx44dX/3qV1/1 qlc95jGPufOd7/yrv/qr17rWta597Wtf5zrXuclNbnKPe9zjrW9960UXXTSVdw+FDj0w9ECD HhjQv0EnDbdM0gPf+MY3/uzP/gzE3/a2t33sYx/76le/mhjYvXu3WIijjjrKv2vXrv3Qhz70 oAc96Ba3uMU73vGOScoe7h16YOiB3npgQP/euvIAL2jbtm3/+I//+Nu//du3utWt6PV0/Kc/
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    Student Professor Course Date Racial Relations in America during Theodore’s Presidency In 1901, Theodore Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington for a dinner meeting in the White House. This prompted a social uproar regarding the interaction between whites and blacks. Most negative criticism, however, came from the Southerners, who believed that inviting a man to your dinner table gave him chance to woo your daughter, and this section of the White population was not ready for such an incident (Hamer 5). Moreover, the dinner would create grounds for social equality, and the white supremacists were not ready for this. On the other hand, while the Northerners supported the dinner, the African-American newspapers from this region criticized the president’s initiative due to fear of its racial consequences. This incident subsequently influenced racial relations for the following several decades (Brinkley 118). For instance, while the dinner meeting established some grounds for the fight against social inequality, news records indicate higher incidences of lynching and killing, which can be attributed to supremacy perceptions of the meeting. More specifically, the period from 1900 to 1908 witnessed an era that vowed to protect the white racial hierarchy that President Roosevelt described in the letter to Charles Davenport (Ito 85). The new racial relations did not only affect the sequential White House practice but the incorporation of concepts such as integration and segregation and Social Darwinism’s “survival of the fittest”. In the letter, Roosevelt states: “I agree with you if you mean, as I suppose you do, that society has no business to permit degenerates to reproduce their kind…Any group of farmers who permitted their best stock not to breed, and let all the increase come from the worst stock would be treated as fit inmates for an asylum. Yet we fail to understand that such conduct is rational compared to the conduct of a nation which permits unlimited breeding from the worst stocks, physically and morally” (American Philosophical Society Library). Most white supremacist beliefs were drawn from the works of Charles Darwin such as The Descent of Man produced in 1871 and Origin of Species (1859). According to Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection, new and improved species are only created through the natural selection process, whereby their survival is entirely dependent on genetic fitness and ability to reproduce (Hamer 165). However, contrary to Darwin’s proposals, social scientists extended the scope of these theories beyond their realm, facilitating their reckless application to explain the social order. Social Darwinism refers to the employment of Darwin’s scientific theories to reinforce economic and social issues. Particularly, Herbert Spencer coined the term “survival of the fitness” to further explain political conservatism and economic individualism (Johnson 45). For instance, successful businessmen demonstrate their fitness to succeed in a competitive world while those that have lost to the socioeconomic struggle indicate their unfitness to exist in the world. These theoretical applications, opposed by Darwin in the new edition of Origins of the Species for promoting racial bias also promoted militarism, nationalism, imperialism, and racism by asserting that all races and nations are involved in a struggle for survival wherein only the best race deserves to survive (Ito 96). Therefore, while the existence of racial superiority is not entirely dependent on Darwin’s theory, its wrongful interpretation provided a scientific legitimacy that reinforced the irrefutability of supremacist arguments. Concepts of integration and segregation are similarly essential in the examination of racial relations in America in the 19th century. People of color, especially the African Americans suffered lynching, legal racial discrimination, anti-black violence, and segregation in the 1900s. More specifically, the Jim Crow laws affected all colored people, including the African Americans by formalizing racial segregation in the South. This facilitated the systematization of considerable educational, social, and economic disadvantages to people of color (Brinkley 169). These laws were implemented in the 1870s after the disenfranchisement of colored voters through intimidating initiatives such as literacy and comprehension tests, record-keeping requirements, and poll taxes, thereby legalizing segregation in all public institutions. However, the allegedly separate-but-equal status for colored people limited their participation in civil, social, and political activities (Brinkley 157). On the other hand, other than the Jim Crow laws, the Japanese Americans suffered the anti-Japanese movement, the Gentleman’s Act (1907-1908), which prevented Japanese workers from getting jobs while the latter gradually phased out this population from the United States (Hamer 98). Just like the Jim Crow laws, the anti-Japanese movement segregated Japanese Americans in all public institutions, facilitating significant social, economic, and civil consequences. Therefore, Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency ideologically and practically promoted racism and segregation. However, I believe integration would have been an appropriate policy during this period as it would have facilitated the resolution of the social inequities affecting the American society. While the dinner gave room for such discussions, the preceding regimes championed for a form of white-black association that promoted accommodation rather than equality. However, integration would effectively resolve institutional racism by addressing equality in the healthcare, housing, domestic, economic, social, and judicial systems.
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    Maya Nut Institute Maya Nut Institute works to revive the lost knowledge about the Maya Nut for food, fodder and ecosystem services. The institute targets rural communities to empower women and create a source of income to uplift their livelihoods It serves as food, fodder and offers a forest cover thereby creating a source of income and preserves the ecosystem Maya Nut lost its glory as a staple food for prehispanic cultures PESTEL analysis helps to create suitable conditions for the expansion for the institute
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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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