Farmageddon is an intriguing movie that portrays the U.S. government as an agent that constantly attacks innocent consumers and farmers with the ill motive of safeguarding selfish corporate interests. The also portrays the irony that purchasing unhealthy commodities, such as cigarettes, is much easier than obtaining essential food stuffs, such as raw milk. Consumer interests and small agribusinesses face a great threat from government agencies that seeks to wipe out active cultivation and consumption of processed commodities from small holder farmers.
In consumer sovereignty, the choice and preference of commodities lie with the customer. This means that the consumer is the ultimate body in charge of the market and hence economy. To a larger extent, the consumer can change the current market conditions since he decides what products to buy and at what cost depending on demand. Farmers, entrepreneurs, and capitalists play a vital role in market dynamics though they activities are regulated by consumers who decide make a purchasing decision. But in a move to protect themselves from consumer exploitation, enterprises collaborate with each other to have a common bargaining power, determine prices, or what to sell. This leaves consumers with little choice other than comply since they need the products. Therefore, consumers can hardly change the market. In a monopolistic economy that involves the provision of basic services, such as public schools, water, infrastructure, and others, consumers hardly have control on the market and dependency theory posits that developing economies are highly dependent on developed states for their economic progress. According to the theory, goods flow from poor underdeveloped nations to the wealthy nations, making the latter wealthier and the former poorer. For this reason, the poor nations do not have sovereignty over the goods they produce since they fear economic sanctioning by their richer trading partners, hence no consumer sovereignty in poor countries. Richer states perpetuate dependence by various strategies, such as politics, education, sporting, infrastructure development and others, to exercise absolute sovereignty over poor countries.
Distributive justice is concerned with fairness in associated with distribution of resources and outcome decisions. The small farmers in the film hold the need distributive theory. This is because they require assistance from the government made stakeholders in provision of inputs, resources, and market for their goods. These farmers should receive more attention than established agribusinesses to help improve their economic viability and alleviate their status. In contrast, the government uses the power distributive theory in which it recognizes highly established agribusinesses, giving them more attention than the smaller farmers.
Corporates have the responsibility of ensuring that the products they produce serve the specific needs of their clients. In addition, they should ensure that these production uses safe materials, conserve the environment. Other corporate responsibilities include job creation and involvement in socio-economic developmental activities. Corporates should involve in provision of resources, personnel, or funding for social causes that are worthwhile to spur societal progress and development. Besides, corporates should not exploit consumers by inconsistently altering prices to their advantage or production of substandard products. Consumer’s responsibilities include being aware of product quality before buying, and speaking out in case a product is not conforming to the required standard, or overpriced unnecessarily. Additionally, consumers should be ethical in their practices to ensure fair buying and selling practice, thus avoid exploitation of other consumers. They should also be responsible for their environment by properly disposing waste and protection of natural environments. Other responsibilities include speaking out in case of exploitation and gathering all information regarding a product.
Date of Submission
Mobile Commerce: annotated bibliography
Wu, Jen-Her, and Shu-Ching Wang. "What Drives Mobile Commerce?: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Revised Technology Acceptance Model." Information & Management 42.5 (2005): 719-729. Print.
Evaluation of technology involved a research study and the confirmatory results show acceptance on the use of mobile commerce from the consumer perspective.
MICROSOCPIC MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
Microsocpic Magnetic Resonance Imaging: research and new technologies
Scientists much time in the laboratories and research institution in improving the efficiency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging technology (MRI). The results of the research are leading in improving MRI sensitivity in detecting glioma, tumour imaging, and breast cancer diagnosis. In addition, scientists are discovering support tools and utilizing knowledge on random motion of the molecule in increasing the speed of MRI scans. Advanced techniques in using microscopic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are classical neuroimaging sequencing that requires usage of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery in the cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequence detects signals in situations of oedema and hypertension situations. All the MRI abnormalities can get detected within three hours of scanning. In addition, the advanced techniques in using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging help in the detection of genetic attacks of the brain, heart, and nerves. Some diseases have multiple causative agents that lead to fast proliferation of the disease (University of Alberta, 2013).
The multi-factorial causative agents have similar genetic codes that lead in multiple attacks. New research and the advancement in MRI techniques have led to emergence of new knowledge that allows detection of the genetic code that triggers proliferation and metastatic process of the disease. A study from the University of Alberta (2013), School of Medicine, discovered a new technique that led in improvement of diagnostic tool of treating Fabry disease. The T1 mapping technique detects severity of heart damage and detects all the microscopic changes that take place in the heart. In the previous techniques, it was difficult to differentiate the Fabry disease and other heart diseases through use of MRI technique. The doctors and consultants had to employ other techniques in determining the Fabry disease. The new technique of detecting the genetic code of Fabry disease of the heart is efficient on early stages of the disease. In some situations, individuals carrying Fabry disease may show no symptoms hence the need of T1 mapping technology (University of Alberta, 2013).
Cardiologists in Alberta are employing the T1 mapping test on every patient possessing characteristics of genetic Fabry disease. Technology is leading in designing of MRI equipments differently in order to enhance patient comfort and also improve the image output (Howell, 2012). MRI with high resolution results in quality images and little exposure on radiations. The technologists in the MRI laboratory have an easy time in dealing with patient and analyzing the images of the MRI scans. The new MRI machines have the capability of scanning multiple images and giving output in chronological order. The new microscopic MRI machines are getting designs that best fit the laboratory applications. Different laboratories use the microscopic MRI machines in conducting different scans hence the manufactures designing the equipments according to the client's specifications.
Research by Howell (2012) established that magnetic resonance imaging machines are shifting from 1.5T to 3.5T. The 3.5T machines have strong magnetic field strength leading in increase, in efficiency of the MRI machine. In addition, the 3.5T MRI machines are economical and save cost on the patient. The machines are produce images at a fast rate and offer good health system. The 3.5T machines are best in scanning musculoskeletal images since they have the capability of differentiating the cartilage lesions giving good details. The time of producing the scans was relatively short in comparison with the 1.5T MRI machines. Advancement from 1.5T to3.5T does not require a change of instrumentation room since the size and weight of the machine are relatively small. It is beneficial for companies and also on the clients in the installation of the 3.5T microscopic MRI machines. Patient comfort on 3.5T machine improves the quality of the output image since it reduces the noise during scanning process. In addition, the 3.5T machines can have a connection with more than one monitor and enhance real-time scanning process (Howell, 2012).
Saliou et al. (2014) study established that the new MRI radiologist technology has the capability of viewing other lesions present during scanning process that were not part of the diagnostic procedure. The software running under the 3.5T MRI machines are capable of manipulating the parameters in the scan program and enhance high resolution. The 3.5T MRI machine has the capability of removing the motion artifacts leading in clear visualization of the image. The advantage of few artifacts leads in treating the high number of acute stroke cases that are common in United States. Advanced technology in MRI is leading in integrating quantitative-measurements of NeuroQuant that help in detecting images of the hippocampus (Saliou et al. 2014). The advanced microscopic MRI has capability of measuring the cognitive decline rate. The scans show decrease in hippocampus in situation of cognitive decline and the measurements are necessary for the analysis procedures. The analysis steps involve recording the measurement of the hippocampus shrinkage in comparison with the original size at the beginning of the scans alongside with time intervals.
The new technology is leading in the design of MRI machines that will utilize liquid nitrogen instead of helium so that the number of machine in the radiology laboratory can reduce. Time Medical, a company in China is working towards the development of superconducting coils that can withstand high temperature liquid nitrogen under the presence of big magnets. Liquid nitrogen is inexpensive and will save the cost in running MRI scans. A liquid nitrogen MRI system is the current technological advancement that does not require much money for installation (Saliou et al. 2014). The researcher and scholars have a passion of giving the best technology to the society. The advanced technology is leading in the development of MRI machines that are fast in scanning especially in three-dimensional images. The microscopic MRI machines are essential in detecting brain tumours and the size of the tumour.
Advancement in microscopic MRI is leading in production of brain scans in one and half second instead of typical two to three seconds. In addition, the MRI machines can give the scan in different magnification allowing specificity and accuracy in detecting the tumour or lesion. Neuroscience studies are advancing since the improvement of MRI machines and are leading in capturing more details in the brain scans than ordinary MRI machines. The advantages of having the three-dimensional scans are in development of a therapeutic measure that targets the tumour without injuring other brain cells. The accuracy in studying brain circuitry system is improving leading in identification of complex connection circuits that are detectable through the use of microscopic MRI. Further studies and advancement in neurology research are leading in the identification of how the brain connections work, and getting their establishment in the brain system.
The importance of having MRI that has fast capturing mechanism of scans is in the detection of dynamic activities that take place in the brain. The microscopic MRI machines have the capability of detecting more than sixty images in a scan period of five seconds. Repeated images give a clear view of the dynamism taking place in the brain resolution of the MRI machine that utilizes the Schrodinger equation. The combination of the images helps in making a comprehensive conclusion and accuracy in diagnostic procedures. The MRI machines that can make a seven times faster scans than ordinary machines are helpful in framing information in the brain that would be difficult in capturing. The first mechanism of scanning is a combination of echo planar imaging (EPI) from the knowledge of intrinsic spin and proton spin (Saliou et al. 2014). Magnetic resonance imaging utilized the magnetic field and radio waves in image production (Young, 2009).
The new types of microscopic MRI are utilizing functional MRI (fMRI) in image development. The oxygen property engages in neurological activity and fuels the echo planar imaging. The magnetic fields from fMRI cut through the brain developing a hydrostatic magnetic environment. The rate of movement accelerates leading in fast movement of atoms and absorbance hence fast development of images (Saliou et al. 2014). The echo planar imaging reverses the processing leading in a continuous process of developing images in chronological order. The combination of simultaneous image refocusing (SIR) and echo planar imaging (EPI) result in the development of three-dimensional images of neuro-axonal fibres (University of Alberta, 2013). The improved MRI technique results in development of images from multiband excitation of multiple coil detections. Combination of previous techniques in MRI are resulting in developed of advanced microscopic MRI machines that have the capability of running brain scans within a movement of four-hundred milliseconds (Young, 2009).
Technology advancement is leading in improving the sensitivity of MRI machines. The technique of improving sensitivity of MRI involves increasing the spins of magnetic fields and aligning of radiofrequency fields. The sensitivity aspect of MRI was leading in detection of viral particles present in the body cells (Young, 2009).
The physics involved in MRI functioning
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) determines the presence of hydrogen protons by passing them through a strong magnetic field so that the nuclear spins are partially polarized and excited by appropriately tuned radiations of radio frequency. As results, weak radio frequency radiation is detected from them due to the magnetic interaction (Schulz et al., 2011). The frequency of the signal from the proton is relative to the magnetic field strength it is subjected to during relaxation process. With regard to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) used in medical applications, the image of a cross-section of the scanned tissue is made by generating a well calibrated gradient of magnetic field across the tissue so as to create a certain value of magnetic field to be associated with the specific location of the tissue. Due to the fact that proton signal frequency is relative to the magnetic field, a portion of the proton signal frequency is then assigned to a given location in the tissue. This gives the information needed to map out the tissue with respect to the number of protons present. Since the density of the proton changes according to the tissue type, a certain amount of contrast is obtained to image the organs and other variations in the given tissue.
MRI use proton NMR to image concentration of protons which are mostly found in water hence this makes MRI suitable for imaging of soft tissue found in the brain, eyes and other soft tissues in the body. The image obtained from an MRI scan shows dark on the background meaning the bone of the skull has fewer protons as well as the sinus cavities.
Howell, W. (2012, October 29). MRI Advancements Improve Image Quality, Patient Comfort.
Radiology News, Features, Case Studies. Diagnostic Imaging.
Saliou, G., Théaudin, M., Vincent, C. J. L., & Souillard-Scemama, R. (2014). Principles of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In Practical Guide to Neurovascular Emergencies (pp. 1-12). Paris: Springer.
Schulz V, Torres-Espallardo I, Renisch S et al. (2011). Automatic, three-segment, MR-based
Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
April 4, 2014
For the last two decades, remarkable improvements in microscopic resolution using living organisms has been achieved in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques where extensive studies have been done through the study of animal models representing human diseases. Normal MRI procedures are used frequently in clinical studies and clinical practice of neurological diseases in humans. Therefore, there is a need to analyze major improvements in MRI technologies over the years because the MRI has been a critical tool in medical science. In 1991, it was proposed that an alternative method of detection in MRI called magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) be analyzed with the goal of achieving a single spin sensitivity and 3-D imaging. This paper seeks to explain the purpose and functioning of an MRI, the physics behind its functioning, its advantages as compared to a CT scan and improvements of MRI to MRI force microscopy (MRFM).
Key words: MRI, improvements, imaging, neurological, technologies
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Course name and number
Understanding market structures
Description of market structures
Market structures are generally described as the number of firms in the market producing similar goods and services. Because of interrelationships and interdependency in the market, market structures greatly influence the different behaviors of individual firms in the market. They help to determine how a firm can price its goods and services. These include four basic market structures that are namely, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and the monopoly structure.
In perfect competition, the market structure is characterized by existence of several players i.e. several buyers and several sellers. Since the players are very many in the market, no one seller can make a decision that can have an impact on the market. The market deals with products that are similar and undifferentiated. The industry thus has products that are homogenous in nature with pure standardization, so that all players sell identical goods and services. The market is so large that the activities of an individual buyer or seller do not affect the market. The pricing and the production levels in this market depends on the demand and supply of the market. These make all the industry players to be price takers. This market structure together with its partner market monopoly is called the extreme forms of market. In this market the products are similar and several and that is the reason why there are several substitutes in the market. This is the reason why when a single firm in the industry raises its price, customers or consumers will shift to the rivals for a better price for a similar service. Therefore the firm loses its share of the market by a slight increase of the prices (Clement, 2013). It also has free entry and exit features as no entry barrier exist. Pure/perfect market structures are generally rare in real world situation. The model is used in the analysis of industries where players exhibit pure competition.
This is a very unique market structure where the producers cannot maintain spare capacity. By spare capacity the economists mean that the firms have ability to exploit the resources in the industry but not to exhaust them one hundred percent. But in the case of perfect market where profitability is critical to the firms ensure that they don’t work with spare capacity and hence utilize the resources fully.
Some markets are described as pure monopoly. In this scenario, the industry has only one producer whose products lack close substitutes. These are mainly firms that offer public utilities or professional sport championships. The market thus has only one seller, making the seller to be synonymous with the industry. In monopoly, there is a single supplier in the whole market. For the purposes of regulation, for instance, in America a monopoly exists when a single firm has a control of more than twenty five percent to itself. Monopolies form due to a variety of reasons that includes; exclusive ownership of resources that are scarce is by one supplier, for instance, windows are Microsoft’s brand with which they have monopoly power. Producers may have patents and copyrights over ideas and designs that last for very many years. During this time the exclusive use of ideas and design is with the inventor. The major characteristics of monopoly are that they can be able to maintain supernormal profits in the long run. For all the firm’s profits are maximized when MC=MR. Secondly we can say that with no close substitutes the monopolists can derive super normal profits all the year (Clement, 2013).
Course name and number
Help the mayor understand market structures
Description of market structures
Market structures are generally described as the number of firms in the market producing similar goods and services and the market structures greatly influence the different behaviors of individual firms in the market. They help to determine how a firm can price its goods and services. These include four basic market structures that are namely, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and the monopoly structure.
Major branches of Judaism Today
Judaism religion is based on Abrahamic faith, with its origin being the Middle East. The religion was founded by Moses, though the believers trace their belief to Abraham time. The religion currently has over 13 million believers, most of them being in Israel, Germany and United States. The religion is founder on firm belief in one God, with whom Abraham entered a covenant on their behalf, and worshiped in synagogues.
Judaism has several branches today. The Orthodox Judaists believe that Moses was given both written and oral laws at Mount Sinai. The Torah is believed to contain 613 commandments. The believers observe the Jewish laws, but some integrate them with modernity. Some faithful’s however are too strict in their faith, dress uniquely and live in seclusion. The conservative Judaists argue that the Torah was directly transmitted to man via God (The Jewish Outreach Institute, 1). The Torah thus has human elements. While these laws should be adaptive, the true values of Judaism should not change. The Reform Judaism is based on the belief that the writing of the Torah was done by different people before being combined. As such, the Jewish Laws are not binding. The group however observes some Jewish values and ethics. The Reconstructionist Judaism is based on the argument that Judaism is a religion of civilization that is ever evolving. As such, there should be no personalization of the deity. The Torah is thus observed not because it is God given but because of its rich cultural teachings. Lastly, there is the Humanistic Judaism. This branch was founded by Rabbi Sherwin Wine in Michigan in 1960s. It is based on contemporary human life ((The Jewish Outreach Institute, 1). Religion is viewed as a way of life that is devoid of some supernatural authority. Religion should help man to achieve dignity, self-esteem and humanistic values.
Contract and directors duties
Q1) Is ABC bound under the loan contract?
The loan contract binds ABC because it’s a Limited Proprietary Company abbreviated as Pty Ltd. Under the Australian Corporations Act 2001 Section 45A (1), a proprietary company compares to a Limited Liability Company. Under this section, such a business is treated as a separate legal entity (Michael, 132). The company can be sued and also can sue. In addition, the shareholders of a Pty Ltd have limited liability. In case of debts and losses the member's accountability with their personal assets is limited. The concept of corporate entity gives the company separate liability from the owners. In this case, ABC is bound by the loan contract because Sammy the Managing Director was acting on its behalf during the loan contract with Elderado bank on 30th September 2011. Section 134 of the Corporations Act outlines that the business does not exist physically, but certain individuals act on its behalf. Sammy represented the company and thus the bank will sue the company and not Sammy. Under the Banking Act of 1933, a bank has the right to press charges if the party involved breaches the contract by failing to honor their obligation. ABC Board had denied their liability for a loan and thus breached their contract with the bank through Sammy. The bank was not aware of the contract terms between Sammy and ABC thus has no right to sue Sammy. In the bank contract terms, she was just acting on behalf of ABC and was not a personal entity, but described the business. As a shareholder, she has limited liability as provided by the Corporations Act.
On the other hand, Section 516 of the Corporations Act 2001 states that the shareholders liability, especially the director, in the case of debts and losses can be unlimited (Tomasic, 23). Meaning that, under some conditions, the shareholders can be held liable in cases of debts and losses incurred by the company. Some of these conditions include; when a company is unable to pay the debt at its due date and when there is a breach of duty by the director. In this case, the company’s Board had declined liability of the loan and thus Sammy was liable. Sammy had breached her duties outlined in Section 588G of the Corporations Act 2001. The Act outlines that the director should act honestly with care and diligence and should avoid business trading when it’s unable to pay its debts and when conflict of interest occurs. In this case, Sammy did not act with diligence. Ignorantly Sammy made a contract with the bank yet her contract to work with ABC had expired. Additionally, she was only authorized to contract a loan not more than $20000 yet she contracted $30000 without the Board's approval. In the process, Sammy got entangled in the phenomena of conflict of personal and company’s interests. She led the company into a trading it cannot be able to account for thus she is liable for the debt recovery.
In conclusion, despite the fact that the loan contract binds ABC, it may not be liable for the recovery. Sammy is likely to be held accountable for the loan recovery by ABC. Section 516 and 179 of the Corporations Act clearly shows that she acted against her duties and surpassed the shareholder liability protection. ABC has the legal authority to sue Sammy because her breach of the director's duties is the cause Elderado binds ABC with the loan contract.
Q2 (a) Does Eric have any liability in case Plant Well becomes insolvent?
According to Corporation Act 2001, Section 588G of the Australian Law, the following requirements are explored. Firstly, the role of Eric in the business and secondly, his part to the Plant Well according to section 588G.
According to Corporation Act section 588G, any director major responsibility is to act and further with the company's interest as a whole (Tomasic,45). The duty of a director is to further the interests of a company, ensure that the resources are applied diligently and the interests of all stakeholders are protected. Corporate governance requires that directors are ethically proactive and focus on value based principles as opposed to narrow interests of the directors. In connection to the Act, the director should not act for an improper purpose such as acting without being careful and diligent. The directors must use the company resources as authorized by their agents- the shareholders .Their duty is to retain the peace of the business by avoiding the conflicts of interests. The actions of the director should qualify those provided by the company’s constitution by full disclosure and approval. The law also provides that a director should be liable to solvency of the company if she/he were aware of the company's debt at the time it occurred. Additionally a director can be held liable when a person holding a similar position observes that the company is insolvent without the director’s awareness. Bankruptcy of the directors show that they are not able to manage their financial affairs effectively, as such cannot be trusted to control and manage the resources of the third parties such as the shareholders.
Charlie, Eric and Delta are the only directors and shareholders of Plant Well Ltd. Therefore, any decision undertaken by any of them concerning Plant Well, it should be agreement by all of them. Charlie, who manages day-to-day of the business, can make a decision and be liable for their outcome. After noticing that the business profits have deteriorated, he did not inform the others about his decision of moving to another premise. He looked for it alone and did not care about the financial ability of the business. He convinced Delta and Charlie to take the opportunity and relocate to a new premise for he was sure it was going to improve the company’s profitability. According to section 588G of the corporation Act, Charlie is responsible in the case of any misfortune that the business suffered because he acted without the consent of Eric and Delta. Acting without the consent of a party entails misrepresentation and impersonation. According to the law, such actions not only entail breach of trust, but can also be criminally chargeable if some fraud and forgery took place.
In conclusion, Eric has the right to compensation even if he also acts as a director. Charlie acted irrespective of the other directors’ views thus prompting a reason to Eric's compensation. According to Section 588G, Eric and Delta are entitled to compensation for any loss due to Charlie irresponsible actions for not consulting them in deciding to acquire a new premise. Secondly, Eric has the right to sue Charlie because he took the decision to alone irrespective of their views. The suit should focus on proof of the alleged misappropriations and loss suffered. The duty and burden of proof lies with the wronged people. If the proof is not done sufficiently, with credible evidence and proof, those whole file the case may lose in a court of law.
(b) i). Delta has equal responsibility to Plant Well Ltd like the other directors. Responsibility in corporate governance requires that each party owes a duty to the other. Failure to honor the agreements or misuse a privilege or trust contravenes the principle of corporate agency. She should have asked for more clarification about the relocation. It is clear that Charlie made Delta accept the idea of relocation because of his level of education. Delta was managing the nursery that was the main income generator to the business; therefore, it’s advisable that takes responsibility like any other director. Section 588G states the duty of any director thus Delta should take responsibility.
b) ii). According to section 588G of the Australian corporate law, Delta is liable for compensation since Charlie who oversaw the company’s day-to-day activity did not care about Delta’s level of education. The aim of the Act is to correct a wrong done and compensate the aggrieved party. Under section 588G, it is clearly stated that, the director should be liable of any debt that a company incurs. Charlie was liable for the company’s misfortune for he did not notify other directors about his plans. Therefore, Delta can sue Charlie for compensation.
Murray, in the article, Typologies of young resisters and desisters, Murray (2009) looked at what makes young people resist engaging in criminal activities, and why it is necessary to rehabilitee the criminal offenders. The author argued that there are innocent’s resisters who resist crime because of negative ramifications of the act and the streetwise resisters who can engage in crime and survive because of their experience. The article focuses on how to help the reformed characters and quasi-resisters to overcome the resister identities and be reformed.
I agree with Murray. Assisting the juvenile offenders grow out of their bad ways of crime should be encouraged. The role of the criminal justice is to help the offenders recover and reform. Helping the juvenile offenders becomes crime ‘desisters’ form the basis for building secure and safer neighborhoods and communities.
The author argued that there should restrain and no physical force when handling juveniles. The young offenders should be treated with a less amount of force than their adult counterparts, for the obvious reason that their physical system is still fragile in a way (Steinberg, 2005).
According to Murray, isolation times for juvenile offenders are also shortened in contrast to adults. Close observation and monitoring are usually encouraged in most delinquents, as opposed to the isolation that is imposed in adult offenders (Murray, 2009). In the agreement to this, I believed that juvenile crimes now encompass a significant proportion of the criminal activities in totality. The Juvenile offenders require special handling compared to their adult counterparts. This is due to the fact criminal behavior at this period is not necessarily continued into adulthood. They are considered to be in the formative period. Hence, rehabilitation is more essential for use among juvenile offenders than adults. There are variations and differences that exist in the programs utilized for juvenile and adult offenders. These differences exist in terms of staff expertise, environment, restraints and force use, education offered, work and access to inmates.
I also concur with the author on the argument that the staff that handles the juvenile cases needs to be specially trained. Handling adult offenders is much different from handling delinquents. Juvenile offenders are difficult to deal with. They are volatile despite their young age. A different level of expertise is, therefore, required for those who are to deal with juvenile offenders. They should receive special training so as to be able to handle the variations in behavior that is found between the above two groups.
The author called for the creation of proper environmental conditions for the young offenders to help them reform. I agree. The juveniles require sound environmental conditions. Juveniles in custody should be provided with supplies that are adequate for optimal hygiene levels. They should be given more opportunities for showering and change of clothes. This is for the obvious reasons that their immune system is highly susceptible to opportunistic infections as opposed to adults. It is in the same line of thoughts that children are usually supplied with balanced diets, and in some places, snacks at night. Food should never withhold from children because of disciplinary reasons as compared to the adult offenders. Adults wear specific uniforms when in custody, while juveniles may be allowed to wear clothes that are similar to those worn by those in the community.
According to Murray (2009), all juvenile offenders have access to educational services and none should be denied. The argument is factual. The juveniles are entitled to benefit from special education than adults. They are at a stage in life where this education can be employed in later life at a significant advantage than the adults. Delinquents are usually eligible to wide range of education and related services such as evaluation and assessment. In terms of labor while in custody, the range of work that can be done by the two groups is different in most ways. Delinquents cannot be exploited for their labor, in contrast to adults where this often happens. Delinquents should also not be made to work for the personal benefit of any staff member. Simpler tasks are usually issued to juvenile offenders such as cleaning up their cells.
Article 2: Disagree
In the article, The Biological Basis of Crime the author argued that there are somewhat possible links to criminal behaviors and genetic inheritance. The argument is that the organization of the human nervous system plays a role in the genetic inheritance. These inheritances may affect human behavior. Consequently, genes may have an influence on human criminal behavior.
A disagree with the author. I believe that criminal behaviors cannot be inherited by acquired. These are individualistic acts that are controlled by psychological and environmental factors. Crime relate to the development of an individual through the early childhood. I believed that criminal acts result from the lack of sufficient personality. It is on this basis why criminal correction programs under the justice process, psychological counseling is employed so as to correct the erratic behavior. I tend to agree with criminologists who base their arguments on the free will notion. This means that one makes the choice to commit a crime. In this school of thought, the individuals are believed to commit a crime after they have weighed the pros and cons of committing a crime. This theory is closely related to the expected utility principle which upholds that individual act to increase their benefits while reducing their losses.
The author argued that biological criminology explains criminal behavior as a result of an individual’s genetic composition. The theory argues that criminal behavior results from inborn genetic errors and abnormalities. In the 19th century Lombroso argued that the born criminals could be identified by their characteristics which were dictated by their genes (Cottle, 2001). In my view, criminality results adoption of behavior from those whom we interact with. Criminal ideas and behaviors are transmitted from one person to another. I believe that criminal behavior is learned from another individual. I concur with the learning theorists who advocate for punishment that eliminates the rewards for this behavior while increasing the consequences of the same. In the justice systems and programs various aspects are employed that are related to this theory this include segregation of the child from the society and limited access to various entertainment facilities.
The aim of justice system is to right a wrong and not isolate criminals based on their genetic compositions. A core principle justice is the deterrence which stipulates that crime can be controlled by use of punishment that has a precise combination of celerity, severity and certainty. Punishment in the justice system is aimed as rehabilitation of these individuals by helping them make better choices. They are also based on the fact that these individuals are in their formative stage and thus if corrected crime will not continue to adulthood.
The article is closely related to the evolutionary view in which criminal behavior is genetically inherited from one generation to another. The author thus advocates for punishment that aims at correcting the genetic abnormality so as to correct the crime. These forms of punishment include medications, segregation, and elimination of the gene so that it is not passed on to another person. Such arguments are not valid. Crime is an interactive and evolving phenomenon that can be learned and unlearned. The authorities thus need to come up with better strategies to deal with environmentally induced crimes to ensure effective justice system.
It if was not used at trial, explain why you believe it was not introduced into evidence, whether you believe it would have been admissible if introduced and why or why not, and what effect you believe it would have had on the jury’s verdict if the jury had seen it.
The shoe evidence was not used as an exhibit by the court during the trail. Simpson was photographed putting on Bruno Magli’s pair of shoes. The evidence was not considered initially as it was not available. This evidence could have been admissible as it linked the accused to the murder case. Had been introduced initially, it could have affected the trial outcome by offering proof needed to pin down the accused as the real perpetrator of the crimes. It formed new evidence that was viewed as incriminating by the jury. This set of evidence among others was enough proof of Simpson’s culpability for the killings of Brown and Ronald.
There was evidence about Simpson’s alleged confession about the murders. It was argued that Simpson had confessed to Rosie Grier while in jailhouse. He informed Rosie Grier that he had actually killed the two. However, this evidence was not taken into account by the court. However, this evidence was not taken into account during the trial. The jury leading the trial was not allowed look into this or to hear the testimony about the confession. I believe that this evidence would have not been admissible if introduced in the court. The argument is that the jailhouse confession was a mere rumor that could not be verified and tested for proof in a criminal case proceeding. During the trial, this evidence could have no effect on the jury’s verdict if the jury had seen it. Verification of the claims from one person could have not stood the higher requirements of burden of proof from the prosecutor’s side.
Date of Submission
IST 120: Final Exam
Part 1: Appendix A - George Washington’s 110 Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation
Every action done in company ought to be with some sign of respect to those that are present
Every action in a company should show respect on the people present. Respect is greater than love and breeds love. It is difficult to establish the complete history of colleagues in the workplace. Life will be good upon implementing the rule of showing respect since the colleagues will reciprocate the action.
15. Keep your nails clean and short, also your hands and teeth clean yet without showing any great concern for them
I have practices the rule of keeping nails clean and short, cleaning hands and teeth. It pays a lot especially in the working environment. The clients will show respect from personal appearance making one feel important. I have received additional duties that uplift my personal standards through looking at the aspect of cleanliness.
22. Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another thought he were your enemy
It is not good to be happy upon misfortunes of another person in the company. An idiom that “every dog has its day” will be real when the misfortune reciprocates. Life is good upon remaining calm when a colleague has misfortune in the workplace.
23. When you see a crime punished, you may be inwardly pleased; but always show pity to the suffering offender
Delightful emotions occur on visualizing a crime being punished. Inwardly, I was happy to see my colleague receiving heavy punishment towards a crime in the workplace but I never expressed it since she was my friend. She appreciated the pity I showed her hence maintain the friendship.
24. Do not laugh too loud or too much at any public spectacle
A striking performance may be hilarious depending on the level of interpretation. Different human beings have different interpretation mechanism. One will save face upon getting the wrong interpretation of the public spectacle. It is helpful not to laugh loudly as people will have difficulties in learning what is in one’s thoughts.
39. In writing or speaking, give to every person his due title according to his degree and the custom of the place
It happened that I called a professor, “sir” and I almost ruined my course grades. Nowadays I give the every person their title and it has helped in prospering my education and relation with my seniors. In writing, also I give due titles so that I maintain good relationship boundaries.
40. Strive not with your superior in argument, but always submit your judgement to others with modesty
Respecting superiors is helpful according to rule forty. An individual will gain extra knowledge from superiors upon submitting their thoughts in a modest manner. Human thought may lie that one has more knowledge that seniors especially in the academic field.
Is it possible to prove the existence of God?
Is it possible to prove the existence of God?
Every religion is based on a belief in a supreme being that is deemed omnipresent and all powerful. The Christians, Muslims, Hindu and Jews, among other religions are founded on the firm belief of existence of God. However, need not to rely on religious teachings only as authoritative sources to prove existence of God (Hughes, 2005). A proper proof of existence of God should be based on evidence and not mere focus on belief.
While some scholars who believe in nature and scientific evolution of the universe have argued that God may not exist, it researches by many scholars in different fields have proved that God exist. This makes it practical and possible to offer proof on God’s existence. First proof of God’s existence is on the perfection of the earth. The earth has perfect size that makes it possible to hold oxygen and gases. The earth has the perfect distance between it and the sun, making it have the best temperature among other planets. To have such perfections, God must have made the earth to its perfection.
Water can be used in explaining the existence of God. Water has a unique color, odor and taste, and has a perfect environment for survival of many animals, plants and other organisms. Being a universal solvent, it enables the human body to carry minerals and other nutrients in the body perfectly. Its surface tension allows aquatic plants to flow against gravity. The way water system sustains life prove God’s magnificent work (Quine, 1960). While nearly two thirds of water is found on oceans and seas, there is a natural system that allow water flow and rain leading to the existence of fresh water that is used to sustain life. Without a super being, such processes would not have been possible.
The mystery surrounding the origin of the universe explains the existence of God. Many scientists s have argued that the universe came about as a result of huge explosion, the Big Bang. Scholars such as Robert Jastrow had argued that the universe did not exist before, but came about as a result of some cosmic explosion. No scientific explanation has been given to clarify the cause of the explosion (Hughes, 2005). Evidently, the universe did not exist. Since scientists have failed to explain the origin of such explosions, it can be deduced God created the universe. The uniformity of laws of nature also serves as pointers to the existence of God. Life appears uncertain, but order of nature does not change. For example, hot coffee left in a cup will always get cold; the rotation of the earth is constantly 24 hours while the speed of light never changes. The orderly nature of the universe and its reliability show that there is invisible programing of the systems. Richard Feynman, electrodynamics scholars once argued that nature demonstrates a mathematical mystery with unique rules that never go astray.
The uniqueness of the universe laws and ability of nature to remain constant remain a mystery (Quine, 1960). The concept of motion where things seem to be on perfect motion and being set in such motions by another ting show that God exists. The perfect shape of the universe that lead to balance of atmospheric pressure, oceanic water and objects show that these things were perfectly put in place by something. Coupled with mystery surrounding the exact origin of the universe or explosions that created, evidence proves that God exists. These facts make it possible to offer solid proof on God’s existence.
When is Irredentist Movements Justified?
Irredentist movements refer to the process of advocating for recovery of a territory that historically, culturally, or ethnically related or affiliated to a particular nation. Usually the belief is that a particular territory previously belonged to another country and should thus be annexed for ethnic, cultural, or historical reasons. Ambrosio indicates that the justification of irredentist claims is usually because a particular ethnic group or territory historically formed a significant part of the claiming nation (23). It may also be because at a particular time in history, a given portion of the irredentist nation was part of the larger country. Irredentism is distinguishable from expansionism. Expansionism involves territorial claims and annexation irrespective of whether a particular territory or ethnic group belonged to the nation in the first instance. Irredentism involves the reclamation of a territory or ethnic region that initially rightfully belonged to a particular nation.
Irredentist movements may be justified in several scenarios. A given ethnic group or territory may currently be or historically was rightfully under a particular nation, at a certain point, and formed a significant proportion of the particular reclaiming nation. In this case, the goal is usually to exist as a unified nation that shares particular ethnic, cultural, or political background, as well as integrate or assimilate different groups that live in the particular country. Most nations historically engaged in the assimilation of other smaller related ethnic or territorial regions to form larger boundaries (Ambrosio 69). Usually, the irredentist nations acquire the prefix ‘greater’ after a given annexation or successful reclamation of a particular regions, hence, for example, Greater Russia, Greater Greece, Greater Albania, Greater Serbia and others (Kornprobst 42). Formation of a single nation under one boundary is an important justification for irredentist movements. Some nations even seek to expand their historical boundaries irrespective of whether the particular claimed ethnic group formed a significant majority or not. An example is the irredentist claims by the former USSR conservatives, including Vladimir Putin, to reclaim Ukraine, Finland, Poland, and the Baltic States, which formed the larger Soviet region. Another example is the Hungarian right wing extremists who claimed territorial boundaries extending to whole of Pannonian Basin (Herb & Kaplan 86).
Another justification is that nations may launch irredentist claims following a mistreatment, violence, or sidelining in political, sociocultural, or economic developments as the minority group. This often results from a majority leading the minority ethnic group unequally, because they initially belonged to a different nation. It may also culminate when the minority ethnic group is in control of government business, leading the majority who historically belong to a different nation (Herb & Kaplan 78). These scenarios prompt the irredentist nations to raise claim of their historical ethnic groups. Often, they also contribute by supporting the activities of their ethnic groupings, known as external involvement. It usually involves a neighboring state getting involved in the row and openly declares that its intent is to protect the rights of its historical ethnic minority within the particular region. In most cases, the minority in the given country is the majority ethnic group in the supporting nation. Strong ethnic ties create emotional bonding that closely binds the two supporting groups. Often the neighboring nations involvement, whether explicit, suspected, or implied, is radical than simply protecting and supporting the minority interests under the umbrella of solving disputes (Kornprobst 485). Some irredentist nations propel their intents by using language as their defense (Priestly 48).
Ambrosio Thomas. Irredentism: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics. Westport,
Connecticut, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. 2001. Print.
Herb Guntram, H. & Kaplan David, H. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2008. Print
Kornprobst Markus. "Dejustification and Dispute Settlement: Irredentism in European Politics."
European Journal of International Relations (2007): 459-487. Print.
Kornprobst Markus. Irredentism in European Politics: Argumentation, Compromise, and Norms.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2008. Print
Priestly Tom. "Linguistic propaganda against perceived irredentism." International Journal of
Applied Linguistics 9.1 (1999):37–75
Involvement in Nursing/Healthcare Issues and Politics
Involvement in Nursing/Healthcare Issues and Politics
Why Nurses are Interested in Political Processes Related to Nursing
Nurses have continued to increase their interest in political process relating to their profession to take charge of affairs that affect their daily activities. As individuals who handle patients and their families, nurses can explain better the problems, they face (Russell, &Fawcett, 2005). Nurses have also realized that legislative processes touching on healthcare, directly affects them, hence a need to be involved in all the relevant processes. It is also imprudent to overlook the primary people involved in healthcare management when formulating healthcare policies. Nurses also want to establish a powerful body that can influence legislators to formulate sound policies based on their numbers, influence, expertise, and sensitive occupation (Phillips, 2003).
Why Nurses are Generally Reluctant to Become Politically Involved
In nursing profession, decision-making and ethical dilemmas are a common and difficult situation. Nurses can sometimes feel an obligation to go out of their way to assist patients in whatever ways, for example, attending to patients who have not paid their bills in full because their lives could be in extreme danger (Sylvia & Janice, 2004). Consequently, many nurses feel they should dedicate their lives, work, and time to caring for patients rather than waste time politicking (Smith, 2003). In addition, nurses may feel reluctant hoping that their representatives will address their issues on their behalf; hence, they should concentrate on addressing patient concerns.
Nursing Profession’s Responsibility to Politics
Nurses are obliged to take key roles in shaping the politics entailed in legislating healthcare policies because they are the primary people who understand the problems faced by their patients, families, and the profession. Smith (2003) therefore, advices that nurses seek all relevant information pertaining to their profession in regards to politics, to be able to contribute positively to the country’s development. For example, issues of nurses’ shortage directly affects nurses negatively as well as quality of services offered. It is the nurses’ responsibility to lobby, through their representatives, for reasonable staff numbers, working conditions, as well as better terms regarding their professions (Sylvia & Janice, 2004; Phillips, 2003). In addition, nurses have the responsibility of proposing policies that will enhance patient care, including insurance covers and Medicare plans, since they understand patient concerns better.
Necessary Strategies to Increase Nurses’ Involvement
It is imperative to influence nurses’ perspectives on political affairs positively to initiate thought processes aimed at changing views. According to Smith (2003), it is important to educate and demonstrate to nurses the crucial roles they play in shaping the healthcare policies. It is also imperative to ensure that nurses know their legislators, senators, and representatives. Moreover, nurses need in defining their position on political affairs, as well as explain how they can get involved in positive contributions to increase their involvement (Smith, 2003).
Discuss the importance of The Future of Nursing (the IOM Report) for the advanced practice nurses’ role in the political process related to health care policy.
According to the IOM report, the U.S. has the opportunity of transforming the health care system, with nurses playing an important role in this area (IOM, 2010). That notwithstanding, the power needed to improve the healthcare policy should be the duty of all relevant stakeholders including professional associations, government, businesses, the insurance industry, as well as the government. Consequently, this will lead into the provision of affordable, seamless, and quality healthcare accessible to all individuals coupled with positive outcomes. The IOM report provided four important messages worth deliberation (IOM, 2010). One, nurses should have the opportunity to practice their education and training to the full extent. Secondly, they should achieve high education and training standards following an improved system of education. Thirdly, nurses need to become full partners with other healthcare physicians and professionals in redesigning and transforming healthcare in the U.S. Lastly is that policy making and workforce planning need better data collection techniques following improved information infrastructure (IOM, 2010).
Phillips, R. (2003). Health Care Policy: The Nurse's Crucial Role.Viewpoint, 25(3), 3-4.
Russell, G.E., & Fawcett, J. (2005). The Conceptual Model for Nursing and Health Policy Revisited. Policy Politics Nursing Practice, 6(4), 319-326.
Smith, K. (2003). Health Care Policy: The Nurse's Crucial Role.2003 Nurse in Washington Internship (NIWI) workshop sponsored by the Nursing Organizations Alliance (NOA). Retrieved from: www.aaacn.org/health-care-policy-nurses-crucial-role
Sylvia, D., & Janice, L. (2004). Light at the End of the Tunnel: A Vision for an Empowered Nursing Profession across the Continuum of Care. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 212–216
Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2010). The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Retrieved from: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health.aspx
Date of Submission
Educational programs present in UTA are very relevant to careers present in Texas after successful completion of the program. Political science is a booming program in the recent years, in UTA and successful graduates are participating in government duties. Student under the political science program should be efficient in their articulation and explain prevailing ideas in a simple language that even a non-scholar can understand the situation. To obtain simplicity of the complex data requires integration of many academic fields including English-literature concepts (Mead 1). The challenging career of a political scientist is leading in a new turn for scholars and consultants in the political field. Political Science is diverse and has many fields of study that are essential in the efficient implementation of duties. Mead (2) argues that, integrating English and literature in political science will be helpful in aspects of correct articulation, analysis, summarizing and connecting historical features with the current political situation.
The duties present in political science career include political advisors, political analyst, diplomacy duties, participating in State dues, representing the president or the country in international functions, and being the government spokesperson. In addition, a political scientist has the ability in representing the country or the president in a Court of Law. English and literature courses teach on the semantics, phonology, articulation, syntax and theoretical linguistics. According to Horowitz (1), a political scientist needs the English knowledge background especially in making press briefing statements or clarifying a contentious issue that is affecting the government liabilities. It will be difficult for a political scientist to make an analysis of a government manifesto without prior knowledge on English semantics. In many situations, a political scientist collaborates with a linguistic person in order to assist in making comprehensive statements. UTA administration and students would not like to have a situation of its political science graduates being incompetent in the assigned duties due to poor grammar and presentation of work (Horowitz 2).
The political science program in UTA needs to be admirable and meet the requirements of the available careers. Prestigious scholarships on political sciences should be beneficial in research and career development. Political scientists should remain relevant in the market and create avenues of prosperity on the clients they represent. A good political scientist should save revenue of the country and the employing institution. This is because a political scientist has the necessary qualifications of efficiently representing the institution. In some situations, some companies employ a linguistic, a lawyer, public relations agent, a sociologist and political scientist. Many employees in an institution doing similar job are an indication of incompetent political analyst. English and literature will help in making a competent political analyst since it will eliminate the duties of a linguist, lawyer, and diplomacy department (Hu and Kuh 325).
Personal observation on political science students in UTA is that they are proud of their program and they practice the new concept learnt on a daily basis. For example, political science student observing a fight between two students will stop the fight and solve the differences among the students in a diplomatic manner. This is an indication that an additional course on English and literature will results to students gaining skills in language development in the diplomatic activities (Horowitz 2). The political science students will have a good morphology and phonology of word structure in the daily communication after successful completion of English-literature classes. Language is essential especial for UTA students that come from non-English speaking countries. The students from the non-English speaking countries will have a significant benefit since they will be integrated into the Texas community and also in the Unites States (Horowitz 5).
The advantage of advancing in the literature classes as a political scientist student is gaining skills of relating the historical events with the current events. The UTA students from native English speaking countries have a clear concept of English but minimal literature knowledge and application. Literature plays a significant role in mastering the concepts within the historical events and the current events within the political setting. The political science students have an ease in identifying the similarities and differences on two different scenes after successful completion of literature classes. The literature knowledge is equally efficient for a political scientist in studying law books and interpretation of the law. Political scientists may take the roles of a lawyer and represent an institution. References from the past events and knowledge of past scholars is necessary for political scientists in order to have the winning power (Hu and Kuh 329).
Majority of UTA students get frustrated after consecutive failure of literature classes. Failure of the course does not mean it is difficult but the level of understanding varies among students. It is a challenge on political Science students to consider taking literature lessons and considering the lessons as a boost in the career advancement. In addition, grammar, tenses, and assimilative studies are part of advancement in literature classes. The political science students and professionals will sharpen knowledge on correct grammar, develop insightful thoughts, and above all develop a passionate feeling towards political science careers. Personal thoughts and ideas are necessary for political science career; they enhance growth and development of large concepts within the institution. Some judgments within the political science career do not rely on experience but personal thoughts and ideas. Prior knowledge of literature analysis will be helpful in making appropriate judgment.
Media companies and giant technological companies have positions of political scientist. Proper articulation of words, auditory phonetics, syntax, and semantics are among the requirements for a political scientist in the available vacancies. According to Hu and Kuh (332), the duties of political scientist in the media and technological companies involve giving press briefing on the country’s political situation and current status of the technology in technological companies. The speech should be articulate in that the words are audible and the sound should depict what audience will hear. The English and literature classes will perfect these requirements. The learning process is not easy; it requires dedication and a lot of time in mastering the main concepts of English-literature that are relevant in the political science career. The process of policy making requires presentation of different thoughts, ideas, and integrating them into a comprehensive article. A political scientist should have ease in integrating the essential ideas without further consulting after studying English and literature (Hu and Kuh 333).
In conclusion, intelligent diversity is essential in the current competitive market. The available careers and employers aim at saving costs through creation of positions that combine more than one speciality. A good example is a political science position in media stations. Political scientists with prior knowledge of linguistics, diplomacy and political behaviour have a high chance of getting a job than an individual with knowledge on political behaviour alone. The graduates of political science from UTA have advantage of getting careers abroad and in other States within the United States of America (Mead 4).
Horowitz, David. "In Defense Of Intellectual Diversity." Chronicle of Higher Education 50.23
(2004): 1-5. Print.
Hu, Shouping, and George D. Kuh. "Diversity Experiences And College Student Learning And
Personal Development." Journal of College Student Development 44.3 (2003): 320-334. Print.
Mead, Rebecca. “Learning by Degrees.” New Yorker. New Yorker, 7 June 2010. Web. 11 July