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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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    Chapter 1: Introduction “The key concept” that commonly comes to mind when talking about female executives advancing into an organization’s senior-most leadership positions is known as the proverbial “Glass Ceiling Effect.” This concept is commonly referred to as the primary organizational and professional development limitations women face in advancing within the cooperate world (Pinto & Aquinas, 2018). This effect is associated with well-qualified female candidates from attaining the same senior hierarchical or key decision-making positions as their male counterparts. Although, some may argue that this effect no longer exists, others would strongly disagree with such an assessment. The opportunity for women to advance into key leadership and decision-making positions throughout an organization is indeed possible, however they are perceived to face unique barriers their male counterparts do not face Fallon Hutcherson 2018-09-08T22:02:00 FH Did this author say the same thing? Previously I had this as the source (Tanhua, 2012). (Avin, Keller, Lotker, Mathieu, Peleg & Pignolet, 2015). In traditional patriarchic societies spread throughout the world, key positions of power and influence (embodied by a wide array of management, authoritative, and decision-making roles) are exclusively held by men. Women are often relegated to the background and must be represented by their male relatives. As such, females are not well represented in a variety of decision-making and educational venues throughout many of these patriarchic communities and are perceived as lesser than equals than their male counterparts. Fallon Hutcherson 2018-09-08T21:52:00 FH Can we site a some sources here, great examples! To realize balanced development in any community demands the elimination of any form of prejudice against women. The Council of Women Leaders maintain that in comparison to the earlier decades, women participation in leadership and decision making has increased in the United States of America. However, organizations such as UNIFEM, International Association of Women Police, Nobel Women’s Initiative, One Billion Rising among others which are responsible for policies making and their enactment, as well as the hiring, training, paying and promotion of women i.e. the government, politics and human resource management, need more women in formal leadership and decision-making functions to attain an ideal gender balance. This research proposal seeks to examine female homeland security executives in key senior leadership roles and whether the Glass Ceiling phenomenon has affected their personal growth and professional development and mentoring within the federal workforce. This study also seeks to explore the impacts of mentorship and programs for promoting future retention of female senior leaders as well as factors and indicators such as ethnicity, sex, race, religion, among others on how they are growing and incorporated within the workforce. The objective of this study is to profile successful women who are serving in senior leadership roles within Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Furthermore, this study seeks to determine whether the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists within the context of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FEMA’s federal work force environment. Additionally, the factors and indicators such as ethnicity, sex, race, religion; that are crucial in determining the extent of women’s participation in corporate leadership and decision-making processes as well as evaluating the representation of women in these spheres will be addressed. A paper has been written on the topic “Women Participation in Leadership,” which was driven towards Analyzing the extant status of women with regards to organizational leadership and administration. Identifying the key barriers impacting women access to management positions. Proposing potential solutions/alternative pathways to overcome identified barriers.
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    Chapter 1: Introduction “The key concept” that commonly comes to mind when talking about female executives advancing into an organization’s senior-most leadership positions is known as the proverbial “Glass Ceiling Effect.” This concept is commonly referred to as the primary organizational and professional development limitations women face in advancing within the cooperate world (Pinto & Aquinas, 2018). This effect is associated with well-qualified female candidates from attaining the same senior hierarchical or key decision-making positions as their male counterparts. Although, some may argue that this effect no longer exists, others would strongly disagree with such an assessment. The opportunity for women to advance into key leadership and decision-making positions throughout an organization is indeed possible, however they are perceived to face unique barriers their male counterparts do not face Fallon Hutcherson 2018-09-08T22:02:00 FH Did this author say the same thing? Previously I had this as the source (Tanhua, 2012). (Avin, Keller, Lotker, Mathieu, Peleg & Pignolet, 2015). In traditional patriarchic societies spread throughout the world, key positions of power and influence (embodied by a wide array of management, authoritative, and decision-making roles) are exclusively held by men. Women are often relegated to the background and must be represented by their male relatives. As such, females are not well represented in a variety of decision-making and educational venues throughout many of these patriarchic communities and are perceived as lesser than equals than their male counterparts. Fallon Hutcherson 2018-09-08T21:52:00 FH Can we site a some sources here, great examples! To realize balanced development in any community demands the elimination of any form of prejudice against women. The Council of Women Leaders maintain that in comparison to the earlier decades, women participation in leadership and decision making has increased in the United States of America. However, organizations such as UNIFEM, International Association of Women Police, Nobel Women’s Initiative, One Billion Rising among others which are responsible for policies making and their enactment, as well as the hiring, training, paying and promotion of women i.e. the government, politics and human resource management, need more women in formal leadership and decision-making functions to attain an ideal gender balance. This research proposal seeks to examine female homeland security executives in key senior leadership roles and whether the Glass Ceiling phenomenon has affected their personal growth and professional development and mentoring within the federal workforce. This study also seeks to explore the impacts of mentorship and programs for promoting future retention of female senior leaders as well as factors and indicators such as ethnicity, sex, race, religion, among others on how they are growing and incorporated within the workforce. The objective of this study is to profile successful women who are serving in senior leadership roles within Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Furthermore, this study seeks to determine whether the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists within the context of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FEMA’s federal work force environment. Additionally, the factors and indicators such as ethnicity, sex, race, religion; that are crucial in determining the extent of women’s participation in corporate leadership and decision-making processes as well as evaluating the representation of women in these spheres will be addressed. A paper has been written on the topic “Women Participation in Leadership,” which was driven towards Analyzing the extant status of women with regards to organizational leadership and administration. Identifying the key barriers impacting women access to management positions. Proposing potential solutions/alternative pathways to overcome identified barriers.
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    Chapter 1: Introduction “The key concept” that commonly comes to mind when talking about female executives advancing into an organization’s senior-most leadership positions is known as the proverbial “Glass Ceiling Effect.” This concept is commonly referred to as the primary organizational and professional development limitations women face in advancing within the cooperate world (Pinto & Aquinas, 2018). This effect is associated with well-qualified female candidates from attaining the same senior hierarchical or key decision-making positions as their male counterparts. Although, some may argue that this effect no longer exists, others would strongly disagree with such an assessment. The opportunity for women to advance into key leadership and decision-making positions throughout an organization is indeed possible, however, they are perceived to face unique barriers their male counterparts do not face (Tanhua, 2012). In traditional patriarchic societies spread throughout the world, key positions of power and influence (embodied by a wide array of management, authoritative, and decision-making roles) are exclusively held by men. Women are often relegated to the background and must be represented by their male relatives. As such, females are not well represented in a variety of decision-making and educational venues throughout many of these patriarchic communities and are perceived as lesser than equals than their male counterparts. To realize balanced development in any community demands the elimination of any form of prejudice against women. The Council of Women Leaders maintain that in comparison to the earlier decades, women participation in leadership and decision making has increased in the United States of America. However, organizations such as UNIFEM, International Association of Women Police, Nobel Women’s Initiative, One Billion Rising among others which are responsible for making policies and their enactment, as well as the hiring, training, paying and promotion of women i.e. the government, politics and human resource management, need more women in formal leadership and decision-making functions to attain an ideal gender balance (Boin, Stern & Sundelius, 2016). This research proposal seeks to examine female homeland security executives in key senior leadership roles and whether the Glass Ceiling phenomenon has affected their personal growth and professional development and mentoring within the federal workforce. This study also seeks to explore the impacts of mentorship and programs for promoting future retention of female senior leaders as well as factors and indicators such as ethnicity, sex, racial discrimination, identity, religion, among others on how they are growing and incorporated within the workforce. The objective of this study is to profile successful women who are serving in senior leadership roles within FEMA. Furthermore, this study seeks to determine whether the Glass Ceiling phenomenon still exists within the context of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FEMA’s federal work force environment. Additionally, the factors and indicators such as ethnicity, sex, race, religion; that are crucial in determining the extent of women’s participation in corporate leadership and decision-making processes as well as evaluating the representation of women in these spheres will be addressed. A paper has been written on the topic “Women Participation in Leadership,” which was driven towards Analyzing the extant status of women with regards to organizational leadership and administration. Identifying the key barriers impacting women access to management positions. Proposing potential solutions and alternative pathways to overcome identified barriers. From the above observations, it was hypothesized that despite the increased participation of women in leadership positions, several factors still hinder their uptake with regards to leadership positions and decision making in both public and private organizations. In addition, that gender, education level and lack of productive resources are the key hindrance of women participation in leadership positions and decision making within organizations. Statement of the Problem This is an in-depth case study that seeks to examine whether women face challenges in reaching their full potential at work and hindrances in their participation in leadership positions. The study focuses attention on female homeland security executives in corporate leadership positions at Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and its attendant effect on decision making processes; subsequently, considering the glass ceiling phenomenon as it relates to these females in senior leadership positions. Women continue to face a number of interrelated and interconnected challenges with regards to leadership and decision-making roles despite making the largest percentage of the global population (Kaminski & Pauly, 2013). Such challenges restrict their access to useful resources, healthcare services, employment and educational opportunities in the world over. As a result, most of them have failed to partake in leadership and decision making (Kumar, 2015). Generally, a larger percentage of women tend to occupy the lower societal status, and irrespective of their contributions to the wellbeing of the communities and families, women generally tend to experience lower socio-economic status, and have, therefore, been marginalized with regards to leadership and decision making. Women suffer from work-based typecast and gender-based allotment of work, even as most of them tend to be allotted economically imperceptible roles (Powell, 2018). Women are not fully represented within the formal employment sector. A study carried out by Bilen-Green, Froelich and Jacobson (2008) indicated that women comprise less than 43% of the workers in developing nations. The concentration of women in lower level positions has an impact on the women’s income status. For example, in primary and secondary industries (mining, fishing, farming, manufacturing), studies have indicated that approximately 26% of women are members of the workforce in this country. This reduces the number of women in higher leadership positions. Purpose of the Study The objective of this study is to perform an in-depth case study to critically evaluate female homeland security executives’ participation status in both leadership and decision-making positions with regards to the FEMA, a key agency comprising approximately 22% of the DHS workforce as well as the various aspects that impact their participation in organizational management. DHS is the youngest U.S. cabinet department charged with the responsibility of improving public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. It was created in response to the September 11 attacks and its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. With more than 240,000 employees, DHS is the third largest federal cabinet-level department, after the Departments of Defense and Veteran Affairs. Homeland Security policy is coordinated by the White House through Homeland Security Council. The Department of Homeland Security operates in the civilian sphere to protect the United States of American from within, and outside, its borders. Its stated goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism. FEMA is a key agency within DHS, whose primary purpose is to coordinate the response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States which overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities. The respective governor of the state in which a major manmade or natural disaster occurs must declare a state of emergency and formally place request to the US President that the federal government responds to assist his/her state with their handling of the disaster situation. A major part of FEMA’s charter is on-the-ground support of disaster recovery efforts as well as the provision of funding for rebuilding efforts and relief funds for infrastructure by issuing low –interest loans, and also providing the state and local governments with experts in specialized fields. According to Committee on Homeland Security as documented by Baggett, and Simpkins, (2018), DHS has not done well with the diversity of vital government leadership. In 2007, women were 25.3 percent in the DHS Senior Executive Service (SES) career during fiscal year 2007. Additionally, the total percentage of women in the entire DHS workforce was 34%. This percentage is relatively low in regard to
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    Economic Factors and Language Development of Deaf Children in Primary Schools in Riyadh: Research Proposal Economic Factors and Language Development of Deaf Children in Primary Schools in Riyadh: Research Proposal Introduction The language development is an important task for children with hearing impairment. Therefore, educators, parents, social workers, and healthcare providers are interested in factors which can influence this process positively or negatively. The problem is in the fact that some social and economic conditions in such countries as Saudi Arabia can prevent parents from asking for help and identifying the hearing loss. Thus, according to Alyami, Soer, Swanepoel, and Pottas (2016), in Saudi Arabia, “prior to the establishment of the NHS [Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening] program in 2010, the average age at which HL [hearing loss] was identified was around three years,” and moreover, “milder HL commonly remained undetected until a child had entered school” (p. 142). As a result, many deaf and hard-of-hearing children in Saudi Arabia are not provided with enough resources to develop their skills in language and literacy before entering the school. There are various hearing aids, among them being cochlear implants (CI), increase hearing ability of hearing-impaired (HI) students through the improvement of auditory input which the results in the increase in participation in the society where the common mode of communication is spoken language. There are various means of measuring the degree of impact of the stated medical interventions, and the most common ones is extent of perception of both speech and sound (Al-Shammari et al., 2014). Apart from the age-appropriate language and speech, the main aim of using interventions for HI children is to ensure that impaired children develop normal social and emotional behaviors similar to their normally hearing (HI) compeers. The economic status of their families can be one of the conditions that have the negative impact on the situation (Leigh, Ching, Crowe, Cupples, & Marnane, 2015). The purpose of this research is to study the impact that economic factors can have on the language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children who study in primary schools in Saudi Arabia in order to conclude about the possible relationship and actions to take to address the problem. Literature Review The language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing students is a topic of many recent studies because educators and social workers are interested in finding out the most effective intervention or strategy in order to support students who have problems with hearing. While studying elements of programs that can contribute to the language acquisition in children, Nelson, Powell, Bloom, and Lignugaris-Kraft (2014) focused on the idea of basic concepts or words that need to be learned by all children to interact effectively. Nine educators having five to seven children in the class were expected to integrate different programs in order to promote the language development in deaf and hard-of-hearing children. It was found that students with disabilities could develop language skills while learning basic concepts, but the variety of demographic factors could also influence their success. The quantitative study involving fifty-four students was conducted by Phillips, Wiley, Barnard, and Meinzen-Derr (2014) in order to assess the cognitive development of children, including the progress in the language acquisition. The researchers found that deaf and hard-of-hearing children usually demonstrate the similar level of the cognitive development in comparison to their hearing peers, but the level of the language development can differ. In their cross-sectional study, Netten, Frijns, Rieffe, Theunissen, and Soede (2015) focused on finding the relationship between the early identification of the hearing loss and the further development of language and social skills of children. Eighty-five students participated in the study, and it was found that deaf and hard-of-hearing students demonstrated the lower level of the development of language and communication skills than hearing peers. Thus, studying the language development in deaf and hard-of-hearing students, researchers are inclined to connect it with the cognitive development and applied interventions to address the problem. In spite of the fact that deafness and the hearing impairment in children are problems that are also related to the context of Saudi Arabia, there are a limited number of studies that discuss the issue in detail. Al-Shammari, Ashankyty, Al-Mowina, Al-Mutairy, and Al-Shammari (2014) conducted the cross-sectional study the purpose of which was to determine the social and emotional functions and perceptions of deaf students in Saudi Arabia. Referring to the sample of seventy female participants, the researchers found that deaf and hard-of-hearing students felt comfortable in school and university settings, but they could experience difficulties while interacting with other persons because of problems with the language development. Furthermore, the researchers concluded that Saudi students develop skills in speaking Arabic more actively in comparison to English because Arabic is often the primary language for Saudi deaf and hard-of-hearing children (Al-Shammari et al., 2014). Methodology Research Design This proposal will employ the use of correlational research which involves the measurement of two variables with the view of assessing a statistical relationship between them without controlling external factors influencing both of them. In the contemporary world, researchers dealing with statistical relationships between variables prefer carrying out correlational study as compared to doing an experiment for two main reasons. The first reason is that they believe that statistical relationship is not the cause (Hashemi & Monshizadeh, 2012). The second reason is that researchers believe that correlational research eliminates the ability of researchers to manipulate independent variable. Manipulation of variables in correlative research is impractical, impossible and unethical in the field of research. However, there is a common misconception among beginning researchers that correlational research involves two quantitative variables. The truth is that the research involves the measurement of the two variables and not manipulation of the same and this is the truth regardless of the fact that variables on focus are either categorical or quantitative. This research method presents a tamper-proof method of carrying out studies in the society thereby resulting in findings that are authentic, qualitative, and of high integrity
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    Part A Question 1 Creating an outdoor learning environment offers a holistic learning for the kids and creates awareness about the environment and enables young children to appreciate nature and develop a love for nature. It helps the youth to cope up with challenges in the society and the environment while at the same time nurturing the spirit of invention and protection to the environment and the habitat. It also helps the children to appreciate the role of an educator in his ability to provide a safe learning environment and the way, it is also believed that outdoor learning environment helps the children to develop spiritually and appreciate the social morals of life. It also helps children to develop and improve on the ideas about play and recreational activities in general, they are able to visualize the nature and are able to develop great inventions that are associated with nature. Outdoor learning helps children to develop socially and to have the ability to be able to interact with others appropriately, it helps in developing tolerance among children and the ability to accommodate different children with different cultures and from different backgrounds and social set up. It aims at creating strong bonds and friendship among young ones and the ability to adjust in new environments. Outdoor learning also helps children to develop physically and to be physically fit, this occurs when the kids engage themselves in games such as race competition, football, tug of war and several other outdoor games. Such activities also help in the boosting of defense system of the body and in turn makes the less susceptible to diseases and any illnesses that may come by. The kids then have the ability to take on hard tasks of nation building and can as well be a source income to their families and the nation as a whole if in case it is taken as an occupation in their adult age. An example is seen in the great athletes and musicians of the day where they started to nurture the talents during their childhood, such talents have helped them as a source of livelihood and a source of income and means of survival to many people. Outdoor also helps in creating and developing creativity in children and helps them to have they ability to visualize and discover several things that are out of ordinary, it is through interaction with nature that ideas come into the minds of the young people. Researchers say that it is through seen and constant visualization and interaction that inventions are made from the normal and usual things that exist in the environment. Outdoor learning experience, helps the children to develop in their different stages and assist in physiological development, it helps in development of strong bones and body parts and helps in emotional growth and upbringing. Outdoor learning also helps in the learning of different languages by interacting with different children, this helps in developing a society that can accommodate any culture or any race and that which is very diverse and can offer a smooth environment. By introducing and exposing the children to areas of discovery, exploitation, exploration, scientific investigation and observation, this helps the children to appreciate what they learn in class hence helps them to acquire skills and knowledge hence improve their performance in class and in the improvement of their grades. There is also the improvement of decision-making in the children because this comes from tough choices they are forced to make daily regarding the choice of friends the must associate with and the nature of the environments they must interact with. Such decision-making abilities in-turn lead to the development of leadership qualities in their maturity Indoor learning activities offer a safe learning environment for the kids since the environment is free of dangers in the society such as accidents, attack from wild animals, conflict from the children and general insecurity in the society such as kidnappings. It enables the children to gain trust from their guardians and parents and also provide an environment that enables the parents to offer utmost care of their children without leaving them at the mercy of the cruel world. Indoor learning activities also enable the children to acquire social moral since it is instilled by their parents by restricting interaction by children with bad influence and are then able to decide what their children hear, watch and speak out. Such gestures lead to the upbringing of a socially upright generation that can carry on with the desired social rules and are able to acquire respect and blessing from the elders. The comfort of the children is also ensure during the indoor learning activities for the children, the parents decide what kids of toys, books and puppets that their children interact with and this avoids straining for toys and playing items that comes with emotional breakdown among the kids and hatred among the kids. It also helps the parents to offer the kids with environments that lead to their professional breakthrough, this is done during the young ages of the kids where the parents get to know the passion of the kids and offer facilities that are likely to introduce and develop them to their passion in life. The indoor learning activity also offer control of germs and clean playing environment that enable a clean playing environment and enhance prevention of diseases and helps in the control and spread of diseases. Also in the case of an outbreak, the spread can also be contained by limiting contact between children and avoiding interaction between the kids. This in turn helps in the containment of diseases and helps kind to appreciate healthy living and appreciate health education. Question 2 Playing with a child together helps the child to develop the senses in the child and also ensure that the child has an upright growth pattern. it ensures that a child has all the sense, that is, sense of touch, sense of hearing and the sense of sight, it enables the children to appreciate the nature and to decide on what the child takes in on his mind. By accurately controlling the environment of the child, the behavior and the education of the child can be controlled in a great way. In this thought, the classroom environment effectively affect the degree of absorption of knowledge for the child. The child has a high rate of absorption of knowledge if they are offered with a comfortable environment that is free of disturbance such as noise, too much heat or too much cold. The language in a certain environment also is another major determinant in the rate of absorption of knowledge for the kids, if the environment offers an atmosphere of words and conversation that are appealing to the ears of the recipient. The children will have a high degree of reception and will absorb more easily the knowledge that is offered in that environment. This is opposed to when the child absorbs words that are not directed towards his passion or his belief, the child will in turn experience difficulty in reception and understanding of the teachings. The child will filter whatever is being given out and taken in whatever he thinks is best for him, this will result in misconception of all the ideas that is being taught leading to difficulty in understanding. The friendliness of the environment in which the child gets the knowledge is also a major factor in the degree of knowledge absorption for the children, getting children who are friendly helps the child to get composure and become free to open up and set his mind free to receive the knowledge of whatever is being taught. The instructor in any play environment also affects the learning of the children. Harsh instructors are feared by the children and in turn the children become isolated from his and cannot ask any question in case there is any. This affects the learning of the children negatively. A different picture is noted in the case where the play environment has an understanding instructor, the children become free to interact with him leading to smooth transfer of knowledge between the children and the instructor. The spacing in the play environment is also determining factor in the learning of the children. The spacing determines the degree of comfort of the children that in turn leads to the absorption of any idea that is given out, in the case of uncomfortable environment, the children will concentrate in the fighting of the causes of uncomfortable situation at the expense of the knowledge being disbursed by the trainer. The environment of play must also consist of the same age group of kids that enable them to be free with each other and have the same level of understanding with each. Different age groups in the in the environment incorporates children that have different knowledge levels that have different understanding of issues, this difference cause difference in knowledge absorption among the children that lead to difficulty in understanding. Such indifference leads to difficulty and frustration in the understanding of the educational issues are to be delivered by the trainer. Also, have children of different age groups lead to a difficult environment for the trainer and lead to incapacity of the trainer and the inability to deliver to the children. Question 3 The quality standards from the National Quality Standards that assist in the development of children are such as the children`s health and safety. This ensures that a child lives and plays in a clean environment that is free of germs and avoids the spread of diseases, this ensures that the children are clean always to prevent the spread of diseases between the children. The child`s health must be insisted all the time since the environment that they interact is in most cases dirty and full of germs and added to the fact that the children are fond of putting their toys in their mouths leading to direct introduction of germs into the body of the child. Another quality standard is the relationship with children. People should develop a healthy relationship with the children and develop a warm interaction with the children, by developing a jovial mood with the children helps one to bond with the children and also helps the children to develop in their ability to socially interact other people and the environment. Such gestures help the children to have social security and be confident about their parents and guardians. It also improves the ability of the children to communicate with others in the society. In the education, program and practice part of the quality standard, there is insisted the need to offer quality education to all children and that which is correct according to their age. This calls for analysis of the right means of delivering the knowledge, the knowledge should not collide with the social exposure of the children, it should be aligned towards the culture, abilities of the children and the interests that the children are inclined towards Lastly, the physical environment affect the child`s development in that it is used to create an accommodating environment for the children to ensure proper development, this calls for censuring of what the children hear and see that affect their social upbringing and their moral conduct. The society must ensure that the environment is friendly for the children in order to facilitate proper psychological development for the children, the environment must be all inclusive and enable the children to be independent and competent. The environment must be friendly to enable development of the kids to be a socially vibrant and positive development. Part B Question 1 Experience plans that children have adopted currently are such as the development and the liking of technology, this is seen in the societies today where children have a liking for online games and the technology. Children nowadays spend a lot of time with computers and other technological gadgets to satisfy their pleasures and interests, this has leads to a new form of social order that in inclined to the technological angle and all the pleasures that the children want can be taken care of by the technological gadgets. This affects the degree of interaction of children greatly and interferes with their social life.
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    Part A Question 1 Creating an outdoor learning environment offers a holistic learning for the kids and creates awareness about the environment and enables young children to appreciate nature and develop a love for nature. It helps the youth to cope up with challenges in the society and the environment while at the same time nurturing the spirit of invention and protection to the environment and the habitat. It also helps the children to appreciate the role of an educator in his ability to provide a safe learning environment and the way, it is also believed that outdoor learning environment helps the children to develop spiritually and appreciate the social morals of life. It also helps children to develop and improve on the ideas about play and recreational activities in general, they are able to visualize the nature and are able to develop great inventions that are associated with nature. Outdoor learning helps children to develop socially and to have the ability to be able to interact with others appropriately, it helps in developing tolerance among children and the ability to accommodate different children with different cultures and from different backgrounds and social set up. It aims at creating strong bonds and friendship among young ones and the ability to adjust in new environments. Outdoor learning also helps children to develop physically and to be physically fit, this occurs when the kids engage themselves in games such as race competition, football, tug of war and several other outdoor games. Such activities also help in the boosting of defense system of the body and in turn makes the less susceptible to diseases and any illnesses that may come by. The kids then have the ability to take on hard tasks of nation building and can as well be a source income to their families and the nation as a whole if in case it is taken as an occupation in their adult age. An example is seen in the great athletes and musicians of the day where they started to nurture the talents during their childhood, such talents have helped them as a source of livelihood and a source of income and means of survival to many people. Outdoor also helps in creating and developing creativity in children and helps them to have they ability to visualize and discover several things that are out of ordinary, it is through interaction with nature that ideas come into the minds of the young people. Researchers say that it is through seen and constant visualization and interaction that inventions are made from the normal and usual things that exist in the environment. Outdoor learning experience, helps the children to develop in their different stages and assist in physiological development, it helps in development of strong bones and body parts and helps in emotional growth and upbringing. Outdoor learning also helps in the learning of different languages by interacting with different children, this helps in developing a society that can accommodate any culture or any race and that which is very diverse and can offer a smooth environment. By introducing and exposing the children to areas of discovery, exploitation, exploration, scientific investigation and observation, this helps the children to appreciate what they learn in class hence helps them to acquire skills and knowledge hence improve their performance in class and in the improvement of their grades. There is also the improvement of decision-making in the children because this comes from tough choices they are forced to make daily regarding the choice of friends the must associate with and the nature of the environments they must interact with. Such decision-making abilities in-turn lead to the development of leadership qualities in their maturity Indoor learning activities offer a safe learning environment for the kids since the environment is free of dangers in the society such as accidents, attack from wild animals, conflict from the children and general insecurity in the society such as kidnappings. It enables the children to gain trust from their guardians and parents and also provide an environment that enables the parents to offer utmost care of their children without leaving them at the mercy of the cruel world. Indoor learning activities also enable the children to acquire social moral since it is instilled by their parents by restricting interaction by children with bad influence and are then able to decide what their children hear, watch and speak out. Such gestures lead to the upbringing of a socially upright generation that can carry on with the desired social rules and are able to acquire respect and blessing from the elders. The comfort of the children is also ensure during the indoor learning activities for the children, the parents decide what kids of toys, books and puppets that their children interact with and this avoids straining for toys and playing items that comes with emotional breakdown among the kids and hatred among the kids. It also helps the parents to offer the kids with environments that lead to their professional breakthrough, this is done during the young ages of the kids where the parents get to know the passion of the kids and offer facilities that are likely to introduce and develop them to their passion in life. The indoor learning activity also offer control of germs and clean playing environment that enable a clean playing environment and enhance prevention of diseases and helps in the control and spread of diseases. Also in the case of an outbreak, the spread can also be contained by limiting contact between children and avoiding interaction between the kids. This in turn helps in the containment of diseases and helps kind to appreciate healthy living and appreciate health education. Question 2 Playing with a child together helps the child to develop the senses in the child and also ensure that the child has an upright growth pattern. it ensures that a child has all the sense, that is, sense of touch, sense of hearing and the sense of sight, it enables the children to appreciate the nature and to decide on what the child takes in on his mind. By accurately controlling the environment of the child, the behavior and the education of the child can be controlled in a great way. In this thought, the classroom environment effectively affect the degree of absorption of knowledge for the child. The child has a high rate of absorption of knowledge if they are offered with a comfortable environment that is free of disturbance such as noise, too much heat or too much cold. The language in a certain environment also is another major determinant in the rate of absorption of knowledge for the kids, if the environment offers an atmosphere of words and conversation that are appealing to the ears of the recipient. The children will have a high degree of reception and will absorb more easily the knowledge that is offered in that environment. This is opposed to when the child absorbs words that are not directed towards his passion or his belief, the child will in turn experience difficulty in reception and understanding of the teachings. The child will filter whatever is being given out and taken in whatever he thinks is best for him, this will result in misconception of all the ideas that is being taught leading to difficulty in understanding. The friendliness of the environment in which the child gets the knowledge is also a major factor in the degree of knowledge absorption for the children, getting children who are friendly helps the child to get composure and become free to open up and set his mind free to receive the knowledge of whatever is being taught. The instructor in any play environment also affects the learning of the children. Harsh instructors are feared by the children and in turn the children become isolated from his and cannot ask any question in case there is any. This affects the learning of the children negatively. A different picture is noted in the case where the play environment has an understanding instructor, the children become free to interact with him leading to smooth transfer of knowledge between the children and the instructor. The spacing in the play environment is also determining factor in the learning of the children. The spacing determines the degree of comfort of the children that in turn leads to the absorption of any idea that is given out, in the case of uncomfortable environment, the children will concentrate in the fighting of the causes of uncomfortable situation at the expense of the knowledge being disbursed by the trainer. The environment of play must also consist of the same age group of kids that enable them to be free with each other and have the same level of understanding with each. Different age groups in the in the environment incorporates children that have different knowledge levels that have different understanding of issues, this difference cause difference in knowledge absorption among the children that lead to difficulty in understanding. Such indifference leads to difficulty and frustration in the understanding of the educational issues are to be delivered by the trainer. Also, have children of different age groups lead to a difficult environment for the trainer and lead to incapacity of the trainer and the inability to deliver to the children. Question 3 The quality standards from the National Quality Standards that assist in the development of children are such as the children`s health and safety. This ensures that a child lives and plays in a clean environment that is free of germs and avoids the spread of diseases, this ensures that the children are clean always to prevent the spread of diseases between the children. The child`s health must be insisted all the time since the environment that they interact is in most cases dirty and full of germs and added to the fact that the children are fond of putting their toys in their mouths leading to direct introduction of germs into the body of the child. Another quality standard is the relationship with children. People should develop a healthy relationship with the children and develop a warm interaction with the children, by developing a jovial mood with the children helps one to bond with the children and also helps the children to develop in their ability to socially interact other people and the environment. Such gestures help the children to have social security and be confident about their parents and guardians. It also improves the ability of the children to communicate with others in the society. In the education, program and practice part of the quality standard, there is insisted the need to offer quality education to all children and that which is correct according to their age. This calls for analysis of the right means of delivering the knowledge, the knowledge should not collide with the social exposure of the children, it should be aligned towards the culture, abilities of the children and the interests that the children are inclined towards Lastly, the physical environment affect the child`s development in that it is used to create an accommodating environment for the children to ensure proper development, this calls for censuring of what the children hear and see that affect their social upbringing and their moral conduct. The society must ensure that the environment is friendly for the children in order to facilitate proper psychological development for the children, the environment must be all inclusive and enable the children to be independent and competent. The environment must be friendly to enable development of the kids to be a socially vibrant and positive development. Part B Question 1 Experience plans that children have adopted currently are such as the development and the liking of technology, this is seen in the societies today where children have a liking for online games and the technology. Children nowadays spend a lot of time with computers and other technological gadgets to satisfy their pleasures and interests, this has leads to a new form of social order that in inclined to the technological angle and all the pleasures that the children want can be taken care of by the technological gadgets. This affects the degree of interaction of children greatly and interferes with their social life.
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    Part A Question 1 Creating an outdoor learning environment offers a holistic learning for the kids and creates awareness about the environment and enables young children to appreciate nature and develop a love for nature. It helps the youth to cope up with challenges in the society and the environment while at the same time nurturing the spirit of invention and protection to the environment and the habitat. It also helps the children to appreciate the role of an educator in his ability to provide a safe learning environment and the way, it is also believed that outdoor learning environment helps the children to develop spiritually and appreciate the social morals of life. It also helps children to develop and improve on the ideas about play and recreational activities in general, they are able to visualize the nature and are able to develop great inventions that are associated with nature. Outdoor learning helps children to develop socially and to have the ability to be able to interact with others appropriately, it helps in developing tolerance among children and the ability to accommodate different children with different cultures and from different backgrounds and social set up. It aims at creating strong bonds and friendship among young ones and the ability to adjust in new environments. Outdoor learning also helps children to develop physically and to be physically fit, this occurs when the kids engage themselves in games such as race competition, football, tug of war and several other outdoor games. Such activities also help in the boosting of defense system of the body and in turn makes the less susceptible to diseases and any illnesses that may come by. The kids then have the ability to take on hard tasks of nation building and can as well be a source income to their families and the nation as a whole if in case it is taken as an occupation in their adult age. An example is seen in the great athletes and musicians of the day where they started to nurture the talents during their childhood, such talents have helped them as a source of livelihood and a source of income and means of survival to many people. Outdoor also helps in creating and developing creativity in children and helps them to have they ability to visualize and discover several things that are out of ordinary, it is through interaction with nature that ideas come into the minds of the young people. Researchers say that it is through seen and constant visualization and interaction that inventions are made from the normal and usual things that exist in the environment. Outdoor learning experience, helps the children to develop in their different stages and assist in physiological development, it helps in development of strong bones and body parts and helps in emotional growth and upbringing. Outdoor learning also helps in the learning of different languages by interacting with different children, this helps in developing a society that can accommodate any culture or any race and that which is very diverse and can offer a smooth environment. By introducing and exposing the children to areas of discovery, exploitation, exploration, scientific investigation and observation, this helps the children to appreciate what they learn in class hence helps them to acquire skills and knowledge hence improve their performance in class and in the improvement of their grades. There is also the improvement of decision-making in the children because this comes from tough choices they are forced to make daily regarding the choice of friends the must associate with and the nature of the environments they must interact with. Such decision-making abilities in-turn lead to the development of leadership qualities in their maturity Indoor learning activities offer a safe learning environment for the kids since the environment is free of dangers in the society such as accidents, attack from wild animals, conflict from the children and general insecurity in the society such as kidnappings. It enables the children to gain trust from their guardians and parents and also provide an environment that enables the parents to offer utmost care of their children without leaving them at the mercy of the cruel world. Indoor learning activities also enable the children to acquire social moral since it is instilled by their parents by restricting interaction by children with bad influence and are then able to decide what their children hear, watch and speak out. Such gestures lead to the upbringing of a socially upright generation that can carry on with the desired social rules and are able to acquire respect and blessing from the elders. The comfort of the children is also ensure during the indoor learning activities for the children, the parents decide what kids of toys, books and puppets that their children interact with and this avoids straining for toys and playing items that comes with emotional breakdown among the kids and hatred among the kids. It also helps the parents to offer the kids with environments that lead to their professional breakthrough, this is done during the young ages of the kids where the parents get to know the passion of the kids and offer facilities that are likely to introduce and develop them to their passion in life. The indoor learning activity also offer control of germs and clean playing environment that enable a clean playing environment and enhance prevention of diseases and helps in the control and spread of diseases. Also in the case of an outbreak, the spread can also be contained by limiting contact between children and avoiding interaction between the kids. This in turn helps in the containment of diseases and helps kind to appreciate healthy living and appreciate health education. Question 2 Playing with a child together helps the child to develop the senses in the child and also ensure that the child has an upright growth pattern. it ensures that a child has all the sense, that is, sense of touch, sense of hearing and the sense of sight, it enables the children to appreciate the nature and to decide on what the child takes in on his mind. By accurately controlling the environment of the child, the behavior and the education of the child can be controlled in a great way. In this thought, the classroom environment effectively affect the degree of absorption of knowledge for the child. The child has a high rate of absorption of knowledge if they are offered with a comfortable environment that is free of disturbance such as noise, too much heat or too much cold. The language in a certain environment also is another major determinant in the rate of absorption of knowledge for the kids, if the environment offers an atmosphere of words and conversation that are appealing to the ears of the recipient. The children will have a high degree of reception and will absorb more easily the knowledge that is offered in that environment. This is opposed to when the child absorbs words that are not directed towards his passion or his belief, the child will in turn experience difficulty in reception and understanding of the teachings. The child will filter whatever is being given out and taken in whatever he thinks is best for him, this will result in misconception of all the ideas that is being taught leading to difficulty in understanding. The friendliness of the environment in which the child gets the knowledge is also a major factor in the degree of knowledge absorption for the children, getting children who are friendly helps the child to get composure and become free to open up and set his mind free to receive the knowledge of whatever is being taught. The instructor in any play environment also affects the learning of the children. Harsh instructors are feared by the children and in turn the children become isolated from his and cannot ask any question in case there is any. This affects the learning of the children negatively. A different picture is noted in the case where the play environment has an understanding instructor, the children become free to interact with him leading to smooth transfer of knowledge between the children and the instructor. The spacing in the play environment is also determining factor in the learning of the children. The spacing determines the degree of comfort of the children that in turn leads to the absorption of any idea that is given out, in the case of uncomfortable environment, the children will concentrate in the fighting of the causes of uncomfortable situation at the expense of the knowledge being disbursed by the trainer. The environment of play must also consist of the same age group of kids that enable them to be free with each other and have the same level of understanding with each. Different age groups in the in the environment incorporates children that have different knowledge levels that have different understanding of issues, this difference cause difference in knowledge absorption among the children that lead to difficulty in understanding. Such indifference leads to difficulty and frustration in the understanding of the educational issues are to be delivered by the trainer. Also, have children of different age groups lead to a difficult environment for the trainer and lead to incapacity of the trainer and the inability to deliver to the children. Question 3 The quality standards from the National Quality Standards that assist in the development of children are such as the children`s health and safety. This ensures that a child lives and plays in a clean environment that is free of germs and avoids the spread of diseases, this ensures that the children are clean always to prevent the spread of diseases between the children. The child`s health must be insisted all the time since the environment that they interact is in most cases dirty and full of germs and added to the fact that the children are fond of putting their toys in their mouths leading to direct introduction of germs into the body of the child. Another quality standard is the relationship with children. People should develop a healthy relationship with the children and develop a warm interaction with the children, by developing a jovial mood with the children helps one to bond with the children and also helps the children to develop in their ability to socially interact other people and the environment. Such gestures help the children to have social security and be confident about their parents and guardians. It also improves the ability of the children to communicate with others in the society. In the education, program and practice part of the quality standard, there is insisted the need to offer quality education to all children and that which is correct according to their age. This calls for analysis of the right means of delivering the knowledge, the knowledge should not collide with the social exposure of the children, it should be aligned towards the culture, abilities of the children and the interests that the children are inclined towards Lastly, the physical environment affect the child`s development in that it is used to create an accommodating environment for the children to ensure proper development, this calls for censuring of what the children hear and see that affect their social upbringing and their moral conduct. The society must ensure that the environment is friendly for the children in order to facilitate proper psychological development for the children, the environment must be all inclusive and enable the children to be independent and competent. The environment must be friendly to enable development of the kids to be a socially vibrant and positive development. Part B Question 1 Experience plans that children have adopted currently are such as the development and the liking of technology, this is seen in the societies today where children have a liking for online games and the technology. Children nowadays spend a lot of time with computers and other technological gadgets to satisfy their pleasures and interests, this has leads to a new form of social order that in inclined to the technological angle and all the pleasures that the children want can be taken care of by the technological gadgets. This affects the degree of interaction of children greatly and interferes with their social life.
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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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