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    Name Professor Course 12 march 2014 1. Insider trading is a situation where someone makes an investment decision basing on information that is hidden to the general public. This information is perceived to allow them profit in most cases while in rare cases it allows them to avoid an incoming loss. In the twentieth century this was not illegal until around 1920’s when it was banned with serious penalties on offenders. However, this varies from country to country where in some it is accepted while in others it’s not legal. A company’s senior management, brokers and bankers are example of insiders. The risks of insider trading include of a monetary penalty and jail term. Lately, there has been a move by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to ban insider trading violators from serving as an executive at any publicly traded company. If Joan in this case would be found guilty of insider trading her status as the CEO of the Pharma Heal corporation would be compromised and subsequent prosecution and jail term of not less than 10 years would befall her. She will in addition be asked to give back her profits and in other cases be compelled to give back three times of profit realized. There are also risks associated with lost reputation of the firm. This risk will make the company lose some clients and credibility. The share prices will also fall in the stock exchange as the market interprets the information negatively. 2. In order for her to avoid breaking the law whether international or local, in case she buys stocks and sells it within six months, she is obliged by the law to direct all of the profits to the company. This will help eliminate any temptation of gaining from the small moves of selling and buying. She will also be required to disclose any existing changes in the ownership of her position including all purchases and dispositions of her shares. Management of the insider issue would require her to be cautious on sharing material information with anyone who is not an insider. In addition, all insiders should know and understand what responsibilities this places on them. 2.b Martha Stewart’s conviction was correct. This is due to the fact that she went against the law on insider trading by avoiding a loss caused by rejection by Food and Drug Administration. She was briefed of this before it happened by her friend Sam Waksal who then advised her and her broker sold all her shares before this information was passed to the public hence justifies her conviction. Insider trading hurts other investors in the sector who buy the stock from such a person. Her ethical and moral values re degraded in the society and leads to lack of public confidence in such business ventures (Lewis, 2011). 3. Expropriation refers to the compulsory seizure or order to surrender private party for the state’s purpose with little compensation to the owner. This is mostly done through change of legal codes or regulations for the benefit of the public. The international law recognizes this but puts emphasis that booth citizens and aliens be given a fair treat. Compensation issues differ from one country to the other (Kelly, 2012). In this situation, Joan has to surrender for the moment according to the laws of Brazil. She should then get a legal counsel who should be tasked to identify free trade agreements and international policies on expropriation that would cover her grievances to check on cause of the incident. This should happen if the government has refused to compensate her for the losses. This however takes time to resolve and if she loses the case will be obliged to pay the state’s legal costs. She should then try and be acquainted with investment treaties of the said country. The various problems brought by the change in government affect investors. These include losses incurred from stagnation of business, lack of compensation, competitors being given pertinent rights that were previously yours, legal costs burden in trying to pursue cases against the said government. These problems could however been avoided by taking insurance policies against political risk insurance that will protect one from breach of contract, political upheaval, repossession or outright expropriation. A few facts would help Joan make a decision by using the following analysis. The first one is whether the measure in question involves EU law. Secondly, does the measure breach EU law for instance: does it discriminate on nationality ground; does it dissuade a tax payer from shifting to another member state for business and moving capital between member states? Hence she should consider these facts and see whether the tax rate is as a result of her non-residence nature (Kelly, 2012) Any time USA has a problem in opinion difference with a country; it declares it as an enemy. As a result of this its investments in these countries begin to close down due to the enemity. Another problem is when it is at war with a country, the sympathizers of the country’s being fought tend to fight back by harassing and frustrating its companies in foreign direct investments. This then leads to closure or low profit record hence bring negative implications as a result of its political pressures hence affect its citizens. 4. The question tries to look into the complexity of the tax system when it comes to the taxing of expatriates. Individuals who visit the UK from the United States for a period of less than 30days should not be taxed any way. Any visiting employee for an American company visiting the United States should be able to pay the withholding PAYE to the UK authorities if the stay is from 31-90 days (Marcus, 1977) An individual working in UK in permanent terms is said to be in the domicile of the United Kingdom and therefore they are legible to face the UK tax system in terms of income taxation. An American working permanently in UK therefore will be subjected to the tax regime of UK. In terms of contribution to the national insurance from the income, an employee who is American but employed permanently by a British company should b able to remit the national insurance contribution. US citizens assigned to the UK temporarily are under FICA for the time period that they are posted in UK. The employee is only required to get a certificate of Coverage from the United States (Marcus, 19777)
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    INFLUENCE IN BUSINESS Name Course Tutor Date Influence in Business Part 1 Enchantment faces resistance in the society. Chapter six of the Mr. Guy Kawasaki talks on how to overcome resistance. The video talk on eWeek highlights the steps to consider in overcoming resistance on enchantment. A good product or service will gain public market and demand. Competitors will not be happy to see a new business venture taking over the business. The competitors will find ways of failing the new business venture and kill its prospects. The management team of the new business venture should have capabilities of identifying the bottlenecks and loopholes in the market place. Kawasaki video gives a lesson that competitors are not happy to see a new business making decisions on the market price. The good products in the business will receive the best price and market investors should aim to achieve a good price in the market. Competition is healthy and may encounter resistance in some situations. The resistance from the competitors purpose in changing the conditions present in the market due to the presence of a new business venture. The management team should have the stamina to resist change and unhealthy competition. Overcoming resistance will be helpful in understanding the business partners' thoughts and prospects. The business partners may have an impact in changing situations in the market making it difficult for a new business venture to prosper. The business management team will manage to overcome the prevailing resistance through provision of social proof and ways of agreement among business partners. The ways of agreement should enchant the business influencers towards a common goal. Part 2 Enchantment occurs in everyday activities. An example of enchantment process is on the Chief Executive Officer of a carpet company. The CEO has a tendency speaking for too long in business meetings and focused group discussions. On the other hand, the CEO manages to manipulate people to his way of thinking hence creating enthusiasm among the workers. The employees get bored and do not concentrate on the talk. At the end of the report the employees end-up doubting the leadership characters of the Chief Executive Officer. The good traits about the CEO are that he leads through example and makes suggestive corrections in humility. The CEO enchants the employees in the daily activities and wins them to his way of thinking. The positive traits have made the CEO remain in power for more than five years. The diversity in leadership styles are necessary and have enabled cooperation of the carpet company with other similar companies. The enchantment process triggers enthusiasm among the workers and innovative ideas during the focused group discussions. Diversity in business professionals allows fast integration in the business sector and rise in the career ladder. The topic on enchantment and ways of overcoming resistance is helpful in career growth, in business management. The attitude of dealing with people in business management get basis on winning method and creating enthusiasm. The business challenges will be easy to solve after going through the enchantment process and reviewing the enchantment book by Guy Kawasaki. The challenge strengthens personal characteristics and ways of building business relationships. The business management team has the capabilities of turning hostile people into cooperative people in the business transactions. The enchantment session helps in creating short speeches that are simple, workable and acceptable by the junior staff and the international market. Business managers will encounter resistance and the best way to handle resistance is to identify areas of agreement and influence the members towards social agreement (Kawasaki, 2012). References: Kawasaki, G. (2012). Enchantment: The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds and Actions. London: Penguin UK.
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission Industrial Structure And Work Workplace structures in the social-historical time were less complex than the workplace structures today. Technological changes are resulting in simplified working conditions to usage of computerized machines. The workers in the transition process from the historical era to the modern era are undergoing advanced classes to get knowledge on the latest technology. Cognitive complexity is the ultimate goal of advancement in the workplace and working structures (Freeman 32). The success in of completion of a job in the historical time relied on team work and collaborative with other similar organizations. Technological advancement is resulting in companies being self-reliant and competent in the completion process of the final product. The time of competition of a task is short in the current working structures and environment. The pressure builds from the management team that requires high work output from the junior staff. Other pressures present in the society include geographical location and working space (Goldberg 57). The final products may not reach the market due to the difficulties in accessing the market. According to Steven Greenhouse clip on “The Big Squeeze”, severe wage expenses in America is one of the big squeezes in American economy. Some companies are increasing the profit due to increase in the work output, but the workers are not developing. The workers live in low standard conditions and cannot manage to increase their living standards. The American nation was undergoing economic recovery from the year 2001 to 2007 resulting in the decline of household income. The American nation had no money to pay the working class result to reduction of income among the working individuals (Freeman 34). Greenhouse advocates for an increase in the number of economist in order to help in predicting the future economic status of American economy from the current economic trends (Greenhouse 1). Economists are also necessary in identifying errors in the current economic trend and helping in correcting the error in order to have improvement in the economy in future analysis. Health benefits are necessary for every worker and results in economic recovery. Accessibility to health insurance is necessary since it leads in economic growth (Greenhouse 1). The American nation is trending among the developed countries on decrease in the number of people without health insurance covers. Approximately one in every six Americans lacks health insurance plan. A challenging situation occurs upon the increase in health insurance premium on workers in order to cater for the sixteen percent Americans without health insurance plan. The above big squeezes in the American economy are the major challenges facing the financial and economic sectors. The American government is allocating fund in ensuring the working structures and environment favours all the workers (Freeman 37). Financial analysts in America are working closely with work labour democracy and stock exchange market to help solve the existing job crisis. The crisis in workers within the American states is not happy in the trend of their working conditions. Although the corporate profit is growing and the country records a five percent economic increase yearly, the typical worker in America is not improving. The measure of checking economic growth is not favouring the typical worker (Freeman 93). The American country is recording a more that thirty percent jog los and high rate of unemployment on the American youths that are finishing the college education. The workers organizations are presenting their grievances on the countries' news media, but the grievances do not get an air-play. The grievances involve stagnant growth of typical American worker, worsening of the health benefits and people facing stress in the workplace (Greenhouse 1). In comparison of the prevailing economic crisis in America with other countries, it is typically similar in India. For example, Indian factories got shutdown due to the economic crisis. The American nation is far ahead in managing the economic crisis because it is not shutting down the business premises. The American nation is decreasing the benefits workers receive in order to manage the economic crisis. America is undergoing a period of expansion and the profits from the corporate work do not reach the workers in the American nation (Greenhouse 1). The economic squeeze is affecting the workers because of the current inflation and slow process of economic recovery. The American government has hopes that the workers will be in a better shape during economic recovery period than during the period of economic crisis. The American government should consider the health of every citizen and develop a universal health plan (Freeman 95). Some individual cannot manage to health insurance plan and rely on little earning in managing medical bills. Retirement security system is a squeeze among the American workers. The retirement time in most American companies is between fifty-five and sixty-four years. During this time, the retirement account has approximately forty-four thousand dollars; that means the retiree has to use approximately eight thousand dollars yearly for a period of five to seven years (Greenhouse 1). Some workers opt to extend the retirement time in order to earn extra in a retirement account with the aim of increasing the security funds. Many workers get involved in part-time jobs so that they act as securities after retirement from corporate jobs. During the social-historical working conditions in the past era, the workers would get traditional retirement plan in many companies. The workers would receive monthly pensions for the entire time after retirement (Freeman 96). The today’s retirement plan allows only one or three people in the company to enjoy the typical pensions of the old. Poverty levels are still high in the current developed American nation. Statistics reveals that one in every eight American lives below the poverty line; one in every five children under the age of eighteen years lives in poverty. Many Americans do the right thing in finding finance, but the States government is still taxing highly on the individuals below the poverty line (Greenhouse 1). American nation is losing many manufacturing companies to developing countries resulting in a reduction of country's wealth and nation's prosperity. Presence of manufacturing companies would lead in creating of middle class jobs that are essential for people out of colleges. The manufacturing jobs have good wages and benefits; therefore, eliminates the poverty levels and decreases the rate of unemployment. Time squeeze in America is high; this means that wages of American workers are stagnant (Greenhouse 1). The average time of workers is eighteen thousand hours per year. The number of working hours of the American worker is higher than other developed countries. For example, a middle class couple works more than a similar couple in the historical period of American workers. The current working couple has little time with kids and the entire family leading to deterioration of moral values in children. The unique attributes of the American workers are need of pay vacations for every worker. Developed countries like New Zealand and some European nations do offer a pay on more than ten days vacation time for corporate workers (Freeman 98). The American worker lacks pay for sick days and also need of pay for maternity leaves. The federal government has no policies that are workers friendly. The American employees claim that they have many mandates and cannot afford in payment of workers that are off-duty. The huge economic growth in the American nation is due to inflation of the workers’ salary. The inflation levels vary among the economic levels of the American worker. The middle class worker may receive an increase in income and also increase in inflation levels. For example, an increase in income of middle-class worker would results in high government taxation and increase in premium rates. In the ancient times, the working conditions of American worker was good, the workers did not have economic classes as they exist in the current working class. The earnings of Chief Executive Officer in the time of 1970's were similar to the middle class worker. In the current working environment, the Chief Executive Officer earns more than six times the wages of the middle class worker resulting in the development of economic classes (Freeman 111). The average economic worker in America does not exist in the economic scale since the ancient working environment. The average economic worker makes little investment on the development of the country's economic growth. The economic class warfare in America is resulting in a detrimental effect of the low class levels. The rich class levels trigger the war by stimulating bulging of the inflation. The winner of the class warfare is the low class because they trigger increase in poverty levels. Income equality level is not changing since the ancient working environment. Middle class workers are increasing the borrowing rate of loans in order to provide for family expenses. The high borrowing rate results in the economic depression of the country. The State experiences trade deficit and budget deficit. The government borrows loans from World Bank and other financial institutions in order to provide the increasing need of houses of American corporate workers (Goldberg 63). On the other, lack of increase of salary of American workers results in a decrease of borrowing resulting in solving the problem due to high economic depression. The American workers are living in an economic jungle full of economic expenses (Goldberg 65). The young generation - below thirty years, have difficulties in understanding the economic strain present in the American nation. The financial and economic analysts are encouraging the young generation to find mechanisms of making workers life better than the current prevailing situation. The American workers are experiencing an economic strain of twelve percent higher than strain present in the ancient American workers. The financial analyst predicts a better working condition of the current working generation than the previous working generation, but it is not the case. The current working generation always has more working difficulties than the previous generation due to changes in the working environment. The American workers under thirty years of age cannot access health insurance benefits and retirement plan. The American government has no policies and laws that fight for the rights of young entrepreneurs and corporate workers under the age of thirty years. During the ancient working period, the college and high school graduate would get good jobs with benefits of health insurance and retirement plan (Freeman 112). The jobs in ancient times would pay a twenty percent wage higher than the current pay on fresh graduates in the job market. In the current American economy, it is difficult to get a job that relates in the degree of the job applicant (Goldberg 67). Many fresh graduates end up in secretarial jobs earning ten percent less than the amount the graduate would get if they had jobs tallying with the college qualifications. The employees in major factories and businesses are breaking the employment laws leading in widespread of job scarcity. The American companies deny workers the agreed breaks and instead compensate the time hours with an increase in wages pay. Breaks are necessary for every worker since they give workers time to rejuvenate their energy and give the mind a break. Workers use timecards in order to ensure efficiency in the working environment and ensuring authenticity of the workers. The managers are not fair with the workers because some company managers erase the records of hours from the computer on worker's timecard. Reduction in working hours is illegal and inhumane resulting in a reduction of salary (Freeman 116). The illegalities of some of the managers' results in reaping off the efforts of junior workers denying them a chance of financial prosperity. Other examples of illegal acts in the American companies are overworking of hours, some workers work for eleven hours in a day and sixty hours in a week without receiving extra payment on the extra hours (Goldberg 72). Some workers get locked up in the factory for overnight, and it is against the worker's law. The workers that complain over the illegal acts face job firing and lack of pay. In addition, the management of some companies violates safety measures of the workers. The American laws on safety of workers allow all workers to have safety insurance covers. The immigrant workers face discrimination in obtaining safety covers and participate in risky jobs like digging of trenches. The management of companies reaps the investors huge among of money for individual support. The cheating trend of manager in American companies is making the employees have difficulties in meeting the financial demands. The employees' end-up finding part-time jobs in order to compensate for the time lost in the full-time working environment (Goldberg 74). The American workers in the current generation receive less respect than the workers in the past generations. According to Elizabeth Warren on her Jefferson memorial lectures, she describes the devastating working conditions of women in her presentation on "The Coming Collapse Of The Middle Class: Higher Risks, Lower Rewards, And A Shrinking Safety Net." The single economic shift in the workplace is resulting in with a less than six months old child going to work. The ancient workforce in the 1970's did not allow women with children less than six month to attend work. A married couple in the shift transition period would receive high wages due to double pay on the monthly income. The family would share the expenses, gain wealth, and reduce poverty levels. The number of debts within the family would also decrease due to the availability of money. After the transition period is the modern era of workforce. The males in the current workforce do not receive a rise in pay resulting in constraints in managing family expenses (Warren 1). The current pay of male in the workforce is approximately eight thousand dollars less than the forefather earned during the workforce period of their generation. The ancient families had a likelihood of getting rich due to generation of income overtime. The savings portion was approximately eleven percent of the total salary, therefore, eliminating debts. In the current workforce, the savings are below zero percent and the families are resulting in debt. Debt is increasing in the current workforce mainly due to the introduction of credit and debit cards (Warren 1). Work Cited: Goldberg, Beverly. Age works: What Corporate America Must Do To Survive The Graying Of The Workforce. New York: Free Press, 2000. Print.
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission Identifying Reliable Authorities & Central Ethical Issue The central ethical issue is surrogacy business that is financially exploiting the participants. The Indian surrogate mothers get financially exploited by the westernized families that have no ability of getting babies. The families in USA and UK visit India seeking for surrogate mothers. The Indian surrogate mothers get paid between United States $ 2,500 and US $ 6,500 which is much less than the surrogate mothers in UK and USA. Legal issues are also a central ethical issue in the Indian surrogate mothers. The surrogacy process requires agreement between the person getting induced and the family requiring a baby. The legal issues give protection to the surrogate mother, the child and the entire period of nine months. The entire payment period involves implantation of the embryo, conception, and delivery (Drabiak and Wegner 309). The groups involved in surrogacy business are agents, surrogate mothers, legal bodies, and the biological parents of the embryo. The legal body is essential to give protection on the surrogate mother from exploitation by the biological parents and agents. The surrogate mother should be willing to participate in the surrogacy process. The surrogate process is emotional and has consequences of belonging and failure. The legal body ensures surrogate mothers get the complete payment even after failure of fertilization or miscarriage. The biological parents should be willing to handle the surrogate mother with intensive care ready to offer emotional and psychological support. The agents participate in connecting a willing Indian surrogate mother and a willing biological parent from USA and UK. The surrogacy business is a mutual process that ensures both parties benefit. The surrogacy business is incomplete without these four major groups (Palattiyil, George and Geeta Balakrishnan 689). The organizations in the surrogacy business ‘ought to ' give the appropriate environment in conduction of surrogacy. The hospitals ought to provide private wards and special charges of surrogate mothers. The community ‘ought to’ accept the surrogacy business and allow surrogate mothers to practice the business with no fear. The community ‘ought to’ support the surrogate mothers and encourage them emotionally. The legal bodies ‘ought to’ provide regulations and rules that favour the biological parents and the surrogate mothers. The surrogate mothers should not face any exploitation from the biological parents and should receive full payment. The biological parents ‘ought to’ provide full payment to the agents and surrogate mother. The signing process should be in the presence of a legal lawyer or the judiciary offices. The groups in the surrogacy ‘ought to' work in unison and offer fair services and charges (Deonandan and Amanda 743). The values underpinning the organizations in surrogate responsibilities are the international transfers. It is not easy to transfer surrogate mothers from countries like India to USA or UK. The surrogate mothers are also demanding a pay rise for the services and the biological parents are not willing to increase the charges. Minimal infrastructural facilities in the Indian hospitals are limiting the surrogacy business since it requires modernized hospitals and advanced technology (Gentleman 1). The medical doctors in India are undergoing training on surrogate implantation and fertilization for the purpose of boosting the surrogacy business. Cases of spontaneous abortion, failure in implantation, emotional disturbances and psychological problems are the major hindrances for proliferation of surrogacy business. The major concerns are on the effects of surrogate mothers after handling back the baby to the biological parents. Poverty levels in India are the major concern for increasing rate of surrogacy in the country hence leading to exploitation (The Associated Press 1). Work Cited: Deonandan, Raywat, Samantha Green, and Amanda van Beinum. "Ethical Concerns For Maternal Surrogacy And Reproductive Tourism." Journal of Medical Ethics 38.12 (2012): 742-745. Drabiak, Katherine and Carole Wegner. "Ethics, Law, And Commercial Surrogacy: A Call For Uniformity." The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35.2 (2007): 300-309. Gentleman, Amelia. "India Nurtures Business Of Surrogate Motherhood." The New York Times. Web. 10 October 2008. The Associated Press. “India’s Surrogate Mother Business Raises Questions Of Global Ethics.” Daily News. Web. 30 December 2007. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/india-surrogate-mother-business-raises-questions-global-ethics-article-1.276982. Palattiyil, George and Geeta Balakrishnan "Globalization And Cross-Border Reproductive Services: Ethical Implications Of Surrogacy In India For Social Work." International Social Work 53.5 (2010): 686-700.
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    Glamorizing Mass Murders Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Over the last two decades, mass murder shooting have been in the rise, in America. Despite that gun violence is on a downward trend, the number of mass shootings has been escalating. This changing trend has to a higher extent been attributed to glamorization of mass murders by the media. At many times, the media has shown irresponsibility in covering scenes of mass murders. Conversely, due to the concept of social learning, people are able to embrace and emulate the violence. The werther effect has been shown to take place when a mass murder or shooting takes place, since people are able to imitate the behaviors (Schmuck, 2013). Based on the social learning theory, human behavior is learned from experiences in the society. This explains why many mass murders have been occurring after reporting on similar instances or publication of fiction movies, which detail mass murders. The media glamorizes mass murders and therefore, deranged individuals to copy these behaviors, which can be explained through the social learning theory. The incidents of Sandy Hook shooter Adam Lanza and Aurora Colorado Shooter James Holmes are a good example of mass murders, which have been publicized by the media. Certainly, by airing the scenes of these mass murders, the media has embellished and glamorized them, thus gaining immense negative popularity. The widespread coverage offered to these scenes of mass murders set another example of deranged lunatics. The covering by the media enabled them to acquire attention in a glamorous way of ending their lives and be remembered. The Sandy Hook Elementary shooter, which claimed 26 people including 20 children shocked the nation. The shooter Adam Lanza who was a 20-year-old man went further to murder his own mother. Despite of the lacking details on the real cause of shooting, the media gave the scene unnecessary coverage, thus glamorizing the shooter (Ferguson, 2012). This coverage has far reaching negative consequence on the society, since many people will copy it and execute as a form of homicide and also gain fame at the time of death. Alongside the Sandy Hook shooter, the Colorado shooter, James Holmes is also a topic of study. The media has popularized the shooter through the immense coverage of the scenes. Through the coverage, the excessive coverage the media has to a wider extent glamorized the scenes rather than condemning them, thus negatively impacting on people behavior (Zachary, 2013). To demonstrate the negative effects of media glamorization of mass murder, numerous similar events of mass murders and threats have followed the publicized of the Sandy Hook and Colorado shooting. Despite of the shocking reporting of the two shooters, the nation was yet again rocked by similar events. This did not only occur in America but also other parts of the globe, whereby other individuals engaged in mass murders. Following the Sandy Hook Elementary shooter, a 36 year old Chinese man rocked the media after an attack of 22 children. Unlike the Sandy Hook shooter who had a gun, the Chinese attack entailed a knife and occurred at a primary school in China (Ferguson, 2012). This is a clear indication that there is a critical factor with mass homicides, which gets high attention. The excessive coverage of a mass shooting by the media has a negative influence on society by inducing other lunatics to seek fame by killing. It is worth noting that if the Sandy Hook shooter was not publicized, then little or no other similar scenes would have occurred. The characters in such shooting events have a similar set of characteristics, which include antisocial-personality traits, mental illness like depression, and have obsessions with wrong doings. Based on these character traits, people with these personalities and behaviors will be negatively inspired by media reporting of mass murders. (Schmuck, 2013). A similar case of mass murder is the recent shooting at the Navy yard in Washington. The shooting, which occurred in September 2013, involved a heavily armed shooter who opened fire killing at least 12 people (Wing, 2013). On a similar case, a Toronto Muslim has been charged for threatening to execute a mass murder in august 2013. The mass murder threat by the Jihad syndrome is a clear indication of the rising number of mass murders and threats in the US (Geller, 2013). These scenes are a symbol of the influence of glamorized mass murders by the media. The Boston Marathon bomber, Dzhokha Tsarnaev is also a good example of mass murders, which have been induced by the media from past coverage. Accordingly, the Boston Marathon bombing left scores injured and gave fame to the bomber just like the case of the Colorado Shooter and the Sandy Hook Shooter. These events can be attributed to the careless and biased reporting of the media whereby attention seekers are given unnecessary attention instead of condemning their actions. In the Boston Marathon Bomber, the media was very obsessed in highlighting the tactics and strengths of the bomber in setting the bomb and also his courage at the court. This sort of media reporting is doing more harm in society than good (Concha, 2013). The concept of social learning theory best explains the emergence of similar events following the coverage of mass murder. In light of social learning theory, people are able to learn and understand the behaviors of others. This theory states that human behavior is to a great extent a product of the social environment and that people will learn good and bad behaviors from the social environment. With this in mind, the similar events following the Aurora Colorado and Sandy Hook shooter are as a result of social learning. People were able to learn, understand, and emulate the behaviors. Despite of the horrifying scenes, the reporting has not adequately condemned them. This makes them sound as a good approach to homicide in view of gaining fame and attention. The case of Sandy Hook shooter and Aurora Colorado were reported and glamorized as acts of bravery rather than cowardice. This has high negative impact on the young generation, who perceive all done by their peers and adult as socially acceptable. Indeed, through glamorizing the mass murders, people view it as a new and a good way of homicide, thus influencing their thinking and behaviors (Concha, 2013). The subsequent events after the Sandy Hook and Colorado shooter are a good example of copycat mass event rather than suicide. The case of the Boston Bomber, as well as the Chinese attack of 22 children can best be equated to copycat murder rather than homicide. The werther effect is the best explanations of these events, whereby it expounds on the role played by imitation in suicidal behaviors. The publicizing of suicide or homicide story by the media inspires imitation or emulation by others. This brings about the issue of copycat, whereby people are able to imitate what they see others do. Glamorization of mass murder by the media induces copycat mass murder in the sense that, the people attempting the mass murders learn it from local knowledge or depictions on the original homicide on television or other Media. People are easy to imitate all they encounter whether bad or good, thus explaining the numerous subsequent mass murders after the coverage of one. It is worth noting that the medium usually overwhelms the message. This exaggeration of the message has a disastrous effect on the society who goes easily to imitate it; hence the occurrence of copycat mass murders (Phillips 1974). The First Amendment and Freedom of Press are of great importance in the society. The first amendment entails the freedom of the press. The amendment protects press freedom in expressing views on the diverse issues of speech, expression, and religion. This is a very important amendment in the prosperity of any nation. By guaranteeing freedom of press, the right of liberty, which should be enjoyed by all people, is protected. Without this amendment, it would be difficult for the society to have wide-open, robust and uninhibited discussions on issues affecting the nation. Through the enactment of this amendment, all sectors of the society including religion, democracy, human rights, and economy have been promoted. The amendment has given journalist the freedom to reveal and discuss issues of national importance without fear. This is essential in building an open and just society (First Amendment, 2013). In spite of the freedoms offered by the First Amendment to the media, it is essential for the media to report news in a responsible manner. The media has a very great influence on the society hence the need for responsible reporting. As earlier discussed, the glamorization of mass murders, violence, and unethical behaviors will negatively impact on the society, mainly the young generation. The media should be responsible in scrutinizing what to report and its impact. Adequate condemnation and rebuke should be offered to bad events rather than embracing them. By exercising restraint and responsibility, the media will help in building a sustainable, prosperous and dynamic society. Conclusion In a nutshell, the media has robust influence on the development of the society. The media glamorizes mass murders, and this in turn reciprocates into mass murders. The reporting of mass murders and violence by the media has not been responsibly executed, thus leading to copycat mass murders. In light of the analysis on the glamorization of mass murder by the media, there is need for change. There is need for government intervention in exploring the operations of the media to avoid irresponsibility and negative influence on the society. Media ethics will also be a great factor of concern in the future. References Concha, J. (2013). Rolling Stone Sequel: Which Terrorist or Mass Murderer Will Be Glamorized
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    Glamorizing Mass Murders Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Over the last two decades, mass murder shooting have been in the rise, in America. Despite that gun violence is on a downward trend, the number of mass shootings has been escalating. This changing trend has to a higher extent been attributed to glamorization of mass murders by the media. At many times, the media has shown irresponsibility in covering scenes of mass murders. Conversely, due to the concept of social learning, people are able to embrace and emulate the violence. The werther effect has been shown to take place when a mass murder or shooting takes place, since people are able to imitate the behaviors (Schmuck, 2013). Based on the social learning theory, human behavior is learned from experiences in the society. The subsequent mass murders are due to werther effect, whereby the perpetrators are only copycatting the previous acts, rather than committing suicide. This explains why many mass murders have been occurring after reporting on similar instances or publication of fiction movies, which detail mass murders. The media glamorizes mass murders and therefore, deranged individuals to copy these behaviors, which can be explained through the social learning theory. The incidents of Sandy Hook shooter Adam Lanza and Aurora Colorado Shooter James Holmes are a good example of mass murders, which have been publicized by the media. Certainly, by airing the scenes of these mass murders, the media has embellished and glamorized them, thus gaining immense negative popularity. The widespread coverage offered to these scenes of mass murders set another example of deranged lunatics. The covering by the media enabled them to acquire attention in a glamorous way of ending their lives and be remembered. The Sandy Hook Elementary shooter, which claimed 26 people including 20 children, shocked the nation. The shooter Adam Lanza who was a 20-year-old man went further to murder his own mother. Despite of the lacking details on the real cause of shooting, the media gave the scene unnecessary coverage, thus glamorizing the shooter (Ferguson, 2012). This coverage has far reaching negative consequence on the society, since many people will copy it and execute as a form of homicide and also gain fame at the time of death. Alongside the Sandy Hook shooter, the Colorado shooter, James Holmes is also a topic of study. The media has popularized the shooter through the immense coverage of the scenes. Through the coverage, the excessive coverage the media has to a wider extent glamorized the scenes rather than condemning them, thus negatively impacting on people behavior (Zachary, 2013). To demonstrate the negative effects of media glamorization of mass murder, numerous similar events of mass murders and threats have followed the publicized of the Sandy Hook and Colorado shooting. Despite of the shocking reporting of the two shooters, the nation was yet again rocked by similar events. This did not only occur in America but also other parts of the globe, whereby other individuals engaged in mass murders. The excessive coverage of a mass shooting by the media has a negative influence on society by inducing other lunatics to seek fame by killing. It is worth noting that if the Sandy Hook shooter was not publicized, then little or no other similar scenes would have occurred. The characters in such shooting events have a similar set of characteristics, which include antisocial-personality traits, mental illness like depression, and have obsessions with wrong doings. Based on these character traits, people with these personalities and behaviors will be negatively inspired by media reporting of mass murders (Schmuck, 2013). On a similar case, a Toronto Muslim has been charged for threatening to execute a mass murder in august 2013. The mass murder threat by the Jihad syndrome is a clear indication of the rising number of mass murders and threats in the US (Geller, 2013). This mass murder threat follows the covering of the Sandy Hook and Colorado shooting among other previous murders. This scenario can be attributed to copycatting. These scenes are a symbol of the influence of glamorized mass murders by the media. The Boston Marathon bomber, Dzhokha Tsarnaev is also a good example of mass murders, which have been induced by the media from past coverage. Accordingly, the Boston Marathon bombing left scores injured and gave fame to the bomber just like the case of the Colorado Shooter and the Sandy Hook Shooter. These events can be attributed to the careless and biased reporting of the media which leads to copycats. The werther effect is at play, whereby deranged members of the society will imitate the acts. In the Boston Marathon Bomber, the media was very obsessed in highlighting the tactics and strengths of the bomber in setting the bomb and also his courage at the court thus inducing copycats in the near future. This sort of media reporting is doing more harm in society than good since members of the society will imitate them (Concha, 2013). The concept of social learning theory best explains the emergence of similar events following the coverage of mass murder. In light of social learning theory, people are able to learn and understand the behaviors of others. This theory states that human behavior is to a great extent a product of the social environment and that people will learn good and bad behaviors from the social environment. With this in mind, the similar events following the Aurora Colorado and Sandy Hook shooter are as a result of social learning. People were able to learn, understand, and emulate the behaviors. Despite of the horrifying scenes, the reporting has not adequately condemned them. This makes them to be emulated by other people through copycats rather than homicide. The case of Sandy Hook shooter and Aurora Colorado were reported and glamorized as acts of bravery rather than cowardice. This has high negative impact on the young generation, who perceive all done by their peers and adult as socially acceptable. Indeed, through glamorizing the mass murders, the behavior of people is influenced hence contributing to copycats (Concha, 2013). The subsequent events after the Sandy Hook and Colorado shooter are a good example of copycat mass event rather than suicide. The case of the Boston Bomber, as well as the Chinese attack of 22 children can best be equated to copycat murder rather than homicide. The werther effect is the best explanations of these events, whereby it expounds on the role played by imitation in suicidal behaviors. The publicizing of suicide or homicide story by the media inspires imitation or emulation by others. This brings about the issue of copycat, whereby people are able to imitate what they see others do. Glamorization of mass murder by the media induces copycat mass murder in the sense that, the people attempting the mass murders learn it from local knowledge or depictions on the original homicide on television or other Media. People are easy to imitate all they encounter whether bad or good, thus explaining the numerous subsequent mass murders after the coverage of one. It is worth noting that the medium usually overwhelms the message. This exaggeration of the message has a disastrous effect on the society who goes easily to imitate it; hence the occurrence of copycat mass murders (Phillips 1974). The occurrence of successive mass shooting is a product of Werther effect. Many deranged people learn a lot on how to carry out mass murders from the media. The occurrence of these heinous acts should not be viewed as suicide but rather a copy cat. The excessive coverage and freedom offered by the media to mass murders through interviews and coverage has adverse effects on the society. People who may have some psychological, mental or social problems will definitely imitate or copycat what they see in the media. For instance, the coverage and glamorization of Charles Manson, the maniac influenced many others. The media was not careful in covering the acts of Charles Manson. Instead of criticizing and condemning his inhumane acts, the media seem only to focus on covering his acts and his personality without any strong critique. The interview of Star, his wife is also aimed at glamorizing the person and acts of Charles Manson. This coverage is disastrous in the sense that it only induces copycat acts (Hedegaard, 2013). The media has at many times been irresponsible in its reporting of scenes of violence and mass murders. For instance, the media has been lasciviously reciting every blood-flecked cranny and ignoring the fundamental questions. For instance the shooting incident in Nortumbria was glamorized. In every instance, there occurs a massacre by mentally ill people, journalist don’t show responsibility in their reporting. The ignorance by media on advice by psychologists to report instances of mass murders has led to dire consequences. The irresponsibility of media in extensively interviewing notorious mass murders has led to Werther effect. The resultant mass murders are only copycats. In regards to social learning, people will imitate all see in the media (Coleman 2010). As argued by Coleman (2010), saturation-level news coverage of mass murders leads to an average one more instance of mass murder in two weeks. This scenario can be attributed to the Werther effect, where by potential murderers and people with mental illness will copy the heinous acts. Based on past occurrences in the US, copycats are very common. In the event of unrestrained media reporting of mass murders, copycats will definitely occur. One of the old instances of mass murders was in the 1982. This was done by unidentified maniac in Chicago. This maniac placed cyanide capsules in a popular over-the-counter pain medicine which led to death of seven people. This story was extensively covered since the assassination of Kennedy. In light of this media coverage, numerous copycats occurred in the US and across the world. By the year 1986, there were over 4,000 similar cases of mass murders a year. The coverage of each new case made the hysteria balloon of mass murders even larger (Coleman 2010). Copycat also occurs when the media glamorizes suicide cases. In the event when the media reports a high profile suicide in detail, a significant surge suicide rate will fall. For instance, the reporting of Marilyn Monroe killing herself, led to a 12 percent increase in suicide rate in the US. The more detailed and intense a coverage is undertaken, the more copycats will be created (Coleman 2010). The First Amendment and Freedom of Press are of great importance in the society. The first amendment entails the freedom of the press. The amendment protects press freedom in expressing views on the diverse issues of speech, expression, and religion. This is a very important amendment in the prosperity of any nation. By guaranteeing freedom of press, the right of liberty, which should be enjoyed by all people, is protected. Without this amendment, it would be difficult for the society to have wide-open, robust and uninhibited discussions on issues affecting the nation. Through the enactment of this amendment, all sectors of the society including religion, democracy, human rights, and economy have been promoted. The amendment has given journalist the freedom to reveal and discuss issues of national importance without fear. This is essential in building an open and just society (First Amendment, 2013). In spite of the freedoms offered by the First Amendment to the media, it is essential for the media to report news in a responsible manner. The media has a very great influence on the society, hence the need for responsible reporting. Undoubtedly, the glamorization of mass murders, violence and unethical behaviors will negatively impact on the society, mainly the young generation. The media should be responsible in scrutinizing what to report and its impact. Adequate condemnation and rebuke should be offered to bad events rather than embracing them. By exercising restraint and responsibility, the media will help in building a sustainable, prosperous and dynamic society. Conclusion In a nutshell, the media has robust influence on the development of the society. The media glamorizes mass murders, and this in turn reciprocates into mass murders. The reporting of mass murders and violence by the media has not been responsibly executed, thus leading to copycat mass murders. In light of the analysis on the glamorization of mass murder by the media, there is a need for change. With the ever increasing cases of mass murders, the role of the media can not be assumed. Glamorization of mass murders by the media is creating an epidemic of copycatting. There is a need for journalists to restrain their coverage. In the case of reporting mass murders, copycatting becomes very real. There is a need for government intervention in exploring the operations of the media to avoid irresponsibility and negative influence on the society. Media ethics will also be a great factor of concern in the future.
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    Student’s Name: Tutor: Course : Date: Introduction The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) is a U.S. Federal law signed by President Bill Clinton in August, 1996 to address the flaws and ineffectiveness of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) by increasing the federal cash assistance to the poor. The debate to reverse AFDC began in the 1980s when Democrats initiated fierce criticism of the bill claiming that it lacked the workfare component and as a result, encouraged the ‘culture of poverty’ among the unemployment. PRWORA was therefore, designed fundamentally to encourage credible employment among the poor by including the workforce component so that all welfare-receiving poor can pursue their careers and chase their dreams rather being trapped in a cycle of poverty promoted by AFDC. The passage of PRWORA led to the introduction of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). This program became effective from July 1, 1997, and initiated stricter time limits on welfare assistance (Haveman & Wolfe 95-114). Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) TANF is a grant program instituted by PRWORA in 1997 to replace the longstanding AFDC, which Democrats had claimed encouraged the ‘culture of poverty’ because of its lack to promote employment among the welfare recipients. PRWORA in its findings noted that indeed AFDC had encouraged intergenerational poverty. It also highlighted dependency and out of wedlock birth as the other two major flaws of the defunct program. In instituting TANF, PRWORA drew proposals, time limits, and requirements for the new policy (Brown 1-60). Initially, the bill gave states more control over the grant program allowing them to provide a variety of social services, while limiting the responsibility of the federal government. This means that the Congress designed TANF in a way that state governments had the autonomy, and wider latitude to initiate their own systems as long as they fulfilled the primary requirements of the program. Certainly, most states have either placed additional requirements or ensured some measures on the grant program (De Jong et al. 255-279). Similarly, the bill brought to an end the idea that welfare assistance was an entitlement program. Accordingly, it stipulated that the beneficiaries of welfare must get employment within twenty four months upon receiving assistance. Indeed, it placed a time frame of five years on benefits remunerated by federal funds (Ho 249-257). In most states, single parents on the program are required to obtain employment once they begin getting benefits or at least participate in quality work activities. Undeniably, it initiated new measures to ensure that children received full support (Bennett et al. 671-699). Finally, it sought to cancel all licenses from illegitimate immigrants, while also restricting funds to legal immigrants. How TANF has Changed Behavior and Labor force Participation and its Impacts on the Labor Market One of the most important elements that PRWORA had added to TANF that was not there in AFDC was the work component. The Congress wanted the legislation to emphasize primarily on ‘work’ rather than ‘welfare’ to discourage behaviors detrimental to ending poverty. As a result, most states drew their timelines under which recipients of welfare must find qualified work upon receiving assistance. The whole idea of TANF was to make families economically self-sufficient and independent, without waiting for assistance to have a meaningful life (Lim et al. 525-555). As such, most Americans began approaching work, not as an option, but something that they must do to improve their lives. Indeed, TANF has managed to change perceptions that were detrimental to ending poverty such as entitlement to welfare benefits. Conversely, it has promoted work ethic by stressing on personal responsibility; reduced projected spending and encouraged parental responsibility while discouraging out-of-wedlock births. Above all, the grant program has managed to reduce poverty and the number of welfare caseloads and improved child support (Courtney et al. 119-157). Criticisms of TANF Even though, a broad consensus holds the success of TANF especially that poverty and recipients of welfare have gone down; many critics argue that the grant program is still insufficient, since despite the strong economy, many recipients who moved off the plan continue living in poverty (Wolfe 577-586). Others argue that the new welfare program has accelerated wealth disparities and inequality because of the variations in income. Still others do no agree that the reformed grant program has increased employment opportunities for the poor; many low-wage workers are still living in poverty. Generally, critics of TANF argue that the grant program will continue failing as long as it concentrates on addressing welfare system rather low-wage labor market. They argue that TANF should have concentrated on the conditions of the low-wage work, but not pushing off recipients. In addition, critics argue that the program has left many of the welfare recipients who were pushed off into homeless shelters. Single mothers have also expressed their anger with the legislation claiming that it reduced their income. Finally, feminist critics continue to question the motive of the program, citing racial discrimination and misogyny as the main motives for instituting it. Conclusion Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a grant program instituted by PRWORA in 1997 to replace AFDC, which many had claimed encouraged the ‘culture of poverty’ because of its lack to promote employment among the welfare recipients. The most fundamental element of TANF was therefore, the ‘work component’ rather than ‘welfare assistance’ in order to discourage behaviors detrimental to ending poverty. Indeed, TANF has managed to change perceptions that encouraged poverty such as entitlement to welfare benefits; it has promoted work ethic by stressing on personal responsibility; reduced projected spending; and, encouraged parental responsibility while discouraging out-of-wedlock births. Above all, the grant program has managed to reduce poverty and the number of welfare caseloads. Critics of the program have, however, claimed that it has encouraged wealth disparities and inequalities as many recipients who were pushed off the program continue living in poverty despite the strong economy. Finally, feminist critics continue to question the motive of the program, citing racial discrimination and misogyny as the main motives for its institution. All together, the entire plan of TANF was to make families thriftily independent and self-sufficient without waiting for assistance to have a meaningful life. Works Cited Bennett, Neil G., Lu, Hsien-hen & Song, Younghwan. Welfare reform and changes in the economic well-being of children. Population Research and Policy Review, 23 (2004): 671-699. Brown, Kay E. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families: Implications of Recent Legislative and Economic Changes for State Programs and Work Participation Rates. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing, 2010. Courtney, Mark E.; Dworsky, Amy; Piliavin, Irving, and Zinn, Andrew. Involvement of TANF Applicant Families with Child Welfare Services. Social Services Review, 79.1 (March 2005): 119-157.
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    Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Building Effective Teams and Teamwork as important managerial skills The concepts of teams and teamwork are not new in the business buzz word, but they have indeed, been in practice for quite a while. Through teamwork started as an approach for increasing output in business organizations, it has today advanced as a science with considerable results. There are many justifications for building effective teams and teamwork in business, but the most lucid is to enhance collaboration. The business world is rapidly evolving in collaborative environments due to the factors of globalization, liberalization of markets, technology, and flatter organizational structures. This makes it inevitable for business to work without effective teams so as to increase efficiency, innovative ideas, productivity, and communicative cultures. The New York Times entitled “We’re One Big Team, So Run Those Stairs” is a good resource expounding the concept of building effective teams in business today. The article authored by Kevin Moloney on 30th March 2013 presents overpowering insights on building of effective teamwork in Datalogix Company (1). The insights offered by the article are relevant and applicable in dealing with the issue of teams and teamwork. The article explains how the Chief Executive of Datalogix Company is working to build a strong team in the company. What seems to a fitness activity in the organization is really a process of bringing the employees together. As outlined in the article, the CEO and employees from different departments are busy working on different body building exercises. The article demonstrates how the employees are encouraging one another in undertaking the strenuous physical exercise. Everyone including seniors and juniors are fully engaged in the activity, with each person showing vigor and commitment in what he or she is doing. The classes on fitness referred to as CrossFit in the company have been in practice at Datalogix since summer of 2010 and are undertaken twice a week for all employees. The exercise has been successfully adopted in other institutions like the military and law enforcement officers with immediate and long term benefits on teamwork building. What began as a small exercise activity has been received enthusiastically by all employees, who even organized a competition amongst them under the leadership of the CEO. As outlined by the CEO, the CrossFit program in the company has led to building a strong team based on collaboration between employees. Openness, relationships, and communication among the employees have been increased, thus yielding to efficiency (1). Building effective teams and teamwork is a fundamental managerial skill. With strong teams and teamwork in a business organization, innovation, creativity, efficiency, communication, and productivity is greatly increased. Employees who work as a team love and encourage one another. Communication barriers, which usually inhibit efficiency, are countered through teamwork since strong personal relationships between members of the organization is developed. As revealed in the article, building of an effective team of employees has far reaching benefits for the organization. In the case of Datalogix, the CEO says the team building classes have effectively united members from the different departments who might otherwise never meet up. Evidently, by coming together through the team building classes, employees get closer, and this helps them to work together without problems. The leadership of the CEO has also been reflected in the team building classes. This is a great inspiration and a fundamental in building strong teams and collaboration of employees so as to get results (1). It is the duty of every manager or business leader to prioritize teams and teamwork as a way of increasing efficiency and productivity. Building effective teams and teamwork is not only an important managerial skill but also an inevitable strategy for every manager. The business world is changing and is facing greater challenges of competition and consumer awareness than ever before. This calls for efficiency, innovation, communication, and productivity, all which can only be realized through teamwork. Managers should learn this managerial skill of building teams and teamwork by bringing employees together so as to enhance work relations, communication, efficiency, innovation, and productivity. Work Cited Moloney, Kevin. We’re One Big Team, So Run Those Stairs. The New York Times, 30 Mar.
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    Institutional change in South Africa Student’s Name Course Name Date Institution Introduction When the African National Congress (ANC) won the first elections in South Africa, it ushered a new wave of hope for many South Africans who had suffered under the leadership of successive Apartheid regimes. The party had promised freedom and democracy, and formulated as its ideology the ‘national liberation’. While it made significant reforms in its first term, the party has done little in successive terms. Much to the frustrations of South Africans, the party has chosen to prioritize authoritarianism over freedom and democracy; corruption over socio-economic development; divisive governance over unity; and, confrontation over meaningful engagement with protesters.1 Michael Radu “Dilemmas of Democracy and Dictatorship: Place, Time and Ideology in Global Perspective “(New (Jersey, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2006): 401-421. This paper argues that South Africa is not a true democracy yet. Until its governing party (ANC) gives over power to the opposition, the country will remain one party state. What South Africa needs is an institutional change. As long as ANC insists on power, the country needs a Presidential system, not parliamentary democracy. Secondly, the President needs to be elected by the ‘popular vote’, not by elected representatives. Thirdly, there must be a clear separation of powers between the three arms of government. Finally, the governing party must not kill the spirit of political parties by seeking a surplus majority. These are the ideas that this paper will be exploring in detail as it unveils South Africa’s parliamentary dictatorship and the tyranny of ANC. Historic and Demographic Details of South Africa The Republic of South Africa is officially a constitutional democracy, comprising of a parliamentary republic and nine provincial governments. It is located at the Southern part of Africa, occupying a total land area of 1,221,037 km2, and an estimated population of 53 million people. Its constitution, following the signing of the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity (RCBD) recognizes pluralistic society, which comprises of different cultures, languages and religions. All its communities; Blacks, Europeans, Asians and other multiracial groups; have political representation in its constitutional democracy. Although South Africa became a republic in 1961, it was not until 1994 that Apartheid fell, and ANC rose to power. Also, between 1961 and 1983, the presidency remained parliamentary appointed. After 1983, a strong presidency was created, although it was still responsible to parliament. In 1990, it repealed apartheid legislation, and in 1994, it conducted its first universal elections.2 Claire, Throp “South Africa” (New York, NY: Raintree, 2013): 4-36.
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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date Chapter summaries Chapter Eleven and Twelve: In the discussion of “Charitable Giving Rules,” Chapter Eleven stresses that the essential model of the federal proceeds taxation for a charitable giving requires both organizational as well as individual revenue remitters who file their payments to limit their yearly tax returns after sustaining a given range, of a sum equivalent to the remitted total or to the value of a donation to a credible charity outfit. A charitable donation for revenue tax objectives concerns goodwill to or for the empowerment of a single or several recognized charity outfits. Subtractions for generous gifts are as well permitted under the national tax contribution alongside the estate tax policies. Sponsors and the charitable institutions they empower often anticipate donations to be handed out in the mode of direct transaction of cash or, regularly, property. For all the involved parties, a donation is commonly regarded as an independent transaction, in a pecuniary form, where the donator surrenders the ownership of a donation as the charity assumes its possession. The benefits to the patron are restricted to the ensuing charitable tax limitation, and the fulfillment gained from partaking in societal empowerment. Finally, major types of charitable resources entail impulse, interest, and integrated giving’s, though prearranged giving presents an exceptional form of donation that involves much better fiscal as well as tax benefits to the sponsor. Whilst, Chapter Twelve provides an insight on “Government Regulation of Fundraising,” and primarily emphasizes that managers or consultants of nonprofit institutions are normally ignorant of the federal, state or regional policies, which are indispensable to such institutions, as well as the involved parties. Moreover, the fundraising regulation sector is among the most affected with knowledge lapses. The apparent scope of state authorities protocols on charitable resources are usually overlooked, or even unfamiliar. The mandate of the national administration pertaining to the monitoring of distinctive facets of nonprofit institutions fundraising roles always remain clandestine. Administrative screening of charitable donations is increasingly becoming burdensome, but yet so misconstrued, and even overlooked irrespective of its steady expansion, thus rendering it challenging to regard this regulation agency into a dynamic context. Chapter Thirteen and Sixteen Chapter thirteen expounds on the “Related or Unrelated tax issues, which precisely involves the taxation of proceeds acquired from endeavors that are not recognized by the revenue-exempt purposes of nonprofit outfits. Hence in every arising situation the institution is required to analyze every aspect of the taxation terms and conditions, or otherwise might risk committing to extensive and heavy tax deductions. The unrelated proceeds policies mark the effort by Congress to deter tax-exempt outfits from unjustly contending with commercial ventures. The protocols collectively neutralizes the tax handling of unrelated commercial proceedings by distinguishing them, on revenue grounds with other aspirations of tax-exempt institutions, and then, taxing them in the same way as other purely commercial organizations. Therefore, a nongovernmental organization can be taxable under such policies when part of its routine endeavors entails commercial benefits, as opposed to being in line with the recognized tax-exempt purposes. Even if the tax-exempt outfits utilizes the proceeds from unrecognized commercial activities to sponsor empowerment initiatives, that funding is not sufficient to transform unrecognized endeavor to a recognized one. Among the most significant of the legal provisions for diverse tax-exemptions though, involves static proceeds. In calculating taxable unrecognized proceeds, a tax-exempt institution might apply all commercial expenditure deductions, provided they are directly connected to the founding objectives of the institutions unrelated commercial activities. Chapter Sixteen evaluates ‘donor-advised funds, tax shelters, and insurance schemes among other taxes.’ The chapter asserts that among the most common tendencies in nonprofit policies at the national level encompasses the obligation of levies on apparent “tax-exempt” outfits, as well as occasionally on their leaders. Congress’s desire in respect to this issue was catalyzed when it endorsed the unrecognized commercial proceeds tax policies, ensued by the independent organizational protocols, in addition to taxes on civic donations for indulging in unauthorized magnitude of advocacy. This was further adjusted by revenues on leadership among other equivalent roles for engaging in extensive pecuniary gainful activities. Congress enactments have contemporarily persisted to impose more tax deduction laws on nonprofit outfits and their leaders. Chapter Seventeen and Eighteen In the analysis of “Subsidiaries: For-Profit and Nonprofit” organizations, Chapter Seventeen claims that nonprofit entities have contemporarily developed a tendency to routinely camouflage as a for-profit, tax-remitting subsidiary, more so, when the activity to be conducted under the supplementary is unrecognized and to unreserved to be contained under the tax-exempt institutional provisions. The board of an exempt entity may not be willing to register the activity of any unrecognized proceeds and as a result, will opt to present it under a distinctive subsidiary, where the executive of tax-exempt entity is captivated with the urge of utilizing a for-profit supplementary. For instance, an unrelated venture might be presented as an endeavor within a non-profit institution, provided the basic role of the institution is to conduct a solitary or several nonprofit initiatives. In summary, there is no certain magnitude of acceptable unrecognized activity, which is tantamount to unrelated venture that can be sponsored by a nonprofit outfit without jeopardizing the tax-exemption status. Finally, Chapter Eighteen in the evaluation of “Joint Venturing and Other Partnering” states that among the most fundamental contemporary concepts regarding tax-exempt institutions is their utilization of associated entities. Although the practice exhibits no unique trend, the only arguably new and exceptional trend is the propensity of nonprofit realms to concurrently explore several diverse varieties of associated firms for commercial or nonprofit among other purposes. Various analysts link this trend to the current economic strains on nonprofit realms, which is mainly due to the reduction in administrative sponsorship, and tax law enactments. Both reasons though, only explains part of the practice origin, but does not expound on, for instance, a commercial union linked to a nonprofit entity. The trend has since been linked to sophisticated management and advisory, where partnership and/ or limited accountability is at the center of the funding mechanism.
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    What Is the Halo Effect? Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation What Is the Halo Effect? Introduction The halo effect is basically identified a cognitive bias, whereby overall human impression affect how they think and feel about their character. The impression of a person influences his or her overall judgments of other people’s specific traits. Based on the halo effect, people will make judgments and evaluations of others guided by the overall impressions offered by those people. Halo effect is also defined as the physical attractiveness stereotype or the habitual tendency of people, to judge attractive persons as favorable while the less attractive as less favorable in personality traits (Cherry, 2012). The halo effect is used in describing the global influence of likeable personality or certain desirable trait in creating biased judgments. The concept of halo effect was coined by psychologist Edward Thorndike in 1920. Based on research, controversy was also raised on the general applicability of halo effect, whereby it was established that people also believe that attractive people are also dishonest, vain, and likely to use their good looks to control others. The halo effect has great influence on relationships and judgments of others in private, public, and professional contexts, since the attitudes and judgments towards others is based on the impressions made. Attractiveness and personality have great influence in producing a halo effect. Attractiveness leads to halo effect due to its multidimensional nature. The perceptions on attractiveness will thus affect attitudes and judgments on personality trait. The physical appearance or attributes such as eye color, hair, and weight will be influence other people’s judgments. For instance, a person who is perceived as attractive due to some physical traits like good eye color, hair or skin color will be more likely perceived as intelligent or kind. People perceived as attractive will also be perceived as friendliness, trustworthiness kind, intelligent, and competent. In regards to personality, research shows that more attractive people are perceived to have more socially desirable personality traits as compared to unattractive or averagely attractive people (Rasmussen, 2008). In the private life, people will hereby judge others and seek to relate to others based on their overall impressions. Issues like relationships, marriage, and partnerships in different undertakings will be influenced by the attitude of a person towards others. For instance, the concepts of marital happiness, parental happiness, professional happiness and general happiness in dealing with a person are influenced by their attractiveness. A more attractive person will be chosen for may be marriage, relationship or partnership in a social event. This is because attractive person is perceived to have desirable personality traits. Attractive people are also perceived to lead happier lives than less attractive or unattractive people. Attractive people are assumed to be better parents, have happier marriages, and be more successful in their careers. Attractive people are also perceived to hold prestigious and secure jobs that unattractive individual. All these perceptions are a product of halo effect and affect judgments and attitudes of people in the private contexts. Social acceptance and rejection of a person will thus be treated based on the attractiveness of that person and the perception on his/her personality trait (Schneider et al, 2012). In the real world, the halo effect has great influence on people’s judgments and attitudes towards others. In the professional context, leaders, supervisors or employees will have different judgments of their subjects depending on how they perceive them. For instance in the education context, the halo effect will influence the way a teacher treats students. This will also apply on the way students perceive the teacher. A teacher, who perceives students as attractive, will be biased in making conclusions on their personality traits. Attractive students will in this case, be seen by the teacher as favorable in personality as compared to those who are less attractive. In the learning context, when the instructor is viewed as friendly and warm, he/she will be rated by the students as appealing, attractive, and likeable. In the classroom, the halo effect will influence how teachers rate their students. For instance, a teacher who sees a certain student to be well-behaved, he/she might tend to assume that the student is diligent, bright, and engaged. This halo effect will make a teacher to make conclusions and judgments without objectively evaluating the capacity of the student. Based on this scenario, halo effect in the classroom will affect the approval ratings by the teacher thus affecting the student’s grades (Standing, 2004). In the work setting, halo effect will influence the relationships and judgments made by supervisors and employees. The approval rating or appraisal by a supervisor concerning a subordinate’s job performance will be influenced by the overall impression given by the employee to the supervisor. Halo effect is hereby, the most common bias in performance appraisal in the job setting. By imagining how a supervisor evaluates subordinate’s performance, then many errors will stand to be made. This is because; the supervisor may only give prominence to a certain character trait like enthusiasm and overlook other traits. This biased judgment will definitely lead to poor and misleading conclusions. In the professional job setting, an employee may get a higher performance rating even if the worker does not have the ability or knowledge to perform, so long as he or she shows enthusiasm to the supervisor. This is a clear indication of how halo effect influences judgments and attitudes in the professional setting (Landy & Sigall, 1974). In the professional setting, halo effect also influences the decisions and attitudes of employers or interviewers towards job applicants. Job applicants are in many cases subjected to the halo effect in the recruitment process. If the employer or interviewer views the job applicant as likeable or attractive, the higher the chances the individual will be rated as competent, intelligent, and qualified. This physical bias is what will lead to the acceptance or rejection of job applicants in different posts. The overall physical outlook of a job applicant will have great influence on the judgment made by the employer. Conversely, by dressing casually and reckless, a job applicant regardless of how competent, intelligent or qualified he or she may be, might not get the chance. This is due to the halo effect, whereby people make judgments based on the impressions they get from other people. Good looking and attractive job applicants will be perceived as capable, intellectual, and qualified, thus increasing their chances of getting the job (Rosenzweig, 2007). In the professional context of marketing and sales, the influence of halo effect is great. The halo effect influences the way consumers think about a certain product. Marketers will take advantage of halo effect in selling their products and services. Undoubtedly, by allowing a celebrity spokesperson to endorse the product, the attitudes and judgments of the consumers towards the product or service is positively changed. The positive evaluations of the consumers towards the celebrity will spread their perceptions towards the product or service it-self. Since consumers will perceive the celebrity as attractive, this will be reflected in evaluating the product, whereby they see it as appealing and good to them. Halo effect is of great importance in marketing since it helps marketers and corporations to manipulate the attitudes of consumers by using attractive and celebrities (Standing, 2004). In the public context, halo effect is also influential on people’s attitudes and judgments. For instance in the political arena, a candidate will be voted in or rejected based on the voters’ perception on his/her attractiveness. Attractive candidates vying for posts give good impressions to voters, which usually influence judgments and attitudes towards their competency. Alongside the electoral processes, where voters judge candidates on attractiveness, the halo effect is also experienced in public appointments. Decisions concerning who to be appointed for a leadership position is based on his/her attractiveness and familiarity. Attractiveness is a great predictor of decisions in public contexts. Attractiveness and familiarity are correlated with intelligence and competency. A candidate who appears familiar and attractive will be assumed to be more competent and intelligent for the post, thus increasing his/her chances of being elected (Scorcher and Brant, 2002). Still in the public context, the judgments made in courts and treatment of inmates by prison wardens is also influenced by the individual’s attractiveness. Jury outcomes are in many cases influenced by the attractiveness of the persons. More attractive individuals will likely get lesser sentences as compared to unattractive persons. Different studies have shown that juries are lenient in their sentencing of attractive people even in cases of similar crimes. This bias is attributed to the halo effect, whereby people with a high level of attractiveness influence the attitude and judgment of the jury. A jury will perceive an attractive person as having a brighter future in the society, as compared to less attractive people. The judge will often believe attractive people possess socially desirable traits, thus being lenient in his/her judgments. In the prison setting, convicts or inmates will receive fair treatments from prison wardens based on their attractiveness. The prison wardens will perceive attractive inmates as having good personality traits. From another perspective, social workers will often interact and give higher approval ratings to attractive people. Social workers find it difficult to believe that attractive people can commit a crime. These phenomenons demonstrate the great impact of halo effect in the public context (Efran, 1974). Conclusion Halo effect is an inseparable element of human behavior and cognitive action. Regardless of the criticism which halo effect may face, it is inevitable in human life. As discussed in the study, halo effect influences the thinking and feelings of people towards others. The overall impressions made by people towards others will influence the attitudes and judgments made towards them. The impression of attractiveness or unattractiveness influence on the perceptions of intelligent, competence, trustworthiness, funny, friendliness, and kind among others. With this in mind, halo effect will affect the decisions made by people in private, public, or professional settings.
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    What Is the Halo Effect? Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation What Is the Halo Effect? Introduction The halo effect is basically identified a cognitive bias, whereby overall human impression affect how they think and feel about their character. The impression of a person influences his or her overall judgments of other people’s specific traits. Based on the halo effect, people will make judgments and evaluations of others guided by the overall impressions offered by those people. Halo effect is also defined as the physical attractiveness stereotype or the habitual tendency of people, to judge attractive persons as favorable while the less attractive as less favorable in personality traits (Cherry, 2012). The halo effect is used in describing the global influence of likeable personality or certain desirable trait in creating biased judgments. The concept of halo effect was coined by psychologist Edward Thorndike in 1920. Based on research, controversy was also raised on the general applicability of halo effect, whereby it was established that people also believe that attractive people are also dishonest, vain, and likely to use their good looks to control others. The halo effect has great influence on relationships and judgments of others in private, public, and professional contexts, since the attitudes and judgments towards others is based on the impressions made. Attractiveness and personality have great influence in producing a halo effect. Attractiveness leads to halo effect due to its multidimensional nature. The perceptions on attractiveness will thus affect attitudes and judgments on personality trait. The physical appearance or attributes such as eye color, hair, and weight will be influence other people’s judgments. For instance, a person who is perceived as attractive due to some physical traits like good eye color, hair or skin color will be more likely perceived as intelligent or kind. People perceived as attractive will also be perceived as friendliness, trustworthiness kind, intelligent, and competent. In regards to personality, research shows that more attractive people are perceived to have more socially desirable personality traits as compared to unattractive or averagely attractive people (Rasmussen, 2008). In the private life, people will hereby judge others and seek to relate to others based on their overall impressions. Issues like relationships, marriage, and partnerships in different undertakings will be influenced by the attitude of a person towards others. For instance, the concepts of marital happiness, parental happiness, professional happiness and general happiness in dealing with a person are influenced by their attractiveness. A more attractive person will be chosen for may be marriage, relationship or partnership in a social event. This is because attractive person is perceived to have desirable personality traits. Attractive people are also perceived to lead happier lives than less attractive or unattractive people. Attractive people are assumed to be better parents, have happier marriages, and be more successful in their careers. Attractive people are also perceived to hold prestigious and secure jobs that unattractive individual. All these perceptions are a product of halo effect and affect judgments and attitudes of people in the private contexts. Social acceptance and rejection of a person will thus be treated based on the attractiveness of that person and the perception on his/her personality trait (Schneider et al, 2012). In the real world, the halo effect has great influence on people’s judgments and attitudes towards others. In the professional context, leaders, supervisors or employees will have different judgments of their subjects depending on how they perceive them. For instance in the education context, the halo effect will influence the way a teacher treats students. This will also apply on the way students perceive the teacher. A teacher, who perceives students as attractive, will be biased in making conclusions on their personality traits. Attractive students will in this case, be seen by the teacher as favorable in personality as compared to those who are less attractive. In the learning context, when the instructor is viewed as friendly and warm, he/she will be rated by the students as appealing, attractive, and likeable. In the classroom, the halo effect will influence how teachers rate their students. For instance, a teacher who sees a certain student to be well-behaved, he/she might tend to assume that the student is diligent, bright, and engaged. This halo effect will make a teacher to make conclusions and judgments without objectively evaluating the capacity of the student. Based on this scenario, halo effect in the classroom will affect the approval ratings by the teacher thus affecting the student’s grades (Standing, 2004). In the work setting, halo effect will influence the relationships and judgments made by supervisors and employees. The approval rating or appraisal by a supervisor concerning a subordinate’s job performance will be influenced by the overall impression given by the employee to the supervisor. Halo effect is hereby, the most common bias in performance appraisal in the job setting. By imagining how a supervisor evaluates subordinate’s performance, then many errors will stand to be made. This is because; the supervisor may only give prominence to a certain character trait like enthusiasm and overlook other traits. This biased judgment will definitely lead to poor and misleading conclusions. In the professional job setting, an employee may get a higher performance rating even if the worker does not have the ability or knowledge to perform, so long as he or she shows enthusiasm to the supervisor. This is a clear indication of how halo effect influences judgments and attitudes in the professional setting (Landy & Sigall, 1974). In the professional setting, halo effect also influences the decisions and attitudes of employers or interviewers towards job applicants. Job applicants are in many cases subjected to the halo effect in the recruitment process. If the employer or interviewer views the job applicant as likeable or attractive, the higher the chances the individual will be rated as competent, intelligent, and qualified. This physical bias is what will lead to the acceptance or rejection of job applicants in different posts. The overall physical outlook of a job applicant will have great influence on the judgment made by the employer. Conversely, by dressing casually and reckless, a job applicant regardless of how competent, intelligent or qualified he or she may be, might not get the chance. This is due to the halo effect, whereby people make judgments based on the impressions they get from other people. Good looking and attractive job applicants will be perceived as capable, intellectual, and qualified, thus increasing their chances of getting the job (Rosenzweig, 2007). In the professional context of marketing and sales, the influence of halo effect is great. The halo effect influences the way consumers think about a certain product. Marketers will take advantage of halo effect in selling their products and services. Undoubtedly, by allowing a celebrity spokesperson to endorse the product, the attitudes and judgments of the consumers towards the product or service is positively changed. The positive evaluations of the consumers towards the celebrity will spread their perceptions towards the product or service it-self. Since consumers will perceive the celebrity as attractive, this will be reflected in evaluating the product, whereby they see it as appealing and good to them. Halo effect is of great importance in marketing since it helps marketers and corporations to manipulate the attitudes of consumers by using attractive and celebrities (Standing, 2004). In the public context, halo effect is also influential on people’s attitudes and judgments. For instance in the political arena, a candidate will be voted in or rejected based on the voters’ perception on his/her attractiveness. Attractive candidates vying for posts give good impressions to voters, which usually influence judgments and attitudes towards their competency. Alongside the electoral processes, where voters judge candidates on attractiveness, the halo effect is also experienced in public appointments. Decisions concerning who to be appointed for a leadership position is based on his/her attractiveness and familiarity. Attractiveness is a great predictor of decisions in public contexts. Attractiveness and familiarity are correlated with intelligence and competency. A candidate who appears familiar and attractive will be assumed to be more competent and intelligent for the post, thus increasing his/her chances of being elected (Scorcher and Brant, 2002). Still in the public context, the judgments made in courts and treatment of inmates by prison wardens is also influenced by the individual’s attractiveness. Jury outcomes are in many cases influenced by the attractiveness of the persons. More attractive individuals will likely get lesser sentences as compared to unattractive persons. Different studies have shown that juries are lenient in their sentencing of attractive people even in cases of similar crimes. This bias is attributed to the halo effect, whereby people with a high level of attractiveness influence the attitude and judgment of the jury. A jury will perceive an attractive person as having a brighter future in the society, as compared to less attractive people. The judge will often believe attractive people possess socially desirable traits, thus being lenient in his/her judgments. In the prison setting, convicts or inmates will receive fair treatments from prison wardens based on their attractiveness. The prison wardens will perceive attractive inmates as having good personality traits. From another perspective, social workers will often interact and give higher approval ratings to attractive people. Social workers find it difficult to believe that attractive people can commit a crime. These phenomenons demonstrate the great impact of halo effect in the public context (Efran, 1974). Conclusion Halo effect is an inseparable element of human behavior and cognitive action. Regardless of the criticism which halo effect may face, it is inevitable in human life. As discussed in the study, halo effect influences the thinking and feelings of people towards others. The overall impressions made by people towards others will influence the attitudes and judgments made towards them. The impression of attractiveness or unattractiveness influence on the perceptions of intelligent, competence, trustworthiness, funny, friendliness, and kind among others. With this in mind, halo effect will affect the decisions made by people in private, public, or professional settings.
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    African American History since 1877  Student’s Name Course Institutional Affiliation The United States has undergone numerous developments and changes, which have brought about the current society. The Civil War is to be praised for some of the changes in democracy, governance, human rights, freedom, and equality enjoyed in the US today. The Civil War of the 19th century and early 20th century is the event, which triggered the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. The 13th amendments helped in abolishing slavery while 14th amendment allowed due process, and the 15th amendment gave equal voting rights for men regardless of race. The realization of these amendments was not equally supported, whereby the south undermined the process. The federal government through the Congress plays a vital role in ensuring enactment of the amendments. The positive impacts of the amendments to the African American are something to celebrate since they helped in ensuring a just, equitable and free society. The political and ideological differences between the south and the north were reflected in the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. Nevertheless, the south was not very effective in undermining the amendments. The struggles for national leadership between democrats and republics are a key factor which hindered the effectiveness of the South in undermining the amendments. Whereas the republicans in the South abandoned reconstruction in 1877 which prioritized economic progress, national unity, and racial justice, the democrats supported the civil war. This political differences and ideologies divided the power of south in undermining the process. The Southern Democrats seized power by supporting the civil war. The Sothern republics sought to undermine the civil rights of former slaves, thus lowing the political power and public support to the democrats (Avins, 2002). The support of the southern democrats to the constitutional amendments was the major force jeopardizing the southern republican opposition to the amendments. The role of President Lincoln in the campaign for amendments also compromised the opposition of the South. The opposition, which had been demonstrated by the house and the republican was eased by make certain that the amendments were included in the Republican Party platform in the upcoming elections. This had positive impacts since the house was able to pass the bill in January 1865. The role of President Lincoln and the Southern democrats hereby weakened the opposition of the South, making it ineffective in undermining the amendments. Nevertheless the southern democrats also undermined the 15th amendments. This did this by disenfranchising the large number of illiterate poor black population. Nevertheless, this opposition did not effectively undermine the amendments (Vorenberg, 2001). The role of the federal government in the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments is remarkable. Despite of the various hindrances and opposition among the Congress and House, the amendments were later passed. This action was however, countered by the House, which declined it in 1864. In resolving the stalemate, the federal government under the leadership of President Lincoln mobilized support for the amendments thus winning the Republicans and the south that had opposing viewpoints (Smock, 1999). The federal government through the Congress prepared for changes long before the victory of the Union in 1865. The Congress anticipated the nation’s challenges at the end of the civil war by integrating the over four million newly liberated African Americans into the political arena. The Congress also worked in ensuring smooth readmission of federal representatives of rebellion states. The Congress facilitated the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments through the reconstruction which saw the amendments being incorporated into the constitution (Maltz, 1990). The federal government through the Congress and Supreme Court abolished slavery, hence showing support for the amendments. For instance senators, Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, and John Henderson of Missouri sponsored constitutional amendments to end slavery. These are essential legislation, which supported the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. In 1870, the government through the senate ratified the 15th amendments thus prohibiting disenfranchising of voters on race or color (Avins, 2002). Nevertheless, issues of peonage were rampant in America, mainly the South. Peonage is a scenario where the African Americans were put under debt servitude. This also refers to involuntary servitude in relation to debt payment. The existence of this mode of slavery and white supremacy triggered black protests. In reinforcing the amendments and ensuring just and fair society, the Supreme Court made different landmark rulings. The first case against peonage was in 1911 between Bailey and Alabama. From another perspective, the Supreme Court held that states would impose segregation in the event they provide equivalent facilities in Plessy V. Ferguson. This led to the doctrine of separate but equal. Another landmark ruling was the Straudery V. West Virginia which overturned laws against black discrimination (Vorenberg, 2001). The response of the African Americans was positive based on the provisions for equality, freedom, and voting rights by the amendments. The 13th amendment, which aimed at abolishing slavery, was of great benefit to the African Americans. This is similar to the 14th and 15th amendments, which advocated for equality and fairness. The African Americans had every merit to support and celebrate for the amendments since their quest for freedom, rights, dignity, and fairness had been answered. The provision for equal voting rights regardless of color and the race was a big relief (Manfred, 2005). White supremacy was also dominated despite the amendments, thus leading to protests by African Americans. A good example is the Ku Klux Klan vigilantism group which advocated for white supremacy, mainly in the southern society. Failure by African Americans to obey the law led to deadly consequences (Gilbert, 2005). The response of African Americans included the movement to the Northern and western cities. African American activists also advocated for protest against the racial discrimination which were advanced by the whites. A good example Du Bois who led black activists in establishing the Niagara Movement so as to demand equal rights as to free-born Americans, civil, social, and political. A race riot in August 1908 is also an example of African American response to white supremacy (Walters, 2002). The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments have had a great impact in the making of the modern American society. The current social, economic, political, and cultural developments in the US can be greatly attributed to these amendments. The Civil War deserves the praises for ensuring positive change in the American society. Of great importance is the abolition of slavery, provision of equal rights, and voting rights for all without discrimination. Despite the different opposing forces from people obsessed with white supremacy, fairness, equity, and freedom was at last realized in America.
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    Abortion: A Case of an Ethical Dilemma Student’s Name Course Institution Abortion: A Case of an Ethical Dilemma A 19 year old girl gets pregnant after she is raped. She now feels confused as to whether to keep the unborn child or have an abortion. At her age, she feels she is ready to have a child, and she really does want to keep the baby, but she is scared to keep a baby born out of rape. Besides, she is not yet married and believes keeping the child may affect her relationship with the right man. She thus sees having an abortion as her only option. On the other hand, her parents are very committed Catholics, and strongly disapprove of out-of-wedlock births. They believe in two-parent families and consequently, do not kindly take the idea of their daughter getting pregnant. They also believe in the sanctity of life and the Commandment, ‘never to kill’. Both the girl and her parents face ethical dilemmas. For her, she believes having the baby is the right thing to do. However, if she keeps the baby she is afraid it will bring her many problems. For her parents, they believe in a two-parent family and so, do not approve of out-of-wedlock births. However, if they ask her to abort they will be participating in murder as the Bible considers abortion as murder. Clearly in these two situations, the girl and her parents would have to consider ethical theories to support their decisions. Utilitarianism If the girl and her parents decide to make their decisions based on utilitarianism, then they will have to consider the consequences or rather the ends than the act. In this case, they will choose a response that most brings about the greatest good. Further, in making their decisions they will have to be guided by one, that abortion is not an ‘evil’ act; two, that an individual is sovereign; and three, that the end justifies the means. In short, the girl can have an abortion as long as the outcome brings about the greatest good (Mill, 2011). Kantian Ethical Theory If the girl and her parents opt for Kant’s ethical theory, they will have to be guided by a universal maxim. Suppose, for instance, that the girl chooses abortion. According to Kant, such a maxim is self contradictory because if everyone had an abortion there would be no one else to have an abortion. Similarly, if the girl chooses to have an abortion only because she was raped, Kant would say that although such a maxim is not self-contradictory, it contradicts the will because if all willed that everyone who has been raped have an abortion they would be wishing themselves out of existence. Besides, there are so many people who have been born out of rape. In brief, Kantian theory does not support abortion (Wood, 2008). Situation Ethics Situation ethics generally views abortion as a sinful act. However, this theory does emphasize on love as the only good thing. As such, in some situations we may get rid of rules to do the right thing. This is exactly the position taken, for instance, by the Church of England. She maintains that although abortion is an evil act, it may be a lesser evil in certain situations. In the case of this girl who has been raped, for example, the Church of England may allow her to abort as an act of love. Nonetheless, situation ethics does not see abortion as a method of birth control. It is only acceptable in extreme circumstances (Fletcher, 1966).
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    Name: Tutor: Course Date: Comparing and Contrasting Educational Theories of Mills and Plato Introduction There is a common saying that behind every school and teacher there is a set of beliefs. This set of beliefs is what influences what teachers can teach, how they can teach it, whom they can teach, and why even teach or school in the first place. These beliefs have been referred to as the ‘philosophy of education’. All human societies, going back to the antique, have had a vested interest in education. There are indeed as many educational philosophers as there are philosophical worldviews today. Two of these philosophers of education are Plato and John Stuart Mills. Everyone knows that they were profoundly concerned with education. Whether we are talking about Plato’s ideas in the Republic or Mill’s ideas in his work On Liberty, they were all concerned with how education can be accomplished and who can accomplish it. This paper compares and contrasts educational theories of Mills and Plato. It begins by exploring Plato’s ideas on education and how these ideas provide educators with rich insight into modern education. It also looks at Mills ideas on education and how they interact with modern education. Finally, it concludes by summarizing all the ideas discussed in this discourse. Plato Like Socrates and Aristotle, the man ‘Plato’ and his ideas continue to be celebrated in the modern world. He was a sophisticated writer, political thinker, and one of the best and known mathematicians in history. His contributions to education, the state, scientific discovery, ethics and the nature of reality, are as relevant to today’s world as they were during his time. This is not to say his ideas are timeless, but that the world continues to draw lessons from his vast knowledge to contain the emerging situations. Nothing more can summarize his relevance in the contemporary world than the words of Whitehead that the Western philosophical tradition is primarily characterized by the footnotes to Plato (Ross 31). Plato left several letters and about thirty known dialogues behind. Plato’s essential position is largely founded on the interests of a person. Similarly, he believes that happiness is the eventual gist of life. It is the uppermost stage that the soul seeks to conquer. Conversely, to attain it the soul must primarily attain the moral ideals he delineates in his fundamental merits. He thus concludes that a moral person is one who is happy and just in the society. He also deems that the state cannot attain the ease of its citizens if both people and society are unjust. The ideal is therefore, to construct a society where justice reigns supreme. The Republic is perhaps Plato’s most known dialogue concerning education. However, his vast and multifaceted concern with education is also reflected in his other dialogues. In the Gorgias, for instance, he talks about education and justice as the primary qualities in obtaining happiness (Plato 6-15). In the Protagoras, he poses a question as to whether it is possible to teach virtue or even acquire it. In the Apology, he claims that his primary goal of practicing philosophy is to get the Athenians to care for virtue (Plato 29d). Plato also describes education in his other writings such as the Phaedrus, the laws and Meno (Plato Book VI-X). Plato’s Educational Theories Plato is perhaps the earliest thinker to have given an account and extensively articulated a comprehensive goal of education. He believes that the highest aim of education is the knowledge of the ‘good’. This knowledge, he says, is the greatest and the ultimate virtue. It is this knowledge that results in the realization of the four virtues: wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. Education is therefore, aimed at discovering these virtues in the citizens. Once discovered, the citizens have to be progressively trained on how they can best use these qualities for the good of the society. As Dewey expresses it, the society is most stable and becomes a just order when every citizen does what he/she is best inclined by nature. Indeed, an individual contributes best to the society as a whole when he becomes useful to others too. Plato does, however, admit that although these virtues are in essence present in human nature, not everyone possesses all of them. Some people may be courageous but not wise. Others may be temperate, but not courageous. Still others may be courageous but not just. It is consequently, the role of education to discover the strengths of every person by looking at specific areas where they have the highest level of these virtues. After identifying these qualities, it is still the business of education to ensure that they are developed to their full potentials, by training each person to become where they are best inclined by nature. For example, if it is identified that an individual is having a higher level of courage than the other three qualities, then it is the role of education to develop this virtue of courage by training this person to become a soldier so that he can defend the city during wars. He does claim however that citizens who are capable of education are those that possess higher levels of reason (Cooney et al. 19-22). In the Republic, one of his most famous dialogues in which he explores the nature of justice particularly what constitutes it and the facts and policies that ensure a just state (Plato, Book 1-X); Plato exclusively explains the primary aim of education. According to him, education is primarily intended to produce the supreme elites who would govern the ideal state. He referred to these elites as the philosopher kings (Reeve 191). He argues however, that the problem with these guardians is that they are not interested in ruling. They are only concerned with gaining more knowledge. Plato, therefore, claims that the only way to get them interested in the ruling is by giving them proper education. He thus, sets out in detail an education system that he believes will enhance the philosopher kings, to guide work colleagues. His curriculum integrates exercise with discipline, as well as sports with arts. According to him, children must begin their education by learning how to read, write, and count. With this basic knowledge, they can participate in other fields such as music and sports. In regards to musical education, Plato says that children must be told tales in their earliest years. These stories, however, must be censored. This is because everything children are exposed to is acquired. As Socrates says, a child cannot judge between good and bad and hence, if he is exposed to bad tales it becomes hard to eradicate it in his later years. Plato also designs a gymnastic education, which he believes is equally important in the formation of moral guardians. As Socrates says, a healthy intellect ensures a healthy body. At the age of 13, Plato proceeds, they must enroll for military training. They must also engage in other physical exercises. When they are 21, they must begin higher studies. When they reach the age of 30, they must join philosophical classes. During this time, they must begin either working in the civil service or the army. By the time they reach 50, they will obviously be ready to govern and guide the rest. Plato describes this curriculum model of education as ‘lifelong education’. This curriculum, he argues, must be overseen by the philosopher kings. They must be at the top of the ideal state. For this reason, change should be avoided. This is because they have already achieved the necessary perfection to govern the state. Merchants, craftsmen and slaves must not rule for they have not obtained the perfection (Plato I-X). His account of education in the Republic provides educators with rich insights. For one, he maintains that those in charge of educating others must exhibit high levels of concern for the well-being of the people they have a responsibility to educate. This is because education is a moral endeavor, which requires deep care, for it involves the search for truth and virtue. As such, those they work with, must be delicately guided. Secondly, modern educators can learn from Plato the ‘Socratic teaching method’. That is, teaching by itself does not generate knowledge; it is obtained from questioning. This means that they must not only know the people they have a responsibility to teach, but as true guardians they must also be acquainted with the limits of their knowledge. Thirdly, modern educators can learn from him the conceptualization of education. He believes that there can only be an ideal state, with high moral and intellectual levels if citizens undergo continuous training and progressive growth. The Theory of Forms The theory of forms is perhaps the greatest contribution of Plato to philosophy. This theory hypothesizes that people come to acquire knowledge, not by experience, but by knowing the forms. Thus, to know any truth, one must first study the world of forms (Lott 339-364). This world is accessed, not by sense experience, but by reason. To acquire reason, however, one must develop certain habits of mind, which are essentially developed by studying tough subjects. A subject like mathematics, for instance, would develop in a person’s mind additional qualities such as intelligence and persistence. It is these ancillary qualities that enable an individual to see the form of good (Allen 69-74). Possibly, Plato’s most famous explanation of education is the allegory of the cave dwellers. Plato skillfully uses this analogy to explain how people come to know the good through education (Reeve 50). He describes a cave in which prisoners are chained from birth behind walls. Since they have never experienced the reality, they assume that the shadows cast before them are the reality. In brief, Plato uses this allegory of the cave to show how people come to know the truth. He also uses the concepts of ‘form/ideal’ and ‘real’ to show how hard it is to obtain the good. For one to acquire knowledge, one must know the world of forms. This world can, however, only be accessed by philosopher kings, who must themselves go through progressive training in order to understand the truth. The real world, on the other hand, is corrupt and illusory. It is limited to the shadows and lies (Bøyum 543-559). John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill, a political economist and sophisticated thinker was the most prominent English-speaking philosopher of the 19th century (Capaldi 1). He was born in London, and brought up in an extremely rigorous environment. With the advice of Jeremy Bentham, his father (James Mill) deliberately educated him to become a utilitarian in order to carry on the cause of the ethical theory. At the age of eight, he was already conversant with Plato’s works and ideas. He is most remembered for his contributions to social and political theories, particularly his progressive influence on utilitarianism and liberalism. His conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual. He argued that there is nothing wrong with causing harm to the self as long as one does not cause harm to others. Mill does state however, that serious harm even to oneself should not be allowed because it does affect others for the reason that no one lives in isolation. His greatest contribution to utilitarianism is his qualitative separation of pleasures. Whereas Bentham considers pleasures as equal, Mill holds that pleasures differ in quality. He distinguishes between higher pleasures and lower pleasures (Mill 16-52). Mill on Education Mills ideas on education are mainly contained in his work On Liberty, in which he expresses his belief that if the state provided education for all its citizens, it could make the society a better place. This follows from the fact that if people acted to their best as inclined by nature, they would inevitably portray high levels of moral and intellectual capacities. Mill is advocating for a universal education. He actually suggests that the state should compel all its citizens to acquire education up to a certain minimum level. If possible, the state should enforce a law, which requires that at a certain fixed age, every child must be examined to ascertain he or she is able to read, write and count. Mills idea is that, by making a specified standard of education virtually compulsory, every citizen will be able to possess a certain minimum of general knowledge. Similarly, if the parents do not fulfill their obligation to educate their children, the state should take on this role to ensure that every citizen acquires education. Mills states that if there is a universal education, it will be needless for the state to decide and determine what should be taught and how it should be taught. He believes that a lot of time, money and resources are wasted in arguing about the nature and contents of education. Instead, if there is a universal education, the state will direct its energy in ensuring that every citizen receives a quality education. In addition, if parents fulfill their obligation of educating their children, the state will be left with sufficient time to give support to poorer children, whose parents cannot afford to pay their school fees or probably has no one to pay for them (Mill 73-92). Mill also expounds on the two conflicting interpretations of liberty in education. According to him, negative liberty refers to putting limits to one’s deliberate actions. That means that a person cannot just decide to act with disregard to the well-being of others. Clearly, this notion places limits on what one can wish to do. Conversely, positive liberty refers to the realization of self-mastery. Individuals can act as they wish without interference by other persons. This notion implies liberation from slavery into the awakening of conscious state of rationality (Ryan 653-667). Comparing and Contrasting Mills and Plato Both Mills and Plato agree that the state should provide all citizens with education in order to raise moral and intellectual levels in the society. They both believe that education should be provided to all children so that everyone gets the opportunity to exploit their talents to their best. They equally agree that, the state should take on the role of education if the children’s parents fail to fulfill their obligation of education. They differ however, in their methods of obtaining this goal. While Mills advocates for public education without putting limit or determining what to be taught, Plato believes that the state should determine what is to be taught. Mills believes that if there is a universal education, there will be no time and labor wasted quarrelling over the content and nature of education to be offered to children. Besides, if there is a set minimum standard of education that each child should attain at a fixed age and their parents equally commit themselves to their children’s education, they will inevitably be knowledgeable about a range of subjects. In contrast, Plato proposes that the state comes up with a curriculum of education detailing what children should be taught and how they should be taught. Remember in the Republic, he argues that the role of education is to identify areas where children possess higher levels of virtue, and thus help them develop these qualities to their full potential. Even as he suggests giving children equal opportunities in education to shine in their strengths, he believes that the state cannot mould its citizens to be exactly like one another. This is because not everyone possesses all the four virtues in the same capacity. In addition, closely reading Plato’s line of thought, one can actually conclude that he is willing even to remove children from their parents if that is the only way they will obtain proper education and become responsible citizens. Most importantly, Plato believes in giving all children equal opportunities in order to identify the talented children. Conclusion Both Plato’s and Mill’s contribution to education are as relevant to today’s world as they were during their time. This is not to say their ideas are timeless, but that the world continues to draw lessons from their vast knowledge and ideas to provide educators with rich insight into modern education. In his special treatment of education, Plato made the following remarks. One, he states that the highest aim of education is the knowledge of the ‘good’. This knowledge, he says, is the greatest and the ultimate virtue. It is this knowledge that results in the realization of the four virtues: wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. He thus argues that it is the role of education to identify and develop these virtues to their full potentials in individuals. Two, he proposes an education system, which he believes will produce the philosopher kings. This curriculum integrates exercise with discipline, as well as sports with arts. Three, he hypothesizes that people come to acquire knowledge, not by experience, but by knowing the forms. Thus, to know any truth, one must first study the world of forms (ideas). Finally, Plato skillfully uses this analogy to explain how people come to know the good through education.
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    The First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution Student’s Name Course Title Tutor Institutional Affiliation Date The First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution Introduction The first and second industrial revolutions are important times in history, which set the ground for the current social, economic, technological, and cultural developments in the world. The 1st industrial revolution took place from 1790s to 1840, while the second industrial revolution lasted from 1870 to 1910. The two industrial revolutions have great similarities as well as some differences. The common aspect of the two industrial revolutions is that, they both realized enormous increase in the use of machines, while there was the difference in the sense that the 1st revolution was more about capital goods like steam engines, while the 2nd revolution entailed production of consumer goods1 Joel, Mokyr, The Economics of the Industrial Revolution, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985): 119. . The bottom line in both cases is that, they led to increase in use of machinery, massive change in agriculture transportation and manufacturing, which impacted positively on socio-economic and cultural conditions. The 1st and 2nd revolution were very common in the sense that both led to a massive increase in the usage of machines for different activities, which increased production, employment opportunities and living standards. Following the use of machines in both the first and second revolution, production for capital goods and consumer goods was greatly increased since extraction and processing activities were intensive with more men and women joining the production activities. The issues of urbanization and rural-urban migration were witnessed in both the first and second revolution, whereby change from home system to the factory system was introduced as many people started moving new the factories in search for the job and also to save transport cost and time. Both women and men were affected by the first and second revolution through the provision of equal employment opportunities in the firms, thus leading to a significant change in living standards. In this regard, the 1st and second revolution did not only change the socioeconomic setting by the introduction of consumer goods and machines but also triggered the great awakening where reformers attempted to restructure the society against the evils created by the marketing and money2 Joel, Mokyr, The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective, (London: Routledge, 2008): 107.. The geographical scope, source of power, and products or results of the 1st and 2nd revolutions were quite different. The first industrial revolution began in late 18th century in England and saw the development of the steam engine, while the second revolution began in late 19th century and entailed the development of giant corporations and steel industries. Whereas the first revolution was restricted to the Great Britain and parts of United States, France, and Belgium, the 2nd revolution spread to others parts of the globe like Russia, German, and Japan. During the 1st industrial revolution, the common sources of power were primitive and included man, horses, wind, and water, which are different from the second revolution where electricity became the primary source of power for running farms, factories, and homes. The 1st revolution led to changes in agriculture, rural-urban migration, and development of factories while the second revolution led to use of electrical power saw and electronics of different types3 Ronald, Edsforth, A Second Industrial Revolution, (London: Routledge, 1982): 84.
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    Animal Captivity: Blackfish Students Name Course/Number Institution Animal captivity: Blackfish Introduction Blackfish, a film regarding a killer whale orca named Tilikum, of the SeaWorld Aquatic Park who killed his instructor in 2010, has emerged as a top revelation in the movie industry following its release in January 2013. The economically composed film, Blackfish, by producer Gabriela Cowperthwaite, has raised eyebrows on the handling of marine life in amusement parks, since its official release in July and is anticipated to prompt further censorship after its consequent DVD vending approval on 24th August. This is despite being branded by SeaWorld as appallingly deceitful, intentionally misleading, and scientifically wrong. The documentaries allegations involved abuse and exploitation of the captivated mammals. The producer’s critical coverage strikingly reflects the Islamic teachings on how animals should be handled, and particularly requires Muslims to handle animals with cautiousness, as opposed to mistreating them. In Islam, all creatures including animals are understood to worship God in their own distinctive ways as supported by Gharebaghi et al (2008). Analysis The movie presents an insight about the fatal whale Tilikum, who prior to the 2010s deadly attack on his trainer, Dawn Branceau, was a leading entertainer in the Shamu cinemas at SeaWorld Orlando. Disquietly, Brancheau became the third victim to be murdered by the gigantic sea mammal, and via the Blackfish documentary, Cowperthwaite reviews how the mishandling of orcas might be exposing such animals to emotional disorders. The film in my opinion particularly strives to outline the challenges created by confining whales in solitary captivity and separating them from their custodians while still premature, instead of allowing them to thrive in their sea pods’ familial homes as supported by Willmore (2013). In similarity, it is immoral for Muslims to abuse, harm, or kill animals, with the exemption of killing for food, which should be conducted in accordance to the Quran guidelines intended to limit animal sufferings. A devotee who decides to domesticate animals assumes the accountability of their wellbeing and health and must therefore; grant them suitable food, water, along with shelter. Of much interest, the religion particularly forbids hunting animals for amusement or sport, and only recommends hunting when in dire situations for food (Gharebaghi et al 2008). Accordingly, Blackfish evaluates and censors the inadequate size of a whale tank, alongside the probability of confining male whales in the same tank thus triggering brutal clashes for superiority, an eventuality that the documentary suggests does not occur in the same level within the natural sea waters. Utilizing earlier coverage on whales and expert opinions, it assesses the animal’s unique attributes, its brutal handling in captivity, the wellbeing and victimization of the guides, along with the high expectations catalyzed by the multi-billion dollar marine park sector. According to Hall (2013), SeaWorld has since issued a strongly-worded report accusing the producers of being disgraceful and disowns various episodes in the documentary. Nevertheless, the producers defended their film by explaining that they never misconstrued the company. In comparison, abusing animals is regarded as wrongdoing under Islamic doctrines, as the Quran states that, just as humans, animals are part of Gods communities, and thus qualifies to be classified as Muslims. Since they symbolizes Allah’s states of creation, besides observing His natural laws that are considered as Islam itself. Conclusion Blackfish in concurrence with Islam thus stresses that, all living creatures entailing animals such as whales, exhibits feelings, as well as links with the entire holy and physical universe, and their wellbeing ought to be protected and revered. Furthermore, advocates who are against captivation of animals for the purpose of park amusement and economical gain have been monitoring the contemporary developments and are expected to utilize the documentary to convince lawmakers into prohibiting the practice.
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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date Debate Essay: Gun Control The gun control debate is among the contemporary issues to be deliberated almost entirely under inflexible stances, with meager or no assessment of pragmatic circumstances. Media debates on the issue are mainly divided between National Rifle Association (NRA) and the Second Amendment. However, the over-riding realistic concern is whether gun management policies can successfully limit gun violence or fatalities. Gun control proponents argues that gun control policies exhibit the potentiality to regulate firearms and safeguard civilians, a fact that makes it ethical to reenact the Second Amendment, or even reverse the Eighteenth Amendment, which endorsed the prohibition. Nonetheless, in case the studies might confirm that gun regulations would not, upon federal legislation, be able to regulate firearms, but instead catalyze an increase in fatal gun assaults and robberies, as well as insecurity among civilians. This renders the gun control proposal an ineffective approach to tackling gun crisis. Gun Control Laws Will Not Save Lives Opponents of gun control laws often support their standpoint by claiming that most factual researches have revealed no decline in gun violence, involving murder, under gun restrictive policies. Opponents particularly argue that, a considerable number of research outcomes have indicated higher levels of fatal gun offences such as murder and mass shooting with gun control policies in service. They assert that, most proponents of gun control laws assumes that with limited gun accessibility for civilians, there would obviously be a reduction in both fatal violence and gun robbery as reported by Wright (1). Opponents explain that it would be easier to deny law abiding civilians with defensive motives access to guns as compared to criminals among other individuals with heinous intents, especially in industrialized nations such as the US, which already exhibits countless number of ammunitions in the hands of civilians. According to Guns and Crime (1), they further expounded on this explanation by citing a study result reporting that when it was legitimate to purchase firearms in London by the mid-twentieth century, the city rarely experienced robbery cases. Accordingly, once the advocates of gun control measures succeeded in persuading lawmakers to endorse their views, armed robberies rapidly became rampant, with increased murder rates. In summary, the opponents held that even though it is clear that most studies have historically discredited the benefits of gun control policies, proponents have persisted to blindly support the laws at all costs. Stronger Gun Control Laws Will Save Lives In contrary to the opponents sponsored studies, advocates of gun control laws have particularly enlightened that federal gun policies legislated over the 1990s did assist in curbing gun crimes and brutality, and the majority of the US civilian, entailing gun owners, are in support of the recently proposed policies involving universal background screening for gun acquisitions. For instance, President Bill Clinton endorsed a bill that outlawed firearms and gun magazines with the ability to carry ten bullets and above by 1994. As observed by Guns and Crime (1), a survey sponsored by the Brady Campaign in review of the five years prior to and ten years after the bill was effected, revealed a 66 percent reduction in the rate of gun violence and crime among other positive effects. Likewise, the Brady Law espoused in 1993 in the obligation of a background screening for commercial guns, has limited access of handguns for ex-convicts among other volatile individuals, thus playing a critical role in curtailing crime rate between 1993 and 2000s. With these confirmations, advocates are convinced that gun policies are critical to safeguarding civilian lives. Besides, latest consensus indicates that most of the Americans are in support of the laws; including President Barack Obama who recently underlined that firearm belongs to the armed forces as opposed to civilians, and expressed his support for gun control policies (Wright 1). Conclusion As informed by recent studies, I am of the opinion that gun control laws might end up inspiring criminals to commit more offenses, as opposed to safeguarding innocent civilians, which probably negates gun control approach as an ineffective lifesaving mechanism. Hence, lawmakers ought to take extra precaution before deliberating on the issue, while pending the exhaustion of all the probable alternatives to tackling the issue. Works Cited
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    Student’s Name: Tutor: Course Date: Censorship in America Introduction Throughout history, governments, pressure groups, institutions and individuals have used censorship to restraint free flow of information and ideas and control expression of people. Back in the Roman days, the Roman Empire used censorship to form its citizens into acceptable characters (Gibbon & Sir Smith 304-350). When Socrates began freely to express his ideas, he was accused of corrupting the youth and subsequently sentenced to death (Waterfield 24-29). In China, the repressive regime under Emperor Qin Shi Huang used censorship to destroy history and philosophical books in order to force people to believe that he was the first emperor. In Israel, censorship was used to maintain certain moral standards within the society. During the middle ages, Hebrew literature was almost entirely destroyed. Within the Christian domain, several books including the New Testament was frequently censored (Noble et al. 410). More specifically, the Catholic Church prohibited reading a number of books, including Robinson Crusoe, Luther’s German translation of the Bible, and Galileo’s manuscripts about space. While censorship has mainly been used by political regimes, these examples show that this suppression act has been used in various ways including controlling the media, book publications, school materials, the Internet contents and arts. Censorship in America Though the United States is one of the well founded democracies in the world, the country has a long history of censorship going back to 1734 when a New York newspaper printer – John Peter Zenger – was taken to court and jailed for seditious libel against the governor of New York. Eventually, the defense of his lawyer that ‘truth cannot be libel’ paved the way for freedom of the press (Caso 126). From 1830 perhaps up to the Civil War, no abolitionist pamphlets were allowed to be mailed to the South. In 1873, there was an organization founded in the US, called the Anthony Comstock’s New Society for the Suppression of Vice (ACNSSV). This association burned manuscripts and books that contained sexual or morally obnoxious content (Dennis 369). The adoption of the Sedition Act of 1917 set the grounds for persecution and imprisonment of alleged seditionists. After the Second World War, Senator Joseph McCarthy led a campaign to destroy all pro-communist literature in the US. In 1957, the Federal government burned all books written by Psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich after the government disagreed with how he administered one of his drugs. Conceivably, the first act was in 1897, when the state of Maine prevented the display of prize-fight championship between James Corbett and Robert Fitzsimmons in terms of film censorship. There have been widespread wartime censorship, export censorship, broadcast censorship, censorship on pornography, ban on displaying foreign boycotts and the Internet censorship. The 9/11 terrorist attack perhaps provided the latest form of censorship in the United States. The immediate step taken by the government was to enact the US Patriot Act. This law allowed the government to censor all books, including who borrowed them. A number of songs were also prohibited from being played by radio stations in the United States, especially those that touched on fire, rockets and terrorism (Gilbert 3-7). One of the most known examples of censorship in the US occurred on April 18, 1978, in a case involving FCC vs. Pacifica Foundation. A man was driving his son to school, when a comedian whose material is widely considered indecent by some audiences began playing on the air. George Carlin’s routine ‘Filthy Words’ were repeatedly played for the larger part of the riding. The man later complained to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the over-sensitive and unacceptable material aired by the radio station. FCC later issued a sanction against the channel for playing filthy material. The radio station (Pacifica Foundation) then filed a case in the Supreme Court for the sanction to be upheld. Five of the members of the Court voted for FCC while four voted for Pacifica. The decision was therefore, in favor of FCC. This ruling set the pace for renewed controversy over censorship. Those who support the decision in favor of FCC argue that the radio station should have never allowed the indecent or obscene material to be aired in public. Other supporters argue that children should have never been exposed to such filthy comedy. Conversely, opponents of the ruling have argued that the man could have changed the station if he realized the material was indecent. Above all, many saw the court ruling as suppression of freedom of speech and expression (Brotman 2-76). Pros and Cons of censorship Pros of Censorship Proponents of censorship have always argued that controlling information and certain forms of expression can greatly benefit the society. They say for instance that restricting access to certain information that is abusive or offensive can help prevent others from committing illegal acts. As such, it is necessary to control certain actions in order to protect the society. Secondly, suppression of ideas and expression is sometimes necessary in order to ensure stability and peace of the state especially in matters of national security. Thirdly, where children are involved, censorship can be necessary in order to protect them from being exposed to indecent material. This is particularly important to materials being aired in public. For example, had Carlin’s material been censored, the man’s son in FCC vs. Pacifica Foundation would have not been exposed to filthy content. Finally, censorship helps in instilling a sense of responsibility in artists because they become personally accountable to what they say and write. Cons of Censorship One of the fundamental criticisms of censorship is that it suppresses and violates the freedom of speech, which is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Ultimately, when freedom of speech is suppressed, it fosters ignorance in the society. Equally, censorship kills creativity and innovativeness and reduces diversity in the society. Accordingly, opponents have argued that censorship is nonsensical and unnecessary since parents can always teach their children proper manners so that they do not tune in or access information and material that is deemed unacceptable. Besides, if the material is truly indecent, people would reject it rather than being corrupted. People are indeed, rational enough to discriminate what is good or inappropriate for them. Undeniably, this practice is totalitarian in nature since it suppresses basic civil liberties of expression. Moreover, since art is one of the surest ways people use to communicate between different cultures if censorship is encouraged, it would severely destroy this fundamental bridge. Conclusion Censorship refers to any action taken by the government, pressure groups, institutions or individuals to control or suppress freedom of expression and the free flow of information. It is a trend that is inherent in human history. Just like the Roman Empire used censorship to form its citizens into acceptable characters, several countries have used it achieve certain ends they believe apposite. In the United States, censorship is one of the most controversial practices that are yet to be resolved. Proponents have maintained that if censorship is properly monitored, it can actually benefit the society. They argue that the practice is necessary in order to protect the society, prevent people from committing illegal acts, ensure stability and the public peace, instill responsibility in artists and protect children from being exposed to indecent and pornographic materials. Conversely, opponents have argued that censorship suppresses and violates the freedom of speech, kills creativity and innovativeness, reduces diversity and that it is totalitarian in nature. Above all, they argue that human beings are rational enough to discern what is good for them and reject that which is inappropriate.
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    iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAABPsAAAHbCAYAAAHKd68wAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1B AACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAAFxEAABcRAcom8z8AAP+lSURBVHhe7J0HeF5HlfejLqtacrds 2bJk2bK63Lud4ibZToidThISNrSPHtrCEmBZSmDpbZeyLLCw7C69LnXpvYbeCSGQBNLjbun7 /8Yzl3mv7qviFts5/+eZ9713+pw5c+ZMuTNnGQwGg8FgMBgMBoPBYDAYDAaDwfCgoaurq3Lr 1q3/0t/f/zqZ52/btu0ZW7ZsWe+dxwWFO+QfTxuo7C8eGBh4gX9NsGbNmn8UPV4s9w+tXbv2 Jd76hGL9+vUvFP3fqPw8Zfv27auVfp13SiD3u/zjCYPSHfSPJwfz58+/5Nxzzx3SY6FMsUyv TKnMuLBy5UoyPu3I2ymFkfJUGpU9B2KIoXPOOeekVsaKFSvu8fkpkmnhWfkod45nnTVn1apV Jzo/RT6NsiOvJwHNzc1bfKHPamlpWeQsUwyoVtHgH0fCsEq84YYbEjtadL541OKb/GMOQvjd u3eX7tq1a4Kz9FBcm/1jDnbu3DnbP5513nnnUa4ZR96OYNOmTcv8Iyg+GQwoyTXdPzqI0SZc d911Jf41gRrxnlAXYNmyZQfjdyHJp3qcTf4xgejY7h/zQn5a/KOD4mn2jwE5tEjRK4EkdaN/ PDYsXLjw0lDIVGHPOvvss4dEhFv02B25NflnMlogs4Bnb0e3UeCfp3Z3d/9Z/3MVDxWJv+mb N28Oldro/bWrmxuUn3/HUundK3v8zNu4cePQhg0b7tNzs/dLegXqIumKSkUc7KhQKoow870/ GlCtGIhn0p24bt262/r6+s7W8yzvB4yJAcUYz6yvr6dxTpapWr58+XXTpk3r8O81MiU+nuLp 06ev8+lSlhqpOXThlaHcPs/FctvPe4w0AyrsDf69qLS0tDW4US/6o7dawvvq1as3TJw4cW1F RUW3Gp1LB9opzEI9loUydnR0LJTA2aDneozibxXO0TP1Nkkm7hEKfDkKoYW3Ows70fGDeuyJ 83rUUIZ2+IimpUU8BS0vL4fTQ8YcxABDKuiX9JiIau/u9Bb/3Moz8O8VMkX+GUaaHOJUfINi tLt5FjPdHypedkPt7e2X8Oz9ToBZ5efFkoAX6N+FV773hzDeH4zhiKW/IAFhoG4xQKhUMCYG rKys7MKfWv2f9Foa3pWH23iXCY2ueMqUKd0+XeIYVKWfJ3+X+7wWQlMxI8/Dujkx9p1R3s5q a2u7wr+XTpgwYWZwU1yD/tnl2zMkDARTul4M2qkxwKBxGefxLImMvk6P4oSJ3g/rma4+CJJC 0XRfKD8017PT8X3ZkOiBsY8NEQOCOfwo8X/kPx8DlpSUOO6fPHnyWm+VxYDuGfh3CB4YEB0n YUAKqBa7j2cR91AoOERU/lxX6/1OoJGIiQ5gFzBGBnQMob+qkK4w5i64rKzsHPyKJi9Kvb9M rwkDNjY2rvbphnJ9l+cIzZJYNOCQhwRpBpTUpmdw7zEDCpXqXRJpibST+YBz8cBuxowZi/WY U8bi4uL1vMt8xb+v8+/fwE/wKwm9N5SffMjcz7Mv2/FjQLWyi9MRScS+kH8SE6Hn6jGHAQXX kvWf6DHePWbAiTwDFYaCVMsUUynO8qyzpoQ4KaDS2sMzzCR75wcG7OnpeQzP3i+ttjOEk1/i pAsivAvj3abwTCXU1tbOU/orSEOj2kFV/CtDeCEvA5K23Fyc8+bN28q/KmvJ1KlTz5szZw7d GA2xTxJvix4DA5aoG90X4lcD7Q/Pyt+5+kPy0/gmBMaKofIcDv4BedCf0+tUjqD6oLd9X3+o
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    Industrial Light & Magic Student: Course: Date: Institution: Industrial Light & Magic Industrial Light & Magic, which is referred to as ILM is a company that specializes on special visual effects for motion pictures. This company was started in 19705 by George Lucas and is based in California. Since its inception, the company has grown in stature to become one of the best in terms of producing effects for motion pictures in the world. In this regard, ILM has 16 American Academy Awards as well as other technical Academy Awards under its belt. The beginning of this company was born out of misfortune after the founder failed to get a company that could do special effects on a film that he wanted to produce. Early in the 1970’s George Lukas wanted to produce his movie; Star Wars through the 20th Century Fox, but it was not possible (Deer, 1997). This is because the film needed special effects and the studio had closed its special effect department and therefore, this had to be done from elsewhere. This movie required specialized effects that did not conform to the conventional standards that other film used. The journey to stardom for ILM started with its use of cameras that controlled the motions in films. This was actualized through a specialized camera christened Dysktrafles after its inventor John Dykstra. This camera gained its fame due to its ability in capturing precise repeatable movements that are based on stationary objects or models. This camera was very instrumental in the photography work made within the spaceships in the Star Wars and led ILM to win its first major Academy Award. Once this feat was achieved, it opened the horizons for virtual reality creation and only the sky was the limit as far as creation of special effects was concerned (Glintenkamp, 2011). As is the case with many studios that use VFX effects, ILM tries to combine in-house built software and commercial software to come up with its special effects. The use of proprietary software by ILM is legendary and can be traced to its formative years in 1979 during the creation of the Lucasfilm CG group. In those days, the commercial animation software as they are commonly known now, did not exist and were owned by particular companies and individuals. Most of the animation that were done then were the in-house work and not commercially sourced out (Deer, 1997). The current animation pipeline of ILM is modeled around Zeno which is a proprietary application. Zeno started as a facility for translation between different file formats in 1998 that enabled translation and interchange between different commercial packages. It then changed into a dynamics system for rigid manipulation platform for the Phantom episode of the Star Wars. With eventual development and innovations, the platform or Zeno was confirmed as the basis of ILM’s visual creation software. War of the Worlds became the first work to utilize Zeno entirely from the creation of special effects. After this film, other famous movies came to use the Zeno platform like the Island in 2006 before the platform was bettered into third a third version (Lowry, 2010). This third version has been very instrumental in the success of ILM and has been used as the infrastructure that games and movies within the company are developed. There are other proprietary applications that are used besides Zeno and are nonetheless important in providing the technical support for running different applications. For instance, there is PowerAnimator and Caricature, which are used mainly in the animation of movie characters. However, all the animation duties have been transferred and run through the Zeno platform with occasional support from other quarters like the PowerAnimator (Vaz & Duignan, 1996). ILM uses three different application software in the compositing department. The first one is Shake, which was developed by Apple, CompTime and Sabre which are in-house developed. Sabre is mainly a conglomeration of extensions that are used besides the flame and inferno system. On the part of CompTime, it was application software designed and developed from the start as an extension plug-in for the Python system. It has been reported that ILM sometimes uses after effects of Adobe. Within the rendering department, ILM utilizes mental ray and PhotoRealistic Renderman (PRMan). The software in use before PRMan was developed and designed by Lucasfilm, but in 1986 when the company was changed into Pixar, there was a pact with Steve Jobs of Apple that ILM would be allowed to access technology developed by Pixar (Vaz & Duignan, 1996). Source codes for a few individuals were developed by Pixar, which ILM could access. Mental ray was started in 1995 by ILM and in 2002 was signed into a custom support and software licensing as well as development agreement venture with mental images. Mental ray is the technology that has been used to make stationary objects appear to have subsurface scattering by using refraction and scattering of light. A combination of the prowess brought by PRMan and mental ray has enabled the company to use similar shots for different elements. When it comes to the scripting language, Python has been adopted and in use since 1996. As such, ILM has entered into an agreement and partnership with Computer Graphics Group from Stanford to develop for them software that more superior (Glintenkamp, 2011). Opinion The ripple and far reaching effects of Industrial light and Magic’s revolutionizing innovations have created much of the advancements in the modern film. The modern day films and movies are quite different and exhilarating in comparison to the films produced earlier in the last three decades. This effect can largely be attributed to the technological adoptions that have been espoused by companies like ILM that have moved movie experience into the next level. Many of the chart busting movies such as Pirates of the Caribbean have been drafted and made through special effects created by ILM (Lowry, 2010). All these are made possible by the pioneering work of ILM which started as a project geared towards improving the special effects of the Star Wars debut movie. To some extent, the excellence in the creation of the special effects in motion pictures has been attributed to the fact that ILM concentrates on that aspects alone and has a team that is dedicated towards that. Besides having the best team, ILM also has the necessary software that it collaborates into its main platform. In essence, much of the effects are created through animation, which is manipulation of both motion and still pictures to create a panoramic view that has integrated both sound and picture (Vaz & Duignan, 1996). Computer generated images (CGI) is an essential part of animation whereby characters and objects are created within imaginary locations virtually. Such an endeavor of enacting and creating scenes within computers is very advantageous to the film industry because it cuts tremendously on cost that would have been incurred in filming. Creation of the next to impossible scenes is also made possible through CGI like for instance the sequences of specially created digital sequences that appeared on the movie Star Trek II, which was created by ILM (Deer, 1997). Much of the achievements of the ILM in the creation of special visual effects in motion pictures can be attributed to its collaboration with other key players in the industry. In this regards, ILM largely requires and relies on software engineers to develop in-house software that can run several utilities on their own. However, this is not still enough because outsourcing of some services is important which will enable their main platform Zeno to run smoothly. Some of these software usually require independent software vendors (ISVs) that smoothen the platform under which different applications are run (Glintenkamp, 2011). With the inclusion of ISVs comes the undesired problem of compatibility because it is important for enterprise application deployment. Writing varying application versions for different devices, OS and platforms can be a time consuming and expensive venture especially when updating those applications is considered. When there is compatibility, only native writing for applications is required, which will effectively update all the IT requirements without the need for considering individual devices or platforms (Lowry, 2010). In this regards, compatibility ensures a flexible platform that is user friendly and supports application development. Apart from collaboration with key players in the industry form computer animation, ILM has been able to share its technology or knowledge with other companies for the betterment of the industry. Many of the films that have had their special visual effects created by ILM are not necessarily affiliated to it, but they do it as a business venture. The good thing with the company is that it has continued to improve and become more innovative with each successive hit movie. Many people who watch these movies may not appreciate the technological work and efforts expended towards making the movies, but some companies like ILM deserve some credit. Even though, many companies have come that specialize in 3-dimension animations and creation of special visual effects in motion pictures, nevertheless ILM remains to be a cut above them (Vaz & Duignan, 1996).
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    The Police Sub-Culture and the Code of Silence Student’s Name Course Institutional Affiliation The Police Sub-Culture and the Code of Silence In the process of law enforcement, police officers usually face challenges in decision making concerning their loyalty to fellow officers and loyalty to their community. Many police departments have gone a step further to allow officers take an oath of service and protect without being overwhelmed by animosities, prejudices, personal feelings, or friendships manipulation on their work. A Cop Code usually develops in the policemen work, where they seek to hide information and maintain the code of silence so as to protect fellow officers. This scenario has been demonstrated by police officers from most of the nations. This conflicting agenda of the policemen has social consequence since it compromises law enforcement. Based on law enforcement ethics, police offers are expected to enforce the law regardless of sex, race, identity, or class of the offender. Law enforcement ethics also stipulation adherence to the law by police officers and protection of civil liberties. The other key aspect of law enforcement ethics is that, policemen are held to a higher moral standard which they should observe in their work. Nevertheless, these law enforcement ethics have been compromised by the desire for personal gain and peer pressure. In spite of practicing the professional code of ethics in law enforcement, many cops have developed their own code of ethics aimed ensuring loyalty to fellow officers. This is the police subcultures which have greatly compromised law enforcement. This is a tribal mentality of compromise and self gain deserves high condemnation. This research paper will explore the issues law enforcement ethics in relation to police subcultures and code of silence. Police Subculture and Cops Code Group-culture has not only been dominant in secret societies and among gangs but also existed in the police service. The concept of peer pressure and pledging loyalty to friends is very rampant in the police force. This is a form of group culture, whereby revealing of information against the group member interest is referred as deviant behavior. In the case of the police culture, policemen have set their own code of silence, where they seek to protect one another. Policemen have contravened their primary role of serving all people without discrimination and instead seek to fulfill their own interests first (Cancino & Enriquenz, 2003). The police behavior of protecting one another can be explained based on the police sub-culture. Since the 1950s, the behavior of police offers has been of interest since most of them have gone contrary to law enforcement ethics. Most of the studies on police behaviors have focused on issues of solidarity, secrecy, and street justice in explaining the use of illegal force by policemen in police-citizen encounters. By focusing on the aspect of culture-peer retaliation, a more lucid picture of police behaviors is provided. According to Cancino and Enriquenz (2003, p. 321) “There is considerable merit to the assertion that the cornerstones of the police culture are secrecy and solidarity. These characteristics often determine what is acceptable, and not acceptable behavior, within police circles”. These two features have overwhelmed other ethical requirements of policemen and help them in determining what is acceptable and unacceptable within police circles. It is worth noting that, solidarity and secrecy provide any group the resources necessary for facilitating behaviors of street justices, like the use of illegal physical force. Certainly, when police establish their own culture and code of silence, they are able to gain trust and support among peers. The concept of retaliation is also a common feature in the police sub-culture. “The concept of peer retaliation becomes much clearer, in that, retaliation is characterized as a mechanism of social control governed by the police culture aimed to rectify future thoughts or actions of deviant behavior” (Cancino & Enriquenz, 2003, p. 321). This can be viewed to mean street justice, whereby policemen have a propensity to conduct their work using retaliatory tactics towards the citizens. The use of retaliatory responses by police towards citizens is based on police perceptions of citizen deviance. The perceptions held by the police towards public deviance are not individual by nature but rather influenced by the strong group culture. According to the police perception, citizen deviance ought not to occur. Citizen deviance is diverse whereby police react different to each form. According to the police norms, citizens who appear disrespectable, agitated, or angry are perceived by the policemen as deviant. This is mainly because it contravenes the police standards on proper behavior. In light of police-citizen encounters, officers with a strong sense of solidarity and secrecy are much likely to participate in street justice. This is because of their strong adherence to the code of silence by failing to report the incidents (Cancino & Enriquenz, 2003). The study by Herbert (1998) gives a clear analysis of the existence and nature of police subculture. Just like in the study by Cancino and Enriquenz (2003), police subcultures are dominant in nearly all police departments. Herbert (1998) argues that there are high legal and bureaucratic challenges in regulating and determining the behavior of police officers. The process of law enforcement has been compromised by the selfish interests and subcultures within the police service. In order to determine the behavior of policemen, attention has been turned on the informal norms within the police subculture. Police have gone against the formal ethical standards in law enforcement and instead established their own informal code of behavior. The normative order of the police service which is crucial for policing has been contravened. The principles of normative order include law, morality, bureaucratic control, safety, adventure, and competence. In the age of diverse police sub-cultures based on secrecy and solidarity, these principles of policing have been demolished (Herbert, 1998). The police subculture and the code of silence explain the daily practices of police in the streets. There are two major shortcomings of the police subculture; first, the police subculture makes a sharp distinction between informal and formal, bureaucratic and legal regulations, and less formal ethos, which dictate the behavior of policemen. The distinctions made by the police on the formal and informal ethos and legal bureaucratic are however, not sharp in daily practice. This is because the formal and informal norms commingle in ways which enhance investigation. The legal and bureaucratic rules in the police service slightly influence their activity. In this case, people seeking to understand the functioning of the police should seek to know how formally constructed regulations are really in the day to day practices of policemen. In understanding the informal police subculture, it is essential to know that the police exist in a partly different police world. The police world is guided by a strong allegiance to formal bureaucratic structures and inflexible lines of decision making and authority (Herbert, 1998). Retaliation has for years been thought to exist in crime prone populations. Nevertheless, this behavior is still prevalent in less crime prone populations like the police. The theoretical principle is that peer retaliation is a mechanism of social control, which crops up under the police subculture conditions. Police officers rationalize retaliation based on deterrence and morality. The retaliation endorsed against peers in the police services includes no cover and ostracism. The subculture in which police officers operates rationalizes retaliation. The concept of policing has been conceptualized as a canteen-subculture, which is aimed at giving meaning and purpose to action, separate from expected behavior. Within police circles, the silence code is dominant, whereby police will work for cover-ups of peers. The relationships between police officers are governed by social control through a police culture which rectifies future thoughts and actions which are deviant from the informal norms. Based on this case, solidarity, secrecy, and street justice is all what dominates the police sub-culture (Beth &Vivian, 2004). Code of Silence and Testilying The problem of testilying-perjury among police officers is real. This behavior is a result of the distinct police culture which is based on solidarity, secrecy, and the code of silence. The problem is however impervious to quantitative measurement. The cost of testilying among policemen can be traced back to policemen in New York City who coined the word. Testilying refers to perjury by policemen. This act is also used in describing other types of deception in-court. The main reason for the problem of testilying among policemen is the unique police sub-culture. The suspicion surrounding the policemen and the public induces them to use every tactic to guard their interests. Policemen exercise a culture of solidarity and secrecy, which is a main factor leading to testilying. Categorically, it is hard to plainly outline the nature, frequency and reasons for police perjury, for the criminal justice system may explicate (Cunningham, 1999). The concept of testilying among the police is an element of the silence code. Through the silence code, policemen seek to protect their own interests. This has greatly affected effective law enforcement. In the criminal justice system, when a police officer is deceptive in court, the rationale is usually that he/she is not lying but rather not completely or quite testifying truthfully. In this case, testilying is a sub-police culture and norm which is the middle ground between pure dishonesty and pure dishonesty. The reason why the policemen feel they can tread ethically by testilying is because they assume they have the best interests of the society at heart. The alleged ethical middle ground by the policemen is the best indication of the ethical problem in the police department. The bottom line is that testilying is just another word for perjury or deception and is a crime since it obstructs justice. There is no justification for the police subcultures since they all compromise morality, fairness and law enforcement (Cunningham, 1999). Factors Influencing Police Subculture
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