Gun control in America has been a hotly debated issue over the past couple of decades. Gun control entails government regulations and limitations on ownership of firearms by civilians. The main motive of government in gun control is to reduce violence resulting from the use of firearms by civilians. For the past years, the issue of gun control has triggered a hot debate among the public, political class, and other interest groups like clergy and human rights activists. Proponents of Gun control have the feelings that elimination or limitation of firearms will lead to lower violence and crimes. This is not the case in reality since the elimination of guns from civilians would trigger more crime and violence, thus leaving potential victims with no defense against criminals. On the other hand, opponents of gun control have the perception that allowing more citizens to hold guns will enhance security and curb violence since the armed citizens will reinforce the work of security personnel. The laws or support on gun control is ill advised and should be eliminated since it will not help in reducing crime. Guns provide effective self-defense to citizens against criminals.
Apparently, the advocates of gun control have the perception that stronger laws are needed in beefing up security rather than allowing more citizens to carry guns. Interestingly, even strong advocates for individual gun rights, have the reasoning that not all people can be permitted to own guns. Gun control is essential for ensuring decency and order in the fight against crime and violence. The current gun controls are effective and should even be tightened to reduce the number of guns among citizens. Current gun laws prevent mentally ill people, criminals, and children from owning guns. Nevertheless, there are many loopholes, where deranged gunmen and young people have acquired weapons. These illegal possessions of weapons have led to mass murders and violence. There is every merit to support gun control based on past statistics on gun-related crimes in America compared to other developed countries. Accordingly, by putting gun control laws into action, crime and violence will be greatly reduced, since children and criminals with ill motives will not have the chance to acquire guns (David 1527).
Proponents of gun control believe that no gun at all among citizens is the best option for the American society. Guns are very dangerous and there high prevalent in the society has far reaching consequences. Making guns easily available to the citizens means that people can kill on impulse. This means increase in domestic violence in the event of any quarrels or misunderstanding which can result to killings. It is the responsibility of the government of placing use of retaliatory force by the public under objective control. Providing guns to citizens is not the solution to their security. In fact, more guns will mean more violence. The best solution to security is through education, the abolition of glamorization of guns in television and movies, enforcement of strict laws on gun control, and lastly advocating for a better society governed by morals and virtues (Wollett 1).
Against Gun Control
Gun control is a disastrous move for the American society. In contrast to what gun control advocates believe, the reality is that allowing more citizens to possess guns will help in combating crime and violence. It will be extremely difficult to control violence and crime without engaging the public by providing them with guns. It is worth noting that guns do not commit crimes; thus the reasoning that crime will increase is misguided. It is only the ignorance and irresponsibility of gun users, which causes crimes. With this in mind, citizens should be provided with guns for self-defense and advocate for higher levels of responsibility. Gun control will not obstruct criminals from obtaining guns, and the focus should be on protecting the citizens by granting them gun rights (William 67).
Opponents of gun control laws have the belief that Americans have every right to possess guns. Gun control denies people the right for defending people and their property against criminals. People deserve the right to won guns, trusting that they will use them properly. In opposition to gun control, it should be noted that hunters, recreational gunmen, and sport shooters should be granted their rights. The 2nd amendment calls for a well regulated militia, whereby people are given the rights to keep and bear arms. The right to own guns is hereby granted by the constitution and should not be denied by the government through other laws. The US constitution grants freedom to all people, thus denying people the right to bear a gun is contrary to the constitution (Katarzyna 229).
Gun control laws have far reaching consequences to the American society. The creation of a national gun registry is by itself contravening the privacy rights of people. The use of unclear or outdated gun control laws can by itself lead to loss of lives since people are unable to protect themselves in the event of an attack. Opponents of gun control argue that there is not perfect gun control solution in the US. This argument demolishes the current laws on gun control as flawed and ineffective in combating crime. At present, there is no way to know whether gun control will make the nation more dangerous or safer. In this regard, the government should offer the citizens guns and instead advocate for safer ways of using the guns (Binswanger 1).
Gun advocates are confident that allowing more guns into the public will mean less crime. This is a right which is enshrined in the constitution and should be granted to every citizen. In support of guns among citizens, it is right to say that gun control will only lead to more burglaries, smugglings, and assault-and-battery cases, and fewer homicides (Banks 1). Opponents of gun control argue that citizens need weaponry to defend themselves against criminals, as well as a possibility of future government tyranny. Alongside the provision of the constitutional rights of owning guns, opponents of gun control use national statistics on crime and murder to back up their arguments. Following the provision of guns to the citizens, national murder rates have significantly dropped. Actually, many people are currently dying of car accidents and other misfortunes as compared to guns. This is a clear indication of the effectiveness of allowing citizens to bear guns. Criminals will always access guns, whether there are prohibitive laws or not. This drives to focus that the government should always act to protect the citizens by granting them the right to carry firearms (Kiger 1).
The 2nd amendment in the US constitution is in support of citizens been given gun rights. This amendment is in contrast with gun control laws which prohibit the citizens from buying and owning guns. Based on the 2nd amendment, the government should seek to establish a well regulated militia in order to guarantee the security in a free state. This amendment advocates for protection of individual rights in keeping and bearing arms. These rights of owning guns are not supposed to be infringed by anyone. Despite that this amendment grants the constitutional right for citizens to own guns, it also creates a controversy on the role of the government. Conversely, by calling for a well regulated militia for the security of a free-state, the amendment gives a leeway for government involvement in gun control. The bottom line however, remains that the citizens deserve gun runs. It is the responsibility of the government of protecting its citizens and granting their rights. With the insights of this amendment, gun control is challenged and has a role in a free state (Debra 239).
NRA (National Rifle Association)
In addressing the controversy regarding gun control, the US government should advocate for higher levels of responsibility for those holding guns. It is the constitutional right for citizens to have guns for self-defense. This right should not be infringed as advocated for in amendment II. In order to ensure efficiency in the provision of guns to the citizens, the objectives of NRA should be promoted. NRA is a non-profit organization founded in 1871 and which advocates for firearm ownership, safety, and competency. NRA also calls for adequate police training, hunting, marksmanship, and self-defense training as part of initiatives to enhance the effectiveness of firearms among citizens. Based on the objectives and principles of NRA, gun control is not the solution for America. The solution lies in ensuring gun ownership and more focus on proficiency and competence. America should put its efforts on ensuring safety and proficiency training for citizens to qualify for gun ownership. The need for education, training, responsibility, morals, and change of mentality on gun ownership is what ought to be prioritized rather than stricter gun control (Mcdowell 91).
Carrying concealed weapon (CCW) is an issue of great concern in light of the heated debate on gun control. Since allowing citizens to own and carry guns is inevitable, the government should focus on safety and competency measures. One of the strategies is advocating for carrying a concealed weapon. All licensed gun owners should adhere to the regulations on carrying guns. The practice of carrying concealed weapon should be promoted and given great advocacy. Despite that not all weapons fall under the concealed carry controls, responsibility among citizens in carrying weapons should be upheld. It is the responsibility of the citizens to carry weapons in the right manner. States, as well as the federal government should also set up strict laws on the carrying and usage of weapons by citizens. Succinctly, it is upon the states to formulate convenient and effective laws on carrying concealed weapons. The states and federal government should hold the right to revoke the permits or licenses offered to citizens if they fail to adhere to the set guidelines. Irresponsibility among licensed gun owners should not be tolerated (Mcdowell 67).
The numerous instances of mass murders in America heighten the debate on gun control. In spite of the decline in violence and crime as a result of many licensed citizens to carry guns, there is a new threat of mass shootings. The horrific scenes of mass murder have ignited the debate once again. The many cases of mass murder are a clear indication of the dangers of giving citizens gun rights. Despite that instances of mass murders are being used for political reasons and well calculated criticism to induce emotional responses, the worth of licensing guns to citizens can not be assumed. In spite of the rising cases of mass murders, gun- violence and crime has significantly reduced. Mass murders are a signal of the potential dangers of allowing civilians to carry guns. This is however, a wake-up call to the government to review the whole process of licensing guns. There is a need for better training, screening, and regulation of people licensed with guns. The instances of mass murders are an indication of the irresponsibility and recklessness of some gun owners. These incidents should however, not be the basis for gun control, but rather the foundation for change in ensuring proficiency, competency and safety in the use of firearms among citizens (David 1528).
The debate on gun control is far from over. Despite of the numerous justifications and criticism regarding gun control, there is no consensus on the matter. To a higher extent, opponents of gun control have offered convincing arguments on the need to grant citizens gun rights. This is in line with amendment II of the constitution and the need for self-defense. Following the licensing of many citizens with guns, crime and violence rates have declined. Nevertheless, pro-gun control belief that more guns has devastating effects on the society. More guns mean more violence and crimes. This is clearly evident from the instances of mass murders over the recent past. In resolving the controversy, the guidelines offered NRA on proficiency and safety training, safety, firearm competency, and marksmanship should be adopted. This will help in ensuring efficiency in the use of guns by the public.
DEVELOPMENT, IMPACT AND ULTIMATE DECLINE OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE
African Slave Trade
African Slave Trade involved the abduction, smuggling or transportation, and vending of captured blacks from mainland Africa to other continents. The vending of blacks at various trading centers around North Africa, as well as the Middle East persisted for several centuries and particularly marked the establishment of the trade. Visibly, the auctioning of native Africans as slaves to dealers from Europe and the Americas later ascertained its peak between sixteenth and nineteenth centuries in the form of the Atlantic slave trade. The trade mainly witnessed the smuggling of millions of African men, women, and minors to the Americas where agricultural projects were rocked by labor shortages. Besides playing a critical role in the modeling of the contemporary world, contiguous with the radical development and dominance of Europe, the victims were subjected to unbearable brutality and extensive tyranny. The paper categorically evaluates the origin, growth, impact, and the eventual prohibition and abandonment of the African slave trade, with exceptional emphasis given to Trans-Atlantic and East African slave trades.
Atlantic Slave Trade
The emergence of the Atlantic slave trade is often linked to the first Portuguese expeditions to West African coast in the fifteenth century. By 1444, Portuguese explorers had started abducting Africans residing along the coastal regions and taking them back to Lisbon as slaves. This marked the establishment of a thriving slave trade in Portugal among other neighboring states such as Spain. Smuggling of native blacks to the Americas later gained propensity from 1517, when Spanish colonialists realized that Caribbean population was alarmingly declining as the unsuitably heavy labor was increasingly imposed on them. In contrast, Africans proved to be stronger and specifically suitable for conducting the exhaustive plantation duties among other heavy jobs. The discovery led to the smuggling of over 900,000 Africans to the Americas by the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century, numerous European nations were in demand of agricultural products involving cotton, tobacco, coffee, and sugar, which were abundantly produced in the Americas.1
Melissa B McLean. Slavery: Africa, Europe, and Jamaica. Dread Library, 2007.
As shortages in labor plummeted the slave trade consequently thrived, whilst the Portuguese slave dealers in West Africa were replaced by the Dutch, the English, and the French respectively. It is approximated that over 2,750,000 Africans, were smuggled into the Americas as slaves by the end of the seventeenth century as the eighteenth century witnessed the arrival of additional 7,000,000 slaves. The African slave operation involved a network of native slave dealers who delivered captured compatriots to European traders, who would in turn oversee the transportation of slaves to the New World. Starting from the conventional eras, African conflict captives’, offenders, alongside debtors were often auctioned into slavery by their leaders.2
Current Customer Relationship Strategy of Google Inc
Current Customer Relationship Strategy of Google Inc
Business competition in the global market is ever increasing. This situation is making companies desperate in their search and management of customers. The heightened competition has made it difficult for businesses with poor customer relationship strategies to excel in their operations. It is the desire of every company to build strong relationships with customers so as to be assured of a ready market for its services and products. Conversely, by taking optimum care of customers, a business will be assured of lasting success. Google Inc. has not been left out, for it has taken customer relationship management more seriously. Undeniably, it is absolutely a superior thing that Google Inc is enchanting customer liaison more vitally. Google is focused on establishing a strong customer relationship management by utilizing the highly communicative environment. In particular, Gmail and IRM (Inbox Relationship Management) is the strategy used by the company to keep in touch with customers. Google customer relationship strategy is guided by the provision of what customers want and keeping connected with them through interactive communication.
Being one of the leading multinational corporations in the world, Google has millions of customers who rely on its services. The company is however, not contented with this current customer population and is always yawning for more. Being a company driven by modern technology, its customer relationship strategy borrows greatly from the online platform. Google Inc always looks for offering the best to its customers by ensuring adequate communication with all clients. Gmail and IRM (Inbox Relationship Management is the strategy adopted by Google in ensuring good customer relationship. With the efficient online platform offered by Twitter, Gmail, Facebook, and other social media, Google has adopted this platform to reach its customers. Social media networks are a home of millions of users, who form a prime resource to Google. With the continued growth of social media, Google has seen it as the best path of keeping in touch with customers. Google is expecting email usage to double to over 507 billion daily messages. In this regard, Google ensures effective communication with the customers as a way building strong relationships (CompareBusinessProducts.com, 2010).
Email along other social network media offer a nice relationship building tool for business people. This is the same strategy which is currently being adopted by Google. Google is well away of the high number of messages sent and received by customers every day. In this regard, inbox is an important database of customer information. This information is what is driving Google Inc customer relationship management strategy. Google’s Gmail and IRM are impacting significantly on the company’s customer relations. Gmail is ranked the 3rd popular and fastest growing online email service. Google is using the online platform to build strong customer relationships by ensuring quality services. The use of Gmail and IRM has created an organic and frictionless opportunity for the company, thus creating meaningful customer relationships (Carlson, 2011).
Google uses its Gmail platform for communicate and seek feedback from customers on its services. This information is essential for ensuring customer satisfaction, and improvement of the current services. Through the use of Gmail and IRM, the company is also to send an automatic message communications to its customers. This ensures quick feedback and answers to customer queries. As a result, customers’ satisfaction and loyalty is enhanced. Inbox relationship management is also an appealing approach adopted by Google to build customer relationships. Through IRM, the company is also to create more collaborative opportunities with customers. Information flow from the company to the customers has thus been efficient (CompareBusinessProducts.com, 2010).
Alongside the strengthening of existing customer relationships, the company has also been focused on establishing new relationships. Google uses the Gmail and IRM platforms to find new relationships with customers and potential clients. This is a strategy which has helped Google to survive and thrive in today’s competitive market. It is the priority of Google to keep customers satisfied through interactive communications. With the large number of Google services users, the company has been innovative in identifying the best way to retain and keep customers satisfied. In this case, the CRM perspective of Google is to build a strong relationship based on communications through email (VbulletinSolutions Inc, 2010).
Google is much aware of the need of customers of getting trusted information sources and innovative online services. The company establishes this information through interaction with customers. The customer relationship management strategy has the sole goal of ensuring customers get what they want. This has been realized by keeping interactive communication through email. Google has been identified as a giant company in terms of customer relationship management. Alongside its exceptional role in customer relationship management, where it helps other companies to manage their customers, it is also doing a commendable job in managing its customers. The mail tool adopted by Google in executing its customer relationship strategy is Gmail. Gmail offers an excellent platform for the company in ensuring contact management with customers. Google has not only established a platform for communicating with customers, but also platforms where customers can interact. For instance, Google Reader is an efficient platform where Gmail users can exchange emails and connect with one another (VbulletinSolutions Inc, 2010).
The strategy of Google in customer relationship management is to keep customers connected. The company adopts the most modern technologies in enhancing customer communications and interactions. This is not only realized through emails but also through the company’s blog and customer support portals. In this platform, 24 hour customer support is provided. The company personnel and customer service is very responsive to customer inquiries. Communication and feedback between the company and customers is what has kept Google going. The massive technological infrastructure and developer talent is one of the superior resources which have facilitated realization of customer relationship management. From another perspective, innovation and creativity is a key element driving Google customer relationship strategy. The company always seeks to offer the best to its customers by ensuring highly interactive communication. Being the king of the web, Google retains and satisfies its customers by ensuring unique and differentiated information search platforms. The company relies on this technological platform to constantly interact with its customers. Google realizes efficient customer relationship by ensuring all questions are answered by knowledgeable professionals (CompareBusinessProducts.com, 2010).
Google’s success and leadership in the Information Communication Technology industry is there to stay. If the company continues with its efficient strategies on customer relationship management among other business strategies, then its success and leadership will be guaranteed. As revealed in the study, the current customer relation of Google is based on effective communication and interaction with customers. The company aims at offering what the customers want by engaging them through email and inbox relationship management. The company primarily uses the rich technological infrastructure it has to keep connected with customers. This is attained through quick passage of communication with customers, answering their queries, and seeking feedback so as to boost service delivery. This strategy has yielded results since the company’s customers have remained loyal.
Difference in the use of Language between Gender and Age in Social Network and Society
The passionate contest on the effects of social network in the Arab region has persisted since its onset in the year 2011. Nonetheless, its emphasis has particularly been expanded past the conventional critical stances on the inflexible models of technologically generated observations alongside the overly-romanticized people’s ability. The objective of discourse that has featured regularly in policy deliberations for over twelve months has consequently altered the basic concerns, regarding the effect of social network on the society to more prospective inclined questions. It is equally apparent that, almost everyone has an account at least on one of the social network sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, where they can share their ideas and thoughts anywhere online. Nowadays, one would not get much chance to be asked what Facebook is, even by the elderly members of the community. However, languages and topics can differ between the 60s and 90s generation and even gender does have a role in this difference. The main aim of this study is to see what language is used in the Arab social network, topics females and males use in their writings, and how gender and age play their roles, before summarizing with a concluding statement.
Over the preceding two years, the Middle East social network has made significant contributions to this international discourse, offering the only continental center of quantitative studies on the development and utilization tendency of social networking within the Arab world. In addition, there existed tentative qualitative consensus that reported comprehensive insights on the regional views pertaining to the effect of social networking languages in Arab communities. According to El Gamal (16-26), the results of the studies incorporated topics from several social network platform including Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. Accordingly, this further entailed distinctive effects on expression liberty along with media consumption patterns, to its inspiration of youths, as well as women depending on age, besides its accountability in the recent social and political uprisings, in the Arab world. The uprisings have inspired majority of the region’s civilians. Legislators have responded by persistently discussing the consequences of collective social networking in continental as well as international forums.
The prolonged steady expansion, recognition and multiplicity of social network application within the Arab world in early 2012, above the scope of the Arab springs peak suggests historical revolutions across middle east were just part of the triggering aspects to this development, as a more comprehensive growth is still in progress, dictating Arabs relations with their society and state. Exceptional trends have particularly been noted with the tendency of Arab social media community, to utilize the online platforms for civic deliberations and political involvement. Conversely, there are also commercial venturing initiatives as noted by ASMR (1-28). With most Arab subscribers starting to understand and acknowledge social networks ability, numerous Middle Eastern states are increasingly viewing it as a liability that is facilitating fundamental growth and motivating administrative systems. From mainly being applied as a device for socializing and recreation, social network presently influences all facets of the routine activities of most Arabs, in terms of interaction, communication, venturing and administration.
Preceding studies on the impact of social networking in the Arab world focused on the steadying popularity of the platform in the region, besides the shifts in its applications, having been catalyzed partly by various online channels including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube following the outbreak of Arab spring. Hence the present research expounds on the previous studies that specifically examined the exponential spread of social networking in the Arab region, the responsibility of the platforms outlets in the public unrest in the region; along with the probable of the channels to inspire Arab youths and women in respect to age. It proceeds to explain how the Arab spring subjugated the global debates throughout 2012, in an attempt to establish the differences in languages between gender and age upon the inventive application of social network to transform these historical movements to wider concept of civic reform within the Arab countries (Soker 1).
Relevant statistics were gathered between January and June of 2012; based on volunteer LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook subscribers in all the Arab nations, who made their online activities largely available for the study. To evaluate language diversities between the Arab online community, in respect to age and gender, a regional social networking consensus was conducted in 8 Arab nations, including Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, evaluating the volunteer’s social network languages, with the main given to dialect variations between male and females, alongside the age brackets as observed by Schwartz (1). The utilized demographic for the consensus reflected the demographic composition of every nation, and as anticipated, the common volunteer account was that of a young professional, predominantly in the non-governmental organization sector, even though the civil servant department, the third employment avenue and business agencies were as well incorporated, together with the college scholars and the jobless.
The gender language diversity was roughly equal. The consensus was mainly active in the months of March and May, in which it recorded 4754 replies, with a standard reply level of 86.4 percent. The study applied a questionnaire research concept to examine the gap between the development of social network and the language diversities between male and female users, and stances on the communications with various age sets in the community as reported by Al-Ali (207-230). An empowerment satisfaction view prevailed among all the age groups and genders regarding social networking across all the Arab countries. Hence, it can be suggested that the extensive free exchange of data online, as well as a cross-jurisdictional interconnectivity along with the impact of the Arab world; the digital community have played critical roles in sustaining this regional social and language empowerment stance.
The findings confirmed that men are generally likely to use informal languages while posting in the social platforms with male users between the age of 15 to 35 proving to be notorious in the use of age-based terms, thus limiting the chances of those outside their age-brackets from participating or even understanding their conversations. According to Szelln and Thurner (1), the same age group seemed to be largely dishonest in their online discourses given the tendency for the youthful users to adamantly defend their views despite the dishonesties in them. On the contrary, female users were generally associated with using official languages and being honest, but reluctant to respond to male questions or conversation attempts. While those above the age of 30 were likely to be aggressive and dominant in online debates or conversations that involved males, which can be explained as an attempt to fight the extreme gender discriminations against women in the Arab world, by showing that they are equal in capabilities with their male online counterparts.
Indeed, anti-social networking advocates, who are predominantly the elderly, have insisted that most essential revered morals of the society, such as formal communication standards, are increasingly facing extinction with the rapid growth in modern social technologies, which can particularly be witnessed in the online conversations of youths. On the other hand, the social networking media inventors have dismissed the negative social impacts of the ‘connected world’ as misconceived, by highlighting its benefits as encompassing economic, as well as administrative aspects, and by identifying the need to prevail over the digital divide as their main challenge. As a result, they advised prospective researchers to prioritize finding solutions for this social networking obstacle. Upon analyzing success resources and models of how social networking media has assisted various civic sectors to ascertain objectives, it is worth concluding that even though, any technological growth regarding communication is bound to alter communication patterns along the gender and age lines, the social network society is a positive invention, as opposed to being a myth.
Censorship in Film Industry
Censorship is an old practice in human society, which followed free expressions of man like a shadow all over history. Different ancient societies including America, Britain, Romans, Greek, and China practiced censorship in one way or another (Newth 1). Essentially, censorship is the control of flooding of ideas or information in society. It is used in both democratic and non-democratic countries. Censorship at present and recent past has been pervasive due to the explosion of information communication technology. Despite of the high prevalence of censorship in the modern society, it is a strongly divisive issue. There is a strong dispute on whether it is good or bad on its application in different sectors of the society. In the case of the United States, there are many instances where censorship has been applied. The fascinating issue is the application of censorship in the film industry. For years now, the US government has been applying censorship in the film industry with the aim of controlling information and products of the industry (Franklin 143). Despite of this continued practice over the years, opinions are still divided on whether its right for the US government to censor film production.
In the US, film censorship has been practiced since 1909. The first move to legalize censorship in the film industry was in 1909, where the New York Board of Motion Picture censorship was set up. This board had great influence on what should be passed to the public by the film producers. The board of censorship had the authority to approve all films before they are released to the public. Its name later changed in 1915 to the National Board of Censorship. The board offered seal of approval of films as the first formal attempt of censorship. The cause of censorship of the films was based on the raging public and government debate on whether the film industry should control its products. There was a moral and legal question regarding the industry’s ability to control the content of its products. For instance in 1934, a nude scene in the Film Tarzan and His Mate of Hollywood was snipped off due to its violation of moral code (Robichaux 1).
The federal government also moved into the support of film censorship through congressional bills, whereby no copyright would be offered for any film without a seal and certificate from the censorship commission. The need for censorship of films was primarily based on public concern on propriety, quality, taste, and decency of the films created by Hollywood. The outcry and concern by religious groups on the absence of federal laws for controlling content in motion pictures induced the early attempts of censorship (Robichaux 1). There was overwhelming calls for moral responsibility in the film industry. Categorically, it will be illogical for the public and other groups to just sit and assume the film industry will be responsible. This is because for the few years, which Hollywood had existed, it had already compromised quality, ethics, morals, and public interests in its motion films. For instance, the issues of unfaithfulness, cruelty, brutality, violence were the norm in the Hollywood films. Without regulation of the content through censorship, the government and the public would compromise the upbringing of children and hence ruin the future generation (Franklin 143).
The acts of censorship in the film industry in the US does not mean repressing human expression, but rather aimed at protecting them. In the film industry, censorship is good in the sense that it has enabled prevention of pornographic materials, which would corrupt the minds of children. Censorship has also helped in avoiding religious conflicts by snipping materials, which insult morality or religious beliefs (Franklin 143). In regards to politics and governance, censorship of films in America has helped in preserving the nation’s secrets. Presentations of bad scenes of drug abuse, murder, slavery, and adultery have great influence, thus the need for censorship. Censorship in the Hollywood is indeed, necessary where it ensures decency in film production by promoting good morals and responsibility. From another perspective, censorship in the film industry helps in preventing political propaganda, racism, obscenity, vulgarity, plagiarism, and violence (Couvares 52).
On the contrary, censorship is not good since it denies people access to information. For instance, the censorship of sex-related topics in films denies the chances of teaching children and teenagers about the dangers of HIV/AIDS and other STDs. Censorship is also bad for democracy since political leaders use it to avoid enlightenment of the public on the evils in governance. Censorship compromises freedom of speech, prevents the free flow of ideas and encroaches into freedom of the press. It is worth noting that censorship contributes to ignorance in society by denying crucial information. Another key issue against censorship is that it obstructs creativity, globalization, and openness in the society (Grieveson 31).
In summation, censorship is a double-edged sword with both advantages and disadvantages to the society. If applied properly, censorship can serve as a valuable weapon for safeguarding and promoting the society’s interests. Nevertheless, if misused can be damaging to the progression of the society. Censorship is a delicate tool, which has diverse legal and technical consequences. With this in mind, it is the duty of the government to learn how to use it property for the common good of the society. Absence of censorship does not mean everything is perfect, thus the government should effectively use it to enhance decency and for the public good. Censorship should not be categorized as a taboo, but should rather be viewed as a valuable weapon.
The beauty and wellness industry is one of the most progressive in contemporary United States. The industry whose NAICS code is 71394 deals with provision of different beauty and healthy services and products (IBISWord, 2013). Over the last five to twenty years, Americans have become greatly conscious about their physical health and beauty. The desire for Americans to become beautiful inside and outside has widely induced the emergence and growth of fitness and beauty industry. Many people are looking for ways of keeping their body fit and healthy through weight loss (Pilzer, 2007). According to analysts, the beauty and fitness industry is one of the most prolific with over 7% annual growth; this is more than double the rate of the developed world s’ GDP. The fitness and beauty industry in the US is the sector to watch for the near future due to its promising growth. It is interesting to observe that the majority of the influential players in the industry are franchise systems.
The use of eugenics in American history has been an issue of great concern. As it was applied in the American society, eugenics was mainly driven by abortion and racism. It is the driving force behind global population policy, vitro fertilization, welfare policy, healthcare, euthanasia, and fetal research, which have greatly affected the world and America in particular. The concept of eugenics can be found in sociology, anthropology, psychology and all other social sciences. Primarily, eugenics is the study of methods of improving human population through reproduction control. In America, eugenics was greatly practices before and after WW II. In the case of America, eugenics was prevalent before and after 2nd World War. This was mainly through sterilization of minority groups. This issue created an ethical dilemma, based on the demonic reasoning behind its execution, though the desired results were good.
IDENTIFICATION OF ETHICAL ISSUE
The practice eugenics in America after the WW II is an issue of great concern. At the end of the war, there are raging debates on socioeconomic, cultural and political issues based on race. The economic and social concern about blacks and other minorities was the main factor which induced the reintroduction of involuntary sterilization. The morality of the involuntary sterilization of blacks and minorities raised heated debate across the political, religious, and social systems. Sterilization in America after the WW II presented moral dilemma since it was done against the will of the involved people. This was forcible sterilization of minorities in America thus raising moral impasse. As reported Fannie Lou Hamer, a civil activist, 60% of Negro women were taken for sterilization at the Sunflower city Hospital. This was done against their will and they would not know about it till they are released from the hospital. Eugenics had been rejected after WW II and reporting of its continuation raised moral concerns, bearing in mind that the affected had no consent of its execution (Begos 1).
Even after its rejection, justification for eugenics on the basis of racial, economic, and moral grounds had returned. Economic strategists, welfare programs, the federal government and the states were the main decision makers towards the sterilization. There was a continued attack on beneficiaries of welfare assistance as well as the poor, thus trying to justify the sterilization. Mrs. Gordon White is on record saying this was not a joke, considering the welfare problem the government was facing. Cases brought to the Supreme Court ignited opponents of the involuntary sterilization. For instance, Judge William Gary of Ohio ordered sterilization of Wade, a 17 year old white woman. The judge had also ordered sterilization in previous cases and said no apology for that. In the cases, no consent was given, thus raising moral question on the practice (Begos 1).
Based on the authority of the decision makers, they had a great responsibility on the forcible sterilization. The welfare policy makers, economic strategists, and the federal and state leaders had role related responsibility. In light of the policies on involuntary sterilization, the citizens have responsibility, bearing in mind they have the authority to chose right leaders, vote on the decision, and also reject unfair policies. The decision-makers have one obligation of safeguarding and promoting the interests and rights of others. They have however, failed in undertaking this obligation (Begos 1).
In references to the issue of involuntary and forcible sterilization of minorities in America, ethics and morality were at stake. The morality of the entire process of involuntary sterilization is questionable. To begin with, the issue of informed consent was at stake, whereby many women were sterilized without being informed. Fairness was also abused since the sterilization was biased and mainly targeted blacks and minority groups (Begos 1). Respect, honesty, sympathy, and love for the victims are essential moral values which were never considered in the execution of eugenics in America. The decision-makers in undertaking the sterilization considered the issue of economic and social progress. The only ethical issue was about better living standards of the current and future generation (Comfort 1). In light of the ethical issue of involuntary sterilization, the issue of consent, respect of life, and fairness should have been considered.
Supporters of eugenics in America after WW II viewed it as an ethical imperative due to its positive effect on the economy, social setup, and health. The welfare program was facing serious challenges, and there was a need to save it through sterilization. From a medical perspective, eugenics was seen as a method of eliminating negative clinical traits, mental retardation, and disease. By so doing, it would help in improving the life of the future generation. In the case of sterilization, proponents argued that it was essential for improving the lives of future generations economically and socially (Comfort 1).
The main point of references for opponents of eugenics in America is that it was carried without the consent of the victims. It is of significance noting that many women, mainly blacks were subjected to the process of sterilization without their knowledge. The use of force and intimidation of the target population into sterilization was considered unethical. From another perspective, there was no political consensus on the matter, whereby the proponents only coerced their opponents into supporting it. The justifications for the sterilization, primarily the problem of welfare did not make eugenics ethical (Begos 1).
From the perspective of the involved historical actors, there are better and less harmful alternatives, which would have been adopted. In the case of sterilization, the main motive was to solve social, economic, and racial problems. The alternatives would hereby be better economic planning, research on unexploited economic resources, and even forcing the unwanted non-American communities out. These are less harmful alternatives, which would have taken place of eugenics through forcible sterilization (Begos 1). An understanding of this great moral dilemma has no relevance in the present society. This is because any action, policy or inaction should reflect the will, consent, and interests of all affected groups both present and the future generations (Comfort 1).
Eugenics draws great ethical dilemma based on its motive, processes, and results. Despite that eugenics aimed at leaving a genuine legacy of love for future generation through high intelligence, good health, and noble character it is condemned for being equally demonic. The desires of eugenics are good in the sense that it seeks to improve the human species, though it is demonic in the sense those who fail to meet the standards are eliminated. Eugenics hereby straddles between unethical and ethical, immoral and moral practices
Begos, Kevin. The American Eugenics Movement After World War II (part 3 of 3). 2012. Web.23 Nov. 2013.
Comfort, Nathaniel. The Eugenic Impulse. The Chronicle Review. 2012. Web. 23 Nov. 2013
Argentina Currency Peg and Fiscal Reform
Argentina Currency Peg and Fiscal Reform
Argentina experienced severe hyperinflation from 1973 to 1989. There were wide scale privatization of state-owned companies where social security seriously deteriorated, economic growth was at the verge of collapse, investment levels dramatically reduced, Argentineans developed lack of trust in the banking sector and successive governments led the deregulation of the financial sector. Some businesses literally closed down because they were unable to determine prices with speed. Accordingly, by 1989, the hyperinflation had reached its peak, with massive depreciation in several economic sectors. In an attempt to end inflation and stabilize economic growth, the central bank pegged the peso to the US dollar. While it initially appeared to be yielding significant success, right from the start the choice of the Currency Board was destined to fail.
Many economists have argued that Argentina’s economic problems during this period were as a result of the large fiscal deficits of the previous governments. Given that the country could no longer contribute or invest in world capital markets, it had to take radical steps to finance existing deficits. Hyperinflation was also triggered by the frangibility of domestic credit institutions, interest rate fluctuations and erratic responses of the central bank that shattered domestic financial market confidence. These factors combined severed crippled the nation’s economy. In 1991, Carlos Menem and Domingo Cavallo instituted a currency board in an attempt to revive the economy. One of the decisions of the Board was to peg the Argentine’s peso to the US dollar. They also settled on a fixed exchange rate, which had its own effects (Manning ’04, 2003)
The Possible Risks of the US Dollar Peg
Advantages of Such a Policy
Generally, it was not in the best interest of the Argentine economy to peg the peso for the US dollar even though that is how the regime had hoped to stabilize the peso. However, although the system failed, there were few advantages that could have prompted the Currency Board to consider pegging the peso to the US dollar. Initially, the dollar provided simplicity for understanding. Conversely, the dollar had greater international credibility. Evidently, adopting the dollar was expected to increase partnership and trading with the US. Indeed, the dollar provided the highest degree of safety. The main achievement of the US dollar peg was that it controlled inflation. By 1994, the inflation rate had gone down by a large percentage. Secondly, because of the world prices, there was renewed economic growth between 1991 and1995. Thirdly, foreign investment encouraged international trade as the world began to see Argentina as an open economy (Kellogg School of Management, 2013).
Part I: Ebola Case Study
A. Investigating about the source of the virus would start from Philippines where the monkeys originated. This is because the known cases of the virus have been discovered to come from Africa and Philippines where the monkeys trace their origins.
B. Investigating whether there were any human cases, would involve tracing the journey of the monkeys then quarantining all the people that came into contact with the monkeys then doing tests on them.
C. The persons that might have been at risk for contracting the disease, are the ones that handled the dead monkeys since its spread from dead or infected monkeys mostly through touching the infected tissues.
D. While investigations are going on, it would be important to find all people who had any form of contact with the monkeys and quarantine them for testing of the virus.
E. These new findings would influence the investigations through widening our quarantine perimeter because in monkeys, the virus can be spread through the respiratory route non-human primates. Most likely, the velvet monkeys taken to Mexico may have conducted the virus.
F. Monkeys and Research – Wild monkeys are still being captured for research. An advantage of wild animals in research is that they have a gene pool that offers a great variety, and this widens the field of work. Wild caught monkeys also have the evidence of the interaction of the specie with its natural habitat which captive bred monkeys do not have. However, in some experiments there is need for limited variability in the gene pool which then necessitates the need for captive bred primates. Another disadvantage of captive bred monkeys is that the experiences of trauma that the captured monkeys undergo may interfere with research.
A. Membership of WHO constitutes all members that belong to the UN, and who have ratified the WHO constitution and currently stands at 194 member states.
Health Information Technology in US Healthcare System
Many players within the US healthcare system have for a long time considered Health Information Technology (HIT) to be critical in the streamlining of healthcare delivery. Some of the components of the healthcare system that are considered to be critical in prompt delivery of healthcare are computerized entry of details and electronic health records. The delivery of the healthcare system is multifaceted with diverse players who need to be integrated and coordinated on one plane and a single continuum (Ortiz & Clancy, 2003). As such, the large volume and number of transactions carried out, the fragmented pieces of information and other activities cannot be undertaken through paper based systems. Although the benefits of HIT are apparent and advantageous, the implementation of the system may be time and financially challenging. Consequently, the rate of usage if the HIT is low and limited and it has permeated administrated and financial aspects of healthcare systems, as opposed to clinical care delivery.
One of the major positive benefits of HIT on healthcare delivery is the improvement of quality in terms of adhering to laid down procedures or protocol. In this regards, decision support is availed in the form of reminders that are computerized. These reminders are deeply embedded within entry systems of computers or electronic health records. Quality is one of the traits that most of the systems that are concerned with provision of human health must have. The tests that these systems must pass are stringent, and obligated to undergo watertight analysis that are geared towards ascertaining that they are capable of delivering the best results. Most of the practices carried within the healthcare system in the world over are repetitive in nature and therefore, a computerized system would be effective in enforcing it. Equally, HIT comes with great recommendations ensuring that some of the procedures are strictly followed (Walker, Pan, Johnston, Adler-Milstein & et al., 2005).
Apart from being used to check and enforce the adherence to procedures, HIT can also be used to improve clinical care delivery. In the context of clinical care, there are many areas where quality is of uttermost importance. Various studies have showed that HIT has the potential to support many systems of monitoring and screening. One such area of monitoring is the reduction and controlling of medication errors. Medication errors are defined as preventable, and have potential of leading to inappropriate use of medication or harm patients while the use of the medication is under the control of clinical healthcare professionals. Many of the medication errors have been largely blamed on HITs that are not up to the required standards. In the area of antibiotics use, HITs have been useful in preventing medication errors, which can lead to adverse reactions and injury to patients (Poon, Christino, et al., 2006).
Efficiency is another trait that is synonymous with HIT as far as the delivery of healthcare is concerned in US. The different aspects of the healthcare system both within the clinical care setting and the administration aspect require different types of computing. On the side of administration, there is the financial side that requires correct calculations for the payment of services rendered. These calculations are not simple and at times very complex, which require special software to automatically compute them. On the other hand, the clinical care aspect requires some calculations such as dosage, laboratory reagents, which are mostly aided by specialized software. Most of these calculations and analysis are based on current and previous results or data which must be retrieved from the system. It would be quite arduous if all these calculations were undertaken manually without using HIT (Blumenthal, 2009).
Efficiency is highly associated with time whereby the delivery of healthcare in clinical settings is predicated upon the use of good records. These records are often referred to as electronic health records, which include a history of a patient and medication taken. At every point during the delivery of healthcare for a particular patient, there has to be the retrieval of the prior medical history, which is facilitated by HIT. This efficiency works best for physicians, who really rely on the health information systems to study the health records of their patients and make the best decisions. Studies have shown that over the period, the usage of HITs among physicians has gained prominence as it minimizes the chances of making medical errors hence avoiding unnecessary negligence charges (Poon, Christino, et al., 2006).
Another important aspect of HIT that it has had on the delivery of healthcare in US is the reduction of costs. As much as this is the case, it is quite hard to determine it on the face value owing on the high costs associated with setting up the HIT. Concisely, data that can be used to support the claims about HIT being cost-effective is limited due to different underlying challenges, such as the storage of data. Some studies have often concentrated on the maintenance of HITs, which is quite expensive especially for small industry players that make it non-cost effective. In other instances, the cost benefit analysis of these systems is hard to undertake because some of them were built on grants overtime. As such, these systems do not have the real value of their setting up and thus they cannot be compared with the realized benefits in terms of service and the value they add to the institutions they serve (Ortiz & Clancy, 2003).
Understanding the effect of the cost that HITs have on the delivery of healthcare in US has to be conceptualized on a wide lattice. This lattice must include information that the system stores which cannot be quantified in terms of financial or monetary value. Information systems as the name suggests are built around the storage, protection and distribution of information around a built system. When an entity uses HIT to build its information reservoir, such an undertaking proves to be cost effective in the future because the information is captured in the system and all that is required is to retrieve it. The cost that is cut is secondary and is felt all around the system on both the providers and clients. Precisely, when HIT system has the details of a patient, which is accessed by a physician, this information is most likely to prevent the physician from making medication errors, which in turn will save him from costs that may arise from suits of negligence. In summary, HITs cuts costs within the healthcare industry immensely owing to the efficiency that they introduce to the system (Pallin, Sullivan, et al., 2010).
Johann Sebastian Bach Life
Johann Sebastian Bach is one of the most celebrated Baroque musicians. Bach was born in March 21 1685 and passed on 28th July 1750. He was one of the most influential German composers, harpsichordist, organist, violinist, and violist in the baroque music period. He is remembered for his great influence in music. His input in German music styles through is exceptional skills in harmonic, counterpoint, and motivic organization. The excellent adaptation of forms, rhythms, and textures by Bach made him one of the most influential musicians. The music of Bach is revered for its great intellectual depth, artistic beauty, and technical command (Geck 43). The life of Johann S. Bach is one to be embraced. Despite of the inevitable challenges which every man must pass through in life, the life of Bach is worth praising.
Bach was born in March 21st 1685 and was the son of Johann Ambrosius who served as a court trumpeter for the Duke of Eisenach. Being born of a prominent and considerable able family, Bach enjoyed his early life due to the fortunes of his parents. The family of his father lived in a realistically spacious home above the town center. This gave Bach every opportunity a child born in a middle class family gets. At his early age, he was taught by his father how to play the harpsichord and violin. His famous uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, initiated him to the art of organ life. His curiosity and willingness to learn enabled him to become extraordinary proficient pupil. At the age of eight years, Bach went to the Old Latin Grammar School. This is the same school, where Martin Luther was once a pupil. In this school, he was taught reading and writing in Latin as well as German. Bach later received a scholarship at the age of 14 to the famous St. Michael’s school in Luneburg, where he studied for two years. Alongside Latin, Bach studied geography, history, French, and Italian (Geck 43).
Bach lived a rich life filled with high and lows, courtesy of his father. Bach was a dynamic, ever-evolving, and brilliant man. Though he lived a good life from birth to the age of eight years, where he joined school, he soon became an orphan at the age of 9. When Sebastian Bach was only 9 years, he became an orphan when both of his parents died. His mother passed on in 1964 and his father later in 1695. This was a major blow to the young Bach’s life. Born in a family of five children who survived their parents, he went to stay with Johann Christoph who was his eldest brother. He continued to live with his Christoph till he was 15 years of age. At this age, he was independent and could no longer be supported by his brother (www.arton.co publications 1).
Bach had a good personality and character. At the age of 17, he made a 4-month pilgrimage. In this case, he walked on foot for over 400 kilometers from Arnstadt to Lubeck the Northern city, where he and Dietrich Buxtehude further studied together. He was at a time fired from the church for violating women’s presence in the church. This is mainly due to his obsession with cousin, Maria who he later married. His love for his family and children is a clear indication of his strong principles on life. Through his music career, he could provide for his family by practicing as an instructor and organists of music for choirs and orchestras. He taught his children and second wife music (Williams 48).
After the age of 15, Bach started his professional career. He first worked as a violinist and servant for Duke Johann Ernst of Saxony-Weimar. Here, he worked as a private violinist in order to sustain his life. He was later hired by Duke to work in his private chapel in 1703. This did not extend for long since Bach became an organist and moved on with his career (Haury 1).
In October 1707, Bach married his cousin who was the daughter of a Trumpeter. His wife, Maria Barbara was his cousin, though this was not uncommon during their era. Bach and Maria were blessed with 7 children together. His wife did not live for long, and she passed away in 1720. This gave him the chance to remarry again a year later in 1721, where he married Ann Magdalena Wilcke who was a daughter of a local trumpeter. Through his marriage life, he went on to father 20 children. Unfortunately, most of his children did not mature to adulthood. From his first marriage with Maria, he had 7 children and 13 children with his second wife, Ann. Four of his children grew to be well known composers and musicians (Haury 1).
In regards to social activity, Bach replaced Georg P. Telenann who was his friend as the director of popular orchestra. He served as the director from 1729 to 1750. This was a private secular music society which performed concerts twice a week. His political life was miserable. Despite being the undisputed musical genius who worked diligently, the Leipzig Council did not honor its promised salary of 1000 talers annually. He experienced traumatizing political machinations since due to the ugly political games, which led to the imposition of restrictions on his performance (Williams 48).
The life of Bach was not short of miseries, whereby he spent 30 days in prison after antagonizing court Capellmeister in Weimar who was his employer. This misfortunate was a result of Bach’s frustration by his position, where he was offered another. This new position angered his boss and led to his 30 days imprisonment. Alongside this legal misfortune, Bach was blind. Though not born blind, he suffered visual impairments since early ages. Two eye surgeries were conducted and went wrong, thus making him blind. This blindness was a result of cataracts, which inflicted a lot of pain. Despite of the medical procedures which Bach went through, the condition was not rectified. He spent his late ages blind and later died of stroke in 28th July 1750 (Haury 1). Bach has left a rich legacy, which will be praised by many generations. His numerous music compositions and influence on music styles and forms will live to be remembered. He is by far the most recorded and performed music composer in history. This rich biography and legacy is a resource to the current and future generation of musicians to emulate.
Juvenile Justice Administration & Delinquency
Trends Leading to Reduction of Juvenile Crime Rates
Since 1991, trends seem to indicate improvement with factors involving teenagers in the United States, which could translate into a reduction in juvenile crime. One of the factors that contributed to this is an increase in the number of police officers. In this regards, police are very important as the buffers against which crime is controlled and as such act as, the first line of defense. Many studies have shown that the increase in police officers have a Granger-causality where it leads to crime reduction. Another factor is a receding crack epidemic that was very high in the 1980’s. Crack offers its users a very quick fix or high, which is associated with violence. Since time immemorial, there has always been a positive correlation between violence and crime whereby violence is an impetus for engaging in crime. A third factor is the rise in the prison population populations. During the 1990’s the population of inmates soared beyond their expected rates, which were fairly normal before. Increasing prison populations is connected to crime reduction in two ways whereby the locking of criminals removes them from the streets leading to crime reduction. Secondly the high rate of incarceration has a positive reinforcement effect whereby criminals fear for harsh punishments when they commit crime hence it deters them from committing crime. On the contrary, there are some factors that cannot explain the fall in juvenile crime such as gun control laws. Although in over two thirds homicides reported in US involve a gun, one may think that gun control laws could have helped in lowering crime but it has little connection with crime rates. Changing demographics is another factor that has had no effect on crime rate reduction because although the baby boomers were fast exiting the crime scene, their place was being taken by other groups and factors which cannot explain crime reduction. A third factor is the strong economy that was experienced in 1990’s which offers little or no incentive for crime reduction (Levitt, 2004).
Patterns of Juvenile Victimization
Childhood is a growing period that is marked by many developmental stages and therefore, characterization of patterns of delinquency must be delineated to age differences. Developmental victimology as a concept should be undertaken in order to clearly understand how crimes are distributed in the various ages of youths. More crime is usually reported for teenage children than in preteen years. Statistics show that teenager offenders account for 78% of juvenile victimization of crime. The statistics do not however show or account for how much more the teenagers are usually victimized than younger children. Many self studies have shown a relatively high uniform victimization crime rate of young children between the ages of 12 and 14 years and older teenage children between the ages of 15 and 17 years. It follows then that the close association of age and victimization may be due to low crime reporting rate of younger children. NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) data shows that younger teenagers and preteens are less likely to report crimes committed to police and this when combined with the fact that crimes committed by juveniles is most likely to be not reported. As such, there are several factors that put juveniles at greater risk for victimization such as age and type of crime. In matters pertaining to age, whereby crimes among the juvenile themselves is concentrated on the teenagers with younger children exhibiting low crimes rates. On crime rates as a whole, reporting of crimes is mostly pronounced in adults than in children. The other factor of the type of crime shows that some crimes are highly associated with children such as statutory rape is highly classified as a pattern of teen-exclusive crime (Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner & Hamby, 2005).
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., Turner, H. A., & Hamby, S. L. (2005). Measuring poly-Victimization using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. Child abuse & neglect, 29(11), 1297-1312.
Levitt, S.D. (2004). Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the
Liberty Project Paper
The Magna Carta can particularly be perceived as a globally historical document that signaled the onset of constitutionally tailored democracy, and was particularly implemented by the English nobles to limit the inequitable powers of King John between 1213 and 1215. The English Bill of Rights was mainly enacted to restrict abuse of authority by prospective monarchs, and King William and Queen Mary of Orange were obligated to sign the amendment into law ahead of their anointments in 1689.
While, the American Declaration of Independence was adapted to severe political links with England, and specifically entailed the colonists’ aspirations for demanding freedom, as the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen followed the eradication of absolute royalty, and consequently marked the initial progress towards writing the constitution as well as the foundation of the French Republic. The US Bill of Rights encompasses the first ten enactments to the US Constitution, and among other stipulations ascertains liberties speech, press, religion, and assembly. The essay aspires to provide overviews on each of the five historical charters. It then extensively compares and contrasts the highlighted similarities as well as differences, before concluding with a contextual restatement.
Similarities and Differences
The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta particularly refers to an Angevin treaty that was primarily published in Latin by 1215. ‘Magna Carta’ is a Latin word for “the Great Charter, and is also known as the ‘Magna Carta Libertatum of England.’ It became the first revolutionary accord in England as King John endorsed it against his will upon pressure from the Feudal barons, given the endeavor to reduce his status and safeguard their rights. According to Britannia (1), the document marked the peripheral onset of the extensive historical course that prompted formulation of the rule of law throughout the English speaking states globally. The 1215 treaty obligated King John to declare specific rights besides acknowledging that his wishes were not subjectively paramount. Through the charter, King John for instance admitted that no independent person would be castigated except via the legal laws, a liberty that still persists.
It was heralded and predetermined by the 1100 Charter of Liberties, via which King Henry I distinguished the precise quarters wherein his supremacy was to be restricted. The treaty was converted into French around 1219, but reverted later over the thirteenth century in adjusted editions. The revised editions particularly eliminated the sections that restricted royal powers which had been inserted by the 1215 accord. Magna Carta was officially signed to Act in 1225. Three of its provisions presently still retain their place in the constitution of England and Wales, under the un-codified constitution (Independence Hall Association 1). In pragmatism, the charter throughout the medieval era did not exclusively restrict the superiority of the royalty, although it was gradually cherished as an institutional emblem for many who opted to demonstrate that the King was as well bided by the law. Magna Carta further inspired the first English migrants to New England, and was later relied on to formulate some American constitutional clauses.
The English Bills of Rights
The English Bill of Rights is among charters that pioneered the English Constitution, alongside the Petition of Rights as well as the Magna Carta. The Bill mainly reduced the influence of the English monarch, and was issued as a parliamentary legislation. As a component of the historical “Glorious Revolution,” during its endorsement, King William and Queen Mary of Orange presided over the accession thus marking the Bill as a prerequisite of their statute. The Bill specified that Englishmen are definitely entitled to several civil as well as political liberties, even though worshiping rights was restricted for non-Protestants as reported by Goldman (1). Without approval of Parliament, royals would not appoint judges or preside over cases, stop Protestants from arming themselves and/ or form a standing army, impose bonds or penalties prior to judgment or order and perpetuate brutal punishment.
The Bill equally allowed for liberal expression in parliament, and particularly acted as the foundation to the present First to Eighth Constitutional Amendments. As noted by Halsall (1), the Bill was particularly implemented in censorship of James II’s England legacy, which witnessed the disarmament of Protestants while non-protestants freely carried arms and accessed jobs. It allegedly outlines the distinctive constitutional obligations for the Crown to inquire about the approval of the subjects via Parliamentary representatives. With exemption of the 1701 Act of Settlement, the Bill of Rights contemporarily remains in service and is among key constitutional clauses administering royalty inheritance in the Commonwealth entities. For the UK though, the Bill of Rights, Petition of Right, Parliament Acts, and the Magna Carta are regarded as part of the essential clauses of the un-codified constitution.
The American Declaration of Independence
According to Armitage (1-99), the American Declaration of Independence regards a resolution proposed and passed by the North American Congress by 4 July 1776, in declaration of the colonized thirteen American States as independent jurisdictions. They consequently united to give birth to a new republic, the United States of America. John Adams was one of the leading figures that championed the fight against colonialism inquest of liberation that was collectively endorsed on 2 July 1776, while a commission had initially made a draft for the official assertion, in wait of the American Congress position on quest for independence. Adams convinced the commission to nominate Thomas Jefferson as the chief writer of the Declaration of Independence document that congress was set to review in provision of the official edition. The Declaration specifically detailed the rationale behind Congress support for continental liberty against British rule.
After reviewing the draft on 4th July, Congress published the Declaration in various forms, ranging from the Dunlap broadside, which was broadly circulated and interpreted to civilians. The popular signature copy of the document is in exhibition at the Washington D.C’s National Archives. The Declaration defended the liberation of the US by quoting colonial criticisms towards King George III, besides claiming several human entitlements such as revolution and natural rights as noted by USCIS (1). After overseeing its main objective of reclaiming liberation, the Declaration document was hardly quoted until four years later when Abraham Lincoln cited it as the main emphasis of his rhetoric alongside agenda. This rendered it as a popular quote among human rights activists, apart emerging as an ethical standard symbol to the US, and motivation to countless demands for independence in other regions.
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen regards an important draft of the French Revolution as well as for human rights as it highlights all the personal and general public entitlements for all the sub-regions of the entity as global. Mentored by the principle of “natural right,” the liberties of man are regarded as universal, and merited at any time, period, and place, in regard to human nature itself. As observed by Van Kley (4-60), the final clause of the French Declaration was conducted on 26 August 1789, at the National Constituent Assembly, as the initial action toward drafting a formal constitution. Tailored on Enlightenment, the founding edition of the document was debated by the legislators on a 24 article copy concept as suggested by the sixth entity, under the guidance of Jérôme Champion de Cicé. The version was afterwards adjusted through deliberations that resulted in formulation of a larger document, “the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793.”
The concepts in the document were derived from the philosophical together with political mandates of the Enlightenment, which involved individualism, civil obligations as hypothesized by the French logician Rousseau, in addition to the division of powers adopted by the Baron de Montesquieu. Its ideologies are largely similar to those of the US Declaration of Independence that heralded it. Moreover, Thomas Jefferson visited France over the period as American envoy, besides his routine contacts with French legislators (Van Kley 4-60). The James Madison’s resulting ideology in the form of US Bill of Rights was espoused five days earlier, on August 21 1789, to the French Declaration. Nevertheless, in consideration to its publication and the individuals who contributed to its provisions, it was precisely the very individuals who assisted in the formulation of both drafts, Lafayette cherished Jefferson and Jefferson regarded him highly.
The US Bill of Rights
Asian Business/Financial News
Japan’s Billionaire Brawl: SoftBank's Son vs. Rakuten's Mikitani
The Japanese have been recently treated with an exceptional manifestation, as two of the nation’s commercial tycoons, both with international investment plans, are openly outplaying each other. Among the two are Masayoshi Son, the country’s second-wealthiest individual, as well as the incumbent SoftBank president. Apart from being ranked as the third mobile transporter regionally, SoftBank is equally the top investor in Chinese e-commerce company, Alibaba Group. The bank owns shares in over 1,000 Web commercial activities across the globe, such as the BuzzFeed along with Zynga, which are both based in the US.
In the preceding summer, SoftBank purchased mobile hauler Sprint for 21.6 billion dollars. As per the recent indication of Son’s ambition to extend his business empire outside Japan, SoftBank issued a report on 15th October this year to broadcast that it was disbursing 1.53 billion dollars to acquire “51 percent of Supercell,” which is the Finnish designer of the famous Clash of Clans cell phone game as observed by Einhorn et al (1). The tycoon has further entered in negotiation to purchase shares in Brightstar, a Miami based supplier of phones. The other mogul is Hiroshi Mikitani, the nation’s third-wealthiest individual, who is also the founder as well as the general manager of Rakuten, a large online marketplace which is probably more dominant than Amazon.com in Japan. Mikitani, as an ex-bank sponsor and a Harvard Business School (HBS) alumnus, is aware that Rakuten might struggle to survive in the prospect with confined emphasis on domestic market dominated by increasingly ageing consumers.
The tension particularly swayed the company to purchase Buy.com, a US based retailing outlet, in a 250 million dollars deal in 2010 among other online shopping channels globally. The company also added Kobo, a Canadian e-reader designer, among its international investments by 2011, rallied a 100 million dollar venturing union to purchase a minority share in Pinterest, the Silicon Valley program that permits clients to make digital scrapbooks over the last year. Both Son and Mikitani obviously enjoy top billionaire status and in contrast to most Japanese investors, might not struggle with negotiation procedures. Highlighting his aspiration for the Sprint acquisition, Son informed journalists in Tokyo that “I am a man, and I think every man wants to be No. 1.” Mikitani on the other side has clearly declared commitment to defeat Jeff Bezos (Einhorn et al 1).
Though, instead of concentrating on toppling Bezos, Mikitani has snubbed a surprise move from Son, who on last October 2012 via SoftBank’s leading investor, Yahoo Japan, offered to subsidize the maintenance charges for all its online vendors. Thus prompting instant pressure for Rakuten, which relies more on the fees from it’s over 41,000 clients. E-commerce generated for Yahoo Japan seventeen percent of its 3.5 billion dollars in the previous year’s proceeds, whereas Rakuten secured about twenty-eight percent of its 400 billion yen income from its online retail outlet, or Rakuten Ichiba. According to Einhorn et al (1), shareholders, worried that a price contest might destabilize both institutions, recalled a total of 4.3 billion dollars in venture within 48 hours of Son’s notification. However both SoftBank and Rakuten are reluctant to let their executive personnel’s shed light on the issue, while both companies are contesting for corporations with various dealers including Shanghai Donya.
Shanghai Donya is a Tokyo-centralized electronics dealer that solicits its goods mainly via Rakuten, and was nominated as the leading entertainment product retailer in 2012, though the company also has equally established some less productive outlets with Yahoo Japan. Son has been under pressure to swiftly reform Yahoo Japan, which was reportedly launched in 1996, and 35 percent of its shares is still owned by its American based namesake. According to statistics from the Goldman Sachs (GS), Yhoo Japan owns six percent of the country’s four trillion-yen e-commerce shares, as contrasted to Rakuten Ichiba’s twenty-four percent, or Amazons twelve percent.
Critical Analysis of Criminal Justice Administration
What is the relationship between the type of reward structure used by an organization for its employees and employee effectiveness and work productivity? How does the prestige or status of the job influence one’s work satisfaction? Explain
There is a very strong relationship between the type of reward structure used in an organization for its employees and employee effectiveness and work productivity. According to most surveys, job dissatisfaction is widespread in nearly all the organizations. While employees say they are most satisfied with factors that are directly associated with the work itself, they do admit that extrinsic aspects such as external rewards are equally important in improving the work environment, performance and productivity. Indeed, well established organizations reward and incentivize efficiency and effectiveness. These organizations encourage their employees to improve their performance by increasing their job satisfaction through an effective reward structure. These structures if effectively implemented produce the desired changes and drive the organizational expectations to their long term goals (Laffont & Martimort, 2009).
A reward structure can take the form of rewarding excellence/achievements through incentive plans, designing effective promotional/career development for the employees who achieve the set standards, setting up effective compensation procedures, improving employee engagement especially in high level goals, and developing capabilities of the employees through seminars and exchange programs. This may also include providing maximum opportunities for individuals to exploit their potentials in order to perform to the best of their abilities, and developing leadership abilities by organizing innovative management programs. In reality, a reward works to give positive reinforcement to the behavior. They are meant to make those who receive them happier. Besides, when actions are continually rewarded the behavior becomes a habit. Organizations can use reward structures to improve employee efficiency, effectiveness and work productivity (Skyttner, 2001).
According to comprehensive job analysis, there are four variants that determine a ‘good job’: a job in a well reputable organization, a job that has a professional status, a job that is self satisfactory, and a job that provides the opportunity for growth and development. The prestige or status of the job is therefore a fundamental factor in improving one’s job satisfaction. Status or prestige has the power to attract, retain and increase work competitiveness, thus increasing employee performance and organizational productivity. In addition, there is a strong connection between status or prestige and one’s job satisfaction. These aspects make employees happy with their work.
Distinguish between satisfiers and dissatisfiers as factors affecting job satisfaction. How do these factors influence one’s work satisfaction level, if at all?
Satisfiers are aspects of the workplace that determine job satisfaction. They are things that when present motivate workers by increasing their satisfaction of the job. These satisfiers (or motivators) satisfy employees and make them happy. Unlike dissatisfiers, these aspects are part of the work itself. Examples include recognition, growth opportunities and promotions. According to Herzberg, dissatisfiers, which he called the hygiene factors, are aspects of the workplace that cause dissatisfaction when not provided, but when available they have no perceived effect. They determine dissatisfaction, but do not increase motivation of the workers. Dissatisfiers improve work environment, but do not increase job satisfaction. They are maintenance aspects that should be present to avoid dissatisfaction. Examples include salary, security, status, and good relationship with managers and colleagues (Laffont & Martimort, 2009). However, dissatisfiers can also upset employees when not provided or imposed. These aspects include poor salary, poor working conditions, bureaucracy, and sometimes company policy. Generally, dissatisfiers are not part of the work itself. They are external factors.
Fredrick Herzberg’s theory shows that workers have needs that should be met within the place of work. Whether motivators or aspects of personal development, these two sets of factors affect how employees feel about their job and influence their motivation within the workplace. When they are met, these aspects improve employee’s performance and productivity. Satisfiers and hygiene factors are not opposites, even though they are caused differently (Iland, 2013). Herzberg reasoned that there are two distinct human needs that need to be satisfied. One, there is the physiological needs, which are satisfied by hygiene factors; and two, the psychological needs, which are satisfied by the motivators. Employers should therefore strive to balance these factors, so that those aspects that cause dissatisfaction are managed and those that increase satisfaction are improved. He recommended that employers should ensure those things that cause dissatisfaction when absent are first available and then provide motivators (satisfiers) thereafter (Coldrick, 2012). Herzberg arrived at these two factors (motivation-hygiene theory) to better understand the aspects of the workplace that influence employee’s attitude and motivation.
Degrees of Non Democracy
Over the years, political analysts and economists have developed consensus on the common characteristics of democracies and non-democracies. One would identify a democratic government, for example, by looking at the degree of equality, freedom, and rule of law exercised in the state (Ersson & Lane 29). In the same way, and not in all cases, one could also contrast these principles in defining a non-democratic government. In reality, the features are not always all inclusive as each government type may have all or some of the criteria. Government A and B can be described as both democratic, but A may be democratic in performance while B in participation. Similarly, Government C and D can be described as non-democratic, but C may be non-democratic in protection while D in participation. Grigsby called these differences ‘matter of degrees’. This paper looks at why there are more non-democratic governments than democratic governments in the world today.
Why there are More Non-Democracies than Democracies in the World Today
There are indeed several reasons why there are more non-democracies than democracies in the world today. According to Grigsby, for example, there are more non-democracies than democracies because non-democratic governments have been the norm for most of history. Probably before the first democracy in the city-state of Athens in 508-507 BCE, there were only non democratic governments (Patrick 5). Even today, there are still more elements of non-democracies than democracies in the world. Other scholars have argued that, culture and civilization the norms have equally contributed to having more non-democracies than democracies as they have consistently been used to determine the type of market, political system and regime that states take up. Other governments have adopted non-democracies because to them having democracy does not necessarily make the world a better place. On the contrary, there are several non-democratic governments that have done so well than those claimed to be democratic. As a result, they see no reason to change to democracies (Schultz 234).
Secondly, the economic criticisms of democracy have contributed to more non democratic governments than democracies. Economists such as Milton Friedman, for instance, have ardently supported non democratic governments claiming that democracy is inefficient when it comes to matters related to the economy. They site, for example, the irrational voters who are highly uninformed about many financial issues and therefore, end up voting for all the wrong reasons. Besides not foreseeing the financial betterment of the society, they are easily bribed into voting for petty promises. In cases where they are fairly knowledgeable about some issues, they display a strong bias against the facts that they end up voting for some other superficial reasons. Alongside irrational voters, there is also wealth disparity, which is inherent in democratic governments. Indeed, in most democratic governments, there is disregard for the voices of the economically marginalized groups, for the large middle class. For this reason, most non-democratic governments have always argued that the will of the majority does not represent the interests of all citizens. If there are, for instance, three people – A, B, and C. Rightly, C should get a third at any time. Under the democratic majority, however, C will never get its third as long as A and B agrees. In contrast, non-democratic governments can give C a third at any time because it ensures the good of all. In addition, the idea of ‘democratic majority’ is more likely to breed racial discrimination, oppression and other forms of prejudices (Gould 133-159).
Thirdly, there are more non-democracies than democracies because of sociological factors. Most analysts have argued that voters usually vote for the wrong reasons not because they do not have correct information, but because they wrongly interpret that which they have. Unfortunately, educating them on these issues is more costly than not educating them at all. As a result, most states resort to non-democracies to avoid incurring high costs. Moreover, in states that practice democracy, often politicians compete on the basis of public relations rather than in ideology. For this reason, non-democratic governments are always preferred in order to protect the interests of all. States also practice non-democracy in order to protect government policies. The truth is that government policies can be influenced by votes of the democratic majority. As such, in a population with low intellect or biased opinions, the outcomes can badly affect government policies (Gould 114-132).
Fourthly, political reasons have also contributed to more non-democratic governments than democratic governments. For one, the will of the democratic majority can seriously harm the good of the minority especially if they overlook the consequences of their choices. Two, democratic systems tend to please the impulses of the majority, and with time decay into false ideas. Three, it is believed that non-democratic governments offer more political stability than democratic governments, since they are able to enforce the rules without the influence by the whims of the majority. In addition, frequent and unexpected political changes usually hinder economic growth. Hence, where economic growth is the main concern, many governments have opted for non-democracy. Many states have also opted for non-democracy to protect the minority from oppression. The minority persecutions and biased laws are often the results of adopting the whims of the democratic majority (Lumumba-Kasongo 28-78).
Fifthly, philosophical criticisms of democracy have further contributed to more non-democracies than democracies. Plato in the Republic, for example, views democracy as a form of government full of disorder, where both equals and unequal are treated alike. Other philosophers have argued that, democracy is a form of government that focuses on lesser virtues while ignoring the most important issues and as a result, degenerates from best to worst government. Democracy lets the majority elect leaders who play on their wishes. In return, they grant the democratic majority too much freedom. Eventually, these governments degenerate into mob rule and finally to tyranny. Finally, philosophers argue that if democracies are allowed to prevail they will promote moral decay in the society. This is because democracies do not provide particular moral codes but rather any code that pleases the majority (Arato and Rosenfeld 309-380).
Finally, administrative criticisms of democracy have also contributed to the world having more non-democracies than democracies. For one, democracy promotes instability of governments. This explains why coalition governments born out of democratic elections are not always successful. Concisely, instability in coalitions is always formed on the basis of a viable majority rather than on ideology. Two, it is evident that corruption is more inherent in democratic governments than in non-democracies. Finally, it has been argued that democratic institutions are unsustainable. As a result, most states result to non-democratic institutions to sustain their goals (Hofmann, Rowe and Turk 146).
Even though political analysts and economists have developed consensus on the common characteristics of democracies and non-democracies, these features are not always all inclusive as each government type may have all or some of the criteria. For this reason, while two states can be said to be non-democratic, they variedly differ on their degree of democracy. Altogether, there are more non-democracies than democracies for one reason that non-democratic governments have been the norm for most of history. Secondly, political, social, philosophical and administrative reasons have also favored non-democratic governments than democracies. Finally, proponents of non-democracies have always argued that having democratic government does not necessarily provide a better life for the citizens as history has proven that some democratic governments are more harmful than non-democratic governments.
I. Introduction: Thesis- Through time, many of the myths that are known have evolved and acquired new traits that connect with the modern man
II. Desire to relive our innate passions and fantasies
To have superhuman abilities
To identify with the popular culture
III. Need to have and associate with the supernatural
Experimenting with things learnt in movies
Chanting some words to communicate with the spiritual world
IV. Conclusion: The fascination of man with the supernatural and mysticism has led to profound problems within the society with main one being fear and phobia of the unknown.
Tablet sales have recently seen significant growth, and it has been predicted that they would overtake the sale of PCs by 2016. Since the introduction of computer in the workplace more than three decades ago, there has been a revolution in work ethics especially in regards to increasing efficiency and production. However, with time there has been a revolution and instrumental growth in the manner in which information technology has changed. When the computer was introduced, the gadgets were only available for very few individuals hence very expensive. With time, technology introduced laptops and notebooks, which were more personalized and accessible to many. It did not stop there, but more gadgets were introduced such as hand held gadgets for instance tablets and mobile devices, which function like PCs but are more optimized to handle many functions. It follows then that these mobile devices have changed and transformed the average workplace (Corlett, Sharples, Bull & Chan, 2005, p. 168). When employees are armed with the requisite devises and credentials, they can effectively work from virtually anywhere and undertake all tasks. In conjunction with data from their firms or even the Internet, mobile devices like tablets are enhancing business productivity. They have ensured that all employees can stay connected with their office and colleagues when working remotely, as well as access relevant information and data. However, the increased use of many mobile devices comes with the threat of increased security lapse and management challenges but nonetheless these challenges must be balanced with the forecasted benefits. In the US alone, there is an overreliance on mobile devises whereby 61% of the taskforce use tablets, 39 % are using laptops and a further 77% are using their phones for work related purposes (Prasad, Gyani & Murti, 2012, p. 9). The aim of this paper is therefore, to articulate the increased use of tablets in the workplace and the connection between tablets and productivity, security, accessibility and compatibility.
Tablets and Productivity
In many organisations and business related firms, there is an increasing need to manage an ever increasing number of different employees’ hand held gadgets including tablets. In this manner, there has been a creation of an intricate balance between standardising application connectivity while at the same time increasing efficiency. These multiple devices found in the workplace also run on different platforms, which use different operating systems (OS) that in turn raise the security risks. This then compounds and exacerbates the available IT (information technology) challenges for connectivity ranging from managing financial and legal risks to securing data. A further complication to this new lattice of operation in the workplace is the old PCs that can become a liability due to their need for constant maintenance. Having many clients alongside the many unsecured devices at the workplace may lead to unpreparedness on the part of the firms to harness the power that comes with hand held gadgets. In addition, unauthorized devices can either hack or access the corporate network in a manner that the IT department cannot determine or regulate, which would spell doom on the organisation (Prasad, Gyani & Murti, 2012, p. 11).
Many of these challenges can be mediated in several ways, and one of them is by encouraging employees to use tablets or gadgets that fit into an organisation’s security and the working station ring. This can be done by imploring the employees to understand their technological needs as well as those of the organisation before embarking on getting their tablets. It can also be done by the organisation undertaking a drive to purchase uniform gadgets for their employees to ensure uniformity. All this is done because of the underlying software that these gadgets run on, which sometimes is incompatible. In other instances, it forces organisations to create very elaborate IT platforms that can allow for interconnectivity and exchange of data and information among different devices. When there is uniformity in the tablets that are being used in the workplace, security is improved and there is greater regulation on who accesses the corporate network (Cromack, 2008, p. 10).
Tablets and Security
The use of the right devices usually leads to enhanced security for data and information within an internal network. For mobile devices and tablets that run on Intel Core vPro processors, one can get embedded security, powerful performance and good manageability in different computing spheres and environments. Built in protection is geared towards addressing age-old IT challenges such as protection against security threats and network hacking, improved data protection, stronger passwords and better remediation capabilities. This challenge is unlike in the PCs (personal computers that are run and maintained by the organisation. PCs that are owned by the organisation usually are uniform and run on the same OS, which makes compatibility not a challenge. In this regards, the running of security operations with PCs is very easy because they are configured to the network's requirements and they do not need to be enhanced with much software for assessing and tapping resources from the internal network. However, they do have some limitations and chief among them is that they mostly used within the premises and not remotely. This challenge has led to the proliferation of the use of tablets and other hand held gadgets that are mobile and can be used virtually from anywhere. This trend has been becoming prominent by the day, but the only problem is that it is been done by individuals as opposed to organisations. Equally, when each employee just buys a tablet that suits individual needs and less likely to be inclined towards the needs of the organisation, then problems are bound to arise with regards to compatibility and security issues at the organisation (Corlett, Sharples, Bull & Chan, 2005, p. 165).
Tablets and their Issues of Compatibility and Flexibility
Indeed, regardless of the type or kind of tablet or mobile gadgets that employees have, there is always a guarantee that these gadgets will lead to increased productivity for business due to improved flexibility. The average employee in the modern corporate has the need for greater flexibility at the top of their priority list for improved performance at work. It follows then that when the right work environment conditions, tools and mobile gadgets are availed, greater efficiency will be accomplished. In the case of Intel, employees usually save up to 57 minutes on average in a day when they use their tablets in the office in their undertakings according to research done by many software analysts. This is an hour saving in every day, which when extrapolated over a long period converts to a lot of saving. All this is achieved by allowing employees to work in their preferred fashion, using tablets as opposed to using office laid down regulations of 8 to 11 timing. However, flexibility may mean totally different things to different individuals. Workers have varying needs, which is largely determined by their roles in their organizations for instance whether they work from multiple sites, from home or for different clients. Some workers even work on a rotating working environment, which changes from a home, office, outdoor sites and back to the office. It follows then that many employees and users of mobile gadgets require more than devices to comprehensively cater for their diverse needs. In addition, due to travel convenience this is often cumbersome because using different devices for the same work takes time when it comes to compiling the data. However, this challenge is easily solved by adopting devices such as tablets that are capable of performing different functions while serving the diverse needs of their users (Tront, Scales, Olsen & Prey, 2007, p. 3).
With mobile devices fast evolving and reaching new heights, new innovation and cloud computing levels are also being achieved, which all work towards making work more efficient and increasing productivity. Business firms have an added responsibility and duty to keep up with the pace of this technology development. In the long term, the integration of new technology in the IT infrastructure is the best way to manage resources, protect the business and control the way in which tablets and other gadgets access the IT network. Upgrading the OS means that, an organisation would not have to worry about losing technical support or security threat. Arming employees with tablets eases accessibility challenges that are often associated compatibility of different mobile devices in accessing the Internet platform (Sheng, Nah, & Siau, 2005, p. 275).
There are many profiles that can describe the modern mobile worker, who is always on the go. Some of these mobile employees may need portable devices for use in a specific building or worksite. It has become very typical of the modern worker to work virtually from anywhere without necessarily being limited to an office. The technical requirements and needs of different assignments in the modern world mean that the timing also does not necessarily conform to the conventional 8 to 11 timing. The changing work environment among other factors and the need for increased flow of data is fast changing the way employees undertake their work. The currently available business class tablets are run on the Intel processors that have customized security solutions, varying performance ranges and manageability capabilities. These tablets also come with other options and advantages such as long life batteries and the ability to choose how workers can interact with others, which can be through touch screen, typing or using stylus pens.
Medical Errors in Penicillin Allergic Patients
Medication error has been defined as preventable inaccuracies that have the potential of leading to inappropriate use of medication or harm patients using medication under the control of clinical healthcare professionals. As such, medication errors tamper with intended pharmacotherapeutic outcomes and can lead to serious adverse drug reaction or illness and or death. Despite the concerted efforts by healthcare professionals to stem of this problem, medication errors rates still remain high in hospitals and nursing homes. One of the common medication errors is the use of penicillin antibiotics on patients that are allergic to it. Many of those individuals that are born allergic to penicillin are not born that way but usually develop the allergic reactions later in life (Wilcock, M., Harding, et al., 2013).
Penicillin is a type of antibiotic that is commonly used in the treatment of infections associated with bacteria. Although allergic reactions usually occur with many antibiotics, most of them occur in relations to penicillin, which has various kinds in existence and analogues. In addition, some penicillin antibiotics are combined with other antibiotics in varying compositions for synergy and more potency purposes. Owing to the high prevalence of the penicillin antibiotic and its wide area of application in treatment, its usage is also prone to medical errors, which often can be fatal (Aronson, 2009). Unfortunately, most of the penicillin antibiotics have different generic and brand names under different companies, which may lead nurses to make medical errors. When medical staff uses both generic and brand names interchangeably, there is a high likelihood of making medical errors. On the part of the patients, they often in most cases use the trade names because it is what they see on the pack of the medications. Conversely, since these patients are not knowledgeable about medications and their available options or generic preferences they may cause clinical professionals to make medical errors (FitzGerald, 2009).
Research shows that as much as 18% of adverse medical reaction resulting from medical errors emanate from the involved healthcare professionals having insufficient medical history of the patients (Wilcock, M., Harding, et al., 2013). It follows then that the medical history of a patient is important. However, in most of the medical history of patients, there is communication breakdown whereby the documentation is not clear to which exacting type of antibiotic a patient is allergic to. Accordingly, the allergy may be documented on paper but not entered into the system for the information to be transferred to arm bands. It follows then that although most of the nurses in many health institutions are knowledgeable about penicillin and its associated medications, medication errors stem from misinformation and lack of information on those drugs that contain penicillin. Other medical errors are highly correlated to organizational issues like the use of red arm bands and highly busy work environments for nurses (Aronson, 2009).
Mediation errors pertaining to the prescription and admission of penicillin antibiotics are quite high in comparison to other antibiotics. Most of the medical error involving penicillin arise from unclear or lack of an elaborate medical history of the patient, which nurses need to make clinically sound decisions. As much as nurses may want to avoid clinical errors, without a proper medical history this would be hard to avoid. In addition, penicillin usually has many generic and trade names as well as its combination with other antibiotics for more potency. Additionally, patients are not very much versed with the drugs they are on. In order to improve and prevent medical errors involving penicillin use, it is advisable for nurses to have the whole medical history of patients, stick to the usage of generic names and improve on organizational issues like usage of arm bands.
Wealth Inequality in the United States and Conflict Theory Perspective
The vast gap between the rich and poor in US keeps on ever widening and there seems to be no common ground. This problem or challenge is exacerbated further when the issue of race is brought into the equation because the gap becomes incomprehensible. Many studies that are carried out to determine the racial wealth gap that is the difference between the wealth in the hands of the Caucasian in US against the wealth held by both the Latinos and Black Americans shows that it is at biggest. This is in relation to the time when the Federal Reserve started keeping tabs on the issue. In 1983, the gap was that for every five dollars held by a white person in US, the black or Latino people had three dollars. However, this disparity has continued to grow at phenomenal speeds whereby there is a creation of a small one percentage of super rich citizens against the rest of US citizens. By 2010, the ratio of the dollars held by the whites and that held by the Latinos or black American stood at 8:1 which means gap is widening further. This ever widening gap of wealth inequality can be explained by the sociological conflict perspective or theory that is grounded on the premise that the economic disparity is due to the proletariat (workers) being dominated by the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie they profit by accumulating their wealth from the sweat of the proletariat who earn poor salaries less than that of the bourgeoisie. The ideals of capitalism are propagated farther by the US educational institution by asserting the American dream of equal opportunity and importance of work ethic. Due to the dependency of the proletariat on the capitalistic system, the bourgeoisie continue exploiting them through the assertion that poverty results from personal failure as opposed to a flawed economic structure (Mooney, Knox & Schacht, 2000).
What is Income Inequality, Anyway?
This is an article by Mr. Sutter which puts into perspective the issue of income disparity among the US citizens. Although race is a very important factor in conceptualizing of wealth inequality, it is not discussed in this article but other equally important factors are discussed. Income inequality is defined as the differentiation of how evenly or unevenly wealth is distributed within any given society. The wealth inequality in US is relatively high in comparison to other nations of the world from both developed and developing regions. This in comparison to Scandinavian countries is quite astronomical because Scandinavian countries usually have low wealth inequality levels and the wealth is even distributed as opposed to being distributed to a few. Inequality is measured in different ways and the most common one is the Gini coefficient whereby the index or coefficient measures the level of income or consumption distribution deviates from equal distribution measure among people of a given country or economy. When the index is 0, the distribution is perfect meaning that there is equal distribution of wealth whereas it is 100%; it means that in a country, all the wealth belongs to one individual. Although people and economists generally argue that wealth inequality is not necessarily a bad thing, nonetheless when it is extreme it becomes a problem and a challenge especially to recovery from recession. Some other neo-conservative economists argue that for capitalism to thrive, inequality is necessary since the gap created by the inequality encourages hard work, competition and innovation. However, when this gap becomes too wide, it becomes almost impossible to bridge it and people to move from the bottom of the ladder. Regardless of the thoughts and underpinning of wealth or economic inequalities, high levels of inequality are to blame of tearing the moral fabric in the society (Sutter, 2013).
How an Organization in the state of Rhode Island is Addressing Wealth Inequality
War in North Africa
War in North Africa
During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought throughout northern Africa to include Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had colonial interests in Africa dating from the late 19th century. So why did North Africa turn into a World War Two theater?
After the fall of France in 1940, most of Western Europe is in Axis hands. Italy would be the first to send troops to into North Africa and other regions of the southern Mediterranean. Italian troops were sent to Italy’s colony of Libya with the intention of invading the British colony of Egypt. Their goal was to capture the Suez Canal to cut British trade routes through the Mediterranean and then to continue on to oil fields in the Middle East. They would have initial success, but then would have massive defeats. The British would push the Italians all the way back across the border and on into Libya1
R, Atkinson, An Army at dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943. Volume one of the
Liberation Trilogy, (London, Routledge, 2007): 31..
#1. Discuss what is meant by syntality. In what respect do organizations have personalities?
The word syntality was particularly formulated in correspondent to a structured group of personality within a being by Raymond B Cattell. Presumably, that was a broad range of habits in either aspects of a complete character with operatively unitary attributes or a profile of grades that distinctively defines a specific personality or a particular syntality. In case, the groups making up the syntality are states or jurisdictions then they can be perceived in respect to global terminologies such as civilization standard of the region. Cattell invented the practice of civic psychology by creating quantifiable behavioral confines (Lewis, 2011). He utilized the mytho-poeticism concept of psychoanalytic institution outsides its faculty to contemplate and emphasize on what he regarded as quantifiable in relation to the personality, and ended up with identification of 16 human behavioral traits. He then argued that groups might as well be classified in relation to the personality traits, and thus concluded that groups, exhibits personality, and in recognition of this discovery he formulated the name “syntality.”
As Cattell invented an essential structure from which calculation of group traits might be consistently formulated, the contemporary philosopher enhanced the concept to entail virtual group ideology. Hence, it is logical to transfer Cattell’s ideology of group personality to virtual groups. Generally, virtual group discovery, aim and enhance several comparable attributes with the conventional groups. In the process, he described personality as, “That which will predict behavior in any given situation,” and since he described syntality as the behavioral trait of the group, a conclusive awareness on syntality ought to grant a group trait with certainty. Determining prospective group conduct is of priceless importance in the modern world particular in regard to promotional strategies and state security issues. For example, the recent Egyptian activism was masterminded via the virtual group setting within the social networking podium. It is also apparent that radical groups such as terrorists usually underpin their extreme objectives with the application of technological provisions such as websites, and given the potentiality to open online product sites, groups can similarly be drowned together towards business unions alongside products.
#2. Explain why there is so much variation among jurisdictions with regard to how police departments and correctional institutions are structured and operated.
Police departments are mandated to patrol, assist and secure the entire community, particularly by monitoring and intervening in any street mayhem, besides arresting offenders and inspecting crime. On the contrary, correctional institutions are liable for ensuring vigilant security and normalcy in prisons, jails along with incarceration centers, thus rendering it as a totally dissimilar career as noted by Parfaniuc (2013). Even though, they are obligated to guard prisoners against mischief, they often place more emphasis on delivering court verdicts and maintaining the institutional policies. In most instances, correctional attendants commence their careers in sentencing facilities, but are likely to apply for recruitment in the police force later, as operating in the prisons dingy, untidy cells might prove stressful thus resulting in psychological disorders after a particular period in the profession. It is equally a risky profession, especially when assigned to maximum-security institutions where some of the most notorious criminals are likely to be detained.
In comparison with the police force, officers are expected to put their life in line in order to protect civilians or terminate criminals if necessary, although their careers are considerable mundane as contrasted to those of prison wardens. The essential variation between the police force and correctional institutions is that the erstwhile are permitted to conduct their routine patrols when gun-armed, whilst the latter is not expected to poses a gun at work. This often appears like a career prejudice from a layman’s perspective and a needless vulnerability on the side of the correctional officers; however, in actual sense the rule guarantees safety for both officers and inmates. Given the understanding that some inmates may gradually become frustrated and fearless such that they can take with their lives and attempt to timely disarm their guards, a prospect that prove to be extremely disastrous. Consequently, prison officers are only permitted to apply their radios alongside hands as security against inmate attacks.