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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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    Women’s Role and Position in the Society in ‘Othello’
    Name Tutor Course Date Women’s Role and Position in the Society in ‘Othello’ Introduction Most communities and societies of the world, women tend to be sidelined. The position of women in leadership position is still under jeopardy because of the static nature and cultural beliefs that consider women inferior and without capacity to deliver in leadership positions. Perhaps, the reason why many developing countries live under patriarchy is fear of change and continuity of cultural beliefs that are now obsolete and outdated. Nevertheless, many western countries have made huge strides towards gender equality in the corporate world and leadership positions. This paper, therefore delves into analyzing the role of women in Shakespeare’s play “Othello”. The historical and cultural aspect derived from the Shakespeare’s play is mostly feminism since it highlights how the society treats women and the position of women in the community. Notably, his work has over the years been used to illustrate various cultures and ideologies, and Othello is one of the most adapted plays that has provided a platform that depicts the role of women and how this role has transformed from the seventh century to the present. Most critics focus on the female characters; Desdemona, Emilia, and Bianca to bring forth the feminism in the play. Women in this play are not only depicted as possessions but are also portrayed women as submissive, powerful, temptresses, and as ‘whore.’ The primary reason why the play is still relevant even in today’s society is because it depicts that women are equal to men. For instance, Emilia says that women are equal to men because ‘they sense like them’ (Shakespeare 4.3.88-89). According to her women and men are same since they have bodies that possess similar experiences and senses. The feminism is illustrated at the beginning of the play Desdemona chooses Othello instead of her father. She believes that she has a right to decide who she will marry and does not give that privilege to her father. Besides, there is a depiction of a patriarchal system. For instance, in the play, the handkerchief is said to be in harmony with the system since the person who possesses automatically possesses the woman (Friedman, “Revisioning” 136). In this case, the act of the possession of the handkerchief is seen as a metaphor where women are seen as objects that can be owned. Women as possessions is derived from various scenes in the play. For example, when Duke allows Desdemona to join Othello on his journey to Cyprus, he tells him that he has assigned him his wife (I.3.283). The ‘assign’ brings forth the notion of possession since Desdemona is treated as a commodity that has to be guarded and transported. In another scene, the first Senator wishes Othello all the best and states that he hope that he will be wise enough to ‘use Desdemona well’ (I.3.288).The term ‘use’ highlights the traditional expectation of women who are forced by the culture of the society to bow to the wishes of their husbands who can ‘use’ them at their own pleasure. The role of women in marriage is also brought forth in Act II when Othello say to Desdemona, ‘Come, my dear love, /The purchase made’ and this is an indication that marriage is seen as an act of purchase. Thus, when a woman is married, it is seen as a favor which she has to return in the form of fulfilling the sexual desires of a man. Modern feminist outline Desdemona as a submissive woman and she once says in the play that ‘I am obedient’ (III.3.89) and she has held her trait of obedience from when she and Othello were happy in their relationship up to the phrases of his jealous ravings. It is clear that she has accepted her position as a submissive and obedient wife and even in her final breath she still remains subordinate to her husband. Other incidences where it is evident that women are expected to abide to the expectation of the society to be submissive include; when Bianca expresses her feeling to console herself after Cassio spurns her and she says that ‘I must be circumstanced’ (III.4.199) and it is clear that she has no choice but to bend to the laws of the society. In another scene, Emilia highlights that she knows the ‘proper’ role of women in the society; however, although she betrays her husband, she still feels the need to justify her actions ‘Tis proper I obey him, but not now’ (V.2.195). On the other hand, Brabantio's perception of women represents how a traditional society views women. He articulates that a woman is ‘A maiden never bold’ ‘perfection’ and such terms are mostly used in a masculine domain illustrating the traditional expectations of women in patriarchal society (Pechter 123). In such a society, women are naturally expected to be feminine and always obey their husbands and fathers, and it is ‘unnatural for them to do anything else. This Venetian concept was held from the 1600s to the 1900s, and it is not surprising that even in this era there are still hold the same expectations of women. Nevertheless, today’s feminists hold that it is not ‘natural’ for women to be ‘feminine (James par. 1). It is clear that the society has seen a significant transformation in the aspect of social expectations of women. The concept of women as powerful is also highlighted in Othello. Nevertheless, this does not mean that the women do not question in the society. As a matter of fact, they are against the idea that women should ‘always’ obey their husbands and fathers. For instance, Emilia articulates that there is no physical difference between women and men and they both suffer from similar affections and desires and the only difference if that men are mentally weaker (IV.3.98). She implies that men are unable to control their desires and her arguments are approved by the actions of both Othello and Lago. Nevertheless, although Emilia holds such strong belief about women, she hardly let them out when in the company of men and it’s Desdemona who exhibits some courage to use powerful language in public when she differs with her father and expresses her opinion in the presence of other Venetian senators. There is also the concept of women as temptresses, and this is justified by the fact that Othello is sexually obsessed with his wife and she seems to be the only one who was capable of controlling him. Notably, whenever Othello is talking to his wife, he seems distracted by sexual desires and this is seen when he laments the fact that he was not prior aware of his wife’s alleged infidelity. He says, ‘if the general camp,/Pioneers and all, had tasted her sweet body,/So I had nothing known’ (III.3.342-4). His obsession with his wife’s sexuality is evident even when he was headed to murder her and this contributed by the fact that Desdemona had too much sexual power over Othello. Her power over Othello was also evident to other people, and in one instance Cassio refers Desdemona as the ‘Captain’s Captain’ which was an implication that she was the only one who could control and tame Othello. Desdemona also knows that she has some power over her husband when she tells Cassio that she will do all she can to ensure that she changes her husband’s mind on reinstating him, Cassio, which is an illustration of the tenacity of a woman. In this case, it is clear that Desdemona is not hesitant to use her position as well her sexuality. Surprisingly, Othello is aware that his wife is manipulating him using her sexual spell and he responds by saying that it was an excellent wretch. Thus, it is evident that although he found the behavior of his wife as wrenching, he still found it to be excellently compelling. Nevertheless, later in the play, these feelings towards his wife fades, and her sexual powers on him are no longer entertaining. Othello confesses that if he is tempted to have an interaction with his wife, then he is concerned that her sexuality will destruct him from his inevitable course of killing her. He is convinced that his wife uses her body to deceive and blind him and he considers her as a sexual hazard. Notably, it is evident that the society in addition to considering women as second to men they also depict their sexual allure as evil and this also evident in the contemporary society. Lastly, the word whore is used fourteen times in the play which is the maximum number of times that this word has ever been used in other Shakespearean plays (Stanton 94) which makes the play the best choice for feminist critics. These abuses are triggered by Othello’s fear of his wife’s sexuality, and he constantly refers to her as a subtle whore and a cunning whore. He also refers to her as a strumpet, and there are also times when Lago refers to Bianca as a housewife and a strumpet. Lago also labels Emilia as a villainous whore, and it is evident that he is also profound of stereotyping women as prostitutes, and in Act II he articulates that all women are not what they appear to be and he believes that they are like wild cats (II.1.109). Conclusion In context, it is evident that there is a huge gap in the social context that shape the co-existence of people and the role of women in the society. From “Othello”, Emilia continue to strongly advocate for the change of mentality and policies that will give rise to equality and end of patriarchy in various social contexts. Since the 1600s, way into 20th century, many social classes are based on the cultural beliefs which sidelines women in social, political and economic contexts. According to the said cultural beliefs, men view women as inferior and hold that they are like possessions and they should always remain submissive in all social contexts. They are not even allowed to engage and interact freely. Additionally, the only power that women seem to have over men is sexual power, and the society allows men to refer to women as whores. Nevertheless, Emilia has played a significant role in indicating that women have started questioning the validity of the unchecked male dominance in social contexts and it is time for a change that will give rise to a society that appreciates women more. The three female characters in the play are an indication of a driving force towards an egalitarian society. Works Cited Dympna Callaghan, Stanton, Kay. “‘Made to Write ‘Whore’ Upon?’: Male and Female Use of the Word ‘Whore’ in Shakespeare’s Canon.” A Feminist Companion to Shakespeare. Ed. . Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Print.
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    Beyond the human being - Batman, Superman (thesis)
    Abstract Posthuman is a concept pertaining to the advanced capabilities of humans that greatly surpasses the abilities of ordinary man. They are usually described as somebody who has God-like supernatural powers and has the power to modify shapes and identities and could save the world from dangers and disasters. The study of posthumanism is significant in the field of Cultural and Historical Studies because of its potential to be a future theory. To determine how posthuman concept is represented in the series of DC comic characters, a case study on Superman and Batman films was conducted. The films “Man of Steel” of Superman and “The Dark Knight” of Batman were reviewed and analysed. Moreover, the evolution of the series of the two DC comics heroes were also analysed to determine how posthumanism was incorporated by their respective creators to the stories. The findings showed that both Superman and Batman movies have integrated in their stories the different concepts of posthumanism. The notions of Nietzsche, Stock, Descartes, Foucault, Pepperell, Fukuyama, Darwin, Hayles and Haraway are all represented in Superman’s “Man of Steel” but what was given greater emphasis is Foucault’s theory describing superman as a new form which is neither God nor man (Hoy 1986). Batman’s “The Dark Knight”, on the other hand, capitalise on Batman’s high intellect, wealth and mastery of crime busting to qualify him as posthuman; and his abilities to upgrade his human capacity through technology to correlate to the principle of cyborg. Table of Contents Research Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Main Body Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
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    Assessment- Prioritisation of Health Issues
    Assessment – Prioritisation of Complex health issues Health Issues on case study The case study is about the health condition of the patient named Evelyn Hansen, 76 years old, who was brought in to the hospital by ambulance with decreased level of consciousness and a BGL of 36 mmol/L. Her past medical history includes having type 2 diabetes mellitus for the past ten years and is suffering from depression, osteoarthritis, hypertension, and leg ulcers on both lower legs. The patient is placed in the ICU and receives fluid resuscitation and stabilisation of serum glucose levels after an episode of Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) which was possibly triggered by a Urinary Tract Infection. Her insulin infusion was concluded and she was commenced on a sliding scale. Her glucose level dropped to 19.1 mmol/L after the administration of 8 units of novorapid. It further went down to 16.5 mmol/L after a little delayed breakfast so the IVT was changed to 4% and 1/5 running at 125ml/hr. However, after the patient ate doughnut and drank 250 ml of juice for breakfast, her glucose level spiked again. She was again treated with Novorapid and her BGL reverted to 17 mmol/L. She had more Novorapid before lunch and her BGL after lunch registered at 15.8 mmol/L. Furthermore, the patient experiences pain in her hands due to osteoporosis and does not know how to self-administer insulin. The priority health issues of the patient that need to be addressed with nursing care are the treatment of her wounds on both lower legs, diabetes education for both the patient and her family and BGL monitoring and insulin administration. The need to treat the patient’s leg ulcers on both lower legs is very important because untreated wounds in diabetic persons are avenues for infection and can lead to progressive tissue necrosis, poor healing and possible lower extremity amputation (Wu et al 2007). Diabetes education for both the patient and her family is also a priority because ignorance of both the patient and her family on knowledge about diabetes could lead to emergency cases because the family may be giving foods and drinks that are detrimental to the condition of the patient. Such as in the patient’s case, where her husband gave her doughnut and fruit juice for her breakfast, which eventually made the patient’s glucose level to spike again. Lastly, BGL monitoring and insulin administration must continue to totally address the patient’s diabetes. Other health issues of the patient that also need to be addressed although not as priority as the first 3 already mentioned are the patient’s depression, osteoarthritis and hypertension. It could be recalled that the reason why the patient’s husband gave her wife a doughnut and fruit juice for breakfast was because he wanted her to be ‘happy’. It was also mentioned in the case that the patient was experiencing pain in her hands due to osteoporosis, and pinpointing that pain to be one of the reasons why she does not want to self-administer insulin. Lastly, hypertension is one of the complications of diabetes, and the patient is indicated as also suffering from this although this was not the cause of the patient’s hospitalisation. Order of priority of the 3 most important health issues Of the 3 most important health issues mentioned (treatment of ulcers in lower legs, diabetes education and continuous BGL monitoring and administration), continuous BGL monitoring and administration should be the first priority. Frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels is essential in determining the right intervention or therapy for the person with diabetes. Knowing the blood glucose levels of the patient will guide health practitioners as to the accurate insulin administration needed by the patient (Schaefer 2012). BGL monitoring and insulin administration can be performed in two ways, such as self-administration and assisted administration. As the word implies, self- administered monitoring of BGL and insulin administration is performed by the patient herself whilst assisted administration involves the assistance of another person such as health providers or family members in the performance of testing and insulin administration. The pattern changes in the blood glucose level will guide the health care team in identifying the need for a change in the intervention given to address diabetes. Such as in the case study where the management of the patient’s condition was based on the changes in her blood glucose levels. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is marked by elevated blood glucose and the first step in treating this condition is through frequently monitoring the patient’s BGL and laboratory values (Stoner 2005). Failure to do this may risk the patient for possible complications of vascular occlusions, low-flow syndrome, myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (Stoner 2005). The 2nd priority should be the treatment of the patient’s leg ulcers in both lower legs. According to Wu et al (2007), nerve damage and foot wounds of a diabetic person often result to infection and lower extremity amputation if left untreated. In order to prevent amputation, foot ulcerations of diabetic persons should be given timely prevention. Studies show that prophylactic foot care and prevention lessen the chances of expensive treatment, patient morbidity and the risk for amputations (Slovenkai 2005). The 3rd priority but still very important is diabetes education by both patient and her family. It was stated in the case study that the patient, Evelyn Hansen experienced a spike in her blood glucose level when her husband gave her a doughnut and a bottle of fruit juice for breakfast after two days of good levels of blood glucose. The patient thought that she needed a treat after days of being ill. On the part of the husband, he wanted to make his wife happy so he gave her foods that she liked to eat and thought that a bottle of fruit juice was fine since it was fruit juice. However, the result showed otherwise. Hence, it is very important that both patient and her immediate family or whoever is taking care of the patient have diabetes education so they would know what is right and what is damaging to their patient. Diabetes is a chronic disease that involves multiple decisions such as when to eat, what to eat, what medication to take, how to check blood sugar and how to take care of feet. These decisions are extremely important to successfully manage BGL and prevent the occurrence of other complications (Brown 2013). Also, the patient and/or her family may have preexisting knowledge of diabetes and this must be assessed because their knowledge maybe wrong or they may have some misconceptions regarding the severity of the disease (Funnell 1990). Role of the nurse in addressing the 3 priority health issues
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    Nursing essay : All nursing stereotypes are damaging...
    “All nursing stereotypes are damaging and undermine the value of contemporary nursing”. Critically discuss with reference to three (3) common nursing stereotypes Introduction Nursing stereotypes are not only offensive but undervalue the profession and the nursing professionals who averred to save lives. Being associated to a negative generalised image does not only weaken the morals of nurses but also discourages others to aspire to become nurses because of the disrespect and misconceptions that are thrown to the profession. This paper will discuss three of the most common nursing stereotypes, such as ‘nursing is only for female and male nurses are gay’, ‘nurses work for doctors’, and the sexual connotation of a ‘naughty nurse’ and how these stereotypes smear the good image of nurses and undermine the value of contemporary nursing. The term stereotype will be used to mean “label” and “typecast”. ‘Nurses work for doctors’ stereotype The Nursing profession is a recognised health care sector that provides care, not only to individuals but also to communities and families, so as to sustain the best of health or recover optimum quality of life (Coulehan, 2005). Though nurses can practice independently depending on their training level, they are traditionally seen providing care within the doctor’s ordering scope, creating an impression to others that nurses are ‘doctor’s handmaiden’ or ‘working for doctors’. However, this is not true; they are not doctor’s handmaiden nor working for doctors but they are working with doctors in providing care for patients. According to Brown (2009), nurses are not doctors’ helpers because physicians and Registered Nurses are independent and separate. It is not the doctors who hire and fire nurses but another nurse who acts as a unit manager, who in turn, also follows instructions set by senior nursing officers. This stereotype is not only downgrading to the ego of nurses but also considered as bad for health because one of the reasons behind the independent status of the nurse is to save lives. Saving lives can be achieved by giving nurses the opportunity to perform an independent check on the doctor’s care plans and make sure that patients are properly protected and optimum care is provided (Brown 2009). Nursing is an independent profession but it is always best that nurses communicate with doctors and work with them in providing the best care. Studies show that the care provided by a nurse with advance practice is at least as effective as the doctors’ care (Summers & Summers 2010). However, stereotyping nurses as more caring whilst the doctors as more leadership-oriented and competent affect their working relationship, prevents inter-professional collaboration and influences how one group behave with the other (Sollami et al. 2015). This is probably the reason why outsiders perceive nurses as doctors’ helpers whilst doctors as the ones who have the full responsibility of taking care the patient. Yet, it is best to always recognise the 2 sectors of health providers as coworkers who are expected to maintain their professional working relationship to the best interests of the patients. McKay & Narasimhan (2012) state that this stereotype is based on how nurses were regarded during the pre-Nightingale’s time where the nursing job is considered laborious yet measly-paid and most of the applicants were those who were unfit for other jobs. Nurses at that time were mostly vagrants, immoral women or criminals, thus, their status were looked-down whilst doctors enjoyed a godlike and well-regarded clinical position. Hence, even when the nursing profession was professionalised, some still regard them as the lowly medical helpers, resulting to the continued stereotyping of nurses as ‘doctor’s handmaiden’ or ‘they work for doctors’. However, this stereotype must be corrected to give the nurses their due respect and encourage them to stand on their ground and be an effective checker of the doctor’s care plans. ‘Nursing is only for females and male nurses are gay’ stereotype Since the early times of nursing, female nurses always outnumber male nurses but this does not mean that the profession is only for females and the few males that took the course are gays. According to Hutchison (1998), one profession that needs robust health and strength is nursing because caring for the sick requires powers of resistance, suppleness of movement and with physical attractiveness to positively manage a stubborn patient. The stereotype that nursing profession is only for females stemmed from the situation way back the war period where men were more active in the military than in the work force, giving women more chances to advance as nurses, which at that time was one of the socially accepted jobs (Mehta, 2016). Further, it was only in 1930 when males were accepted as nurses, making the stereotype stronger because even today, the ratio of women over men in the nursing profession is 16:1 (Mehta, 2016). But this stereotype is damaging to the career choice of students as it limits the profession to one gender, thus, stripping patients the chance to be served by qualified men who also want to save lives. The stereotype also does a disservice to the nursing profession because it limits the profession to one gender resulting to problems like under-staffing, shortages of qualified personnel and possible abuse to nurses and patients due to overworked and burned-out nurses. Furthermore, this stereotype led to another stereotype that ‘male nurses are gays’. This perhaps was based on the assumption that since nursing is a female profession so any man who chooses this career is effeminate. However, this is not true because the job of a nurse is physically exhausting and needs emotional stability to manage her daily exposure to suffering, death and pain. It also needs physical endurance to beat long periods of standing, lifting heavy things and sometimes, the sick. Though the job can be handled well by a woman, this type of job seems not quite attractive for gays as they are known to be more inclined to enjoy doing beauty and glamourous roles. This stereotype is also damaging to the pride of the individual male nurse as he is automatically judged and discriminated just because of his profession. With regards to the nursing profession, the stereotype undermines the true undertaking of the profession, which is to help save lives. The labelling that ‘male nurses are gays’ also suggests that if a person is not a gay then he is not qualified to save and care for the sick because only gays are allowed to be male nurses. The expectation of people of male nurses as gays also hinders straight men from pursuing the profession as they fear that some patients will not like them because they are not effeminate and construed as less compassionate and less caring than gays and females (Olin 2011). Hence, this stereotype is not only damaging and insulting to the individual but also limits the nursing profession in attracting straight males to pursue nursing. ‘The naughty nurse’ stereotype There are some television programs or movies where women clad in a nurse uniform are portrayed as nursing characters with sexy naughtiness; some are even nymphomaniacs. Though some argue that the sexual connotation on the role of the nurse is for the persona of the nurse only and not about the nursing profession, still people associate the screen image of the naughty nurse to the actual hospital nurse caring for patients. This is quite degrading to the real nurse who braves the night and tiredness just to help save lives. This is also demeaning to the nursing profession as it is being used for mockery yet disguised as entertainment but indirectly disrespects the profession and the professional. If nurses will be routinely portrayed as morally naughty then people will see the profession as a joke and would not attract others to become future nurses. Allowing the stereotype to continue is just like allowing the return of the pre-Nightingale time where nurses were vagrants, criminals and immoral women. In this time of nurse shortages and regulatory changes, damaging the image of nurses will only result to less nursing enrolees, less nurse aspirants, less nursing clinicians, less nurse researchers and administrators and less compassionate professionals willing to sacrifice their time and energy just to save lives. If this type of stereotype is continuously portrayed on TV and cinemas, then the good quality of the real caring healthcare provider will be overshadowed by inaccurate character depictions of people who are not even real nurses. Furthermore, this stereotype is derogatory and should be addressed by nurses themselves by showing to the world their real goals and the importance of their practice in patient care. Whilst media is a good venue in information dissemination, using it in portraying the stereotypes will bring the opposite result to the profession and reduces the significance of nurses in the eyes of the viewing public. According to Bishup (2009) when nurses are depicted as a ‘naughty nurse’ in television programs, especially if they were featured as having sex scandals with their doctors, then the general disrespect of the people towards the nurses will increase particularly if the viewer has no knowledge of what nursing really is and just gets information from the television dramas. When this happens, then the profession will gain a negative image in the public consciousness overpowering the truth that nurses are valuable decision makers in providing health care. Conclusion Nurses are valuable healthcare providers but their historical situations pre-Nightingale time seem like a ghost that keeps on haunting their images and they are typecasts as ‘doctor’s handmaiden’, ‘for-females only profession and male nurses are gay’ and ‘naughty nurse’ throughout their long history. Though nursing has been professionalised already, many in the society are still unaware that nurses are not working for doctors but working with doctors as equal co-workers in achieving their goal of providing optimum care. Being typecast as doctor’s handmaiden downgrades the ego of nurses and is also bad for health because it suggests abandoning one of the duties of nurses, which is to do an independent check on the doctor’s care plans and make sure that the patient gets optimum care and protection. Being tagged as the doctor’s helper also insinuates that the nurse is only second best to the physician, which again, is misleading as their functions are different – the nurse is to care whilst the doctor is to cure. Further, being tagged as a doctor’s handmaiden strips the nurse the chance to improve her skills and academic knowledge. It also hinders the nurses’ chance to explore wider range practice in the field of nursing, such as becoming a nursing manager who is directly in-charge of hiring and firing a staff nurse; clinical nurse specialist, educators, practitioners, administrators or researcher. The stereotype that nursing is for females’ only and male nurses are gay also put both the nurse and the nursing profession in a bad light. For the nurse, it may contribute to problems like understaffing, shortages of qualified personnel and abuse to nurses and patients because the stereotype may lead to limited career choices of students, thus, limiting the chances of patients to be cared by qualified men who also want to save lives but are hindered because of the gender issue. It also discourages straight males to pursue nursing as patients may not like them because they are not effeminate. This situation may lead to loss of potential hard-working and dedicated male nurses in the profession that could possibly make a difference in the field of nursing. The last stereotype, ‘naughty nurse’ is not only degrading to the moral values of the nursing professionals but also reducing the integrity of the profession itself. If the nurses and the nursing profession allow this to continue, then it only shows that all the efforts of those who courageously fought to professionalise the profession and uplift the images of nurses were put to vain. The sexual connotation on the images of nurses is a proof that the viewing public is not taking nurses with respect and does not value the nursing profession’s contribution to healthcare. Allowing the media to portray nurses as someone who is immoral, unethical, timid and dumb is just like allowing the people to continuously believe all the stereotypes hurled at nurses and the nursing profession.
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