Comparison of “Country Lovers” and “The welcome table”
This paper is a comparison and a contrast two literary works. One of the literary work that is being compared/contrasted is “The Welcome Table” which was written by Walker Alice. The other literary work is the short story “Country Lovers” written by Gordimer Nadine. The reason as to why the two short stories have been used in the comparison and the contrast process is because they have the same themes which form the thesis for their narration. In fact, the major theme in both the two stories is race and ethnicity. A comparison and contrast of these two short stories bring to light the fact that the authors tackle the same themes from different perspectives. Their storylines also vary meaning that the plot being used by each of the authors is different. All the same, the similarity comes about in that the ultimate message of the two stories is similar in a way. An analysis of the two stories brings out the similarities and the differences from a series of perspectives as the plots of the stories develop.
One of the similarities in both the two stories is that they use racism and segregation as their major themes. Gordimer Nadine, for instance, develops the plot of the story “Country Lovers” around racism and segregation. In the story, we are introduced to a group of children who grow up together playing as innocent children. But as they grow old, segregation begins (Gordimer, p.11). White children are sailed off to go to boarding schools where they receive the best education. Such schools, as Gordimer puts it, are only meant for white children but not black children(Gordimer, p.17). On the contrary, blacks went to surrounding schools which did not offer the same kind of quality education such as boarding schools that were only segregated for white. What this means is that whites were afforded quality education as compared to blacks who received the education of poor quality. Gordimer projects racism in this case scenario as we can see a society in which color was used as discriminatory and segregation toll(Gordimer, p.23). While whites received the best education, blacks are not so lucky on their front. Another example that shows racism in Gordimer narration is the conflict that arises when Paulus, who is white, falls in love with a Thebedi, a black girl(Gordimer, p.39). While the two do not see race as their love has blossomed over the years, they are both fearful of the uproar that their relationship could cause. Interracial relationships were forbidden which adds to the high level of racism in South Africa, which is the setting of the story. All the same, their relationship ends on a bad note when they discover they have a child together and Paulus ends up killing the innocent baby(Gale, p.62). In the last sections of the story, we are introduced to another instance of racism where Paulus manages to get away with murder when he is given a not guilty verdict although he did kill his own child, all because he was white.
On the other side, Walker also brings out racism as a major theme the short story. At one point, Walker gives an example of the old black lady who walks in a church that was predominantly known to be for white people. However, upon entering the church, the old lady is accorded very rude audience that she did not expect (McCutcheon, p.17). Not only do the white women in the church chase her away, but they also use very harsh and unfriendly terms when sending her away. Whites, in Walker’s narration, felt privileged and better as compared to the blacks that are why they felt that the old lady did not qualify to be in their midst. Moreover, they felt that their caliber was being invaded as the old lady did not meet nor have what it takes to fall in the same category as the white women (McCutcheon, p.20). In addition to the above, Walker also introduces the dress code and the manner in which the appearance of the two races differed. While the women in the church looked healthy, clean, and dressed in expensive attire, the old lady was dressed in tattered clothes that were old and dirty (Walker, p.87). This signified the tough and hard life that the old lady was going through. It means that while the whites were privileged to enjoy the best of life, blacks were not afforded the same opportunities meaning that were miserable and segregated. In addition to the above, the comparison of the old ladies at the church to that of the black old lady who was chased from their church signifies that they had led very different lives (Christian, p.29). Blacks, on one side, went through hardship which explained the frail and wrinkled skin. The white old ladies were blossoming with beautiful skin which showed that whites did not go through hardships that the blacks went through and they had better lives.
One difference that is notable in both stories is the drama development in the plot. Although both stories are sad stories that bring out the misery which black people went through, the climax of the two stories is quite different. In the short story, “Country Lovers,” the plot begins on a positive note as we are introduced to the blossoming relationship between Thebedi and Paulus (Gale, p.32). It goes further as their relationship becomes more romantic. However, further into the plot things take a twist as we are introduced to the tragic death of their child. The aftermath of the death is a murder by Paulus who is later let to walk on a not guilty verdict(Gale, p.47). What began a love tale ends on a bad note with the death of a child and the guilty party walking free.
On the other hand, the plot in the short story kicks off with a tragic encounter that the old black lady at the church went through. At the start, Walker narrates the ordeal which the old went through when she steps into a church full of white people (Walker, p.83). However, as the plot develops, we see how the pastor and the usher are more compassionate to the lady who later passes on. Her death is portrayed as peaceful and she finds happiness. Thus, the difference in the two stories is that one ends with some form of joy while the other end with misery and sorrow.
In conclusion, these literary works are more similar than they are different. Although instances of differences in both narrations can be spotted, the similarity is more outstanding considering that their themes are similar. All in all, the plots of the stories differ but they both manage to bring out racism and segregation as their major themes. Therefore, this paper manages to effectively compare and contrast the two sort stores.
Mill’s Utilitarianism and Kant’s Deontological Concepts
What would Mill tell the rescuers to do in Rescue I and Rescue II?
Utilitarianism refers to an ethical, conceptual theory that employs the aspect of contextualizing the best actions that will by far increase the chances of maximizing the available utility. The utility is well defined and associated with the different associative such as the sentient entities and well-being. In this concept, it is quite clear to understand that at the end of the day, there must be a dead body either from the rescuing of the trapped man on the path, that will lead to the death of the five men of running the trapped man to rescue the dawning five men.
The utility has been described as the total generated pleasure as a result of an action that has been achieved with the respect of omitting the encountered sufferings from that are involved in the action. In other words, this is defined as the standards of any action to be determined whether the actions are right or wrong are determined by the consequences we significantly venture in. In the first attempt to rescue the drowning men, this will entail running the helpless man over in regards to saving the lives of the five men. According to the utilitarianism theory, there are fewer chances and limitation to making other decision that will benefit the lives of the two parties. In this manner, based on the concept provided by Mill in regards to the utilitarianism, it will be much better to have an assumption and save the lives of the dawning men. Through this, it will be quite significant to have used the limited opportunity to maximize the number of life saves within a concise period.
In the second rescue, it involves the concept of saving the life of the trapped man. Additionally, the man is trapped blocking the passageway to help carry the rescue mission of all the subjects with ease. According to the concept of militarism the, the aspect of maximization of the utilities still swing into action, which profoundly dictates the final decision to be considered in rescuing the lives of the men.
The rescue team will be forced to maximize their potential skills only by running over the trapped man. In this concept, the five men will be highly considered to support life. However, this does not go unchallenged as the trapped man in this scenario deserves a chance to leave. On the same note, the dictation of who gets to be considered based in the concept of utilitarianism will only favor the compact majority or an idea that will maximize the scope of coverage regarding the rescue mission of the two parties.
What would Kant tell the rescuers to do in Rescue I and Rescue II
Kant deontological theory
Deontology has by far a reaching concept that dictates the action taken in regards to mitigating a situation. In this manner, the concepts and methods used to overcome the situation are termed or analyzed to have used ethically accepted means of solving the situation. In this manner, the judgment of the situation and the action that triggers the possible outcomes are widely based on the deontological ethics.
Immanuel Kant’s theory significantly dictates as well as supporting the deontological theme of responsibility where the actions or the obligated duties of an individual defines his or her morality. Additionally, Kant sets it clear that it is not the circumstance in which we are in that dictates the choice of action we take but rather the motive that we have during the execution of our action is what defines our right and wrong action. Kant’s first version of the categorical imperative may be considered as a way of motivation pertaining the cause of action one might be interested in taking. The golden rule of this concept dictates that we do to others what we might expect them to do to us if we were in the same position in which they are in.
Does life have meaning?
The Philosophy of science and the scientific community at large heavily relays on the mentality that science can provide the necessary tools to analyze the context and the necessary parameters in dealing with the topic of the meaning of life. The discussion of the life’s meaning has by far lead to different spectacled theological, metaphysical and physiological theories throughout the man’s history.
Different culture clings on to different concepts and believes in regards to the true meaning of life. More so, this has given a room for proper formulation of varying culture and beliefs that support their evidence in their hypothesis. Additionally, these cultural beliefs have been used to answer different questions such as “why we are on the earth?”. On the other hand, science has a different perspective on the true meaning and reason for living. On the same note, science has profoundly maneuvered around to ensure that there are true identity and concrete evidence that support their hypothesis. More so, the scientific theory also plays a key concept to define the reason and supportive measure that supports life on the earth.
Basing on the scientific perspective, it is quite simple and self-explanatory to understand the true meaning of life, how it is formed and how different generations have evolved over the past decades. It is quite understood based on the scientific perspectives that life is formed out of the genetic strands that pass quite significant and matching data to the next generation to support life. More so, it is quite arguable that over the past centuries, life has evolved with different generations of humanity coming into existence as well as getting extinct as time goes by. Through this, we get to understand the real revolutionary of life and the necessary factors that fully support life in the universe. However, the true meaning of life still clings to the first stage of life formation.
On the other hand, philosophy also plays a critical role in bringing a proper understanding of the true meaning of life. The historical figure of the philosophy has profoundly provided necessary answers that support the ambiguous question pertaining the real meaning of life and its existence. In this case, considering the concepts of Kant on the heist good, Aquinas on the beatific vision and Aristotle on the human function, gives a definitive concept that supports the real argument and meaning of life. More so, these concepts have tangible bearings that unfold the ideas of happiness and mortality.
In this concept, it is quite clear to understand the real meaning of the variation of periods of time to be more fluctuating than the others. Furthermore, it is also quite understood that some lives are more meaningful than the others. However, this is quite emphasized by the social status and occupation of the individuals within the society as the magnitude of responsibilities is higher. On the same note, the aspect of cultural believes also plays a significant concept in dictating the meaning of life. Different cultures have different religious believes that dictates the true meaning of life. The believes provides constraint rules that shape the ethics of an individual.
Philosophers interlink the aspect of religious believes to the cultural practice of an individual that pertains or defines the daily practice of the community which enables or facilitates the research on the true meaning of life. More so, cultural value shares a common feature irrespective of the social status of an individual.
Cultural factors shaping modern adolescence
In spite of most people having unique values most of them base it on their self-esteem which is likely to guarantee them fulfillment while embracing the prevailing culture as highlighted by Becker. While conducting this study a total of about 5000 teenagers were engaged in this survey. One, therefore, gets this impression that perhaps such a statistic gave a great impression of how many views their own selves. This can apply while studying at college and even during other encounters thus help one build a strong relationship with those they love. The social environment thus plays an integral role while developing a teenagers character largely because many are likely to be influenced either negatively or positively depending on the kind of environment they were brought up in (Science daily n.p). The transgender community has also been on the receiving end while trying to fit in society though still finds it hard to cope in a harsh environment. It is therefore important to encourage positive engagements among youth in order to limit the likelihood of some falling prey to things like drugs which are believed to be as a result of peer influence. On the other hand, while recognizing the sudden change taking place in the world today with things like technology taking over a lot of issues is prone to arise. Some engage in teenage sex or even pornography which could also end up affecting their lives negatively with some dropping out of school. This can as well limit them from realizing their dream and forced to perform manual jobs while trying to make a living. Most youths are embrace change despite being exposed to many vices in the society which influence their behavior.
After watching such videos most youths tend to adopt such cultures and have as a result ended up engaging in drugs as well as crime leading to gun violence. The trend is also driven by celebrities who are known to live large in the United States (Science daily n.p). A good example is seen from the way music videos as well as movies as celebrities showcase their wealth thus creating an impression in the minds of many. This also explains why such vices have continued to happen at an alarming rate. It is made worse by the media as corporate companies use provocative adverts which are likely to inspire most youth to conform to such habits in their attempt to maximize their profits. The goal is also intended to hook the teenagers to such products thus can guarantee them regular market. The society has, therefore, witnessed a rise in the number of those suffering under the influence of drugs as well as other related vices and could also end up destroying their life. Some have even lost their lives at a prime age thus rarely lived up to realize their potential (Verial n.p).
In conclusion, the society has, therefore, witnessed cultural deterioration as a majority of the young people now embraces such a culture only subjecting their loved ones to trauma owing to the sudden change taking palace as parents struggle with the teenagers thus has ended up harming relationships. The American economy has not been spared either owing to the rate at which most youths fall prey to such vices. Most employers still struggle to find great employees and have even ended up pushing up the cost of labor with employees now demanding more pay. This is prone to add a lot of pressure on most organizations. Even ones they get employed some are likely to continue carrying on with their behavior and could, in this case, cost them a lot. Even when after graduating to parenthood, this can also harm their relationships and explains why the rate of divorce, as well as violence, has gone high among this generation.
Video Games and Reality
Kyle Chayka in her work, "Why Video Games Are Works of Art "– a response to a Roger Ebert’s assertion that video games do not constitute works of art – endeavors to debunk the celebrated film critic’s assertions. “In Can Video Games Teach Us How to Succeed in the Real World?" (Chayka, 396), Wallace strives at justifying how video games can teach society, especially young people who spent most of their free time playing video games on how to succeed in life. Chayka bases her rebuttal on the understanding that the experiential nature of video games makes them have a near similar effect on the people’s minds just like other forms of art like music and poetry. In her assertions, video games have the potential to trigger aesthetic feelings among the viewers and in turn, provoke emotional reactions – the same ways other forms of art behave with the human mind. Wallace, elsewhere, holds that video games are designed in such a manner that discerning viewers are able to acquire useful life tips from the many hours they spent glued to the games.
While exploring the complex relationship between video games and reality, Chayka and Wallace employ independent yet related approaches. Chayka chooses to shape her opinion by focusing on the observations of Ebert, who posits that video games are designed to be won. She, however, counters Ebert’s views by claiming that winning a video game entails following a narrative arc that takes the player to the end of the game in the same way a movie carries the audience along with to the end. Chayka (396), moreover, winning a video game gives the player the opportunity to explore and roam freely within the game’s landscape – an exercise which is solely powered by aesthetics. Ebert sums up his comments by declaring that no single video games enthusiast has been able to hold up the candle against famed poets and novelists. However, Chayka rubbishes the assertion by drawing a comparison between Wind Waker to Mariner by Coleridge.
Drawing a reference from William Blake’s thoughts on the influence of video games on children, Chayka contends that video games it is important to make video great forms of art. While Ebert, in his argument, further states that video games cannot fall within the realm of art as they are defined by rules and objectives, with players guided by the ultimate goal of winning. This, in his view Chayka (397), is unlike other forms of art where the audience simply enjoys the thrilling of following the events unfolding in the narratives. Chayka, nevertheless, responds by noting games too leave an experiential feeling to the players because they require visuals and music in the course of packaging them. In essence, she believes that video games can equally trigger emotions like happiness, sadness and many more just like poems, songs, and movies.
Wallace finds out that many young people are increasingly getting hooked to video games (Wallace, 390). Against this backdrop, Wallace contends that the prevalence of video games puts them in good stead to be used as avenues of passing useful life tips to the young people. However, he discounts the notion that there is a similarity between virtual reality and actual reality. Additionally, the difference tends to limit the framework of the game. In this sense, Wallace seems to contradict Chayka by arguing that virtual reward cannot be compared to the enjoyment that comes with reality. Significantly, he holds that success of the games is not determined by the artificial models. Rather, they depend on the person finishing the task at hand. While Chayka observes that through video games, one learns how to the importance of realizing the goals of a particular endeavor, Wallace limits the goal to the understanding that the motivation for completing a given responsibility depends entirely on the nature of the game.
Wallace seems to read from the same page with Ebert in the sense that video games cannot be equated to reality. He concedes that life is characterized by both positive and negative experiences. He observed that video games were always but, on the other hand, this did not apply to life (Wallace 393). The main reasoning was that while video games were designed for enjoyment, life is defined by those moments of success and failures. Though he supports that assertion that educators could exploit video games as avenues to convey useful lessons to the people, Wallace thinks that it is important that the audience strives to keep in mind the essential tips they acquire from the games. While Chayka approaches the relationship between video games and reality with an inward-looking perspective, Wallace employs a rather extrinsic angle. This is captured in her emphasis that video games have the potential to enable sample experiences that are often beyond their human definition – an illustration of the aesthetic beauty of the games.
In conclusion, an incisive analysis of the perspectives of Chayka and Wallace on "video games and reality," brings out sharply contrasting points of view. While Chayka approaches to video games from an experiential feeling to the players, Wallace gives it a more considered evaluation. Chayka’s contestation is thus limited in its focus the experience gaining by playing the games in relation to the actual world. Summarily, video games while being great sources of fun and enjoyment, especially young people, they have little significance on the reality.
Chayka, Kyle. “Why Video Games Are Works of Art.”
Wallace, Lane. “Can Video Games Teach Us How to Succeed in the Real World.”
The role of Religion in Business Ethics
The role of Religion in Business Ethics
The idea of whether religious belief is an appropriate grounding for the ethics in business has raised debates and ideological differences among many people. According to Pertsev and Shykhova (2009), a modern business ought to champion a community agenda while seeking to empower such societies as a result of their engagement. Part of the reason this is done is meant to limit the likelihood of conflicts emerging while fighting over the existing resource. This is also prone to encourage mutual growth, therefore, enhancing the experience. Whenever this is done, such markets can also transform into investment hubs owing to the great trade environment created which also encourages the establishment of sound values which are ideal in any trade environment. It is obvious that most people venturing in the business sector whether it may be a small business owner, an employee or even a CEO in a multinational cooperation face moral or ethical dilemmas at in their area of specialization at work. The business behavior ethical content has for a long period been a matter of public concern. Each community according to Pertsev and Shykhova (2009), has its own business culture which has been formed by different factors which are mostly underpinned by religion.
From this argument, it is important to note that various religious views have immensely influenced the ethics of business in the modern world. Such religious beliefs are based on a specific code of rules which many businesses depend on to anchor their ethical guidelines, which correspond with the local communities’ ethical standards while also trying to ensure they conform to the existing rules.
In as far as Christianity is concerned, it is believed that one should refrain from desiring to acquire other peoples goods at a much lesser price than it actually ought to be. In the same spirit, one must not acquire a good price for his/her own wares by extortion. Charity and justice must be exercised if someone is buying from the poor. This therefore means that a purchaser needs to always pay the full price that the commodities are worth to him or her. This notwithstanding, a buyer should not admit anguish of the trader, but can be persuaded by the seller or even loaned in some instance but still ought to pay for such service (Anglo American, 2018).
From the religious perspective, we learn that the principle tenets of the business ethics are embedded in the beliefs and doctrines of religion. Different communities have different business ethics because of the diversity of religion. Chinese, for instance, embrace business ethics and culture that are different from Americans for instance because the Chinese are Buddhists while the Americans is Christians (AngloAmerican, 2018).
In conclusion, the shortcoming of the relationship between business ethics and religion is however that there is no way the thoughts and feelings of the businessmen can be controlled because not all of them are believers. There are pagan businessmen who have not subscribed to any religion. This makes it extremely difficult to follow or embrace the business ethics put in place. Nevertheless, the business ethics tailor-made from the religious beliefs are important since they have immensely streamlined the business fraternity through the inculcation of noble beliefs and culture. Business has been made easier across the world because each person respects the business ethics of different communities by appreciating the different religious diversity across the world. This has encouraged mutual coexistence and the doing of business together across the world (Pertsev and Shykhova, 2009).