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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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    General Knowledge
    Pinto Madness Name of Student Name of University Online Discussion Assignment 1: Pinto Madness Ford Motor’s Pinto case shows how Ford Motor Company withheld safety information from the public to maximize on income. Ford failed to disclose safety problems with the Pinto model to save the firm from incurring losses and to keep its reputation (Dowie, 1977). However, this did not prevent the catastrophe that followed the introduction of the model to the market, huge financial losses, and damage to its reputation. I believe that Ford’s decision to withhold information about the Pinto model was wrong. The firm did not apply utilitarian principles in handling the Pinto case. Utilitarian principles require the evaluation of a situation based on the ability to provide happiness, pleasure, and neural welfare. The main ethical principle of utilitarianism is the consequence of an action. Utilitarianism requires actions to be weighed up with the objective of determining how the people involved will be affected. The first mistake made by Ford Motor is failing to disclose information about the design flaws even though the firm’s management knew about the flaws (Dowie, 1977). The firm went ahead and approved the design with the flaws. This shows that the firm ignored the greatest overall utility benefit. The second mistake is disregarding the safety of passengers (Dowie, 1977). This is evident when the management commissioned the design of a car that could be sold at the lowest cost to the firm. It was ethically wrong for Ford Motor to focus on its benefits at the expense of safety and placing low value on the life of its customers. The correct application of utilitarianism would have yielded a different moral result. The correct application of the moral principle would direct the firm to focus on maximizing benefits and appropriate consequences to its customers. This would have ensured the firm commissioned and approved safe cars. The outcome would be a significant increase in the cost for a safer car. Reference Dowie, M. (1977). Pinto Madness. Mother Jones. Retrieved from https://www.motherjones.com/politics/1977/09/pinto-madness/
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    Political Economy of South Africa Name of Student Name of University Political Economy of South Africa Introduction With a population of approximately 60 million people, South Africa is one of the most populous countries in Africa. The country also has a high population growth rate, which is currently at 1.5 percent. The country has an average life expectancy of 52 years, which can be attributed to the life span of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the effect of population growth. South Africa can be categorized, as an upper-middle income economy.it is also one of the developing countries in Africa. Even though it is a developing country, South Africa is struggling to emerge from the socio-economic and institutional shadow cast by the apartheid regime. The problems that South Africa currently faces include poverty, race issues, and high rates of inequality, unemployment, and coal-based economy. Despite fifteen years of uninterrupted social, economic, and political growth, South Africa still faces the political economic challenges of structural unemployment, inequality, and poverty (Fine & Rustomjee, 2016). Even though considerable poverty alleviation has occurred, it is vital to note the systemic roots of poverty are still in place. Additionally, mal-distribution of income has worsened over the last 15 years. Political Economy Factors In South Africa Laws, Regulations and Indigenous Factors South Africa uses a mixed or hybrid legal system, which is based on several legal traditions. It has a civil law system, which was inherited from the Dutch legal system. It also has a common law system, inherited from the British legal system. It is also important to note the customary legal system, which was inherited from indigenous Africans. The mixed legal systems together with the traditions have a complex interrelationship. The British system influences procedural aspects of South Africa’s legal system together with adjudication. The Dutch-Roman legal system influence substantive private law. Generally, South Africa follows the English law in civil and criminal procedure, in addition to constitutional law, company law, and the law of evidence. The Dutch-Roman common law is followed in the law of delict, South African contract law, family law, law of things, and the law of persons. With the 1994 commencement of the interim constitution, and the 1997 replacement, the final constitution added a strand to the legal system. South African court system has a clear hierarchical structure (Gumede, 2015). The system has several magistrate courts, a single high court, and Supreme Court of Appeal and a constitutional court. Several specialized courts have been created to deal with specialized areas of the law. These are important to the public in addition to avoid a backlog in the legal administration infrastructure. The specialized courts exist besides the court hierarchy. Corruption In South Africa, corruption includes the use of public resources by private individuals, improper favoritism, and bribery. According to the 2017 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, South Africa ranked position 43 out of 100. The current ranking of South Africa is a downward directional change based on a previous two point down from 45 in 2016. Recent corruption cases in South Africa involved high profile individuals such as former South African President Jacob Zuma. Even with the high number of corruption cases, South Africa has a vigorous anti-corruption framework. However, current laws are inadequate in enforcing anti-corruption policies and accountability in the public sector. Negative sanctions have been enforced to discourage whistle blowers from shedding light on corruption activities in the private and public sectors. Recent scandals that involved former President Jacob Zuma and the Gupta family forced Zuma out of office. This revealed a long list of corruption complaints leveled against the former president (Michie & Padayachee, 2017). One of the prominent forms of corruption in South Africa is tenderpreneurism. Most of the public tenders in South Africa are awarded to people who have given kickbacks to government officials. Tenderprenuers in South Africa have enriched themselves by corrupting the process of awarding government tender contracts. This occurs because the tenderprenuer has a personal and corruption relationship and connection with the corrupt government officials. This is usually accompanied with shoddy workmanship and overcharging of government contracts. Government Stability
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    Research Proposal Name of Student Name of Institution Research Proposal Background and Problem Statement The executive team of the Australian departmental stores association is concerned about the growing competition from online retailers and a substantial decrease in the profits of departmental stores. The success of the stores was traditionally based on the strategy of innovation in the retail business. However, the dominance of Australian retail stores over online retailers has reduced significantly. This is mainly attributed to changing consumer preferences. The wide product ranges and large-scale operations of departmental stores no longer give them a competitive advantage over online retailers. Departmental stores are also facing problems such as discount fatigue and subdued consumer sentiment, which contribute to their inability to contribute favorably in the retail market. Departmental stores in Australia are finding it difficult to satisfy the needs of consumers due to the rapidly changing purchase behavior in the retail market. Several stores are considering changing their strategy from conventional to online retailing. Consequently, the executive team of the Australian departmental stores association needs to conduct a research that will inform decisions on the best strategy of meeting the needs of consumers and competing favorably with online retailers. This research proposal will provide the executive team of Australian departmental stores with reliable information on how conventional retailers can provide consumers with value and compete well with business rivals that offer online retail services. Purpose of the Research The purpose of the study is to determine how conventional retail stores in Australia can best meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers in order to gain a competitive edge over online retailers. This purpose will be achieved through a pursuit of the following three objectives. To determine the characteristics of retail consumers in relation to demographic, psychographic, and behavioral market segmentation criteria. The demographic attributes to look for include gender, age group, marital status, family size, nationality, education, and monthly income (McDonald & Dunbar, 2013). The psychographic characteristics to determine are lifestyles, materialism, pleasure-seeking behavior, and attitudes (Liu, Burns, & Hou, 2013). The behavioral attributes to identify include benefits sought, readiness to purchase, loyalty status, and rate of usage (McDonald & Dunbar, 2013).
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    Political Economy Factors Negatively Impacting FDI in Japan Name of Student Name of Institution Political Economy Factors Negatively Impacting FDI in Japan Introduction It is no doubt that Japan has one of the best business environments in the world. Some of the factors that make it attractive include its ever-growing economy, government’s efforts to promote inward FDI, and enhanced corporate governance among others (Japan External Trade Organization, 2018). Due to its favorable business environment, Japan has emerged as a favorable FDI destination, with statistics showing that it hit a record high in 2017 (The Government of Japan, 2018). However, there are political economy factors that sometimes make it difficult for the country to achieve high levels of FDI. This paper will focus on one of these factors; the socio-cultural conditions. Socio-cultural Factors Affecting Inward FDI in Japan In spite being the world’s third largest economy with favorable business environment, Japan continues to receive the smallest amount of inward FDI as a GDP proportion compared to major OECD nations (Central Intelligence Agency, 2018). Although there are many factors to explain this dissonance, socio-cultural conditions are the main reason. Japan has a relatively long isolationism history that has led to divergent business and labor practices within the country (Blahová et al, 2014). It is a major impediment to FDI since the biggest investors in the country are large and industrialized economies that look to it for a family, high-tech environment for investment (U.S. Dept. of State, 2015). For example, in 2013, the United States, which is the biggest economy in the world accounted for about 59 percent of inward FDI (Bâlgăr and Andreea, 2016). Despite being the biggest investor in Japan, the United States has been noting that social practices, not regulations, are the cause of investment challenges in Japan. Other investors have also cited this factor and the need for Japan to address these practices so as to appeal to foreign investors, especially OECD countries. Whereas the country has undertaken reforms to deal with this issue but they have been inadequate to result in a sustained FDI growth (WTO, 2017). Aging and Declining Population One of the primary hindrance for growth in Japan is the declining and aging population. It has resulted in a problem for foreign investors who require recruiting local workers for their operations in Japan (Blahová et al, 2014). The labor practices that contribute to the skilled labor shortage available in Japan and requires to be dealt with to incentivize purchases or acquisition of domestic companies and the establishment of foreign operations (Bâlgăr and Andreea, 2016). The first practice relates to the country’s tradition of utilizing ‘non-traditional’ laborers with less motivation, skills, and status. The second labor practice relates to the assumption that women are temporary workers due to future family obligations. It implies that women are rarely accorded adequate management experience or training. The combination of these two factors has led to a skilled labor shortage in Japan for potential foreign investors (U.S. Dept. of State, 2015). Labor Dualism There is a growing trend in the modern Japanese labor market regarding prevalence of non-traditional employees. Employers are increasingly using part-time and temporary workers in an effort of reducing the labor costs, as well as filling the short-term labor needs (U.S. Dept. of State, 2015). In most cases, this type of workers is unskilled. In other instances, companies in Japan recruit regular workers directly from universities and offer them employment contracts without any fixed duration. This trend in labor markets has raised concerns with the Japanese government as the number of young employees in non-traditional employment increases (WTO, 2017). This trend not only weakens the future prospects of the young workers but also develops a distinct social and professional gap between the two kinds of employees. While permanent employees enjoy benefits like extensive training and high job protection levels, temporary employees are often disadvantaged as they do not have job security and are paid lower wages or salaries (Blahová et al, 2014). Because of skill gap, many foreign investors find it difficult to obtain local workers to work in their operations in Japan. This makes the country unattractive for foreign investments, especially when companies consider the huge resources that they will need to offer specific training (Bâlgăr and Andreea, 2016). Foreign companies that intent to invest in Japan are aware that the country is already experiencing a shortage of skilled labor not only because of the declining and aging population but also due to the prevalence of non-traditional employment (Blahová et al, 2014). Fixing this problem requires the government to intervene by helping to training young workers and by limiting the use of non-standard employment contracts in the country (WTO, 2017). At the same time, it would be important for the country to deal with the labor issues that have been brought about by its long isolationism history. It should particularly seek to embed the new labor values and practices that are being applied internationally in order to make the country more attractive to foreign investors (Bâlgăr and Andreea, 2016). Female Participation Japanese cultural norms considerably undermine the use of female workers in the workplace. It is a major reason that local and foreign employers have difficulties to find sufficient number of employees to meet their labor needs (U.S. Dept. of State, 2015). Japan fairs unfavorably compared to other developed countries when it comes to female participation in the labor market. For example, in the United States, women are about 49 percent of the labor force (Blahová et al, 2014). The comparatively low female participation in Japan is attributed to cultural norms that lead to unequal labor policies and trends. Some of the norms include women being primary caregivers of children thus forcing them to leave their jobs to take care of children (Bâlgăr and Andreea, 2016). The other norms relate to stigma against men taking paternity leave and the assumption that motherhood tend to result in less employment mobility for women. The male labor participation in Japan is about twenty percentage points more than that of women (Central Intelligence Agency, 2018). If the labor participation rates between the two genders can be converged, labor supply in the country would go down. As a consequence, more labor would be available in the Japan thus attracting more foreign companies (WTO, 2017).
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    General Knowledge
    Student Name: Approved Topic: The Role of Body Language and Visual Cues in Effective Business Communication Article Title #1: “Actions Speak Louder than Words: Body Language in Business Communication.” Author/s:
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    Name Professor Course Date Consulting and Contracting: New Ways of Work In my daily life, I may decide to perform a task myself or hire a professional to perform the task. In some of these instances, I may succeed in completing the task while in most instances; I failed in completing the task and forced to hire an experienced professional to complete the task. In this case, hiring a professional to complete work that I could have done myself can be considered as outsourcing. Conversely, completing the work myself can be considered as insourcing. Outsourcing is a well-known concept that has been accepted and implemented by people and organizations across the globe. Outsourcing is viewed as a cost-saving strategy that allows a business or individual to focus on their core competencies. Outsourcing provides an opportunity for businesses and people to offload their non-core functions to outsourced service providers. In most of the cases, the service providers offer their labor at lower costs. Even though it is popular, outsourcing has been criticized for taking jobs and money to another country or location. Outsourcing has been cited as a major cause of job loss at the local level. Despite the criticism, outsourcing is a strategic business tactic that can help businesses and people focus on their competencies. Insourcing is the opposite of outsourcing because by insourcing, labor remains in a country. It is believed that insourcing can help in addressing the problems caused by outsourcing through improved management of costs and control of organizational functions. It can also help in the creation of jobs at the local level. Insourcing can also provide a solution to the problem of hidden costs and control, which are associated with outsourcing. From my own experience, the task that I chose to perform in-house was repairing my drainage. On this day, I choose to undertake plumbing activities in my house because there were leaking pipes, which were destroying my walls. It is vital to note that my house is old and since it was bought, no plumbing improvements were done. Before I set out for the task, I made a plan by drawing the arrangement of drainage pipes in my house. I identified the leaking pipes and the tools needed for the completion of the task. I did not take into consideration the damage that could be caused by a leaking pipe. Initially, I thought that the leaking pipe was not a big deal. First, I started by digging into the wall to locate the pipes that were leaking. Then I came to realize that the entire system had a problem. Therefore, I went to the main point were the drainage system enters the house and started digging a hole to find the inlet. After finding the inlet, I came to realize that I had a bigger problem on my hand because the leaking water had started to affect the foundation of the house. This is the point when I realized that I had made the wrong decision by not hiring a qualified and professional plumber. If I had hired a plumber on time, I would have made an appointment and the plumber would have been available to fix the problem. However, I had to wait for another week before the plumber could come to fix the problem. Transaction cost theory focuses on the cost of allocating resources amid an imperfect word that is characterized by misunderstandings, uncertainty, and misaligned goals. In this case, cost related with the decision that I made to repair the pipes are transactional because they relate to an economic activity. These costs are dependent on my capability, skill, and knowledge in plumbing. They are also tied to the technologies available for the repair of the leaking pipes. The first cost that can be related to the decision using the transaction cost theory is the cost of creating and negotiating a contract with the plumber. I incurred the cost of looking for a qualified plumber, which took me four days. During this period, I drove to different towns looking for a plumber. After finding the plumber, I paid for the logistics of him coming to the house to assess the situation. The cost of looking for a plumber together with the cost of assessing the situation was approximately $350. The second cost associated with my decision is associated with the administrative cost of determining the when, what, and how to incur the cost of resource misallocation (Canback 7). It is vital to note that I made a wrong decision to conduct the repairs myself. After discovering the extent of the leakage, I concluded that I could not do the repair work. The cost in this case is the delay in repairs, which means that the pipes continued to leak for another two weeks before the plumber came for the repair work. Furthermore, high uncertainty with the technology required for the repair led to additional bureaucratic transactions. In this case, it is difficult to establish a contract that covers all the possible outcomes (Canback 9). Even with the high uncertainty, I was not able to internalize activities, which added the cost of outsourcing the repair work. High transactional costs were experienced because of high asset specificity between the plumber and myself (Canback 10). This occurred because of human, physical, and site specificity. This created challenges in the creation of a contract that would give a fair share to both parties. The plumber had superior knowledge and technology to carry out the repair. This means that I had to incur the cost of hiring his superior knowledge and technology. Works Cited Canback, Staffan. The logic of management consulting. Journal of management consulting, 10(2), 1998. 3-11.
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    Colonialism with Indigenous People in Canada Name of Student Name of University The Role of Colonialism with Indigenous People in Canada: How Colonialism Still Plays a Role in the Lives of Canadian Indigenous People Today Introduction Colonialism in Canada can be best understood through its role and impact on the indigenous people. In the Canadian context, colonialism led to the forced displacement of indigenous people from their land, loss of culture, and disconnection from the family and social units (Alfred, 2009). Even though colonialism has its roots in Canadian history, it is alive even in the present day. For instance, the Canadian government offers support to companies that take over indigenous land for resource extraction. Role of Colonialism with Indigenous People The experiences of Canadian indigenous people show that colonists took a role of creating dependency between the powerful core colonialists and the weaker peripheral people who were the indigenous people. The colonialist established a flawed relationship that devastated the indigenous people through exploitation. Furthermore, the colonialists diffused the indigenous people’s capital, values, and institutions through the establishment of their capitalist metropoles (Alfred, 2009). Through the invasion of the indigenous people and forceful implementation of core colonist policies and values, colonialists weakened indigenous people. The forced change on the societies of the indigenous people created unequal relationships that benefited the colonialists and entrenched devastating dependency (Alfred, 2009). Colonialists employed strategies to weaken indigenous people, which resulted in the breakdown of the culture of indigenous people. It also contributed to the emergence of disparaging social issues. In Canada, colonialists faced similar problems as other colonial ventures worldwide. They were faced with the problem of an existing population. They were also faced with the problem of how to eliminate the indigenous people who were a threat to their success. Colonialists used colonial policies to weaken indigenous people. In the end, colonialism led to the discrimination and marginalization of indigenous people. The entrenchment of marginalization and discrimination translated to more profits for colonizers (Lertzman, & Vredenburg, 2015). Colonialists limited the employability of indigenous people and ensured that they lost control of their resources. Most importantly, they weakened the status of indigenous people in the society. Analysis of the relationship based on the perspective of the benefits to colonizers and hindrance to the indigenous people, it is evident that destructive dependency was established through colonialism. The destructive role of colonialism to the indigenous people in Canada is evident from the introduction of alcohol and drugs to the indigenous people. Pre-colonialism, indigenous people used alcohol for ceremonial purposes. However, the colonialists used alcohol as a destructive element to the social setup and culture of indigenous people. Alcohol and drug abuse became prevalent during the period of colonialism that it became one of the factors for the breakdown of the indigenous people’s way of life (Woroniak & Camfield, 2013). Increased use and abuse of alcohol and drug increased the distance between indigenous people and their traditional values. For instance, indigenous people considered sexuality as a sacred aspect pre-colonialism. However, the introduction of drugs and alcohol led to a reduction in their respect for traditional standards. This is evident from the increase in sexual abuse cases. Alcoholism took indigenous people away from their traditional standards and norms and disseminated their value system. This left them disconnected and weak, and at the hands of colonizers. Colonialism caused trauma among indigenous people, which contributed to the distortion of the indigenous culture. It also created unhealthy and detrimental internal issued that also contributed to the destruction of the family and social unit. How Colonialism Still Plays a Role in the Lives of Canadian Indigenous People Today Even in the present day, colonialism still plays a role in the lives of Canadian indigenous people. The seizure of the land occupied by indigenous people led to their displacement. Colonialism caused the displacement of indigenous people from their traditional territories and resources. In the present day, this has limited the indigenous people’s access to their ancestral land and resources. Following the displacement of indigenous people, they were forced to live in reserves under treaties (Coates, 2008). Even in the present day, indigenous people have been denied access to hunting and fishing grounds. The displacement of the indigenous people contributed to the weakening of their social structures. Pre-colonialism, indigenous people lived in distinct societies with distinct cultures, systems of governance, trade, and language. Following colonialism, they were forced to lose these cultural elements. Pre-colonialism, indigenous people viewed land as a sacred resource. This was disrupted with the arrival of colonialists. Colonial governments and settlers set up communities that would extract resources from the land. Colonialists did not share the indigenous perspective that land is sacred. They viewed land as a resource that could be sold and brought in addition to being exploited for profits. In the present day, indigenous people have come to view their indigenous land as a resource that can be exploited (Cormack, 2012). They have also joined in the practice of exploiting land for profits through commercial farming and mining. The displacement of indigenous people and the exploitation of their land and resources contributed to strained relations between indigenous people and the colonists. As more Europeans came to Canada and took over land, relations with the indigenous people became strained. This has played a role in the relations between present day indigenous people and the Canadian government. Strained relations have also led to conflicts between the government and indigenous people over land use and access to resources. The Oka and Ipperwash crisis are instances where provincial and local authorities clashed over the indigenous group’s claims to ancestral land. Colonialism still plays a role in the lives of indigenous people in the present day through education. Education is important in the modern Canadian society. It is vital to note the important role of education in the facilitation of a person’s participation in the Canadian society. Initially, indigenous people were reluctant to take their children to modern schools. They were reluctant because of the discrimination, violence, and inequalities encountered by indigenous people in these schools (Simpson, 2011). Indigenous people have understood the need for modern Canadian education and the need to participate in the system. For generations, the control of education was in the hands of first nations. However, this was changed with the recommendations on the integration of indigenous people in mainstream schools. Subsequently, indigenous people were sent to public schools even with the resistance of their parents. Conclusion Colonialism took a disruptive role on the indigenous people in Canada. It forced changes in indigenous societies through the disruption of their ways of life. Colonialism displaced indigenous people from their land and limited their access to resources even in the present day. This led to the creation of unequal relationships between the indigenous people, the Canadian government, and colonizers.
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    WHY DO THE NARRATIVE STRUCTURES STUDIED IN THIS COURSE (FREYTAG’S PYRAMID, CAMPBELL’S HERO’S JOURNEY) SPEAK TO US? ARE THEY UNIVERSAL? Name Professor Course Date Reward, treasure, love, honor, status, approval, survival, and freedom are some of the things that I associate with the hero’s journey in Campbell’s Hero’s Journey. I did not find the meaning of the journey in saving the princess or slaying the dragon. These significant symbols and metaphors serve a colorful purpose. Instead, I find meaning in the hero’s ability to battle outer and inner demons, court the ultimate mate, and confront bullies. These abilities symbolize the hero’s passage through the tunnel of individuation and self-discovery to a mature adulthood. At the end of each journey like in hero’s journey, a person becomes something different internally and physically. An exploration of the meaning of hero’s journey applies to psychological development and speaks to my ability to actualize my potential. In Hero’s Journey, Joseph Campbell took the approach of a curious mythologist. Unlike scholars in comparative mythology who explore cultural differences, Campbell looked for cultural similarities. He focused on similarities in cultural religious stories and myths, which resulted in a narrative structure called a monomyth. This is a universal narrative structure used in storytelling.1 Campbell, Joseph, Phil Cousineau, and Stuart L. Brown. 2003. ˜Theœ Hero's Journey Joseph Campell on his life and work. Novato, Calif. New World Library. It serves as a story template that directs a character through a series of stages. In Hero’s journey, the main character is the hero. This is not a person, but an archetype. An archetype is a universal image that is combined with a defined pattern of behavior. For instance, in most popular films, the protagonist represents the hero. In most of the cases, the storyline of the film represents or enacts the hero’s journey. This signifies that the hero archetype exist in the psyche of every person. This is one of the reasons people love watching and hearing stories. Exploration of the patterns of a monomyth reveals that its structure exists in most of the cultures and lives of people. The sequence of events is also present in most of the religious stories especially in the story of Jesus Christ, Moses, and Gautama Buddha. The monomyth narrative structure is widely used in Hollywood as the dominant story structure in films. It is also relevant to us as individuals. An exploration of Hero’s Journey shows that even though it is a myth, it has a deeper meaning. As a myth, Hero’s Journey represents the dreams of a collective psyche.2 Campbell, Joseph, Phil Cousineau, and Stuart L. Brown. 2003. ˜Theœ Hero's Journey Joseph Campell on his life and work. Novato, Calif. New World Library. In understanding the symbolic meaning of the myth, it is possible to know the psychological undercurrent including the tensions, hidden motivations, and desires of people. Because the Hero’s Journey is a monomyth, it represents a process that is relevant to people. It represents the process of personal transformation. Personal transformation begins with an innocent child or person who goes through a series of events or situations to mature into an adult. The child is born in a set of beliefs and rules of a society. Through their heroic efforts, the child must break from the conventions to become free. The objective of breaking free is to discover themselves. In the process, the matured person returns to their soul. The consideration of hero’s journey and the narrative structure used in the story as a roadmap for self-development holds value to people who want to break free from the conventions that hold them back. Hero’s Journey has three stages that represent the process of personal transformation, which speak to us. The first stage is departure, in which the hero departs from the known world. In this case, Luke Skywalker left his home planet for a strange planet in which he joined Obi-Wan with the aim of saving the princess. Additionally, Neo got unplugged from The Matrix. In this stage, an individual leaves the comfort and safety of the world they know and enter the unknown. According to Campbell, the first step of a mythological journey is the call to adventure, which signifies the summoning of the hero and transfer of the spiritual center of gravity. This leads the summoned hero to an unknown zone. The second stage of the process of transformation is initiation in which the hero faces a sequence of tribulations and trials. In this stage, the hero’s journey or existence is not safe.3 Campbell, Joseph, Phil Cousineau, and Stuart L. Brown. 2003. ˜Theœ Hero's Journey Joseph Campell on his life and work. Novato, Calif. New World Library. During initiation, the hero is tested in conflict, battle, and skill. It is vital to note that even though the hero may fail in some of the trials and tribulation, they must proceed with the journey. During the initiation stage, the hero meets with enemies, allies, and mentors. The third stage is return where the hero returns home. For the hero to return home, they must face and endure the hardships and trials of the adventure. However, the hero does not return home in their initial state, they have changed and no longer the same. Between the initiation and return stages, an internal transformation has occurred through the process of their experiences. For instance, Luke Skywalker becomes a Jedi and comes to peace with the past. Additionally, Neo accepts his destiny and frees himself from the rules of The Matrix. The narrative structure in Freytag’s Pyramid speaks to us in a similar manner to Hero’s Journey only that it uses different elements to the Hero’s journey. The hero’s journey speaks to us through the departure, initiation, and return stages while the pyramid speaks to us using the dramatic stages of exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. The narrative structure used in Freytag’s Pyramid is useful and universal.4 Prince, G. 2003. A dictionary of narratology. University of Nebraska Press. It reveals the structure used in stories such as The Incredibles and Finding Nemo. The exposition is the introduction to a story. During the exposition, the table is set, characters are brought out and the seeds of conflicts are planted. Additionally, background information is provided to keep the audience or reader interested in what is occurring in the story. The exposition stage in Finding Nemo is when Nemo and Martin are at school on the reef and then the scuba divers capture Nemo and in The Incredibles; it is when Mr. I is at work and home with the family and Mirage convinces Mr. I to use his powers. The exposition stage also differentiates characters, establishes the setting and mood of the story. The second stage is the rising action stage, which is promoted by a key trigger. In Finding Nemo, this is the moment when Nemo is captured by the divers and in The Incredibles, it is the moment when Mr. I uses his powers and later he is captured and Elastigirl leaves to save him. The exposition stage develops the characters and allows relationships between the characters to deepen. The stage also escalates conflicts and amps up tensions. The third stage is the climax, which builds on both the exposition and rising action. The climax must build on the motives, storylines, and character arcs and package them together. The climax is the decisive moment for the protagonists and serves as the platform for the plot to build up.5 Prince, G. 2003. A dictionary of narratology. University of Nebraska Press. Both Finding Nemo and The Incredibles have a climax that builds on exposition and rising action stages. In Finding Nemo, the climax is when Nemo is free and reunites with Martin. Thereafter, they try to break away from the net. The climax in The Incredibles is when the city is attacked by robots and the Incredibles fight them to save the city. The fourth stage is the falling action stage in which the climax slows do and the story appears to come to a stop. It is the stage where the storyteller begins to solve remaining mini-conflicts and subplots. In Finding Nemo, this is the stage where the gang of fish in the dentist’s office escape while in The Incredibles it is the stage where new villains attack the city and the Incredibles can become superheroes again. The last stage is the denouement in which the characters return home or begin to settle down. Everywhere, the audience or reader of a story breathes a collective sigh of relief. In Finding Nemo, this is the stage where Martin is no longer overprotective of Nemo. In The Incredibles, it is the stage where the superpowers of the children develop. The narrative structure presented in Freytag’s Pyramid is universal because it has been used in history in addition to current films and stories. For instance, To Kill a Mockingbird has two narrative arcs as presented in the Pyramid. The narrative arc of the pyramid provides room for the story to explore and experiment. The arc disrupts the expectations of readers by enabling them to stray from the expected course of a traditional story arc. Even though Freytag’s pyramid captures the chronology of most stories, it is vital to note that some authors and storytellers use a three-arc structure. The three-arc structure is presented in Hero’s Journey through the departure, initiation, and return stages. The three-arc structure disposes the climax and replaces it with the initiation. The five-arc structure speaks to us and it is universal because it gives a story a shape. Furthermore, it provides an opportunity to add dimensions to a story.
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    Exploratory Paper: Sex cannot be addictive Name of Student Name of Institution Exploratory Paper: Sex cannot be Addictive Today, there has been a growing number of people who state that they cannot literary control or resist their urge or desire to have sex. In essence, many people have blamed their failing in marriage, destruction of careers, and their inability to lead normal social lives on sexual addiction. For a long time, psychologists have classified this problem as an addiction, claiming that the brain chemistry of the patients exhibited patterns of uncontrollable sexual behavior. There is a growing body of research, however, that debunks this assumption, and suggests that sexual hyperactivity cannot be termed as addictive. From basic perspective, tool, there is little chance that one can claim to be addicted to sex owing to its nature. This paper seeks to prove that sex cannot be addictive and that those claiming so may only be attempting to cover up their bad behavior. Addictions can destroy lives and this is true for consistent, impulsive risky sexual behavior. From a clinical definition, addiction cannot be defined basing on aspects such as what the person eats or what they drink. We look at the individuals’ lives and study if the substance or behavior that they participate in may be affecting the quality of lives that they are leaving, and doing so to an extent where they need help. For a long time, the condition was classified as a mental disorder, even being classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV. The condition was, however, removed from the latest update of the publication. In a 2013 paper titled “Should Hypersexual Disorder be Classified as an Addiction?” Professor Roy Reid of UCLA published a set of criteria that sought to include ‘hypersexuality disorder’ in the DSM. 88% of the set criteria, however, classified patients who were suffering from uncontrollable sexual behavior. It is, however, dangerous to classifiy individuals as having uncontrollable sexual behavior (Kor, Fogel, Reid & Potenza, 2013). Essentially, when people who are addicted to smoking, gambling, drugs and alcoholism are presented with their substance of choice, there is a clear and uniform response in their brain waves. On other hand, this upward response was not able to portray such an outcome. Research conducted by Steele, Staley, Fong and Prause (2013) found that the brain response to viewing sexually explicit images for people who claimed to be addicted to sex did not show similar response mentioned above. The findings, which corroborates with a similar study conducted by Prause, Steele, Sabatinelli and Hajcak (2015) showed that the brain wave activity correlated only to increases in sexual desire. Sex addiction misses a fundamental aspect in its classification as an addiction, the reponse to the addictive substance. In her remarks in the 2016 meeting of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology, Nicole Prause notes that people who have addictions tend to show high levels of response in the pleasure centers of their brains. As the addictions take root, this response wanes. In their paper titled ‘Do addicts have free will? An empirical approach to a vexing question’, Heyman (2017) notes that the hallmark of addiction is when an individual no longer wants the substance they are using, but rather need it owing to the dependency (Heyman, 2017). However, research continues to show that people who self-characterize as sex addicts continue to report strong activations of their pleasure centers after viewing sexually arousing content. It is in this regard that Nicole Prause concluded that there is nothing like sex addiction, and that that may just be a more than high libido in the individuals coupled by a low impulse control ability by the individuals. Another way to disapprove the theory that sex can be addictive is to look at the effect on the brain. One of the reasons why the effects of drugs and substance abuse are powerful to the brain is that the brain was not designed to handle their action. Drugs and substance abuse increases the value of dopamine artificially when they are ingested by a user. The brain faces a challenges in assigning the actual value of the reward derived from the use of these drugs. The same case may be observed in other addictions such as gambling. In gambling, the reward, usually win or lose, is often unpredictable hence the brain cannot actually comprehend the value. This also explains why addicts in these areas tend to always keep on doing the activities or using the drugs, even when they don’t really like or enjoy what they are doing. The human brain, on the other hand, is perfectly designed to handle the rewards of sex. From the stimuli areas of the brain to hormones and the associated coordination, the brain is perfectly designed to positively harness the benefits of sex (Prause, Siegle, Deblieck, Wu & Iacoboni, 2016). In this regard, it is not possible that these rewards that the brain has the capacity to handle can ever become compulsive in the way that drugs are as mentioned above.
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    Is Excessive Use of Social Media a Form of Narcissism? Student’s Name Name of Institution Is Excessive Use of Social Media a Form of Narcissism? The Yes Perspective In her article, “Self-Presentation 2.0: Use of Social Media a Form of Narcissism?” Soraya Mehdizadeh, (2010) claims that people who excessively use social media are more likely to be narcissistic and have low self-esteem. Her research is based on the premise of people’s social media activity, the kind of posts they make especially regarding self-promotion and how these factors link to narcissism. In her research she tests five hypotheses on 100 Facebook users selected randomly at York University, 50 male and 50 female. The main goal of this exploratory study was to analyze how given offline personal traits manifests in anonymous online social environments. The selection is random and it does not matter whether they are active Facebook users or not. The demographic data of those selected to participate in the research such as gender and age is collected. The level of Facebook activity measured by the number of times they check their Facebook pages and duration spent on the platform is collected. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is used to measure the level of self-esteem. Five Facebook features were measured to the extent to which they were self-promoting: the About Me section, Main Photo, first 20 photos, the notes section, and the status update section. From the study, Mehdizadeh found that there is a strong correlation between all the sections mentioned about except the About Me section and the levels of narcissism. The study demonstrates that online social environments offers a critical gateway today for identity construction and self-presentation. The results of the study supports the hypothesis that highly narcissistic individuals tend to be more active on Facebook, share their personal information, post and like photos as a way of attracting attention. The paper clearly demonstrates the relationship between self-promotion and narcissism as seen by the results of the experiment that show that highly narcissistic individuals and those having esteem issues tend to be active on social media. No perspective In his article, “Discovering Intimacy on Facebook,” Alex Lambert highlights that social networks and platforms play a fundamental role in today’s society as it is the basis from where people collect new information, increase their self-esteem and popularity, and be able to express their identities. To explain his argument, Lambert presents the findings of other scholars such as Enli and Thumin, Christopher Lasch, Sherry Turkle and Rosen who have all extensively studied the subject. Lambert also presents the findings of an empirical study that cautions against the overt acceptance of the narcissism thesis. In the discussion, Lambert highlights the observation by Enli and Thumin that people use social media not just to display their positive sides, but also to share their negative sides, mistakes, and private life. There is empirical evidence provided to support the claim by Enli and Thumin. Christopher Lasch, on the other hand, noted that social media platforms could facilitate social skills and argues that we live at a time when narcissism has been normalized through many factors. Lasch holds that social networks tend to beseech recognition from weak ties by providing space for public intimate disclosures. Furthermore, Lambert presents Rosen’s perspective that people should use social platforms to share their private life with their good friends as this is therapeutic in the long run. In the end, Lambert demonstrates that social networks are not only a good place to create good networks, they are a platform where people should share easily. From his findings, it is evident that there is no relationship between narcissism and social media use.
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    Saving Money at the Office Name of Student Name of University Saving Money at the Office Background Offices are central to organizational processes as they serve as the mainframes for activities that bring income to an organization. Numerous interests require the allocation of time and money for their successful completion. It is from these processes that you find a lot of wastage in terms of office stationary, equipment, time, and money. Daily, I observe numerous practices in my office that are both wasteful and not environmentally friendly. These practices cost the company money. One of the processes that are costly to the organization is leaving the lights switched on even during daytime. Saving on these resources can help an organization cut its operational costs and improve on efficiency. Saving energy may be considered altruistic because in most of the cases personal benefits are not realized. In this case, it is possible that saving energy is a form of impure altruism based on the rewards that will be experienced by an individual or company (Trask, 2013). Saving money by cutting operational costs is a prudent way of managing organizational resources. Currently, markets are unstable as target markets become unpredictable. In this environment, it is essential to save the firm’s financial resources and ensure that all resources allocated lead to productivity. In case this does not happen, then the firm risks losing clients and business opportunities. Furthermore, the United Nations set out measures to reduce damage to the environment from climate change. Wasteful energy use especially in office spaces is a major contributing factor to environmental damage. This has increased interest on how to change the current usage of energy especially in office spaces. A vital area of behavioral change is people use of energy in commercial buildings. According to estimates, 17 percent 33 percent of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S and U.K respectively come from office spaces (Trask, 2013). Efforts to reduce the wastage that occurs from improper energy use focus on the appliances used in office spaces, improvements on the physical infrastructure, system efficiencies, and employing people with energy responsibilities such as eco-champions and facility managers. It is also important to note the lack of effort in encouraging individual workers to change their energy use behavior and reduce emissions and financial wastage. It is vital to focus on how the office can reduce financial wastage by minimizing energy use and changing the behavior of employees in energy use. Benefits There are several benefits in improving the energy efficiency of the office. One of the benefits of improving the energy efficiency of a firm is that all the resources allocated to a firm go towards increasing the productivity of the company. The second benefit is that the company saves energy and money, which makes it environmental friendly. Saving energy minimizes the energy demands of a country and the resources required to make energy. Improving energy use is similar to adding a clean energy source to the nation’s power grid. Improving energy efficiency also improves the quality of life because it means the use of alternative energy sources. The first benefit of making the office energy efficient that is related to saving money at the office is that it reduces the firm’s operating costs. One of the perceptions about making the office energy efficient is that only large businesses can afford to make their offices eco-friendly (Steel & Heath, 2015). As a result, it is usually believed that only these businesses can benefit from making their offices energy efficient. As a result, up-front costs that are associated with renewable and green energy technologies dissuade small business owners from energy suitable options. However, a survey by Forbes shows that 60 percent of office owners and managers acknowledge renewable and green energy options as effective ways of making their office spaces and workplaces cost effective. Therefore, investing in green and renewable energy technologies offers a way to help in the management and control of operational costs. Green energy and appropriate energy use reduce business-operating costs and reduces wasted resources. A long-term benefit of energy efficiency is the expected growth in demand for energy efficient and green energy spaces. The efficiency of a building is critical and important because the outcomes for the business owner includes reduced operating costs, increased resilience and reliability, and reduced energy costs. Offices that are energy efficient have a high occupancy and increased asset value compared to offices that are not energy efficient (Steel & Heath, 2015). This means that an office that is energy efficient has a high market value. Furthermore, modern businesses are focusing on making their workplaces sustainable. Therefore, making the office energy efficient is an investment that has long-term financial benefits for the firm. Obstacles The main obstacle to the initiative is resistance. It is vital to acknowledge that employees are accustomed to the light emitted by the energy consuming bulbs. Furthermore, the proposed use of natural lighting leaves some of the spaces in the office poorly lit. The implementation of the proposal also means that there is limited usage of electrical appliances in the offices. Employees may become resistant especially with the removal of energy consuming devices such as food heating microwaves and coffee makers (Steel & Heath, 2015). They are used to coming with refrigerated food to the office and warming it using the kitchen appliance. They are also used to making their coffee using the coffee maker. Information overload is also an obstacle to efforts that seek to make the office energy efficient. Information overload contributes to the lack of focus on what the office owner needs to do to save money. The main challenge with information overload is that it is difficult to diffuse the information and wade through. As a result, the office owner may lose focus on the tools and content needed to make the office energy efficient. There is also the risk of losing focus on priorities and the point to begin. In addition to information overload, there is the barrier of structural limitations (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2016). The firm has a pyramid approach to business. This means that operational departments and business units are managed by performance timelines, separate budgets, and product cycles. Energy saving initiatives require employees throughout the firm to share information and trade-offs to achieve the required results. It is also important to consider the physical structural limitations. The floor and structural plan of the office did not consider natural lighting. The objective was to provide lighting using electricity. Shifting to natural lighting means that the firm must make structural adjustments to the building. This requires approvals from the city building department in addition to the owners of the building. Implementation
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    Unplugged Exercise: Race, Technology, and Privilege Name of Student Name of Institution Unplugged Exercise: Race, Technology, and Privilege The unplugged hours have been intense. I realized how heavily dependent on technology we are. Technology controls every aspect of our life. With technology having simplified every aspect of human life, humans have become slaves of technology and cannot, in real sense, live without technology. I realized that I could not do even the simplest tasks as I have been used to appliances and other technologies. The first 30 minutes was a struggle, as I have never experienced such a life. There was the feeling of loneliness and emptiness, and the temptation to break the rule. Sticking to the rules was inevitable, and I tried to adjust to the new position. I was exposed to technology early enough in my life. China, where I come from, is a growing technological giant in the world today and the cost of such technologies are affordable to many people. I tried reading a physical book, realizing that it has been long since I did so. Conducting class research using physical books is daunting, unlike what we are used to using the internet. I realized that the internet and other technologies have made life fast and efficient and we have been used to it as the new norm. I even tried to swipe a page in the book, as I would do on my smartphone. I realized that it is easy to get extremely used to the different technologies and forget that there are populations across the world that does not have the privilege of the new technologies. In America today, white privilege is a real issue as access to services and quality of life is often hinged on what race one belongs to (Kirk, 2009). It is thus important to note that such community still grapples with inefficient living and aspects such as study or access to knowledge is a big problem. Communication in a time of no technology is another herculean task. It is hard to imagine how hard it is to connect with friends in the next room, let alone the next neighborhood. It is a privilege that we can easily connect and talk to our friends virtually anyway in the world with the aid of technology. In the unplugged mode, in order to communicate with someone, I have to physically walk to where they are, or send an intermediary. In essence, I was unable to make immediate communication to others or see their profiles online. Easing communication today has a direct implication to bettering the quality of life, as I noted in the unplug mode. It is critical to note how we take certain privileges for granted. Simple things like withdrawing money from the ATM or swiping a card to pay for goods. I noted that some transactions would be even harder if technology did not exist. A lack of computer implies that one must do simple stuff like handwriting to complete an assignment, which is evidently hard. It is easy for me and others to access a computer or a similar device of my choice owing to being brought up in a society that values technology. For many populations across the world, however, accessibility is limited. This made me feel thankful. In the same context, it is evident that technology exposes us to tons of information. Technology has made the distribution of information seamless. Communication tools such as social media sites and search engines have made it easy to access information. In addition to other technologies such as television, it is evident that there is an overload of information. As I unplugged, I realized that our lives could be better if we could not have all these information. Overwhelming information is distressing to the mind and I realized that unplugging actually freed my mind. While at it, it is important to note that the racial card plays a significant role in disenfranchisement in the country. Blacks, Latinos and other minority groups often find themselves living in poor neighborhoods where even access to technology is a problem (Rios, 2011). Most of them lack economic opportunities that can give them the needed purchasing power to access technological devices. Most households in the poor sections of the country cannot afford some of the equipment that improves the quality of life such as television, computers, and even access to the internet. From the three hours, it was evident that my life would be extremely different without technology. As I have lived my entire life depending on technology and technological appliances and equipment, I am not sure how I would have survived without technology. On other hand, however, it would be advantageous as life would be simple. It would be a life with no overwhelming information from the media and the internet, which can be distressing as seen above. Life would be less worrisome. On the contrary, life would be quite boring as it could be hard to connect and stay in touch with friends and family. Technology brings people together by enabling instant communication, while at the same time driving people far apart as it eliminates the need to interact and communicate face to face. To some extent, therefore, life without technology would be disconnected, simple and even unimaginative. Life in such a world is not necessary good, and not exactly bad. It is simply different. It is important to appreciate that we abuse these privileges yet many other communities have been disenfranchised by socioeconomic reasons from living such a life.
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    Comparison of How Montesquieu and Durkheim’s Writings Respond to the Mirror Thesis Name of Student Name of University Comparison of How Montesquieu and Durkheim’s Writings Respond to the Mirror Thesis In “A General Jurisprudence of Law and Society”, Brian Tamanaha presents the mirror thesis, which hypothesizes the relationship between custom or consent, positive law, and morality or reason. While arguing for the mirror thesis, Tamanaha defends and articulates a social-legal positivism, which recognizes the different ways in which law is conventionally used (Tamanaha, 2001). According to Tamanaha, socio-legal positivism is applicable when there are legal actors engaged in reproducing or producing a legal system using shared secondary rules. This does not consider the efficiency of the actors in generating widespread conformity to primary rules or their effectiveness in maintaining social order (Tamanaha, 2001). Based on Tamanaha’s description, law is what people identify and treat through social practices as law. An evaluation of Montesquieu and Durkheim’s writing will highlight how they respond to Tamanaha’s mirror thesis. The Mirror Thesis Tamanaha’s argument in the mirror thesis is the construction of a general jurisprudence of society and law. A general jurisprudence attempts to identify and explain the elements that are central to law. This means that any normative system that misses one of the elements cannot be accurately described as law (Tamanaha, 2001). Therefore, it is not that the elements are present in each conceivable legal system. Rather, the presence of an element in a system warrants the characterization of the system as a system of law. Tamanaha’s objective is to explain the association between society and law and legal systems (Tamanaha, 2001). Tamanaha’s argument is that law should be seen as a reflection of a society. This establishes the relationship between the society and law. For instance, the content of a law reflects the content of different social practices and norms that govern life in a society. Therefore, law has the role of maintaining social order through the establishment and enforcement of the rules of social intercourse and resolving disputes (Tamanaha, 2001). The idea is that the law has a central purpose of maintaining social order through the enforcement of rules that mirror socially accepted norms. An endorsement of the mirror thesis implies that legal systems reflect what is happening in a society. This implies that in the absence of law, there is no order because order implies regularity or conformity to rule. Emile Durkheim’s Disintegration Thesis in The Division of Labor in Society What Durkheim said about the society, law, and morality, and the role of the law in maintaining order in a society and enforcing morality is more complex than the version presented by Tamanaha. It is vital to note that Durkheim is not an integrationist like Tamanaha. Tamanaha is an integrationist because of his argument that without legal enforcement of social morals then social integration is weak and it will lead to the collapse of the society. Durkheim writing in “The Division of Labor in Society” presents his views on the law and morality. For Durkheim, morality was central to his work (Durkheim, 1960). He had a broad conception of the moral domain that ranged from the fundamental to the trivial. It is vital to note that he does not invoke a distinction between custom and morality. Durkheim is aware of the sociological significance of morality and law because they are sanctioned as rules of conduct. Law is integral in the study of morality. This is evident in Durkheim’s acknowledgement of the fact that legal rules provide insights into aspects of morality (Durkheim, 1960). However, he chose to study law, as they are empirically visible and constituents of subsets of moral rules. Therefore, morality and law are intimately connected to be radically separated. Morality and law are indistinct domains. Moral rules are distinguished from legal rules by the ways in which the sanctions are administered. For instance, moral rules are diffuse, which means that they are administered by all people without distinction. Conversely, legal sanctions are organized and applied through a definite body such as specially authorized representatives who are charged with enforcement. In contrast to Durkheim, Tamanaha does not provide a distinction between moral and legal rules. He takes all rules as the same. Furthermore, he argues that all laws can be sanctioned or administered by all people without distinction. Durkheim’s assertion is that laws involve institutionalized means for the public declaration and enforcement of norms. Therefore, the institutionalization and organization of law makes it highly visible (Durkheim, 1960). While searching for a visible external indicator of morality, Durkheim targeted the outcomes when laws are violated. He distinguished sanctions by classifying them into two. He developed the idea of successive types of solidarity, which are organic and mechanical. This idea is sustained and revealed by different types of law, which are repressive laws and restitutory laws. Repressive laws focus on punishing offenders while restitutory laws focus on restoring the status quo or making the offender whole again. Examples of restitutory law include civil, contract, and administrative laws. Durkheim presented this argument in the Division of Labor using the thesis that law serves as an index of two types of solidarity (Durkheim, 1960). In his thesis, repressive law indicates the extent of mechanical solidarity while restitutory law indicates the extent of organic solidarity. Like Tamanaha, Durkheim argues that there is a rigid evolutionary trajectory for changes in the nature of law. This means that a society’s law reveals and sustains its morality. When these are reflected in law, they are essential varieties of social solidarity. Particularly, modern law enshrines progressive ideas of individualism, which are prominent in modern societies. Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws The aim of Montesquieu’s “The Spirit of the Laws” was to find the underlying cause of a social phenomenon. Montesquieu set out to establish the origins and discover moral and physical causes. Montesquieu set himself apart from Durkheim and Tamanaha in his argument on the principles of the three types of government. Unlike Tamanaha, Montesquieu was not convinced with the one form of political regime. He understood that that the rule of life differed from the conditions of existence (Montesquieu, 1989). Both Durkheim and Tamanaha laid down rules for all people and in the case of Durkheim; he laid the rules for different classes of people. Conversely, Montesquieu considered all people equally normal. His consideration of all people as equally normal led him to refuse to law down rules that are valid for all people. Like Durkheim, Montesquieu recognized the advantages of one type of legal institution over other institutions (Montesquieu, 1989). Durkheim also recognized the advantages of different legal institutions through his classification of sanctions and the role of each institution in the administration of sanctions. According to Montesquieu, judgements are rendered based on the norms derived from phenomena themselves. Thus, they correspond to their diversity.
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    Technology Has Made the Office or Place of Work Less Relevant Name of Student Name of University Table of Content Executive Summary3 Introduction 4 Background of the Study 4 Technology Has Brought Organizational TransparencyError: Reference source not found5 Technology Helps Employing Skilled Employees and Increases Employee Retention11 Telecommuting Is Associated with Better Job Performance and High Levels of Loyalty8 Suggestions13 Successful Working from Home Guidelines14 References 17 Executive Summary
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    test document test Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Zxcvzxcv Zzxcv Zxcv Xvxvcf Ger G Tr H Rthrthtr Hrthrt Hhrt hhwwrtyrty
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    test document test Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Alksdjf alksdjf asldkfj zxcjlvk aqoewiur zlkjf aweifj lcxlkj oiwej lakj alkaowie Zxcvzxcv Zzxcv Zxcv Xvxvcf Ger G Tr H Rthrthtr Hrthrt Hhrt hhwwrtyrty
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    Name Tutor Course Date Short Story Analysis Introduction Annie Proulx waited until she was 76 years to start writing. However, she was always a reader when young, and enjoyed reading books based on their cover colors. She, like the rest of her family constantly read. When Proulx joined school in her advanced years, her reading culture greatly helped her. She progressed to become an award-winning author of Shipping News, and short stories such as Brokeback Mountain. Proulx has an outstanding talent for seizing the American West spirit in beautiful, dangerous, magical and biting prose. She has her own unique style of writing that leaves her readers engrossed to her novels and short stories. Proulx strongly shines in her short stories. Common Themes in Brokeback Mountain and A Lonely Coast Both stories focus on loneliness and all types of wrong loves. Brokeback focuses on two wandering ranch-hands in the 1960s, Jack and Ennis. They acquire a summer work on Brokeback Mountain (Wyoming). The two find themselves thrown together at the same place and are both frustrated and lonely. Jack and Ennis discover that their relationship has developed deeper and is more that the “normal friendship” as they have sex. It a revelatory and glorious experience that is safeguarded from the disapproval of the society. Jane and Ennis remain unhappily married for the rest of their lives, however they constantly make effort to see each other during “fishing trips” (Needham, 94). They frequently yearn to relive the brief moments of truth and happiness. Concomitantly, A lonely coast also focuses on the lives of lonely women in society. The narrator describes how she chooses to leave her husband to whom she has been married for 9 years. She found her husband having sex with a fifteen year old daughter of their servant (Prouxl, 112). The narrator also describes the unfortunate experiences of Josanna Skiles who is about to lose her husband and job. The stories are a lyrical analysis of a multifaceted tangle of emotions such as loneliness, jealousy, anger, sexual longing. In Brokeback Mountain, it is evident that Jack and Ennis have intense sexual longing for each other (Stacy, 152). The two fell in love at a period where they were both lonely and frustrated, and developed complex emotions towards each other. For example, Ennis constantly see Jack in his dream as seen in the story, “He might have to stay with his married daughter until he picks up another job, yet he is suffused with a sense of pleasure because Jack Twist was in his dream” (Proulx, 2). Concomitantly, A Lonely Coast is full of women who are lonely, and angry from the frustrations brought to them by their husbands. The women also engage in romance and sex with violent men. For example, the narrator states “but people here are always handshaking, patting, smooching, caressing, enfolding” (Rood, 176). Both stories portray the role of men in society. Men appear macho and masculine in the stories. Proulx has extraordinary knowledge on males which she transfers to her readers. She speaks of the bodies, wary companionship, and roughness with lyrical respect. As seen in Brokeback Mountain “Both high school dropout country boys with no prospects, brought up to hard work and privation, both rough-mannered, rough- spoken, inured to the stoic life” (Prouxl, 294). The two stories seem to glorify men who are masculine and also elaborate the macho society in which women found themselves in the two stories. In a nut shell, the two stories focus on hard times and desperation set in a brutal but magnificent landscape. The characters in the two stories are encompassed by flights of desire and fancy, and details of rural and ranch work. Moreover, the characters juxtapose Wyoming’s attitudes and character- this entails confrontation of prejudice, tough problems and persistence in times of trouble and other benevolent morals of the new west. Literary Elements Common in the Two Stories Proulx uses symbolism and imagery in the two stories. For example, the title Brokeback Mountain symbolizes all that took place between the two men during summer in 1963 and all that they have lost ever since. This is demonstrated when Jack says “what we got now is Brokeback Mountain” (Stacy, 76). The term Brokeback Mountain implies the thoughts, emotions and acts that he and Ennis share. Concurrently, the title A Lonely Coast symbolizes the lonely vacation that the narrator and her husband once took at the Oregon coast. The coast was lonely just like Wyoming apart for one thing “Up the lonely coast a stuttering blink warned ships away.  I said to Riley that was what we needed in Wyoming – lighthouses.  He said no, what we needed was a wall around the state and turrets with machine guns in them” (Dale, 1). Proulx also uses imagery in her two works. She describes Wyoming as place with unyielding soil, harsh spaces, blistering summers, and deadly winters. The writer appears very familiar with Wyoming, her knowledge does not come merely through living in Wyoming, but through the infrared that allows few authors to gain vivid sight in the shadowy of the imagination. Conclusively, both short stories bears Proulx’s brand of hard irony, hard weather, hard drama and soft and hard characters blown about and several times destroyed by the intense mix. The stories are admirable, she has artful sentences, and passionately writes. She nicely disrupts the Old West mythology. Works Cited Dale. “Annie Proulx Week, Day 6- A Lonely Cosat.” Mirror with Clouds (2015): 1-2. Needham, G. Brokeback Mountain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2008. Print. Prouxl, Annie. Close Range: Wyoming Stories. New York: Pocket Books, 2000. Proulx, Annie. Brokeback Mountain. London: Fourth Estate, 1998. Print. Rood, Karen Lane. Understanding Annie Proulx. New York: Univ of South Carolina Press, 2001. Stacy, James. Reading Brokeback Mountain: Essays on the Story and the Film. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland, 2007.
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    Short Questions: Anthropology Question 1 A concrete metaphor is used in making comparison between two unlike items or ideas. For example, Mary was a naive girl who thought life was a fashion show. This metaphor “life is a fashion show” in the sentence explains that Mary thought life was easy. However, in real sense life is full of challenges and ups and downs. The metaphor has provided an opposite comparison of Mary’s perspective and reality. Question 2 The political anatomy of many American classrooms is liberal. The classrooms are structured in a way that promotes creativity and individuality. For example, every individual normally have their own chair and this allows a person to individually focus on their work. Interestingly, the classroom also promotes teamwork. The chairs are closely arranged and this allows students to engage with one another when in need of help. The seats are also arranged in a manner that allows the students to keenly focus on the teacher. Therefore, the “proper” values taught in the American classrooms are autonomy, discipline, teamwork, focus, creativity and honesty. Question 3 Many white men felt very safe around Robin Kelley when he had his long hair. He was one of the few black or coloured men that white people trusted. However, this drastically changed when he decided to shave his hair. Robin Kelley was purchasing a ticket at a movie theatre when the cashier mistakenly confused him for a robber as he had cut his hair. Race, hair and gender played a significant part in shaping Kelley’s identity after he cut his hair. Black was often associated as the “colour of crime”, additionally, the white dreaded black bald men and associated them with violence. Question 4 The Cannibal Dance teaches the Kwakwaka'wakw children several moral and social lessons. The dance consists of both outer and inner aspects of the community that immensely inspire the Kwakwaka’wakw children. It teaches the children the moral value of purity, and how to make life instead of destroying it. Moreover, it also inspires some social values to the children. According to the dance, the Kwakwaka'wakw children need to be united or unified with the society. The song is also characterized with dominant symbols such as masks and costumes that teach the children to be in close contact with jural and ethical norms of their community. Question 5 The “Mirror of Heart” video features the indigenous individuals of Bolivia. According to the film, there is a split in Bolivia between Spanish and mestizos. The film demonstrates how race and clothing are used to either express or downplay Imari (indigenous Bolivian) identity today. The Bolivian Indians were harshly treated as slaves for centuries and strived to advance economically and socially. They also struggled to maintain a distinct cultural identity. Therefore, they used (and still use) ethnicity, clothing and race as indicators of social standing and self image. Question 6 A symbolic action is a form of art where a word or an object represents another idea. It is an important tool of communication that fosters understanding. The Cannibal dance is a vivid demonstration of the interrelation of symbolic action. The dance makes use of the dominant symbols in the Kwakiutl culture and expresses it in a static form. The masks, costumes, speeches, dialogues, songs, crests and drama are used to present the worldview of the Kwakiutl.
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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    The Changing Role of Global Human Capital Managers and Sustaining the Competitive Edge Name Institution Introduction Organizations presently face internal and external threats that were not inexistence decades ago. An organization’s internal environment refers to factors and conditions inside the company that can be managed by the organization (Cole, 2012). Factors that influence a company’s internal environment are; employee attitudes and behaviours, leadership style, organization culture, and decisions made by the management. External environment refers to conditions that take place outside the organization. These factors are often beyond the organization’s control, they include; technology, resources, competition, the economy, social and political conditions (Cole, 2012). The external environment has significant influence on a company’s performance despite it occurring outside of a firm. Managers are required not to ignore external forces. They are advised to constantly adapt and monitor the external environment. Managers and leaders in a company are required to implement proactive changes rather than effecting reactive approaches (Lesca, 2013). This article discusses internal and external threats that organizations face, how to detect them and how to protect companies from threats. It also formulates a proactive plan for environmental scanning to evaluate any existing threat from AGC. Forms of Internal Threats Organizations today have a broader understanding of internal threats. These type of threats can be sub-divided in to 3 categories: Third party employees, present employees and former employees. Evidently, current managers should not only focus on dissatisfied and disgruntled employees in the company. Organizations have malicious existing employees characterized with grudges against the firm and malevolent intentions and formulate situations that disrupt business operations (Cole, 2012). Existing employees have greater access to data and systems in the organization. Therefore, they can implant a minute piece of software on a computer system that can damage the internal network of a company. Malicious programme harm the corporate network of an organization in various ways. Unauthorised access to data and unauthorised users result to loss of an organization’s reputation to investors, partners and customers. Untrained existing employees can also unknowingly make mistakes that can pose as huge internal threats to an organization. Former employees also pose security threats in a company. Former employees can also have grudges towards the company. In some cases they can be used by competitors to provide old passwords of the company’s they used to work in. The most well known example regards a former employee of Air Canada who secured employment in West Jet. The employee used Air Canada’s user ID and password to gain access of the company’s passenger information (Cole, 2012). Clearly, security threats highly threaten the operational risk of an organization. They result in violation and interruption of regulatory and legal requirement that safeguard confidential customer information. Third party employees increase the probability of Identity theft. Identity fraud and theft occurs when someone attempts to wrongfully use and obtain another individual’s person information in a deceptive way mainly for economic gain. Third party employees can manipulate social engineering to obtain private information and they also trick other users to give access to confidential information. Social engineers are aware of that many people are ignorant of the significance of information they have and carelessly protect it. Social engineering is a vital threat to an organization internal environment. Other forms of internal threats are data corruption, data loss and backup failures that results to major business losses. There can also be theft and embezzlement of CDRs (Call Detail Records) from the file by malicious users. Forms of External Threat External threats are factors outside a company’s environment that can greatly impact its performance and goals. Common forms of external threats that a company faces are; regulations, competitors, economic downturns, technologies and foreign market. External threats can also be referred to as mixed threats as they encompass multifaceted characteristics such as virus, worm, spam and DoS (Denial of Service). Every minute, hackers and intruders invent new ways of damaging organizations. Common and current forms of external threats in organizations are: system disruption, intercept messages, worms and viruses and DoS. System disruption refers to the destruction or damage of physical environment due to political violence, earthquake and fire. Intercept messages take place when a malicious user may gain access to restricted information, hence, damaging an organization’s reputation. Worms and Viruses originate from external sources and spread to the company’s network via the internet. It results to scenarios such as nasty viruses, Web site disfigurement and worms that destroy applications and data. Moreover, they monopolise structure resources by spreading and duplicating themselves. DoS happen when attackers flood the corporate network with a huge number of messages. These results to system overload and causes DoS (Denial of service) scenario where customers or clients are unable to use the service. Methods to detect internal and external threats to the organization Indentifying possible threats is a vital element of the SWOT analysis. It is an efficient method of detecting internal and external threats to an organization. It is also an acronym that analyzes a company’s strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The last part of SWOT analysis entails assessing internal and external risks that your company encounters. In this phase managers, leaders and employees should openly express their worst fears. Some fears or issues might be unrealistic or highly speculative, however, they are of immense importance to the SWOT analysis. When analyzing the probability of external or internal factors many companies make use of a matrix for the threats and opportunities. This aids in comparing the likelihood of threats happening and the effect it will have in the company. A company can give each issue a score, factors that have high scores on the probability of occurrence and the effect on the company should be thoroughly investigated.
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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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