The stiff competition and entry of other players into the industry following government regulations and policies necessitates the design of competitive strategy to guarantee their performance. In this case, a competitive strategy deals with how an organization is doing to gain a complete sustainable competitive advantage. This research sought to examine the impact of production strategies on the profitability of Rosneft Oil Company, Russia. The following objectives guide the study. To analyze the competitive strategies used and the effects of the chosen competitive strategy on the performance of Rosneft Oil Company. The research uses both secondary and primary information and information obtained from Roseneft Oil Company’s financial report, not more than four years. This research established that Roseneft Oil Company used various competitive strategies to remain vibrant in the market. Some of the production strategies adopted by this company entail standard pricing, use of standard colors when it comes to the identification of the company and its affiliates, among others.
In summary, the research concludes that customer relationship and quality service are the most effective competitive strategies used by Roseneft Oil company together with a differentiation strategy, which entails differentiation of goods and services to meet the needs of the consumers. The research recommends that the organization should continue inventing new productions and services so that they can differentiate themselves with their competitors who also handle the same line of products in the country. Becoming innovative will shape the rest of the competitors to become more aggressive in marketing and production manufacturing to help in changing the perception which the customers have about the pricing of various goods and services. This study has a few limitations in time and funding. Complete funding of a project enables adequate research to be carried out. Proper time also determines the results of the research in one way or the other. This is a case study research based on one company (Rosneft Oil company) hence may not be expanded to include many companies or organizations. Further research could be used to develop the findings of this research in one way or the other by researchers—the research act as a reasonable ground or guideline for future research that related to this one.
A3: Developing a Business Model
Business models are developed to solve specific business problems based on a proactive business environmental scanning, feasibility studies, and competitive analysis. A successful business model must strike a balance between the varying stakeholder interests and provide a clear roadmap on how the employees will execute the various tasks to realize the broader organizational vision. The core elements of a business model include identifying the core problem that the model needs to solve, formulating various possible solutions, evaluating the alternatives to the identified solutions, selecting the best possible solution, checking for unique value proposition, outlining the key performance metrics, establishing high level concept, aligning the solution with the various customer segments, formulating a cost structure, and creative a competitive advantage. Therefore, the business model must correspond to the organizations financial resources and available human capital. This paper undertakes a step by step formulation, implementation and evaluation of a business model within selected business settings.
A Pamphlet of Resources to Make Available To the Military Family
A Pamphlet of Resources to Make Available To the Military Family
The interview conducted presented a variety of concern raised by the interviewees. They touched on the careers and profession in the military, children concerns and welfare such as education, safety, and security among others. Finally, the roles and responsibilities that the school or community can play to ensure there is a positive impact on the community and the family at large.
The interviewed family gives a good example of what many experiences and goes through. They impact them both directly and indirectly during and after active military service. The husband of the interviewee is also retired military personnel. And, thus, the family can present a good example of what they experience during active service as well as after retirement. The main concern raised relates to deployment far away from their family. It results in separation of the immediate family members that include spouses and children. In the noted case, some of Keisha Brown children were so young of age 5 and 6 years. It is imperative to note that at this age; most of the children require being around their mothers as the stage of growth form the most critical times that helps stronger bonding and learning. It is the age that children start serious education and schooling and they learn most from their parents. Majority of military personnel affected, thus, suffer from emotional detachments and withdrawals impacting their performance in the work. Also, impacts their health negatively due to stress as they miss their family and loved ones. There is also high chance of the military personnel being traumatized due to the nature of some assignments that they have especially in war (combat) zones such as Iraq. It is due to the nature of impacts of war such as injuries and deaths in some cases among other horrific scenarios that stick to their minds for long that requires them to undergo thorough counseling processes (Prentice, 2017).
Children give hope for the future and, thus, parents are greatly concerned about their safety and security and military families are no exemption. It was among the concerns of the interviewed military family where they noted improved environment of learning as well as competent educators to impact health and security positively. Moreover, where all stakeholders in the society show concern and also a consistent education free of interference from military activities such as deployment or moves.
Lastly, the interviewed military family noted that schools and community, as well as educators, might help with the concerns of their children education. By encouraging open lines of communication that are accessible to all concerned parties. The family also aired their view on how schools and community can improve on family needs that include encouraging diversity, inclusion, and respect for neighbors. Also, provide a social area or hall for people (neighbors and students) to meet and interact to enhance cohesion.
The Resources, Services, Programs and Transition Options Available To Military Families
There exists a different and broad category of military resources and services that touch on the broad spectrum of aspects of concern to military families (Beder, 2016). For example, programs that support comprehensive child care and accessible health care to immediate family members of the military personnel. Such as that found in the Fort Campbell titled Soldier and Family Assistance Center (SFAC) among many others located in different parts of the country and the world at large. Moreover, there exist resources that empower spouses through employment such as that of The Military Employment Transition Spouse Program (METSpouse). As well as that of veteran transition and employment that helps retiring military officers to blend well with the civilian world and find employment for veterans. It helps them network and markets the veteran’s skills and competencies with civilian companies that hire veterans. And ensure they experience long-term success beyond the military service. Moreover, there exist resources, services, and programs that target to provide great schools and education. For example, the Fort Campbell, Child, Youth and School Services that tries to ensure that all education concerns of military children are addressed objectively. There exist also professional’s health care services to help military personnel overcome stress and trauma when still in active service as well as when one leaves the service. The veterans are able to access specific health care facilities to receive any health care services that can improve and address the concerns of their welfare including counseling services.
Pamphlet of resources available to military families
Description of How the List of Resources Meets the Expressed Needs
The list of mentioned resources meets the needs expressed by the interviewed family holistically. First, they had the concern of stress and trauma relating to the nature of the job but there are resources and programs put in place that address the concerns. The spouse also would be helped through the programs that empower spouses of the military such as placing them in employment and training in life skills. Resources that help veterans would also be helpful to the family as the husband of Keisha Brown would benefit from programs that empower veterans and help them transit to possible employment in the civilian world (US chamber foundataion.Org, 2017). The education programs and resources would help the family address the concerns that they have about their children education. They address the concerns objectively and consider all the concerns that the family had indicated such as the quality of education, security, and health of their children. The programs also support children when their parents move from one place to the other. It ensures their education is not interfered with when their parents are deployed or transferred to other places prompting family movements. Lastly, those that aim to enhance socialization and interaction of military families such as Family Advocacy Program (FAP) and the noted resources, thus, address the concerns as expressed in the interview by the military family.
Beder, J. (2016). Caring for the Military: A Guide for Helping Professionals. Routledge.
Prentice, S. (2017, Sep 8). “From Hurricane Harvey to Hurricane Irma: America’s Heroes Answer the Call.” MILITARY FAMILY.ORG. Retrieved from http://www.militaryfamily.org/featured-news/from-hurricane-harvey-to-irma.html
US chamber foundataion.org. (2017). “Veteran Employment Transition Roadmap. Navigating Your way to Long-term Success.” US CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. Retrieved From https://www.uschamberfoundation.org/veteran-employment-transition-roadmap/resources-veterans
Name of Student
Name of Professor
Date of Submission
A Call for Women’s Inclusion
This document has significant suggestions about the changing mindset of the times regarding women’s rights and inclusion. It highlights the existence of inequality in society, especially in the 18th century as depicted through aspects such as women being denied right to vote, the right to own property, the right to divorce, and lacking equality within the marriage among other forms of inequality (Darline, Harriet and Mary 89). By highlighting these inequalities, the text provokes the need to change mindsets with the changing times in order to accord women equal rights as men. It considers the important role that the political system plays in promoting equality between men and women. The sovereign empire (government) should thus desist from oppressing women and instead seek to safeguard and promote their rights within the society (Darline, Harriet and Mary 89).
The document premises its suggestions about the changing of mindsets of the times regarding the rights of women and the female citizens on the key underpinning articles. The articles remind the representatives of the nation of their duties to support the constitutional provisions about women’s rights and the need to foster good morals in the society, as well as work towards attainment of happiness for all. Under 17 articles, it outlines the critical aspects in advancing the rights of women and of female citizens (Darline, Harriet and Mary 90).
It suggests that the changing mindset of the times should be anchored on the appreciation of the principle that women are born free and live equal to men in their rights and that social distinctions can only be based on the common utility. Based on this principle, therefore, any political association should conserve the imprescriptible and natural rights of people of both gender including their rights to resistance to oppression, their rights to security, property and liberty (Darline, Harriet and Mary 90). It also calls for the mindset change to acknowledge that sovereignty rests on the union of both genders, and it cannot be exercised in the absence of one gender. As such, all male and female citizens should contribute to the formation and expression of general will, personally or through elected representatives (Darline, Harriet and Mary 90).
Moreover, the article suggests that considering that both genders are equal, they should the law equally and faces same penalties as established by law. Besides, it suggests that there should be a change in mindset about the rights of expression, which it considers as among the most precious rights for women (Darline, Harriet and Mary 91). It involves the right to express opinions and thoughts and to demonstrate as long as such actions do not disturb established public order. To further cement the suggestion about the changing mindset of the times on the issue of women’s inclusion, the document indicates that that women make equal contributions in society as men, and therefore must have equal distribution of opportunities, resources, and rights. They also have equal rights in demanding for accountability of public servants (Darline, Harriet and Mary 92). The document presents factually plausible suggestions about the changing mindsets of the times and the need to advocate for women’s inclusion and enjoyment of all inalienable human rights in the society.
Darline Gay Levy, Harriet Branson Applewhite, Mary Durham Johnson, eds., and trans., Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789–1795 (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1979), 89–92.
The Ansoff Product/Market Growth Matrix for Scope Mouthwash
There is an existing product and market for Scope. The firm should market Scope to its existing customers. Revenues can be increased through the promotion of the product and brand reposition. The product should not be altered because the firm does not seek new customers. Furthermore, market penetration can be achieved through a combination of advertising, promotions and sales activities, and differentiation strategies (Trout and Rkin 2013). Additional resources can be allocated to the employees selling the product. The consolidation of market penetration can be achieved through the restriction of the market by driving competitors out. This requires an aggressive marketing and promotion campaign through a pricing strategy that makes the market unattractive for competitors.
There are opportunities for new markets for Scope. In market development, the firm keeps the product the same, but seeks out a new audience. In this case, Scope can export the product to a new market and market it in a new region. The strategies that can be employed in market development include looking for a new geographical market through exportation of the product to new markets. The firm can also use new distribution channels and different pricing policies to create a new market segment.
Create a new product to be marketed to existing customers. Scope should conduct research and development with the aim of creating an innovative mouthwash product. Thereafter, the firm can improve the new product through updating and replacing the existing product.
Since the mouthwash is a newly differentiated product, it is essential to look for new customers (Trout and Rkin 2013). The firm can use both the related and unrelated business diversification models. In the related diversification model, Scope will remain in an industry and market with which they are familiar. Additionally, Scope should adopt the lateral diversification approach, which will facilitate the sale of the new product within the range of its marketing and technological capabilities.
In the contemporary times, the world has continued to experience extreme weather conditions in many parts of the world as a result of the polluted environment (air, water and land) resulting from human activities in the manufacturing and production sector, deforestation activities and waste management challenges among others. The issue has attracted global attention where developed and developed countries have continued to trade the blame on the countries or regions that have largely contributed to the phenomenon that has threatened the existence of humanity due to the extreme impacts that the polluted environment brings to human as evidenced in the extreme and an increase in the number of disasters that include flooding, drought and tropical cyclones among others that has led to loss of lives and destruction of property in most instances among others negative effects. The environmental threat that has led to global warming and climate change phenomenon as presented in most literature that address the subject, thus, has led to the formulation of the strategies and policies at both the local and international level as observed in global bodies and institutions such as the UNEP that try to intervene in the subject. The impact of the climate change as experienced presently has even threatened the sustainable existence of future generations, animals and plants species. The extreme impact resulting from the polluted environment is the reason that I chose the topic of environment conservation so that I can explore more in terms of knowledge and actions that each and every stakeholder can take to help address the global environmental challenge positively.
The audience and social sphere that would read the content about the topic of environmental conservation would be inspired to take action as individuals and collectively through their various groups and also the information would challenge them to initiate pragmatic activities and actions to help address the concern objectively right from their households, places of work and even in the social network's groups that the audience belong to in the social media.
2- Research Questions/Thesis:
What impact would the topic of environment conservation have to the social media audience in the short and long-term that would enable them to take real and practical actions to help address the global environmental challenge objectively?
With the present negative impacts such as loss of lives and destruction of property resulting from polluted environment experienced in many parts of the world that have threatened the existence and sustainability of the future generation’s existence freely, is it the right time to generate content about environment conservation or is it too early or too late?
How will the topic on environment conservation benefit the social media audience as well as other people that will come across the information and presentation about the environmental conservation topic in other platforms benefit from the content and message presented in the piece?
The content and information presented in the social media works that talk about environmental conservation, is it well studied presenting factual information from a variety of choices that talks about the subject and also is the study well balanced that presents a balanced view in terms of different approaches and positions that different people have about the subject of environment conservation?
In the social media platform, are there other pages that share the same exact content about environment conservation or the content presented differs but talks about the same subject as a whole?
3- Research Methods:
Research methods used in any research study plays an important role that directly determines the success or outcome of any research process (Reis & Judd, 2014). The research on the environmental conservation topic would embrace the use of primary research methods that would include the use of interviews, focus groups discussion as well as social media surveys about the subject and topic about environmental conservation. It will also embrace the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods and approaches to enhance the quality and outcome of the research study on the topic of environmental conservation as well as enable the research process capture data and information that cannot be captured by use of only one research approach (Adèr, Mellenbergh & Hand, 2008). The use of many primary research methods on the topic of environmental conservation would also enable comparison and contrast of data and information captured from the respondents and participants in the research process. The selection of the participants would be done scientifically by using probability methods that would give each and every possible participant an equal chance to be selected in the research process (Hewson, Vogel & Laurent, 2016). The use of the method would eliminate possible biases that might arise in the research process and, hence, the approach would enhance the quality and outcome of the research process in the environmental conservation topic.
The survey results indicate that most of the social media users are aware of the environmental conservation issues that concern many places in the world. However, many have not started initiatives at a personal level or group level to directly get involved and initiate projects that would target to address the project objectively. The research, therefore, provided a challenging and turning point where many committed to starting pragmatic solutions and take actions that would enhance the positive environmental conservation approaches. The results also indicate that different people prefer different approaches to be used in the environmental conservation approaches that suit their tastes and preferences to enhance efficiency and positive results in the subject. Among the options, they mentioned include energy conservation approaches, planting of trees, education strategies that empower societies and formulation of policies and strategies by the government to enhance environmental conservation among other approaches.
The target of the created social media content on the environmental conservation include all the users of the different social media platforms that mostly constitute the youth and younger age sets as asserted by the work of Quan-Haase and Sloan (2017) and the content fits them well as it gives them different options that they can take as youths or younger people in terms of actions and strategies that they can employ in environmental conservation matters.
Adèr, H. J., Mellenbergh, G. J., & Hand, D. J. (2008). Advising on research methods: A consultant's companion. Huizen, Netherlands: Johannes van Kessel Pub.
Hewson, C., Vogel, C. M., & Laurent, D. (2016). Internet research methods. Los Angeles : SAGE
Quan-Haase, A., & Sloan, L. (2017). The SAGE handbook of social media research methods. London : SAGE Publications Ltd
Reis, H. T. & Judd, C. M. (2014). Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
A World of Consumer Driven Culture and Cellular phones
Globalization continues to disrupt the models of the traditional market, compelling companies to change their marketing strategies. A notable disruption emanating from globalization has been the emergence of a consumer driven culture facilitated by the use of cellular phones. The continued shift of consumers from traditional buying behavior to mobile platforms supported by cellular phones presents contemporary marketers with various challenges and opportunities. Faced with these challenges and opportunities, firms must modify their products and marketing strategies to conform to the needs and expectations of the consumer driven market. The cellular phone plays an integral role in accelerating the consumerism because they do not only shift consumers experiences and preferences from the traditional cash based purchases but they also create connected retail experiences where the consumers are able to purchase whatever they desire without time or place constraints.
The continuous efforts by marketers to create consumer experiences in brand environments that resonate with the new age of digital consumer buying behavior accelerates the growth of consumerism Arnould et al describe consumerism as the use of market-made products and the marketing symbols, which induce a desire to consume the products (868). Arnould et al further describes consumer driven culture as the perpetuation of people's purchasing patterns due to the induced exercise of free will (868). In a consumer driven culture, individuals have the liberty to choose whether to purchase a product or not. Consumers can equally suppress their desires if they believe purchasing a particular product will not maximize the utility of the products they intend to purchase.
To adjust to the challenges created by the consumer driven culture, producers, modify the marketplace environment to suit the needs of the customers. Producers and marketers must therefore understand the distinctive attributes of the marketplace culture intersection and know the right product features to produce and promote amongst the targeted buyers (Arnould et al 869). Consequently, studies exploring the consumer culture in the 21st century provide manufacturers with a more profound understanding of consumer needs, leading to production and marketing strategies that drive up consumption patterns across various industries. .
Campbell and Park underscore the vital role of cellular phones in facilitating the growth and development of globalization, noting that the introduction of smartphones and e-commerce uniquely influences consumers to purchase almost anything they need using their cell phones (371). Cellular phones continue to alter interactions between firms and customers from the traditional mass communication formats to the current personalized network environment (Campbell and Park 371). Therefore, mobile communication plays a vital role in enabling transformations in the communication sector. In response to the ensuing transformations, firms have to integrate mobile marketing into their promotional strategies, presenting most of their product features through mobile platforms and developing mobile applications that provide consumer awareness and facilitate virtual purchasing decisions. . The ability of firms to identify the unique needs and expectations of their clients using cellular phones and design their products based on big data gathered from customers’ use of mobile phones coupled with the tendency of firms to provide personalized advertisement on mobile platforms ultimately drives up the consumerism culture (Campbell and Park 373).
Dwyer, Kushlev, and Dunn contend that cellular phones have both positive and negative impacts on in interpersonal interactions based on the psychological effects of phone use on the rewards emanating from social interactions (2). In the era of cellular phones, consumers are integrating consumerism tendencies into their relationships in a manner that limits traditional face-to-face social engagements. Consumers therefore purchase smartphones based on their effectiveness in supporting social interactions and manufacturers keep updating the features supported by smartphones to ensure endless desire by the consumers to acquire the latest smartphone devices (Dwyer, Kushlev and Dunn 2)..
While acknowledging that positive social commitments are central to people's happiness, Dwyer, Kushlev, and Dunn note that technological revolutions in the communication sector are changing how individuals derive the benefits of interacting with others (2). Cellular devices allow individuals to connect throughout the day while denying them the opportunity to enjoy the social engagements with the persons closer to them, preferring to chat or emulate the lives of people who they only relate to on a virtual platform. This is a core feature of the consumerism culture where consumers want all things designed to fit their personal infatuations. Consequently, people of the digital age they want to interact with people on online platforms using cellular phones in the same way they purchase products and receive marketing messages, leading to an uncontrolled demand for cellular devices.
The use of cellular phones compromises relationship satisfaction because communications over cellular phones eliminate essential elements that enrich people's interpersonal interactions (Goodman-Dean et al 219). For instance, when people interact via cellular phones, they lack the opportunity to express -verbal cues, such as tone, posture, and eye contact, which improve people's quality of life and satisfaction in relationships (Goodman-Dean et al. 219). Moreover, cell phones have adverse effects on networking, which enhance persons' well-being. Despite the consumerism culture driven by cellular phones compromising the quality of people's relationships, consumers can still use new media technologies to maintain positive social interactions. According to Okdie and Ewoldsen, the media creates social spaces that can be advantageous to some individuals if used effectively (508). For instance, couples that have busy work schedules can communicate regularly with the aid of cellular phones enabling them to maintain intimate connections. Due to the dynamic and evolving nature of cellular phones with the advent of smartphones, Okdie and Ewoldsen recommends additional research to identify how the meditated interactions over smartphones can enhance personal relations (513).
Samaha and Hawi caution users of cellular phones against slipping into addiction that result from absolute reliance on mobile phones to perform routine tasks, which portends adverse effects on individuals' mental health and wellbeing(321). Cell phones have enhanced operational efficiency due to their large screen sizes and enhanced performance capabilities that enable users to access diverse services irrespective of time or physical location. This makes people feel inseparable from their smartphones, leading to addiction and mental health complications, especially when users lack adequate knowledge on how to maximize the use of smartphones while minimizing their harmful effects (Samaha and Hawi 321). The consumerism culture has a significant impact on how people use cellular phones even though the pragmatic uses and meanings of cell phones vary across different social groups (Luthar and Kropivnik 1091). Luthar and Kropivnik further link the rising role of cell phones in consumerism culture to the cultural capital and economic classes that shape the usage of cell phones in the global community (1091).
The consumer driven culture in the age of cellular phones allows groups within the international community to form distinct identities. Young people, particularly those in the working-class cadre of society exploit digital identities to forge a unique identification with the mobile phones they use. This makes the cell phone a consumer object that allows users to stay in touch with their friends, relatives, and colleagues (Luthar and Kropivnic 1093). Additionally, cellular phones serve as aesthetic objects because of the intrinsic prestige they instill on their users. While all smartphones can perform similar tasks such as accessing the internet and social media platforms, individuals users to prefer certain brands over others because of the prestige and aesthetic values associated with them, . Cellular phone users keep purchasing new devices to keep pace with emerging trends because of the cultural and class capital that shape their purpose and usage (O'Cass and McEwen 28).. O'Cass and McEwen further view the purchase and usage of cellular phones as symbolic consumption of undertaken by consumers to distinguish themselves from the other members of society, which can provide more profound insights into individuals' consumption behaviors (29).
The consumer driven culture empowers businesses to predict the types of products to develop based on the evolving trends in consumer preferences Businesses in the consumer driven marketplace also use varying product features to analyze the target customers' purchasing power and propensity to consume, enabling them to set ideal prices for their products. (McCollough).In the case of cellular phones, manufacturers use the perceived consumers’ propensity to purchase new or advanced mobile devices to influence to influence their purchasing decisions even when they are not in need of new devices, which perpetuates consumerism . The consumerism culture has several dynamics, such as the conspicuous and status consumption. A common feature of consumerism lies in the fact that individuals use the products they consume to differentiate themselves from those around them (Veblen 33). Veblen traces the origins of consumerism to the predatory culture where certain individuals exploited other members of the society to accumulate wealth. To set themselves apart from the rest of the society, exploiters then used their corruptly acquired riches to purchase prestigious commodities, which ordinary persons could not afford in the hope that that the prestigious commodities could earn them pecuniary power over the other persons in the community (Veblen 33). Moreover, however, O’Cass and McEwen note that gender differences influence conspicuous consumption without having any impact on status consumption as intended by people who engage in conspicuous consumption as a status symbol.
The consumerism culture and cellular phones have had a significant impact on today's business environment. The introduction of smartphones has changed communication patterns from traditional mass media formats to personalized, on demand marketing platforms, compelling firms to develop marketing messages that match with the evolving needs of clients. However, the use of cellular devices can have adverse effects on users despite their various benefits, especially where users become too dependent on cellular phones to perform routine tasks. Cellular phones are effective tools of social representation, which manufactures and marketers take advantage of to supply targeted images and ideas to the public discourse with the aim of influencing consumer-purchasing behavior. The convenience created by cellular phones by enabling users to access and purchases various commodities online as well the prestige and status symbols associated with various cellular phone brands play a significant role in accelerating the consumerism culture.
Arnould, Eric J., et al. “Consumer Culture Theory (CCT): Twenty Years of Research.”Journal of Consumer Research , 31.4 (2005), 868–882.
Campbell, Scott W., and Yong J. Park. "Social Implications of Mobile Telephony: TheRise of Personal Communication Society." Sociology Compass, 2.2 (2008), 371-387.
Dwyer, Ryan J., Kostadin Kushlev, and Elizabeth W. Dunn. Smartphone use Undermines
Proposing a Solution by Leveraging on GameStop’s Strength
GameStop had enjoyed the position of the most dominant player in the video game industry for a relatively long duration. However, recent years have seen the company experiencing challenging times. The morphing landscape of the video game industry characterized by aspects such as new technologies and surprising market twists significantly disrupt its business environment. This situation has led players such as GameStop to face major problems that have not only adversely impacted their financial performance and market position but also threaten their very existence. GameStop’s business model benefitted the company in the past but that is not the case anymore. The model is proving to be obsolete and is undermining the firm’s overall performance. However, it has inherent strengths that make it easy for the company to turn around its fortune and to remain competitive in the increasingly volatile industry. It is thus proposed that company should leverage on its strengths and adopt a business model that is relevant to the era of mobile gaming and digital downloads.
Table of Contents
Comparative Analysis of United States Immigration Laws
Immigration issues have continuously dominated the United States (U.S) politics decades. Policymakers have to analyze competing security, humanitarian, and economic concerns when drafting immigration laws. Over the previous decades, the U.S Congress has managed to agree on various immigration reforms and effectively transferred some impactful policy decisions into the judicial and executive arms of government. The most recent pledges by the U.S president Donald J. Trump to take extraordinary measures to mitigate terrorism and stop illegal migration has intensified the discussion of immigration laws. Both Democrats and Republicans agree that essential steps are necessary to lower immigration-related problems. Contrarily, Democrats feel that the measures proposed by Donald J. Trump are not only divisive but also extreme. The latest stalemate between the two political factions regarding building a wall between the U.S and Mexico border has raised questions on what an ideal U.S immigration policy should entail. The debate on the cost-effectiveness of the controversial idea of building a wall remains a significant determinant of how problems related to border protection need to be solved through effective policy measures. The implementation of new immigration policies is instrumental in border protection. The policymakers should undertake a comparative analysis of functional immigration policies adopted by other countries to curb immigration-related issues. The paper presents a comparative study of general U.S immigration policies with the immigration laws of Australia and Canada regarding their effectiveness in achieving the countries strategic economic plans.
The U.S immigration policy is complex and presents various problems regarding its effectiveness. The Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA) is the legal body mandated with governing the existing immigration policies. The INA has capped the annual global limit of permanent immigrants at 675,000 with specific exceptions for close relatives. Legal permanent residency allows immigrants to live and work legally and permanently in the United States of America. Legal residents can submit applications for all jobs except those reserved for U.S citizens. Also, legal permanent residents can stay in the country even when unemployed. Annually, the U.S allows temporary residency for noncitizen. The decision regarding the number of refugees admitted within the U.S each year lies with the President and Congress (“How the United States Immigration System Works”). The U.S immigration is founded on the following guidelines: reuniting families, promoting diversity, protection of refugees, and admission of immigrants with the skills that are advantageous to the U.S economy.
Contrastingly, each year, the Australian federal government allows places for individuals who want to relocate permanently in Australia. The Australian Migration Program adopted in 2010-2011 allocated 168,000 locations, comprising 113,850 skilled workers, 54,550 for family ties and 300 for individual eligibility cases like asylum and human rights protection issues. Principally, the Australian immigration policies anchors in the increment of the Australian population with a particular focus bridging the problematic labor gap through appealing to the workforce and temporary (skilled) migrants. Unlike the U.S immigration policy that prioritizes family ties, the Australian system is labor oriented with minimal chances for family members (Spinks). While family reunification holds good moral and social grounds of the U.S immigration policy, it contributes to more immigrants with limited background checks and takes up a more significant portion of the immigrant population each year. Immigrants constitute 14% of the overall U.S population. Also, the U.S born immigrant children along with their parents comprise 27% of the total U.S population. The number of undocumented immigrants within the U.S is about 11 million with over half of them have stayed in the U.S for over a decade. The American immigration policies focus on enforcing border security, migrants who lawfully relocate to the U.S and overstay their visas form a considerable of the undocumented U.S immigrants. In 2016, almost 1.2 million migrants were granted lawfully permanent residency in the United States of America. Two-thirds of these migrants gained admission on the basis of family reunification with employment, diversity, asylum, and refugee based admission taking 12%, 4%, 3%, and 10% of the total number respectively (Felter and Renwick). The U.S should restrict the legal definitions of family admissions and emulated the Australian family definitions that regard close family relations like spouses and children.
The Canadian immigration policy considers three main elements namely; economics, refugees, and family renunciation. The economic immigrants form the largest portion of migrants within Canada. The selection of immigrants based on economic potency selects individuals using a point system that prioritizes immigrants with higher education level, advanced language skills, and more years of job experience. The recent decline of the Canadian manufacturing sector has driven the nation to shift its focus towards an information-based economic system. As a result, Canadian immigration law emphasizes transferable and flexible skills within specific locations. The definition of family reunification in Canada considers children and spouses are relocating to join family members already living in Canada. Family-related migrations contribute the second largest faction of immigrants admitted in Canada every year. The smallest group of immigrants in Canada is refugees claiming both asylum protection and humanitarian services. The number of undocumented immigrants in Canada is approximately 100,000 to 200,000 people each year (“Understanding Canada’s Immigration System”). The number is considerably small compared to the number of illegal immigrants within the United States of America.
The U.S that has not managed to implement even a single immigration policy for over 25 years to shift away from the fundamental principle of admitting immigrants with family relationships. Unlike the USA, countries like Canada and Australia have revitalized their immigration policies for recognizing and integrating immigrants as part of advanced national strategies relating to business development, labor recruitment, and population age trends. For example, in both Canada and France (Horwich), it is illegal for employers to hire illegal immigrants. The legal restrictions explain the difference in the number of undocumented workers as individuals tend to honor their visa stay due stifled economic opportunities. The companies have obliged to these regulations to escape paying hefty fines and legal disputes leading to imprisonment (“Understanding Canada’s Immigration System”). However, businesses still take advantage of undocumented workers paying them meager incomes to compensate for security risks undertaken in employing these workers.
The admission of immigrants in the U.S is founded on similar grounds as those of Canada and Australia. In all countries, entry of temporary immigrants focuses on labor requirements and grants employers the opportunity to outsource specialized skills to perform specific tasks. The international students form a large portion of individuals admitted temporarily in Australia. The U.S demands that if an employer provides recommendations for the provision of temporary visa for specialized skills the immigrant has to work for that company and return to their home country upon expiry of visa. Regarding international students, the legal temporary residence provisions demand that upon completing their studies, international students are granted one year to seek employment within the U.S failure to which they should go back to home country. The Australian and Canadian immigration laws accord some leniency to international students with the expectation of retaining the acquired skills within their economic system. Canadian academic institutions host approximately 400,000 foreign students (“Understanding Canada’s Immigration System”), upon graduation, international students are granted opportunity to gain work experience in Canada for a maximum period of three years, upon which they can decide to seek permanent residence.
Considering the current debate on immigration policies within the United States of America, the legal amendments selected by the Congress is likely to emulate progressive immigration laws of countries like Canada, Australia among others. Most states with modern immigration laws have shifted away from merit-based models to those that consider if an immigrant has a job offer. The United States is also likely to narrow down its definition of family which accommodates more immigrants than any other country. In this case, the U.S has to focus on each principle of the current immigration system and make adjustments based on social economic outcomes.
The Social, Economic, and Technological Argument
The immigration issue everywhere in the world sparks raging debate. The local residents usually have varied reactions. It is no different in the United States where the residents have differing reaction to this matter, especially with respect to the less-stringent immigration law (Swain 8). The response to this matter has been made more complex by the fact that it has persisted for many decades as policy makers seem unable to agree on competing humanitarian, security, and economic concerns (Gans, Elaine and Daniel 19). The debate among policy makers have also fed into the public discourse thereby informing different reactions from the local residents (LeMay, LeMay and Barkan 14). Besides, the U.S Congress has also been unable to arrive at a comprehensive immigration law for years. As a consequence, major policy decisions regarding this issue has moved to the judiciary and the executive arms of government, further fueling debate among the population (Isbister 36).
The number of immigrants into the United States has been growing over the years, including those who have been able to acquire full legal permanent residency. For example, in 2016, about 1.2 million individuals were granted legal permanent residency, a majority of whom on the basis of family reunification, while others in the categories such as employment-based preferences, asylees, diversity, and refugees among others(Felter and Renwick). Statistics also show that there were over 4 million applicants in 2017 in the State Department’s waiting list for immigrant visas (Felterand Renwick). In addition, there are hundreds of thousands of individuals who are working legally in the United States using different forms of non-immigrant visas. A 2017 figures indicated that nearly 180,000 visas were given for high-skilled employees and close to 250,000 visas granted for temporary workers in industries such as agriculture (Felter and Renwick).
The aforementioned statistics showing how immigrants are obtaining legal basis to residency or employment in the United States has elicited varied reactions from the local residents. A Gallup survey conducted in 2017 established that 71 percent of the US residents considered less-stringent immigration laws to be a good thing for the country (Felter and Renwick). This data is an indication that a majority of Americans are in support of a legal path to citizenship for immigrants, including the undocumented ones if they meet particular requirements. Many Americans prefer laws that create a path to citizenship over other approaches that can lead to the same (Gans, Elaine and Daniel 30). They find the use of laws as ideal in ensuring that immigration does not lead to adverse consequences such as infiltration of criminal elements into the country (Isbister 93). They believe that immigration laws are useful in enabling the country to have quality immigrants who will contribute to the overall wellbeing of the country. For instance, presence of laws that allow for skilled immigrants into the country is considered beneficial in maintaining United States’ economic strength in the global arena (LeMay, LeMay and Barkan 54).
The proponents of less-stringent immigration law also argue that it is instrumental in strengthening the social fabric of the United States. They opine that it enhances cultural diversity (Nowrasteh). It allows American society to grow as a result of new cultures, perspectives, and ideas from the immigrants. Immigrants bring with them different set of skills and knowledge that is useful for everyone else in the creation of a more productive, responsive, and stronger society (LeMay, LeMay and Barkan 58). The increased diversity caused by less-stringent immigration laws will be reflected in nearly all spheres of the American society. Learning institutions, religious organizations, and workplaces are some of the settings that will benefit by enhanced diversity (Isbister 123). The proponents of less-stringent immigration laws are of the view that it is the significant level of diversity throughout the United States’ history that has made it a leading nation in the world in nearly all areas such as business, military, and sports (Swain 45). Therefore, immigration laws that are being crafted should seek to promote diversity rather than curtail it.
Moreover, it is argued that more immigrants will greatly improve American business. Immigration is considered to promote business and economic growth in many ways. It diversifies domestic economies as the immigrants start businesses, earn income, and support other businesses at the local level (Peri 15). This trend increases local business activities that in turn creates more profits that helps to strengthen local and national economy. Immigrants also result in the increase in the population base. Their presence ensures that there is a bigger market for businesses and availability of cheaper labor that enables businesses to make more profits (Gans, Elaine and Daniel 103). The other benefit derived from immigrants in the economic context is the creation of the global market. Apart from creating stronger local economies, immigrants also contribute to a stringer international economy through business activities like remittances. Immigrants in the United States of America are among the highest senders of money back to their countries of origin (Nowrasteh).
The impact of immigration on business and economy as a whole is also linked to its support of entrepreneurism. A significant number of immigrants are natural entrepreneurs and who are often highly educated and trained (LeMay, LeMay and Barkan 88). As such, they are more likely to be highly productive thus making it possible for them to create new jobs and to drive innovation. Their productivity plays a vital role in boosting the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Economists also argue that immigration helps in negating gaps that are in certain labor markets (Peri 20). For instance, they fill skill gaps in places where there is low-skill. Since they can relieve employment bottlenecks, they are integral in reducing the risk of low productivity and under-performance issues in the local economy (Swain 51).
Besides the socio-economic benefits associated with immigrants, they are also integral in fostering technological advancements in the United States. Immigrants constitute a significant proportion of the workforce, particularly in the STEM fields, where it is estimated that more than 25 percent of Bachelor’s degree holders are foreign born, and that nearly 50 percent of PhD holders in these fields are also foreign born (Peri 10). Statistics further show that immigrants accounted for about two-thirds of the growth in the number of all employees in STEM-related jobs since 1995 (The National Academic Press). These statistics are reflective of the vital place of immigrants in U.S technological innovation. The percentage of patents based on ethnicity shows that immigrants are becoming increasingly instrumental in driving innovation in the United States. Since 1975, individuals from Russian, Hispanic, Indian, and Chinese backgrounds have accounted for about 80 percent of patent holders in the country (The National Academic Press).
A substantial body of research contends that, indeed, immigrants have contributed immensely in making the United States a leader in technology innovation. Their role in American technology innovation is well-documented. In fact, the country’s reputation as a global technology leader is inextricably linked to its tradition of having a huge percentage of immigrants (Villasenor). There are many huge American-based corporations with operations not just within the country but also internationally that were co-founded by immigrants. Some of them include Facebook, Qualcomm, Yahoo, VMware, eBay, and Google among others. A recent study conducted by the National Foundation for American Policy established that more than 50 percent of tech start-ups in 2016 alone valued at more than $1 billion were co-founded by immigrants. Each of these companies was responsible for creation of an average 760 job opportunities (Villasenor).
Different countries around the world have the most competitive universities and other learning institutions that have the world’s brightest young people. Most of these students seek to come to the American universities to pursue graduate degrees, and then proceed on to pursue highly successful careers, especially in technology sector within the United States (Nowrasteh). Top students from foreign countries have the drive, talent, and ability to succeed at the highest levels in the United States (Felter and Renwick). Therefore, if the United States shuts the doors for them, they will go to other countries that will favor them in pursuit of their academic and professional dreams. Countries such as Australia and Canada are known to provide favorable environments for young people, especially in technological fields to thrive (Villasenor). This implies that when America is shutting the doors for immigrants, it is losing out on their talents and abilities critical in driving technological innovations at the expense of other countries that end up being beneficiaries of the innovations generated by these immigrants (Swain 62). Blocking immigrants who generate innovations means that the United States will miss out on jobs that they create, in addition to missing out on the revenues generated from these companies (The National Academic Press).
Recent developments regarding the United States’ immigration laws have sparked concerns about the impact on technological developments. Whereas the Trump’s executive orders appeared to be limited to few countries, it will have a significant bearing on the technology sector of the country in the long-term (Nowrasteh). For example, talented and aspiring technology students and entrepreneurs from countries like Iran and Pakistan will weigh their options when seeking graduate school admissions in foreign countries (Villasenor). Due to what appears like somewhat hostile policies towards immigrants by the Trump’s administration, immigrants from such countries are more likely to choose countries like Australia and Canada when seeking graduate admissions to study technology-related courses (Peri 14). Students from countries that find Trump’s attitude towards immigrants as hostile will avoid being caught up in future executive orders that may exclude or discriminate against them (Villasenor). As thousands of people from foreign countries make these sorts of choices in the coming years, the United States will suffer immense aggregate loss to innovation.
A number of policy makers argue that the use of national origin in excluding people from the United States is an economically parochial proposition (Peri 16). It is a proposition that fails to acknowledge that talent is global, and as such, it is distributed without regard to identities like gender, religion, or race (Nowrasteh). When countries allow immigrants it also allows innovative and brilliant thinkers from across the world to have a right environment to thrive, thereby helping country to achieve great strides in areas such as entrepreneurship and technological advancements. The United States’ current leadership in innovation technology can largely be attributed to its democratic traditions and entrepreneurial culture (Peri 28). Therefore, trying to come up with laws that inhibit immigration will be detrimental to the country’s position as a leader in technology and entrepreneurship. While it is important for the United States government to keep the country safe from criminal elements such as terrorists, the tools to be used should be those that do not undermine the kind of immigration that is necessary in promoting technological innovation which is vital in creating job opportunities and enhancing the country’s economic capabilities (Villasenor).
Consumer Insights Interview
Consumer Insights Interview
The Interview Excerpt
For a very long time, I have been using Purex, which is manufactured by Henkel Corporation as a laundry detergent of choice in my house. However, I recently traveled to a different state to visit my friend and when I came back I found my brother had bought a laundry detergent called Gain and which is manufactured by a leading multinational consumer goods corporation, Proctor & Gamble. So I sought to interview him to find out why he made this choice.
What benefits were you looking for when you first started thinking about this purchase?
Brother: I understand that you have been using Purex for a very long time. I find it to be pretty okay in terms of the washing outcomes. However, I visited a friend of mine last week and I realized she uses Gain, which I found to have better washing outcomes than Purex. Although most detergents have almost the same qualities and “they get the job done,” I have been looking for a detergent that is different and get job done in an excellent way. I find most detergents, and sorry to say, including Purex (laughs), to be “average” in their performance. They just help one to do the washing but fail to add any “extra” feeling or outcomes. In some cases, they can lead to bad experiences; for example, Purex makes my hands itch after am through with the washing.
When I came across Gain and used it severally, I found it to be a perfect detergent for me, and actually much better than Purex (laughs). It does more than just getting rid of stains and cleaning. It refreshes clothes and make them to smell great. Besides, it is soft on the hands, and therefore, very appropriate for people who may be sensitive to detergents. Proctor & Gamble is a big global brand known for excellent quality products, and Gain is one of them. It is one of the most popular branded detergents not just in the United States but also in many parts of the world. Apart from looking for a laundry detergent that has the quality of being soft on my hands, I have also been looking at other qualities such as those that can are capable of shielding colored clothes from fading, cleaning clothes and leaving them fragrant and fresh, containing bleach and hydrogen peroxide that makes it more efficient, and containing surfactants and builders that makes them able to work in any temperature.
War of Worlds Broadcast
The War of the Worlds broadcast would correctly fit the description of America’s fool’s day because what was intended to be a Halloween joke ended up causing unprecedented panic amongst Americans. The broadcast alleged that an alien army was on a mission to wipe humanity out of existence beginning with New Jersey. While the broadcast would easily pass as a foolish hoax today, it was easy to believe in the 1930s because the world had gone through a world war and most survivors of the war lived with permanent scars that constantly reminded them of the devastation of war. Additionally, the news caused widespread belief because of the audience had limited sources of news and could not immediately verify the authenticity of the broadcast. Despite being a mere work of fiction, the resulting panic caused by the broadcast proved that unregulated freedom of the medial can be detrimental to national security and the wellbeing of the audience.
Core elements of Project Management: Monitoring and Control application in Meteor Mobile Communications Company project methodology
Monitoring and control are the core elements of project management. Project monitoring is useful in tracking project performance and progress using the key indicators agreed upon during project planning. Project control involves having oversight and making adjustments on a project’s schedules and costs in order to keep its activities within timescale and budget. These two elements provide the appropriate safeguards against the project’s failure. They offer frameworks that enables a project to be planned and executed effectively and efficiently. They are both fundamental in the decision-making processes throughout the life of project. It is thus important that project managers obtain a deeper understanding about them. More importantly, they should be in a position to apply them appropriately in their projects if they are to meet the project’s objectives. The case of Meteor Mobile provides a good example of how project monitoring and control can be used in undertaking a successful project and ensuring that it is completed as originally planned, particularly with respect to financial budget and timescales.
Texas Immigration Laws
The United States Congress has failed to comprehensively deal with the issue of immigration reform. Consequently, many state governments have designed their own responses to deal with immigrants within their jurisdiction. The state of Texas is one of those states that have produced a relatively comprehensive response to immigrants. Equally, many cities and counties within the state also joined in constructing responses to immigration issue (Center for Immigration Studies). This paper will discuss critical aspects relating to Texas immigration laws, with specific reference to the United States Constitution.
Immigration laws are vital in determining who may become a new citizen of the United States or who may enter the country under statuses such as permanent resident, refugee, student, or temporary worker. Whereas the federal government is responsible for the formulation and enforcement of a majority of immigration policy, states have largely assumed supportive role. States have particularly enacted their own supplementary policies and laws that address immigration issues like determining which kind of public services are accessible to immigrants and establishing employee screening requirements. Texas has a long immigration history. A majority of its immigrants hail from Mexico. According to recent statistics, immigrants in Texas account for 17 percent of the state’s entire population (American Immigration Council).
The Texas’ immigrant population has been growing over the years, a trend that mirrors the development in the United States in general. Several developments have been integral in shaping Texas immigration laws. For example, between 1990 and 1994, the state recorded more than 300,000 legal immigrants. The same period witnessed Texas receiving a net annual rise from illegal immigration of about 50,000 (American Immigration Council). Like in other states, when the Texas citizen children born to immigrants are taken into account, immigration accounts for a significant percentage of that growth. Historically, a minority of foreign-born population in Texas have become the citizens of United States. For instance, statistics show that only 17 percent of the immigrants who entered Texas between 1980 and 1990 became United States citizens. It is estimated that the population of Immigrants by 2020 will be above 27 million (Center for Immigration Studies).
The projection of a significant increase in the size of immigrants in Texas poses challenges to Texas policy makers. They are concerned with the impact of this growth on aspects such as resource allocations. They have to make decisions on how to allocate meagre resources to state programs like health and education services. They are further concerned with the impact of immigrants on the labor market of Texas. Besides, increasing immigration into Texas imply that it will become an increasingly multi-racial society. This development will have implication on aspects such as racial composition, in addition to having direct and indirect effects on political outcomes in this state. Moreover, it will have impact on crime and prison services (Payan 2).
The potential adverse effects of immigration in Texas notwithstanding, there are evident positive impact. According to American Immigration Council, immigrants constitute over 20 percent of the labor force in Texas. They are integral in critical industries such as construction, health care and social assistance, food and accommodation services, construction, and manufacturing among others. They also contribute tens of billions of dollars in taxes. For example, immigrant-led households in Texas paid 8.7 billion dollars in state and local taxes in 2015 (Center for Immigration Studies). Additionally, they contribute immensely to Texas’ economy as consumers. Moreover, immigrant entrepreneurs in this state are instrumental in generating significant business revenue.
In recognition of the place and effects of immigrants in Texas, its legislators have introduced several bills relating to streamline immigration and promote legal immigration. Some of the bills have been passed into law while others failed. For example, in 2011, a bill relating to E-verify requiring governmental contractors and agencies to participate in the federal electronic verification of work authorization program was introduced but failed to pass (Payan 8). In 2011, a bill on “Aliens; Corrections - Parole, Probation, & Pardons; Mandatory and Community Supervision” was pass in State legislature (Payan 8). In addition, in 2010, Law Enforcement Cooperation and Authority bill granting special agents of the U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement authority with powers of arresting, searching, and seizing under Texas law relating to felony offenses passed (Payan 9).
Whereas the formulation of Texas immigration laws are done at the state level, they are mostly done in a manner to ensure that they are consistent with the United States Constitution. The United States Constitution provides limited specifics regarding how the country’s immigration policy should look like. Nonetheless, it gives broad guidelines regarding who has the authority of developing such a policy. It also provides the legal means for issues that arise in such a policy. Immigration aspects are contained in Article 1, section 8 of the U.S constitution. These provisions accord the U.S Congress the responsibility of establishing naturalization rules. In other words, it determines the means through which immigrants become U.S citizens (The U.S National Archives and Records Administration). In spite of the existence of these clauses, many states have passed their own immigration laws and policies. This practice started immediately after the United States gained independence. During the first century of the country’s existence, several states enacted laws aimed at controlling and regulating immigration within their borders. For example, they enacted laws that sought to prevent various populations from entering their borders, including free blacks, slaves, and people with criminal records among others (American Immigration Council).
Since the late 19th century, the Supreme Court of the United States has been instrumental in addressing the constitutional challenges associated with immigration. The Supreme Court has been integral in mediating the intervening forces between the federal immigration law and the state law (Immigration to United States). The U.S Constitution also provides express rights to immigrants, particularly the naturalized citizens, it allows them to work in the United States, including in any government office, apart from the presidency. Article 2, Section 1 of the U.S Constitution holds that it is only a natural born citizen of the United States or a citizen of the country at the time the Constitution was adopted that is eligible to ascend the Office of President of the United States (The U.S National Archives and Records Administration).
It should further be noted that the way the U.S Constitution has been framed goes beyond providing protection of citizens but also includes protecting the immigrants. For example, the first section of the Fourteenth Amendment states that, “No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (The U.S National Archives and Records Administration). The interpretation of this amendment shows that it protects the citizens and any other individual within a state’s jurisdiction against arbitrary government actions. This section of the law has profound impact for the protection of immigrants’ status in the United States (Immigration to United States).
Immigration is a major issue in Texas, especially because it experiences a significant inflow of immigrants. The current population of immigrants in this state is significant, thereby influencing its policies. It is against this background that a number of state laws have been enacted to control and regulate immigration. These laws are largely within the confines of the United States Constitution, which has been designed to protect not just the citizens but any other person, including the immigrants. Texas must continue to adopt progressive immigration laws because it is one of the major immigrant entry points to the United States and bears a significant burden of the influx of immigrants from Mexico and the Central American region.
Effective Intercultural Communication in Contemporary Healthcare Organizations: Annotated Bibliography
Cote, Daniel. “Intercultural Communication in Health Care: Challenges and Solutions in Work Rehabilitation Practices and Training: A Comprehensive Review.” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 35, no. 2, 2013, pp. 153-163.
The author of this article explores cross-cultural issues in health care, with specific reference to occupational rehabilitation and work disability prevention. He argues that cultural differences can lead to conflicting and diverging representations of health thereby hindering the healing process. This situation is avoidable through cultural competence in health care, which is critical in creating culturally adapted interventions. This source is credible as it is published in a reputable Journal of Disability and Rehabilitation. It will be an important source in researching on the topic of effective intercultural communication in healthcare organizations. It will specifically be instrumental in helping to understand the challenges involved in intercultural communication. It will also help to come up with solutions on addressing these challenges in specific healthcare practice areas such as rehabilitation.
Brooks, Laura, Manias, Elizabeth and Melissa Bloomer. “Culturally sensitive communication in healthcare: A concept analysis.” The Australian Journal of Nursing Practice, Scholarship & Research, 2018, doi, doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2018.09.007
This article explores the idea of culturally sensitive communication and highlights practice implications in health care. It notes that in spite of the increasing global focus towards the improvement of care quality and safety, the concept of cultural sensitive communication is yet to be fully understood. It is important that health care professionals understand this concept because it enhances their awareness, especially when dealing with culturally diverse patients and families. This article is credible having been published in a peer-reviewed journal, The Australian Journal of Nursing Practice, Scholarship & Research. This source will be useful in my research on the topic of effective intercultural communication in healthcare organizations. It will help in analyzing the issue of cultural sensitiveness in communication in healthcare settings.
Crawford, Tonia., Candlin, Sally., and Roger, Peter. “New perspectives on understanding cultural diversity in nurse–patient communication.” The Australian Journal of Nursing Practice, Scholarship & Research, vol. 24, no. 1, 2017, pp. 63-69.
This article explains that effective communication is fundamental in establishing rapport with patients, as well as in many roles in health care such as counselling, patient assessment, and education as they mostly consist of dialogue. It further notes that as cultural diversity increases among health care providers and patients around the world, there are growing concerns about the possibility of miscommunication due to cultural and linguistic differences. These differences can result in misunderstandings that can have adverse effects on patient care and health outcomes. As such, the article urges for new perspectives in understanding intercultural communication in health care. It is a credible source as its authors are nursing practitioners and scholars. It will be useful in my research by providing insights into new perspectives relating to my topic.
Papadopoulos, Irena et al. “Developing tools to promote culturally competent compassion, courage, and intercultural communication in healthcare.” Journal of Compassionate Health Care, vol. 3, no. 2, 2016.
The authors of this article emphasize that compassion is integral in health care and that delivering care in a culturally competent manner is a major way to providing compassionate care. They argue that care delivery that is culturally competent is that which takes into account the health beliefs, culture, and values of the individual patients and their families and friends. In spite of the importance of intercultural communication competency in health care, many health care professionals are not adequately equipped with this skill. This article thus discusses the tools needed in promoting intercultural communication in health care. It is a credible source as it published in a peer-reviewed journal, Journal of Compassionate Health Care. It will be an important source for the research, as it will provide crucial information about how intercultural communication competency can be promoted in health care.
Paternotte, Emma et al. “Intercultural communication through the eyes of patients: experiences and preferences.” Int J Med Educ, vol. 8, 2017, pp. 170-175.
This article explores the experiences and preferences about intercultural communication, which are influential in the development of intercultural patient-centered communication training. It underscores the essence of intercultural communication by noting that health professionals are increasingly being confronted with patients from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. It is thus essential that they develop competency in intercultural communication in order to be able to deliver health care based on patient-centered perspectives for all kinds of patients. This is a credible source to use in my research as it is published in one of the leading medical journal, International Journal of Medical Education. It will be useful in helping to understand the concept of intercultural communication through the eyes of patients, that is, from their preferences and experiences.
Public Health Policy
Public Health Policy
Smoking bans in parks is one of the public health policies that are gaining prominence worldwide. It relates to public policies, laws, and regulations that prohibit smoking in public places such as parks. In some cases, it entails criminalizing smoking in public places such as parks (Gray, 2014). The application of the three steps of ethical framework, including the analysis of ethical issues, evaluation of ethical dimensions, and justifying a particular public health action provides a better understanding of the ethical and moral implications of institutional and social sanctions of selected public habits or behavioral concerns such as smoking in public places.
Analysis of the Ethical Issues
Smoking bans in parks seeks to promote specific public health goals, especially those relating to health promotion and disease prevention. Its primary goal is to protect the public against the effects of second-hand smoke (CDC, 2018). Some of the risks associated with second-hand tobacco smoke are increased risks of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and emphysema among others. Exposure of individuals to second hand tobacco smoke, particularly from burning tobacco products contribute to diseases and lead to premature deaths among non-smokers (CDC, 2018). The enactment and enforcement of public health policy relating to smoking bans emanate from studies indicating that smoke free laws in public area are integral in improving the health of the general population. Some of the direct benefits of this policy include a reduction in the number of hospital admissions for heart-related diseases (Goodman, Haw, Kabir, and Clancy, 2009).
Like other public health policies, the policy on smoking bans in parks faces various ethical conflicts and competing moral claims from diverse stakeholders, especially investors in the tobacco industry. A major ethical conflict regarding ban on public smoking emanates from the question of balancing between public health promotion interests and personal freedom. Proponents of this policy argue that every human has a right to health, healthy environment, and life (Eijk and Porter, 2015). As such, tobacco control measures such as smoking bans in parks correspond to government agencies duty of achieving this objective. They also assert that every human being has a right to be protected from external dangers to their health such as those posed by second-hand smoke (Goodman et al, 2009). However, the opponents of public health policy on smoking bans argue that it is an infringement on their personal freedoms since smoking cigarette is not categorized as an illegal activity, and therefore, smokers should not be denied the choice of smoking if they so wish.
There is also an economic argument to the ethical question surrounding smoking bans in public spaces (Gray, 2014). Opponents of smoking ban argue that it denies the government huge revenues usually collected from the sale of cigarettes, which are used in financing expenditure on public goods such as roads, education, and even health services. However, those supporting this policy argue that the revenue benefits are insignificant compared to the health and socio-economic consequences of the adverse effects of smoking on public health (Eijk & Porter, 2015).
The scope of authority of public health policy on smoking bans in parks is undisputable because the local and state governments have the legal authority of enforcing it. There are already several relevant laws and regulations relating to this health policy. Although the US Congress has not enacted any nationwide federal law on the same, several states have. About 26 states have enacted bans prohibiting smoking in public places, including parks. There are also professional codes of ethics on this policy; most of them are in line with laws that prohibit smoking in enclosed public places like workplaces and specific establishments like restaurants and bars (Eijk & Porter, 2015).
Evaluation of Ethical Dimensions of Public Health Options
The evaluation of ethical dimensions of public health options shows that it meets the key aspects that make the public health policy on smoking bans in parks good and ethical. In particular, it meets the dimension on utility, which examines whether a policy produces more benefits than harm. It is evident that this policy produces more benefits including improving health outcomes by reducing the prevalence of diseases caused by second-hand smoke (Gray, 2014). Concerning the ethical dimension of justice, this policy is certainly distributing benefits and burdens are distributed fairly. While it is true that its prohibition may reduce revenues collected from sell of tobacco products and may also undermine personal freedom of smokers, the benefits are greater and to a majority of people (Eijk & Porter, 2015). This policy is also in line with the ethical dimension of respect for liberty. It respects the social values that regarding individual interests and choices. It does not deny people their freedom to smoke; instead, it prohibits them from smoking in parks where it will have adverse health effects on many people (Gray, 2014).
Cost and Quality Analysis
Cost and Quality Analysis
An increasing body of evidence establishes a significant correlation between healthcare cost and quality (Hussey, Wertheimer & Mehrotra, 2013). This understanding informs the wider policy consensus that containment of health care cost, coupled with improving quality of care is critical. Studies indicate that the improvements of healthcare need the increase in cost; conversely, reductions of costs are likely to result in reduced quality. Additionally, the improvements in healthcare quality are critical in cutting down the healthcare costs by minimizing the rate of hospital readmissions and health complications. In the United States, however, healthcare costs do not strongly correlate with quality (Doyle, Graves, Gruber, & Kleiner, 2012). Even though health care is extremely costly in the United States, the country still ranks relatively higher on indicators of health care quality and life expectancy. This situation emanates from several factors, including price variation on the same service and wastage of resources (Doyle et al, 2012). A succinct analysis of the relationship between health care cost and quality based on a public and private agency highlights the major activities that minimize healthcare costs while improving quality as well as the role of advanced practice nurses in improving the correlation between healthcare quality and cost.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is a public agency mandated with the role of addressing quality and cost in health care in the United States. It is responsible for the development of tools and knowledge, as well as collection and analysis of data required in improving health system performance (Kronick, 2016). It also helps in providing information needed for policy makers and health professionals to make informed decisions, particularly with respect to achieving quality care at affordable cost. The training, tools, and research undertaken by AHRQ ensures that there is a close collaboration between the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) agencies and relevant partners such as hospitals, insurers, and health professionals in attaining enhanced care quality and prudent spending of healthcare resources (Kronick, 2016). For example, this public agency has been instrumental in the implementation of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in transforming American health care by improving quality and making it more affordable. It has fostered a public-private collaboration among key stakeholders such as federal and state governments, employers, patients, and health providers in focusing on improved health-care safety by reducing preventable complications and decreasing the rate of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) thereby reducing healthcare costs in the long run (Kronick, 2016).
Several private agencies in the United States aim at addressing cost and quality in health care. One of them is Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. These agencies have been instrumental in improving healthcare delivery and saving lives in the United States. However, many people still struggle to obtain quality care services due to the high cost of health insurance (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2019). This challenge is attributed to among other issues, cost and the increasingly complex nature of health system. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation seeks to address these twin issues by ensuring that there are coordinated approaches in delivering care services in the most efficient and cost-effective way possible (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2019). Its United States division works closely with other stakeholders in health system, including state and federal governments, health professionals, and health providers in improving the coordination of delivery efforts, as well as enhancing health systems. It believes that by improving coordination, it will help to address the challenge of costs and quality in health care by increasing the supply of effective services in efficient manner and enhancing the experiences of patients with health care system (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2019).
Various current and projected initiatives will improve quality while simultaneously controlling costs. One such initiative is the Affordable Care Act, which promotes partnerships between public and private entities with the aim of improving healthcare safety with the view of reducing costs in the long-term (Hussey, Wertheimer & Mehrotra, 2013). There other initiatives relates to addressing costs through Medicare and Medicaid to reduce costs. These policies seek to achieve better and quality care at affordable costs. The other initiatives are those geared to improve coordination in health systems (Kronick, 2016). While these initiatives can improve quality and control costs they can lead to unintended consequences such as posing challenges that may hamper the attainment of quality care objective in the short-term.
Discussion of the relationship between health care cost and quality and the implementation of identified initiatives have direct and indirect implications for staff nurses and advanced practice nurses. Nurses play an integral role in delivering efficient and high-quality care. They serve as the front-line staff in health organizations in the implementation of programs and initiatives aimed at improving quality of health care and controlling costs (NACNS, 2013). Therefore, they should be prepared to meet the increased health care demand and to safeguard quality care provision. They should be committed leaders in delivering cost-effective care coupled with optimal patient outcomes. Besides, they should focus on leading the implementation of evidence-based quality improvement approaches that are vital in cutting down costs across the health care system. This leadership should be demonstrated in areas relating to nurse roles such as the provision of prenatal care, behavioral health care, managing chronic conditions, and wellness and preventive care among others (NACNS, 2013).
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Trade
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Trade
Free trade is an economic policy characterized by unrestricted flow of goods and services across a country’s borders. In a free trade regime, traders are free to export and import goods and services between or among themselves with no imposed tariff or at significantly lower tariffs (Booth, Wellings, & Institute of Economic Affairs, 2009). The parties involved in this kind of economic policy arrangement, mainly exporters and importers from different countries might voluntarily trade without or with less prohibitions and quotas on goods and services (Helpman & Razin, 2011). While countries bound by free-trade agreements do not have to completely abandon control of import and export taxation, they engage in structured mechanisms aimed at promoting trade amongst all the parties to the agreement (Bhagwati, 2012). The proponents of this policy argue that it leads to a mutually beneficial economic relationship between the citizens of the countries involved. However, free trade agreements if not properly regulated might lead to unfair competition, which may cripple the economies of some countries while allowing others to prosper (Cain, 2012). Despite its inherent threats, free trade promises greater economic advantages to both the countries involved and the citizens engaging cross border trading activities.
Advantages of Free Trade
Free trade promotes international specialization, which maximizes the output of the exporting countries. It enables countries to produce goods and services that they have comparative advantage in producing. Under the comparative advantage of international trade, countries to concentrate on economic activities that they can more efficiently while obtaining goods and services that they cannot produce efficiently from other countries that have efficiency producing the particular goods (Healey, 2014). Additionally, free trade leads to the increase in production and consumption levels in the world. It allows industries in different countries to take advantage of the economies of scale. This enables companies to reap the cost advantages associated with large-scale production at lower costs, especially in countries rich in raw material and human capital (Gandolfo, 2014).
Specialization in production contributes increases world production and consumption, particularly of internationally traded goods and services as countries concentrate on producing the goods that they can at lower costs. Moreover, free trade safeguards against the emergence of monopolies at the international level (Helpman & Razin, 2011). In the absence of international competition, a few powerful corporations would dominate the global and the domestic markets, leading to unethical business practices and exploitation of the consumers. Free trade prevents against this occurrence by breaking up domestic and international monopolies through enhanced competition (Booth, Wellings, & Institute of Economic Affairs, 2009).
Free trade further promotes international cooperation by creating economic linkages and interdependence among countries. It often results in the interchange of culture, ideas, and knowledge between countries, which leads to multilateral cohesion and reduces the likelihood of conflicts due to commercial rivalry among nations (Healey, 2014). Besides, it promotes the welfare of the consumers by availing to them best quality goods and services, as well as a broader range of product choices at relatively lower prices. By shifting to comparative advantage, free trade increases production efficiency and optimizes resource utilization (Bhagwati, 2012). It stimulates production at the domestic level and prompts producers to achieve high-level of quality and efficiency to sustain competitive advantage in foreign markets (Gandolfo, 2014).
A well-regulated free trade regime guards countries and business enterprises against the adverse effects of protectionism. Protectionism perpetuates high prices, reduced choices among consumers, economic abuse from interests groups, and corruption, which often characterize the protectionist system. In the era of globalization, free trade facilitates technology transfer across the world, boosts foreign direct investment, and accelerates economic growth of countries involved (Helpman & Razin, 2011). Therefore free trade creates information symmetry, enables the consumers and traders to interact openly with a view of realizing a tradeoff between scarcity, surplus and product variety.
Disadvantages of Free Trade
The first major disadvantage of free trade is its association with excessive dependence. It may make some countries to depend too much on foreign countries even for goods and services that could easily be produced within its territories (Cain, 2012). This disadvantage makes free trade an obstacle to the emergence and development of local industries. When foreign goods are imported freely, the growth of the local industries is likely to be hampered (Gandolfo, 2014). This is particularly the case in developing countries who still have challenges regarding the efficiency of their production due to poor infrastructure and high costs of production. Additionally, free trade promotes economic “dumping” by increasing the possibility of harmful goods to be imported into a country thereby exposing its citizens to health and safety risks (Healey, 2014).
Mini Journal Club
Mini Journal Club
The article, “Impact of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing 25 different cancers in the UK: A retrospective study of 422,010 patients followed for up to 30 years” aimed at analyzing the effects of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing 25 different strains of cancer. The study’s sample population comprised patients followed up to 30 years in general practices in the United Kingdom (Jacob, Freyn, Kalder, Dinas, and Kostev, 2018). Its overarching hypothesis is “Smoking tobacco increases the overall risk of cancer in primary care practices and it is predominantly positively linked to numerous specific cancers”. The rationale for this hypothesis was premised on the worrying statistics showing that a significant proportion of the global population smoke tobacco, implying that the world’s overall population is exposed to health effects of this behavior, key among them being cancer (World Health Organization, 2017). In the United Kingdom alone, more than 16 percent of the adult population smokes tobacco. As such, it presents considerable health risks in the country considering that smoking is among the leading causes of preventable deaths, accounting for about 80,000 deaths in UK every year (Office for National Statistics, 2017).
It was a retrospective study of 422,010 patients followed for up to 30 years. The subjects for this study included people who had at least one visit to 196 general practices offices in the United Kingdom between January 1988 and December 2008. It only included individuals with documented smoking status. The analysis of the collected data was analyzed against 25 cancers using the Cox’s regression model.
The important take-away message from this study is that smoking tobacco increases the overall risk of cancer among individuals. As the number of people smoking tobacco increases not only in the United Kingdom but also around the world, the prevalence of cancer is likely to increase. Smoking is positively linked to several common types of cancers, and therefore, it is important to implement strategies aimed at reducing the number of people smoking tobacco to help reduce the prevalence of cancer in society.
Association between smoking and the risk of cancer in men followed for up to 30 years
Date of Submission
Technologies in Business: enhancing or hurting the chances for success
Having technology in business improves the improvement of business operations. Automating business activities enhances the performance of the company in different sectors. For instance, use of machinery in production processes such as manufacturing allows faster processing, high levels of accuracy, standardization, and improved efficiency. Likewise, application of computer systems such as Business Intelligent (BI) tools help in analyzing finances, behavior of clients, and cash flows and provides necessary reports to managers (Martin, 150). Key Performance Indicators (KPI) helps in monitoring, assessing, and measuring the performance of employees and classifies their contributions in business. On the other hand, decision Support Systems (DSS) among others systems help managers in making informed decisions. Precisely, the use of technologies in such particular analysis tools such as Customer Relationship Management (CRM) help in determining business performance, market trends, and customer preferences (Martin, 160). The reports and data generated help in identifying the patterns and best designs on demand.
Zara Corporation is a cloth manufacturing company that has automated its business operations leading to success in their activities. The strategies implemented include the use of an integrated database that helps in collecting customer insights. It analyzes customer trends and information flows whose report help their designers in creating new lines and modifying existing ones. Zara Company has standardized their products information allowing them to clearly define quick and accurate preparation of designs as well as clear manufacturing of instructions. The company has a way of controlling, managing, and directing inventory data. The company has enough information on the number of fabrics, trims, and designs needed for specific raw materials (Martin, 8).
Zara Company has clear procurement strategies that govern various manufacturing approaches. They make current products according to demands in the market as provided by the identified customers. The manufacturing approach used by Zara involves testing and piloting of cloths demanded by various people. The distribution process also operates with minimal human intervention with the help of optical reading devices that distributes more than 60,000 items of clothing an hour (Martin, 12).
Dierckx, M. and Stroeken, J. (1999). Information technology and innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 1999,Vol 60, 1, 149–166.
Martin R. The Secret of Zara’s Success: A Culture of Customer Co-creation. Vol 6, 2, 1 – 6 2018 https://martinroll.com/resources/articles/strategy/the-secret-of-zaras-success-a-culture-of-customer-co-creation/