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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date Marijuana should remain illegal Introduction The debate on whether Marijuana or Pot should remain illegal or be legalized in the US has contemporarily emerged as a leading controversial problem particularly in public and academic discourses around the nation. According to recent consensus reports indicate that more than fifty-five percent of Americans advocates for prolonged marijuana prohibition as compared to a maximum of forty-five percent that roots for the federal legalization of the drug. In contrast to the claims of those who support the legitimization of marijuana, the present evenhanded, restraining, as well as partisan drug laws of America have performed considerably well to ensure decline in the national level of marijuana use. The level of latest preceding thirty-day pot indulgence by the US civilians from the age of twelve and above by 1979, was estimated to be 13.2 percent. However, by 2008 the approximation had dropped drastically to 6.1 percent, thus confirming a 54-percent drop in marijuana indulgence after around 30 years, which is instead a commendable public health achievement, as opposed to being a failure as often proclaimed by marijuana legalization advocates. Overview Marijuana has been identified as the leading misused prohibited substance in America and globally. Its legalization advocates mainly derives their arguments on medical or collective application, but fail to acknowledge that the most exclusive marijuana related expenses arise from its indulgence in contrary to its illegalization. In the face of a widespread fallacy that the highest costs of marijuana consumption are those associated with the correctional system, an absolutely baseless and misconceived argument. According to Enyart (1), research has established that the proportion of convicted civilians for marijuana related offense is below ‘one half of one percent.’ Moreover, a stint in the correctional facility via accountability for a substance-associated offense persistently might assist in restraining the offender since the judicial agency is normally an effective alternative for rehabilitation. Over a third, thirty-seven percent, of medical enrollments registered in the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), gathered from state-sponsored initiatives were made after the judicial departments’ referral. The drug was a recognized substance of misuse for fifty-seven percent of the victim recommended for medical intervention by the correctional officials. The prospect of substance regulation, as opposed to being an option between the judicial department and medical referral, in a more ideal objective is to ensure that these two independent agencies establish a gelling partnership between them in an attempt to enhance both public health and civic wellbeing. To create elaboration in the marijuana legalization discourse, a close comparison can be extracted from the legalization case of gambling (Little 1). Entitling the government as a benefactor of legitimate gambling has enticed the administrators to endorse further marketing for gambling, as opposed to perceiving it as a behavioral concern. They instead opt to argue, “The moral debasement of state government is a phenomenon that only a few academics and preachers bemoan.” In contrary to the expectations, legitimate gambling has failed to curtail outlawed gambling across the US, but have instead popularized it. This is mainly apparent in the extensively prohibited gambling sports, taking into consideration that legitimate gambling is monitored and taxable, while prohibited gambling is flawed. The erstwhile covers up for outlawed gambling in a similar manner that legitimate marijuana would facilitate and conceal prohibited marijuana dealings. As reported by MPP (1-3), the gambling model specifically confirms that contraband substance dealers would flourish by vending predominantly marijuana by deceiving the formal protocols which would be levied and or else constrained. Incase marijuana were to be legitimate, the best alternative to curtail its contraband supply, which is diffident as contrasted to cocaine dealings, would obligate declaring it as tax-free and uncontrolled to any conscious consumer. Moreover, marijuana is rated as the second most obsessive substance after alcohol in America, and as of 2008, it was linked with 4.2 million out of the 7 million persons above the age of 11 distinguished with substance addiction or prohibited misuse. Justification of Illegalizing Marijuana The results showed that over two thirds of the US civilians who are victims of any drug indulgence impairment are victims of marijuana misuse or addiction, and if the federal government was to legalize the drug, the number of its consumers would instantly rise. Although the present figure of alcohol users is considerable higher as contrasted to marijuana consumers, if legalized the proportion of marijuana users may equally increase to rival the percentages for tobacco and alcohol as noted by Enyart (1). Decisive patterns have been witnessed with the two broadly-used legitimate substances. Whereas both alcohol and tobacco are levied as well as controlled, the revenue reimbursement to society are greatly undermined by the catastrophic effects of their consumption. The hazards of formalizing marijuana might not only be restricted to monetary as emerging consumers would be impossible to be constrained to grownup upon its legalization, just in correspondence to alcohol and tobacco teenage indulgence cases. Currently emerging studies suggests that marijuana indulgence is connected to deteriorations in a number of adverse psychological and physical disorders. Inadequate public awareness on this link is obstructing deterring endeavors, besides negatively affecting the countries upcoming generation and their relatives (Bayside 1). Driving under substance influence will equally double with the legalization of marijuana, which already a major risk factor in road accidents and mortalities. As per the current federal sponsored roadside consensus report conducted over a weekend night on drivers, over 8.6 percent of them were under the influence of marijuana, a percentage that exceeded that of alcohol intoxicated drivers four times. In a separate survey of adverse driving casualties referred to a Level-1 shock management facility, over a quarter of the victims were driving under the influence of marijuana. Whilst in a review of critically injured Washington State-based drivers 12.7 percent were rendered to be marijuana positive. Such reports corroborate the high tendency of driving under marijuana influence. Majority of the marijuana legalization advocates are enthusiastic and obsessed with their view of the presumed incompetence of laws intended to control the drugs consumption, and even more unconvincingly, they have failed to provide a new idea or at least demonstrate their alleged effective approach for taxing as well as controlling the consumption of legal marijuana. Main ground for this inequity, and the reason why anti-marijuana legalization has always dismissed the advocates’ motive pertains to their historical failure to present an effective plan to legitimization, given the need to ascertain their misconceived new law implementation initiative (MPP 1-3). Prospective drug laws need to be vigilant and persistently effective in controlling the need for prohibited substances such as marijuana. Effective drug regulations should primarily focus on limiting the consumption of prohibited substances by the over five million convict’s particularly on parole alongside probation across America. As they are presents the country’s most notorious as well as problem-causing outlawed substance consumers. Conclusion Concisely, it is clear that adopting initiatives that are connected to gradual and consistent, but not adverse, repercussions for any substance indulgence have displayed exceptional outcomes entailing reductions recidivism along with incarceration frequency. While effective laws to restrain intoxicated driving will render the roads safer, provide new prescription alternatives, besides curbing illegal substance consumption, restricting marijuana consumption is critical to enhancing the countries public wellbeing, intelligence, as well as productivity. Laws-based on modern circumstances can considerably catalyze present achievements of deterring mechanisms that, in contrary to failing, has saved countless civilians from the numerous negative impacts of marijuana indulgence. Since legitimizing marijuana for therapeutic or regular utilization would popularize its consumption instead of curtailing it, aside from doubling the rates of its addiction among teenagers as well as adults. Consequently, the idea of legalizing marijuana is far from a being a positive public wellbeing or safety policy for the US, or any jurisdiction globally. Works Cited Bayside, Nikkko. Should Marijuana Be Legal? Teenik.com, 2013.Web. 13 Nov. 2013
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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date 13th Amendment Introduction The 13th Amendment to the American constitution particularly outlawed slavery as well as involuntary servitude, apart from when practiced as sentence for law violation. The enactment was approved by the Senate on 8th April, 1864, followed by the House endorsement on 31st January the following year, and its formal espousal by 18th December, 1865, thus making it the first among the three Reconstruction Amendments implemented in the post-American Civil War era. Slavery was implicitly reserved by the founding Constitution via charters involving the Three-Fifths Compromise, where three-fifths of African-Americans were tallied and offered a position within the US House of Representatives. Before the enactment, over six decades had elapsed since the preceding reimplementation to the Constitution was fully endorsed. Even though the majority of slaves had initially been liberated via Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 by Lincoln, their status after the civil conflict was unclear. Overview and History Although the enactment officially prohibited slavery in the US, other issues ranging from Black Codes, discriminative observation of law, and white supremacist brutality persisted to expose African-Americans to violence, whereas selective enforcement of policies persisted to expose many African Americans to forceful toil, especially in the South. In distinction to most Reconstruction Amendments, this enactment was sporadically referred to in the ensuing legal cases, except for its application to shut out debt peonage, alongside other race-inclined prejudices such as ‘badges and incidents of slavery.’ In variation with the Fourteenth as well as Fifteenth Amendments, the charter protects both private residents and state players. According to Morris (109-110), the 13th Amendment further permits Congress to legislate policies to limit sex trafficking among other emerging slavery trends. The history of the Thirteenth Amendment tends to be exceptionally unique. Before the Civil War, the Congress reportedly ratified the amendment with a generally diverse intent, involving ascertaining the legitimacy and continuation of slavery within the Southern slave dependent states, as opposed to outlawing it. Consequently, the first enactment of the 13th Amendment in support of slavery entailed multifaceted divisive propaganda of the antebellum era, coupled with an ineffective endeavor to curb Civil War. Besides, it was marginally ratified in both houses and scheduled for state presentation, of which the civil conflict disrupted. Though, enactment of the post-Civil War edition of the 13th Amendment, which instead prohibited slavery, witnessed a dramatic change in the implementation process as it was ratified over the Civil War era, April 1864, both in Senate and House of Representatives in the absence of the southern congressional members. Both debating houses although faced stiff opposition from the legislators in attendance and were failed to secure the required two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives. Moreover, outlawing slavery was mainly a Republican Party agenda with only four Democrats primarily supporting the ratification (Aspen Publishers 5-10). Accordingly, President Abraham Lincoln ensured that it was approved by congress, and stressed that the accomplishment be included as part of the Republican Party policy upon the imminent presidential elections. With the utilization of his unique political proficiency and power, he persuaded more democrats to join the amendments’ endorsement, and eventually succeeded following the House’ ratification of the act by January 1865, given a support of 119 to 56. Eventually, Lincoln in support of majority congressmen publicly stated that southern state representatives must espouse the Thirteenth Amendment before they can be permitted to resume duties in the Congress with full entitlements as reported by Leidner (1). The enactment of the bill towards the end of the conflict required twelve months in the post-Emancipation Proclamation period, particularly due to the considerable number of the northern legislators who indirectly or opposed the prohibition of slavery. Slavery Slavery was practiced in all American colonies, and the US Constitution of 1787 never included the term ‘slavery,’ and instead referred to unfree individuals. While the Three-Fifths Compromise assigned Congressional positions depending on the population of free people and three fifths of the unfree population. The Fugitive Slave Clause stated that no individual slave in one jurisdiction would be liberated by fleeing to another. Nevertheless, with the Fifth Amendment provisions declaring that no individual shall be dispossessed of life, freedom, or property, in the absence of legal intervention, slaves were ironically perceived as assets. From 1777 to 1804, all the Northern states had totally outlawed slavery while all their Southern counterparts remained absolutely dependent on the free services of over four million slaves by 1861 (Holzer and Gabbard 3-86). An abolitionist campaign led by influential leaders such as William Lloyd Garrison gained popularity in the North, demanding the federal outlawing of slavery, thus igniting confrontations between the two radical regions. By 1836, the American House of Representatives had adopted a stifling charter against anti-slavery appeals as well as speeches, in an effort to silence John Quincy Adams among other congressmen in support of slavery prohibition. According to Lincoln and Freedom (1), the American Colonization Society, an abolitionists union who believed that slave masters who dreaded the presence of liberated African-Americans would trigger slave revolts, rallied for the deportation of ex-slaves to Africa. Suggestions to outlaw slavery by law implementations were first prompted in 1818 by Representative Arthur Livermore, and later in 1839 by John Quincy Adams, although both attempts only gained meager momentum. With gradual expansion of the US territory, the concern of slavery predominantly in emerging states became the main federal agenda. The Southern opinion regarded slaves as assets that can be transferred to all other regions in the same category as ordinary property. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 necessitated the recognition of state as a slave territory, with the exemption of Maine, thus securing the Senate parity of the two jurisdictions. Other states such as California moved to prohibit slavery between 1846 and 1850, albeit Wilmot Proviso, and the Mexican–American War. Regardless of the negotiations, ties between North and South persisted to deteriorate through the ensuing decade, towards the 1860 selection of an abolitionist Abraham Lincoln as the US president. The Southern states parted ways with Union immediately after the commencement of Lincoln’s presidential tenure, to create the Confederate States of America, besides embarking on the American Civil War as reported by Condon (1). Emancipation Proclamation Exercising the presidential confrontational authorities, Lincoln ordered an Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, thus rendering all slaves in southern states legally free; however, the proclamation never altered the wellbeing of slaves in the adjacent jurisdictions that had pledged their allegiance to the Union. Later in December the same year, the president declared ‘Proclamation for Amnesty and Reconstruction’ that provided rebel territories with an opportunity to reconcile with Union upon prohibiting slavery as well as presenting ten percent of loyalty vows from their electorates. They did not expectedly embrace the pact, and therefore retained the legality of practicing slavery as noted Morris (109-110). Towards the end of the civil conflicts, Union legislators deliberated on several alternatives for Reconstruction, with some lobbying for federal constitutional implementations to totally outlaw slavery. By mid-December 1863, an act regarding such an implementation was tabled in the House of Representatives by James Mitchell Ashley, who was seconded by James F. Wilson. While popular Republicans opted for a more liberal edition of the legislation, but were unable to outwit the Judiciary Committee. The Committee’s edition borrowed lines from the 1787 Northwest Ordinance in specifying that illegalizing both slavery and involuntary servitude within the US, except for crime castigation, under the condition that it must be approved by two-thirds of the jurisdictions as observed by Leidner (1). The Senate successfully secured the number of votes required to pass the bill by April 1864 as opposed to the House, which was marginally detracted by the opposition with 93 members in support, while 65 rejected the proposal; a percentage that was close to meeting the required two-thirds to ratify the bill. Congressional Contest and Ratification In the absence of Southern states representatives, a couple of Congress legislators censored ethical and spiritual opinions in support of slavery, while democrats who rejected the enactment collectively based their perceptions on federalism alongside jurisdictional liberties (Aspen Publishers 5-10). Others even alleged that the ratification will be contravening the Constitutions purpose and therefore would never be a merited implementation on top of amounting to a ‘revolution.’ They particularly cited that the bill would provide blacks with full nationality; nonetheless, Republicans retaliated that the practice was barbaric hence its ending would be a historical achievement towards federal progress. Advocates equally cited that slavery created an inhuman image of the white populace, who offered meager benefits, coupled with forced labor, alongside gagging of objective whites within the Southern territories. Abolishing slavery, as argued by supporters, would reinstate the First Amendment among other individual liberties infringed by suppression and threats in slave jurisdictions. President Lincoln was reportedly worried that the Emancipation Proclamation would be repealed or rendered irrelevant once the conflict ended and identified constitutional ratification as a lasting alternative, besides opting to stay neutral on the issue ahead of his presidential bid due to political reasons. However, in 1864, his Republican Party stand decided to end slavery through constitutional legislation. Following his triumph in the presidential bid, he marked ratification the Thirteenth Amendment as his leading policy priority. Public advocacy for the bill was mounting when Lincoln directed his State officials to persuade support by any possible alternative, including pledging administrative posts along with campaign funds for incumbent Democrats legislators. Republicans generally reconsidered their view on collective parity in an attempt to widen support for the bill, and to convince opponents that feared the possibility of the enactment to ground social fabric (Lincoln and Freedom 1). By January 31, 1865, amid doubts, the House rallied for the final verdict on the bill, which was ultimately ratified with a support of 119 to 56 against, and Lincoln endorsed the act to law the following day, making it the only federal law to have been approved by a President. The 13th Amendment was presented to state representatives; with most Northern states immediately approving it, although attempts to recognize it were thwarted in three jurisdictions that overwhelmingly supported Democratic presidential aspirant, George B. McClellan as supported by Tsesis (6-50). The war conflict was yet to be completely settled, but approvals from Reconstruction Southern states including Virginia, Louisiana, Tennessee and Arkansas were readily acknowledged while Kentucky denounced the enactment instantly, having perceived slavery as her benefit for Union backup throughout the confrontations. Unfortunately, President Lincoln was murdered on 14th April 1865, and in the absence of Congressional session, his heir Andrew Johnson introduced an era recognized as ‘Presidential Reconstruction,’ where he individually masterminded the formation of new administration in several Southern states. Besides, initiating political meetings frequented by invited delegates, whom he mobilized to approve the Thirteenth Amendment, given the urgency to evade the debate on whether to reinstate the Southern governments by ensuring complete endorsement prior to Congress’ December 1885, reopening. Achievement and Effects The Thirteenth Amendment legitimately outlawed chattel slavery, with the exemption castigation purposes, as well as reenacted clauses of the first constitution regarding slavery. After the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, members of the Republican Party expressed their worries over the impact it would create in congressional post allocation for the Democratic-majority Southern territories. If the full number of liberated slaves would be considered as opposed to the three-fifths system, the influence of the Southern jurisdictions would be radically enhanced in the majority-tailored House of Representatives (Condon 1). Republicans came up with a plan to counter this imminent drawback by enticing and safeguarding votes of the freshly freed black communities, utilizing the opportunity of the Southern attitude that remained predominantly discriminative, with most residing in their states leading catastrophic lives. Slavery was hardly changed in the immediate aftermath of the Thirteenth Amendment as they remained grounded on the same farms, facing unbearable labor under modified slave codes, while those who escaped become homeless in military camps and streets, sick, and undernourished, as they were liberated with no benefits, land, or legal recognition. Conclusion The post-Thirteenth Amendment generally witnessed various southern states such as South Carolina starting to implement Black Codes, which entailed distinctive set of rules, penalties, and social ethics for any resident with both African-American great-grandparents. These entailed African-Americans would only secure plantation jobs among other odd opportunities with meager Constitutional liberties. Prohibition on black land tenure almost made financial subservience permanent, even though other jurisdictions did not directly target Africans; they instead referred to plantation laborers who were mainly Africans. Others further ratified laws to limit Blacks from owning property. Southern investors even opted to reinvent the commercial practice of slavery via the peonage approach, where Black laborers were deceived by mortgages and then forced to work permanently for free due to their debts. Evidently, they remained underprivileged, ill-treated, coerced into taking hazardous jobs, and as well detained legitimately through the Jim Crow policies that administered the South.
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    The Effects of Steroids Abuse on Society Name Course Date Institution According to Yavari (2009), conventionally, anabolic steroids were used to boost athletic performance and appearance by increasing muscle growth while decreasing fat. These steroids essentially raise androgenic testosterone levels within the body therefore, promoting faster muscle growth. However, today these performance enhancing drugs are no longer a preserve for bodybuilders and professional athletes. Instead they are widely by people across all age groups. Students from middle-school to high-school through to college students and adults continuously use steroids for recreational purposes. Accordingly, the abuse of anabolic steroids causes higher physiological concentrations of testosterone and testosterone derivatives that can adversely affect hormonal balance in the reproductive system. This can further extend to severe implications on the user’s social, reproductive and psychological wellbeing. Consequently, adverse side effects associated with abuse of steroids continue to jeopardize the health of a significant proportion of our society (Yavari, 2009), Symptoms of Abuse Amongst novice users certain physical changes may occur. These include unusually rapid muscle growth and greasy hair with oily skin accompanied with stretch marks. Others include acne outbreaks on the shoulders, heightened Gynocomastia, rapid weight gain and a receding hairline amongst others. In addition, sudden personality changes are prevalent amongst steroid abusers. They may suddenly exhibit extreme mood swings, increased irritability and become abusive verbally and physically. Other emotional effects include withdrawal from social groups, paranoia and hallucinations. Moreover, depression usually occurs upon withdrawal (Yavari, 2009). Statistics on Steroid Usage According to statistics from the federal government, the likelihood of using steroids increases as teenagers grow older. For instance while only 1.2% of 8th graders use steroids, the figure rises to 1.3% at for 10th graders and 1.8% amongst 12th graders (USA.gov, 2012). In addition, 5-12% and 1% of male and female students respectively use anabolic steroids before graduating to senior level in school. Elsewhere, steroid abuse amongst athletes ranges between 1 and 6%. Effects of Steroid Abuse Steroid abuse significantly disrupts normal hormonal production in the body therefore causing disequilibrium in its normal functioning. The resultant effects may be long term or temporary depending on the level of usage. Reversible changes include lower sperm production due to testicular atrophy. However, long term abuse may result in baldness and irreversible rapid gynecomastia in males. In females, steroids are known to cause masculinity. This causes breasts to reduce in size due to fat reduction. In addition, the skin may roughen; while the clitoris enlarges accompanied with excessive growth of body hair and a receding scalp hair. Similarly, teenagers using steroids may experience stunted skeletal growth (Reuters, 2012, Yavari, 2013). The artificially high testosterone hormone levels from steroids can easily inhibit the body from natural growth. Steroid abuse is further associated with cardiovascular conditions such as heart attacks and stroke. By changing the optimum levels of lipoproteins carrying cholesterol in blood, steroids significantly contribute to the mentioned cardiovascular diseases. For instance, oral steroids escalate the level of low-density lipoprotein while decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels. This state ultimately leads to disruption of blood flow due to deposition of fat in arteries leading to blood clots. Conclusion
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    Student: Professor: Course: Date: Protestant Reformation Extravagance and increased secularism set the precedence for unparalleled Renaissance in the Church history in the 15th Century. The Italian Renaissance by several artists that was entrenched in humanistic scholasticism gave way to mental transformation through enabling artistry and science. However, it was German and British philosophers that are accredited with much of the transformation in the medieval Europe especially among the elite. Several men like Johan Hus and John Wycliffe did their part in challenging the Catholic dogma, but the show was left to one man Martin Luther who brought much of the reformation in the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther was born in 1483 in Eisleben Germany before proceeding to study law at the age of 18 in the University of Erfurt. He also did a degree in philosophy and later spent a greater part of his life lecturing theology and philosophy. Later, he became and ordained priest and studied and earned his PhD (philosophy doctorate of theology) at University of Wittenburg where he spent the rest of his teaching career. In 1511, Luther was involved in a pilgrimage to the Capital of Catholic Religion Rome where he was appalled at the materialism and moral decadency which overshadowed the modest underpinnings of true religion. This experience shook him greatly and he later confined himself to solitary isolation to atone for his own sin (Volker 448). The reformation work by Luther was as a result of ever rising hedonism within the Roman Catholic Church. From the 1075 Investiture Controversy when the pope broke ranks with secular control, and thus took power over temporal as well as spiritual matters effectively declaring himself the authority representing God. Soon afterwards, the emperor and pope would periodically clash on different matters, which led to the schism between church and state. The stroke that broke the camel’s back and brought about reformation was the Catholic Church, which was not paying taxes gained prominence and power through the selling of indulgences for money. He later chose to express his views from within through writing about his perceptions on religion not to break away from Catholic as it had been alleged. One of the examples of this is the 95 Theses and Address to the German Nobility, which showed his resolve to end the unscrupulous practice of selling indulgence by the church. His crusade about Faith alone shall save all soon, earned him some admirers that joined his camp and chief among them was Frederick III. Frederick the third was also known as the elector of Saxony and was involved in the defense of Luther against excommunication from and also assassination attempts. In addition, poor serfs from Germany were also prominent in rallying behind Luther in their march to get their freedom from their tyrannical landlords (Ekelund Robert and Robert 657). Luther never mentioned anything to do with gaining freedom from earthly masters or landlords as these serfs from Germany saw him. According to him, freedom could only be gained through submitting to authority and not through violence or revolution. In many instances, he chastised serfs for their vandalism acts against the Catholic Church especially in alter vandalism. On the brighter side, he gave these serfs the go ahead to think for themselves and rise above their shackles of doom and oppression which was good for their unappreciated workmanship. However, the reformation that came about due to his work was not what he had envisioned earlier in his life as a young monk. He had sought to have a quiet monasticism life of prayer which is clearly envisioned in the Catholic Church. However, things never went his way, and he was summoned by the Church to shed light on his controversial writings. Later in 1520, he wrote about the corruption in the church besides viciously attacking the papacy in his three known tracts. In addition, he questioned the validity of five sacraments out of the seven sacraments routinely administered by the Catholic Church and supported faith over good works, which the church seemed to support. He was called to present himself before Emperor Charles the fifth at the diet of worms. In that meeting, he refused to deny his writings and faith and thus banned and was whisked away under the protection of Frederick the third and retreated into his castle where he continued his work of translating the new testament of the Bible (Shuger 662). The clash of Luther’s views on religion with those of the Roman Catholic Church set into action a reaction of events that soon disrupted the unity of German religion. Although Luther was viewed as one of the most influential figures from Germany with regards to Church history, he was nonetheless only one of the many reformers that were wary of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Due to his ideas’ power and clarity that he argued with, it has been largely accredited to him as the starter of the great reformation within the Roman Catholic Church. In a matter of time, those people that were disgruntled and fed up with the open and disgusting corruption within the church joined him. Many of his fanatical followers were attracted to his belief that, man could develop a personal relationship with God without needing the help of the Roman Catholic Church as a mediator. In order to make his message more potent and articulate, Luther chose to translate them into Germany which the local people could understand with clarity. He also translated to scriptures into his native Germany language so that the local people could study the word of God for themselves. Before his translation, the Bible and other religious edicts were written in the Latin language, which was only understood by the priests and the local people were at a disadvantage. Another idea or reason that is less acknowledged but gained fast prominence was Luther’s ideas is the development of press that was movable. This reformation aroused a thirst for religious information that needed to be printed in all languages (Barbara 72). The ideas and doctrinal underpinnings advanced by Luther soon evolved to become Lutheranism doctrine. The powerful princes and eminent cities that threw their weight behind this doctrine had several reasons, which ranged from conviction to selfish interests. In some areas within Germany, some jurisdiction would hold to these doctrines simply because the areas around them had embraced them while in other cases for the authority to keep control over their subjects, they had to accept the doctrines. Almost all the cities in the country converted and assumed the Lutheranism doctrine despite the fact that the emperor was opposed to the doctrines. There has been consensus why some regions adopted while others were opposed to the Lutheranism doctrine due to the underlying social, religious as well as economic factors involved (Ekelund Robert and Robert 652). Although Luther set out to bring church reformation in a peaceful way, the timing and the nature of the message kicked into motion a different wave of reformation. First off, the political as well as economical tensions in those times meant that the reformation brought about an avenue through which the masses could let out their anger against the ruling elite. It follows then that this reformation was marred by extreme violence as well as extremism. For example, there was the Knight’s war that took part in 1522 and 1523 whereby there was a rebellion of the lower nobility people against the ruling elite in Southern Germany. Many of those Knights that went on a rampage in that war were ardent supporters of Lutheranism. However, it was the peasant’s war in 1524-25 that was more serious in exposing the underlying current that was associated with the reformation. This peasant revolt was largely influenced by the religious reformation although there were other underlying causes such as hardening and changing economic fortunes. Although the rebellion was suppressed, its lack of creating more civil unrest was because it lacked coordination. This is despite getting support form town folks who were dissatisfied with the economic fortunes that favored the ruling elite. Another rebellion worth mentioning is the Anabaptist rebellion in 1530s which led to seizing of several towns in an attempt to create a just society. However, this rebellion was also ruthlessly crushed by the authorities and order restored within the society (Shuger 665). Conclusion Extravagance and increased secularism set the precedence for unparalleled Renaissance in the Church history in the 15th C. In a nutshell, the protestant reformations are largely attributed to Martin Luther who was a catholic monk form Germany. He was opposed to the extravagant living and the rampant corruption that existed within the Roman Catholic Church then. In his resolve to bring reformation, he did not envision the change bringing about violence and revolution, but nonetheless his objective was achieved. This was one of his greatest achievements and one which opened the world to new religious beliefs and freedom. Works Cited Barbara, Stone Griswold. "War in Words and Pictures: Printing, Propaganda and the Protestant Reformation." Fides Et Historia 34.2 (2002): 61 Ekelund Jr, Robert B., Robert F. Hébert, and Robert D. Tollison. "An economic analysis of the protestant reformation." Journal of Political Economy 110.3 (2002): 646-671. Shuger, Debora. "The Reformation of Penance." The Huntington Library Quarterly 71.4 (2008): 557-VII
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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date Colombia and the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) Introduction The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is a Colombian based militia group, that has engaged the Colombian government in civil confrontations since the 1930s, and its members particularly rely on Marxist–Leninist ideologies for motivation. The militia group is mainly dominated by peasant fighters who perceive themselves as agrarian activists, and are against imperialist Marxist–Leninist institution of Bolivarian ideology. The group also alleges to pursue parity for the marginalized rural population in the fight against the countries affluent classes’ monopolization of natural assets via international agencies, the US presence and agenda, paramilitary brutality, and neo-imperialism among other issues. The paper aspires to provide a brief background on FARC with exceptional focus given to its origin, purpose, causes, ideologies, before objectively analyzing the group’s historical activities via the use of relevant ideologies, and presenting a contextual summary. Background American security agencies have over the present years classified FARC among the most established and infamous guerrilla groups within Latin America. Its members are normally presumed to be criminals who have no respect for human life or institutional morals as they persistently indulge themselves in a broader array of unlawful activities. Nonetheless, neutral observers have admitted that even though members of the group include drug dealers and kidnappers, they are to some extent fighting for the greater justice of the Colombian poor population. According to Offstein (99-141), the movement has survived almost five decades of retaliation and, although its capacity has gradually declined in present years, it indicates meager signs of falling apart sooner. In contrary with most Latin American “terrorist” organizations, the movement has managed to amalgamate itself to a certain scope, as an influential aspect of the Colombian national economy as well as global image, as some Colombians have come to respect it as an important communal emblem of opportunity along with security. Purpose Although the group’s reputation has been heavily censored across the global media, for years, instead of pursuing more control, FARC’s leaders have endeavored to solve fundamental problems of the local communities involving creating jobs and sustainable agricultural projects in its seasonal negotiations with the Colombian administrators. Hence to some analysts, the movement is, in its modest structure, a peasant revolution. The movement fights for justifiable prejudices, but equally conducts random mayhem, while its commandant’s deals with the reality of being isolated by both the state alongside the global community, same as the marginalized populations whom they represent (Sales 1). The group has persistently been suppressed for its coca industry participation. Whereas coca presents an ideal means for FARC to fund its operations, it is as well the most productive crop for the majority of otherwise poor rural Colombian residents. They generally receives extremely inadequate support from the Colombian authorities, and in correspondence to most isolated regions of the nation, the FARC serves as the most reliable pseudo-administrative structure as noted by Offstein (99-141). Furthermore, most of the presumed FARC’s unlawful commercial activities have ironically over the years been recognized as the key sustainers of the country’s economy. The group is equally infamous for its strict code of law and discipline, which from an external point of view seems to be inhuman but the undisputable willingness of rural Colombians to join its ranks suggests otherwise. However, within regular corridors, practices such as the recruitment of child soldiers, denying women their procreation rights, and participating in as well as protecting drug cartels among other social codes amounts to the infringement of human basic rights. Causes Through numerous decades, FARC has evolved from an insignificant peasant uprising to its current unrivaled military prowess. Partly, the extraordinary expansion has been catalyzed by funds from the group’s monthly protection fee for prohibited drug dealing. Another advantage the group has utilized regards the central authority’s reluctance to eliminate the deplorable conditions facing the rural peasant farmers. The emergence of the rural guerrilla militia in Colombia started with the peasant protests around the 1920s as well as 30s. Peasant alongside the native communities organized demonstrations in reaction to intolerable working conditions introduced upon them by coffee the investors, besides the longstanding confrontations over land leasing. The activists coalesced in the strategic countryside regions such as southern Tolima, although they were specifically based at Chaparral, Viotá, the backbone of Cundinamarca’s coffee district, among other farming regions including Tequendama together with Sumapaz. Ideologies The government applied coercion in reaction to these uprisings, a move that triggered the commencement of peasant revolutions in the 1930s, which progressed into armed militia resistance towards the end of the decade. The political ideologies and agendas of most of the resisting peasants were derived on communism alongside socialism (Offstein 99-141). The era that became popularly recognized as “La Violencia” started five decades earlier upon the assassination of the populist chief, Jorge E. Gaitán, and consequently resulted in insidious countryside hostility typified by a peasantry that was predominantly inspired by Marxist-leftist views, and were as well escalated by the outlawing of labor union and communism. They particularly relied on Marxist approach, derived from the social hypothetical concepts of Karl Marx, which they specifically utilized accordingly in demand of social justice, parity, and equal opportunities for all Colombians, and to eventually stir national civic reforms. In relation to the theory, the peasants demanded the adaptation of Social-Communism approaches in civic sectors as opposed to the preferred Capitalism, which they faulted as the key factor behind the isolation of most rural populations and generally, the creation of a hostile barrier between the upper and lower social classes. Hence they adhered to the Marxist theoretical recommendation and started to demonstrate against the Colombian affluent population in an attempt to forcefully ensure the replacement of capitalism with communism, which will hopefully guarantee equal distribution of socio-economic opportunities among all citizens as supported by Mandel (1). This ideology motivated peasant activists who operated together in guerrilla self-defense and in an attempt to protect the wellbeing of peasant communities until the formal berth of the FARC in 1964, and its declaration to fully adapt armed confrontations as a component of a political agenda to capture national supremacy. Immediately after the FARC’s launching, the government particularly reacted by forcefully expelling its members from their plantations, with merciless and rampant use of force, which resulted in extensive adjustments of rural land tenure. Peasants were forced to seek refuge in Amazonic mountainous regions such as Guaviare, Meta, Putumayo, and Caquetá among others, where they transformed into armed militias and started forceful or armed colonization of the surrounding regions (Sales 1). The approach was majorly favored by the isolation tendency of the Colombian political organization, where regular civilian unions and public protests were penalized. The 1950s rampant use of force was officially halted upon the formation of the National Front, a coalition accord that brought together the conventional parties, and involved sharing of state resources and agencies among the wealthy classes, thus limiting expression of opposing political opinions. At its onset, FARC leaders focused on recruiting willing civilians, besides dedicating their allegiance to the Colombian Communist Party (CCP). Throughout the 1960s as well as 70s, the group remained among emerging, undersized guerrilla sects among others that encompassed the National Liberation Army (ELN) and the Popular Liberation Army (EPL). However, public as well as political interest for the guerrillas gained momentum over the 1980s, taking advantage of a vacuum created by the restriction in political involvement along with legal objection. Over this enhancement period, the FARC activists were faced with dilemma pertaining to the focus choice between their political and military interests (Rivaz 1). However, over the 1980s, the UP party leaders were subjected to unprecedented political brutality and assassinations, until the party collapsed by the turn of 1990s, thus forcing the FARC to concentrate on implementing their military ideologies. During this era though, internal aggression was primarily facilitated by the political influence on drug business. While militia groups were sponsored by drug cartels to raid leftist unions across the entire state, as drug proceeds overwhelmed majority of the legislators, whom in turn allowed drug dealers to eliminate state hired detectives mandated with curbing the narcotics business. Problems A raised standard of external intercession was proposed by the US, and branded as “war on drugs,” which prompted the militias to develop new approaches in their territories, given the need to collect funds for sustaining the upcoming battle, as their political emphasis gradually diminished, and they increasingly targeted common civilians for taxation and ransom abduction. Throughout the Samper government, between 1994 and 98, the standard of paramilitary violence in the country increased, with the FARC displaying professional-level of military potency alongside regional control. These views, nevertheless, remains generally contentious, as some analysts relates the augmentation of the confrontations to the shakeup consequences of the Cold War, and the adversities that incapacitated the state’s social fabric sector, coupled with the birth of various conflict players who ignored the confines of Colombia’s conventional warfare (CBN 1). The two views tends to concur in linking most of the battles moral accountability to the FARC, without providing the necessary explanations, such as the governments liability in worsening the conflict, and the sacrifices in terms of legality of blatant human rights infringements that were committed specifically against innocent civilians. Moreover, government monopoly of deadly weapons among other decisions such as the outlawing of opposition politics, and meddling with land alongside agricultural protocols, are some of the direct causes and key actors in prolonging the war. Due to the numerous favorable structures that the FARC implemented across Colombia, in addition to the reliance of both leaders and the entire state economy on it has allowed for the development of considerably heavy control on the society. Its influence seems impossible to be overlooked as a result of accountability in the national economy, apart from its absolute dominance within some regions, and limited contributions to the global economy as supported by Vargas (1). The organization has further embodied itself as the only form of livelihood in several regions, by sponsoring economic programs to motivate the isolated populations towards joining the conflict. Although most of its activities are extremely immoral, its dominant presence equally reflects the unceasing challenges facing Colombians, which the state has so far failed to tackle. Conclusion Finally, the FARC’s military intensification is not restricted to their heightened potency to acquire resources via extortion, abduction or manipulation of regional administrators and certain civilian groups. Nonetheless, they have intensified their military ability particularly by placing more emphasis on it as opposed to focusing on gaining political powers, coupled with the vacuums in highly unstable administration that obligates overhaul changes to the present socio-economic as well as organizational structure. Among the most decisive shifts in the FARC over the 1990s involved their immense integration in the regional economic resources as they became more conversant with military oversight of local budget allocations, which ensured adequate funds to sustain their war fronts. Lastly, the FARC clearly gained most enormous resources from its close corporation with sections of the outlawed drug cartels.
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    Coke Zero - Promotion Students Name Course/Name Date Instructors Name Coke Zero - Promotion Coca-Cola Zero, popularly known as Coke Zero, is one of the latest products to be introduced into the global market by the Coca-Cola Company. The Coca-Cola Company is a famous global brand. However, it is not easy for a brand to become so successful and well-known worldwide. For this reason, the Coca-Cola Zero was selected as a product with distinguished commercial background and successful marketing strategies. Coke Zero is among the contemporary dominant as well as most common products under the Coca-Cola brand name. Moreover, the product’s exceptional marketing strategy guaranteed it instant recognition and popularity among the targeted consumers. A successful promotion of a product can enhance sales, persuade customers, and develop brand identity. Hence, from the commercial perspective, it is important to evaluate how the Coca-Cola Company effectively utilized its marketing strategies to popularize as well as to render Coke Zero a success. The promotional strategies of the product were particularly developed in target of young men among other grownup males in search of trendy and healthier soft drinks.1 Kotler, Philip. (2000). Marketing Management. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall. In distinction with other Coca-Cola products, Coke Zero is particularly low in calorie, given the primary objective to attract adult male consumers, who had concurrently been proven to perceive diet drinks as feminine.2 The Coca-Cola Company. (2013). New Coke Zero™ Campaign Tells Guys “It’s Not Your Fault” Giving Them Permission to Enjoy Everything. The Coca-Cola Company, March 18. The product was as a result promoted as having a similar taste with other neutral Coca-Cola products, instead of associating it with Diet Coke that has globally been presumed to have feminine composition especially by men, given the need to prevail over the targeted consumer psychology. The Coke Zero label has regularly entailed the lettering of Coca-Cola sign in a tidy red and white color with a black background, alongside the brand ‘Zero’ below it in small letters, which is its customized edition. Nonetheless, the level might slightly differ with regions and countries. This is the significant connection I am stressing to verify its relevancy with customized and psychology promotional concepts. Coke Zero marketers created a slogan as “Great Taste, Zero Sugar,” which delivered an influential image of the drink as sugarless, with a regular Coke like taste. Even though the products promotional strategies were primarily tailored towards male consumers, nearly 50 percent of its present consumers are females. Recently, Coke zero has launched a new tagline as “Enjoy Everything” in the new advertisement.3 The Coca-Cola Company (2013). It expressed the idea of Coke zero, which is real coke taste, zero compromise, and let’s you enjoy everything. All varieties of Coke Zero available for consumption across the world are derived from a common flavoring method, and carbonation. Although, the precise blend of Coke Zero’s non-natural sweeteners alongside preservatives might differ from region to region. Coke zero is involved in many prize promotions currently and over the past in different countries. Promotion such as “Cash Prizes” in New Zealand, which contain thousands of instant cash prizes to be won. Moreover, “It’s Possible!” promotion in Singapore that contains 488 prizes to be won.4 David, Carnes. (2013). Examples of Promotional Strategies in a Product. Houston Chronicle. More recently, Coke zero participates in “My Coke Rewards” that can collect the points and reward yourself or others. They provide few easy ways to enter the codes to get points, and several ways to spend points. The launch of Coke Zero became the biggest of all similar initiatives to be held by Coca-Cola in over two decades. Owing to the tailoring of its promotional strategies towards young men, the product was branded as ‘Bloke Coke’ within the UK. While its US promoters initially stressed its comparisons with Diet Coke, but the companies leaders moved quickly to discard the claims, besides reportedly threatening the liable personnel’s with ‘taste infringement’ charges, which is subject to promotional ethics.5 Huffington Post. (2013). Diet Coke vs. Coca-Cola Zero: What's The Difference? Huffingtonpost.com. This is the vital connection demonstrated in the context to confirm its relevancy with course promotional concepts.
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    Controlling Organized Crime Students Name Course/Name Date Instructors Name Introduction Organized crime involves a group of people made up of several ethnicities and international unions, who coordinate as well as work in unison, apart, or in line with legal enterprises alongside political realms. Many analysts have concurred that organized crime is both an impediment to academic projects and a realistic social issue that obligates urgent solution. Strategies implemented to limit organized crime often tend to be inclined towards one form of the two approaches. One of the approaches is tailored on dealing with individual members of the criminal gangs, whereas the second stresses on the structural aspects along with market networks that assist in accomplishing organized crime. It is essential to highlight that even though the two comprehensive approaches exhibits no observable conflict with one another, they clearly presents diverse suggestions regarding how the law enforcement and fiscal resources eligible for the limitation of organized crime ought to utilized. The paper presents a comprehensive background on controlling organized crime, given the utilization of relevant definitions, ideologies and hypotheses, through which concerns of and associations in organized crime are evaluated. It then analyzes the various weaknesses in present legal approaches to tackling the vice, before proposing an effective approach, and summarizing with a contextual restatement. Overview Regardless of the contemporary reports by national law enforcement agencies, endeavors to limit organized crime are yet to deliver success, which is mainly due to the tendency of federal lawmakers as well as the law enforcements to derive their organized crime reduction approaches on the unreliable alien conspiracy theory. It perceives syndicate misdemeanor as an underworld commercial venture that encompasses ethnically or culturally different alien organizations that infiltrates established political and commercial realms. Most criminal syndicates in the US seem to be freely ordered outfits, small, divided, and readily reactive to illegitimate commercial opportunities. Crime syndicates are normally not the fraudsters of civil servants along with certified experts as coequal associates completing a symbiotic rapport as noted by the Finklea (2010). The basic ideology of the alien conspiracy theory is headhunting, which regards curbing organized crime by detaining syndicate commanders alongside members, besides freezing their properties. The approach has resulted in countless arrests and sentencing among other types of castigation against crime suspects, although it has provided no hope in curbing the rate of syndicate crimes. Nevertheless, a highly promising and effective alternative to policing involves enhancing awareness on syndicate crimes by emphasizing the main aspects of illegal entities, with exceptional focus on undermining the influence and affluence of illegal investors. This merging objective might be realized by vigilantly monitoring the leading upperworld entities that, when infiltrated, permits criminals to gain and apply ample affluence by espousing legal alternatives in disguise of proceeds and the illicit power (JRank, 2013). Crime Control Theories According to Buscaglia & Dijk (2003), crime control theories are generally fundamental for intellects, professionals, security forces, and the society by offering limitation strategies, besides overviews on the development of syndicate crimes. The alien conspiracy theory particularly claims that organized crime members first migrated to the US from Italy, after which they established several criminal networks across the states and are accountable for spreading the illegal culture. Whilst, the social control hypothesis suggests that a person’s engagement with a society might eliminate the probability of the person to partake in prohibited activities. Individuals normally evaluate the proceeds and consequences of perpetrating a crime prior to their indulgence. Hence to limit prohibited activities, a community needs to uphold societal purposes, support anti-crime initiatives, and nurture ethical conducts in recognition of jurisdictional ordinances and policies. The differential association hypothesis prioritizes the surrounding social group-setting, given the assumption that individuals who values immediate settings in association to the majority will always adhere to the law, otherwise associating with offenders will likely lead to pursuing crime. Lastly, the strain and anomie hypotheses argues that characters who indulge in illegal activity are often partly inspired with the desire to ascertain the American dream, or wealth under the universal perception (EU, 2006). With limitation of legitimate opportunities to earn a living and gain wealth, underprivileged members of the society are highly vulnerable to conduct illegal activities via criminal syndicates, which promise instant and better proceeds in comparison with legal ventures. Legal Limitations According to UNODC (2013), legal limitations might generally undermine the effectiveness of law enforcement’s to apprehend offenders alongside the criminal syndicates due to numerous cracks that may crop up within the administrative bodies. Moreover, state criminal tackling approaches always vary from one to another, thus rendering it impossible for the policing agencies to curb illegal activities, given the awareness of offenders and their organizations on these legal loopholes. Therefore, an effective strategy would be for neighboring states and the national administration to implement policies that allow security officers to pursue crime beyond their confines. Nonetheless, the drawbacks of the approach may entail derailing cases and inspections in the name of completing inspection, arrest, and trial, which will consequently enhance the infringement of individual entitlements, and civil litigations among other judicial injustices.
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    Student: Professor: Course: Date: Tay-Sachs Disease Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a metabolic disorder, commonly associated with the Jews and was used as a means of demarcating people on racial basis. According to Maeir (1), although TSD is highly associated with the Ashkenazi Jews, it is also found in other people around the globe, but on a very low scale. TSD occurs in several forms but the most common ones are the late onset and juvenile forms and the infantile Tay-Sachs, which is the most frequent and fatal. The underlying pathogenesis of TSD is the mutation of genes that are responsible for the production of Hex A gene, which has the functions of regulating lipids levels in the nervous system and the body. When this enzyme is not adequate, lipid regulation becomes a problem leading to fat accumulation hence neurological deterioration. In infantile TSD which is the most fatal, the early signs and symptoms include head enlargement due to water accumulation around the brain, red spots on the eyes’ retina, hyperacusis, social withdrawal, changes in muscle tone and mental retardation. With time, vision becomes impaired and complete paralysis of the child occurs with death occurring latest at age five (Kaback, Michael, et al. 2310). TSD is usually associated with gangliosides apathy although, its play on neural physiology and the underlying causal mechanisms are not well understood since the biochemical interplay remains a clear case of inheritance from parents. Individuals with TSD have a high accumulation of GM2 gangliosides within their brain tissues, which causes a disruption in the normal functions and development of the brain. The accumulation of the gangliosides is blamed on the defective gene Hex A that is supposed to metabolize GM2 gangliosides (Fernandes Filho, Jose Americo, and Barbara 1469). TSD and other related rare metabolic disorders, usually present several challenges to scientists in terms of the high frequency of the defective gene within a population and how it is propagated overtime. In addition, this defective gene seems to be delineated and highly prevalent in a particular population. Even the evolutionary forces like natural selection, gene mutation, floe and drift have not sufficiently explained this enigma. Apparently, gene mutation is the underlying mechanism presenting variations occurring within a population, which takes place in a consistent but low rate. Mutation is also known to have caused TSD gene in the Ashkenazi Jews, but it is still mystery why the mutated gene remained high in the original population. Gene flow is a mechanism that helps in the transfer of gene from one population to another but the high frequency of defective genes was in one population. It follows then that both gene mutation and gene flow cannot comprehensively account for high frequency of TSD among the Ashkenazi Jews and therefore answers must lie in genetic drift and natural selection. However, the mechanisms in which these two (gene drift and natural selection) account for the high frequency of TSD is not clearly understood (Evans 1). Tay-Sachs disease is a very rare ailment although very pronounced among the Ashkenazi Jews that have a predisposing to having children with the condition. One of the ways that this condition was eliminated and controlled among the Jews, was through pre- natal screening and counseling. For Jews, their religion forbids abortion, as such, they are pro-life, and therefore, they would rather avoid marriage between two people who have the defective allele than abort a fetus. Moreover, when worse comes to worse, they would rather have a child with the disease and face the consequences of loosing the child before the age of six as opposed to aborting the child. To them, a child is a gift from God, which should be carried to term, and then the work of taking care of it, is left to God. Sometimes the disease may be detected late in the pregnancy through sampling of the amniotic fluid and although aborting is an option, it is nonetheless the poor choice. This is because the fetus should have a choice and be given a chance to live its life even if it will only live for five years. That should be a prerogative of God and the condition that is afflicting the baby (Kaback, Michael, et al. 2314). This disease is among many that became understood through the use of recombinant DNA technology. As such, it has been deduced to an autosomal recessive disorder whereby, it can be passed from parents who are carriers to their offspring. This simply means that a child that is born of parents that are heterozygotes or carriers of the defective gene has a quarter chances that he may inherit the defective allele responsible for the disease. In the event that this inheritance happens, the child will consequently develop the disease. This chromosomal determination was done by John O’Brien in 1969 who was a neuroscientist and went ahead to spearhead the technology to screen for the disease in the 1970’s. Since that time when the genetic determination of TSD was done, Jews have continuously undergone blood screening to determine their TSD status. Although used as a precautionary measure, the screening for TSD has led to virtual eradication of the disease among the Jews (Gilman 35). Accordingly, the illness is among many diseases that are highly prevalent with people of certain races and such it has been labeled as ethno-racial disease. In reality, it is impossible to identify people as belonging to pure races based on genetic information because of intermarriages. Certainly, there are no such things as ethnic or racial diseases. Many have argued that Jews do not belong to one biological family, and there are no DNA sequences that are unique to the Jews people. It follows then that the diseases that commonly referred to as Jewish disease are a mark of heritage that show that the people called Jews do indeed have a common ancestry. The currently living Jews come from a remnant of the Jews people that survived the Pale plague in 1600 and as such, 9 out of the ten alive Jews have that gene that is responsible for TSD. It must be understood that the construction of racial categories of diseases has been used as a way of demarcating people. For example, sickle cell anemia has long been seen as a black man’s disease because it was first described in black people in 1910. The history of TSD is no different and begins with such a racial trajectory, whereby it has always been considered as a Jewish disease (Reuter 305). TSD was first described and identified by on Ophthalmologist and surgeon Warren Tay in 1881. During a meeting of Ophthalmological society in UK, he posited that after examination of one of his patients, he had discovered brownish red circular spots at the retina. Later, Tay also published another report that showed that he had found similar findings in another member of the same family. Later in 1887, Bernard Sachs who was an American neurologist made a similar observation although he had not heard about the previous discovery made by Tay. Sachs career as a medical practitioner had started in New York where he treated nervous breakdown and mental conditions. By 1887, Sachs had grown in stature to become one of the leading clinical neurologists and had become a tutor at New York Polyclinic Hospital. During his time at that polyclinic, he first described the medical case he dubbed ‘arrested cerebral development’ that had additional symptoms of red spots in the eyes (Kaback, Michael, et al. 2312). In 1896, Bernard Sachs named the medical condition that he had discovered as Amaurotic Family Idiocy although the name did not stick because soon other physicians would refer to it as Tay-Sachs disease. Still at this time in point, Sachs was not aware of earlier discovery of Tay concerning the condition. He therefore chose to study the disease under familial ties because the diagnosis of the disease included tracing the lineage of people among their living and dead relatives. Briefly, the physicians had discovered that this disease was found along family lineages and therefore it was hereditary. However, the exact mechanism or way through which this disease was inherited was not clear although Mendel had already presented his work on the inheritance modes of the pea plant (John 123). The observation of hereditary nature of the disease by Sachs was very important in that; it came to be understood that this disease was bred in people of certain descent. These people in question here were the Jews especially the ones found in Russia because of close family ties through intermarriages. Soon afterwards, the next case of the disease was reported and the disease was called Jews disease because the disease was almost exclusive to Jews. Many doctors were of the opinion that genuine cases of TSD were only found among the Jews. Many findings were reported after many physicians were involved in the research about the disease in order to unravel the mysteries surrounding it. Jewish heritage became the center of controversy because cases of the diseases were reported among children that had Jewish blood or lineage in them. This brought about a sharp debate about the part played by Jewish ancestry in the presence of the disease. It followed that the reporting of the disease in gentile parents (non Jews Parents) was met with a lot of skepticism more so if there was evidence of a Jewish blood in the patient’s blood line (Evans 1). However, not all researchers and scholars were ready to fully accept that TSD was an exclusively Jewish disease. Some had even gone further to the point of asserting that Jews were of inferior race owing to the various diseases like TSD that afflicted them and some of the physicians went ahead to form race science discourse in order to investigate the matter further. This goal and aim of this race science was to counter anti-Semitism movement, which was becoming prominent especially in Europe and instead promoted Zionism. Many proponents of the Zionist movement by the race science scientists argued that the presence of TSD only in Jews showed that the Jews needed to be recognized. In addition, they argued that TSD was just an indicator of family heritage and Jewish racialism (Goldstein 42). Some people perceived and viewed the Jews as a problematic group and therefore, they used this biological argument to advance their resentment against the Jews. In fact, the biological arguments pertaining to the TSD and its Jewish connection were used to stop the Jewish people from immigrating to the US from Eastern Europe. Second to the Italians, the Jews of Eastern Europe descent was perceived as the most challenging as their population grew and they ventured into the US. These Jewish immigrants had some very undesirable habits such as racial incest because they isolated themselves from other communities by conducting their own lives in seclusion (Reuter 310). They practiced their special religion and continued to speak in their language besides avoiding marrying from outside their communities. Their action then led to them to become isolated and resented instead of integrating into the US society. Instead of making these Jews people outstanding form the society they were living in, their practice made them to be seen as misfits in the society and anti-Semitism movements became prominent in calling for their chastisement. At the center of the marginalization campaign against the Jews was the argument that these people were ‘community of the sick’ and therefore, a ‘collective risk’. This perception was entrenched in the belief that the community and diseases were linked and thus, this provided the impetus for authorities to impose sanctions against their immigration. At that time, the association link of diseases and race was very wide and included diseases such as typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis and later came to embrace genetic diseases such as TSD (Maeir 1). In the US, there was the organized Euginics Movement that came into prominence in 1910 that held to the belief that the various social ills witnessed on the planet were because of heredity defects. In addition, they also believed that the immigration policy of US was too wide open and therefore it allowed in too many Jewish immigrants that came with them heredity problems. They taught that the immigration problem in US and the social problems could trace their origins to the biological problem of gene heritance. Other proponents of this Eugenics movement proposed that the Eastern and Southern European immigrants in US were inferior to the other European immigrants. To complicate the problem further, these people were against the mixing of the two immigrants population considered inferior with the rest of the population because it would result in an inferior race. All these arguments were very important in informing US policy makers against accepting immigrants of Jewish descent (Gilman 45). With continued resentment of the Jewish immigrants on the rise and the job places becoming few, the US Congress adopted restrictions of immigration to certain quotas in 1924. With time, more permanent restrictions on the immigration of the people perceived to be inferior was adopted through Johnson Reed Act. It then follows that it is no wonder that the few cases of TSD that had been reported prior the passing of this legislation were plagued with racialist anti-Semitics sentiments. These anti-Jew campaigns portrayed them as being highly susceptible to mental diseases due to their racial constitution, which they thought was inferior. It also become common practices for doctors to undertake racial profiling especially in the cases were Jews were concerned so that they could keep a tab on TSD reports. This was mostly done to the Jews families considered to be ‘alien families’ that had migrated to US recently (Kaback, Michael, et al. 2307). Much of the public discourse being discussed by the proponents of the Eugenic movement was in essence implying that the foreign born immigrants that were fast populating the US were bringing their heredity problems. Some even went further to allege that although Jews in Russia had this condition, when they came to the US, it was magnified. As much as most of them would have wanted to bar Jews form migrating to the US, this statement was outrageous because it is commonly knowledge that there is no connection between genetics and the environment. It is often said that people that have got their own agendas to advance usually find their support from the unlikely sources and using racial profiling in terms of diseases is quite wrong. The existence of Jews that had TDS was being viewed as bringing problems and being burdensome to the society although this condition also afflicted other people from other races. It was a big problem for Jews to have this condition while for the gentile population to have the disease was viewed as normal and a random happening (Fernandes Filho, Jose Americo, and Barbara 1471). Conclusion Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with the Jews and was used as a means of demarcating people on racial basis. This disease occurs in different forms and the most fatal one is the infantile Tay-Sachs. Children afflicted with the disease rarely live beyond their sixth birthday and the most prominent symptom is an enlarged head filled with water. TSD has been associated with anti-Semitic sentiments especially at the time when people were migrating to the US after the First World War. Accordingly, because most of the Jews were from the Southern and Eastern parts of Europe, immigrants from those regions were viewed as inferior. Indeed, more restrictions were done to frustrate the migration of Jews perceived to be inferior through the adoption into law the Johnson Reed Act. Works Cited Evans, P R. "Tay-Sachs Disease: A Centenary." Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 62.10 (1987): 1056-1059. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Fernandes Filho, Jose Americo, and Barbara E. Shapiro. "Tay-sachs disease." Archives of neurology, 61.9 (2004): 1466. Gilman, Sander. Jewish Frontiers: Essays on Bodies, Histories, and Identities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Goldstein, Eric L. ‘Different Blood Flows in Our Veins’: Race and Jewish Self-Definition in Late Nineteenth Century America.” American Jewish History 86.1 (1997): 29–55. John Hartwell Moore. "Tay-Sachs and “Jewish” Diseases." Encyclopedia of Race and Racism. Ed. John Hartwell Moore. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 121-124. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Kaback, Michael, et al. "Tay-Sachs disease—carrier screening, prenatal diagnosis, and the molecular era." JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association 270.19 (1993): 2307-2315.
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    Policies for Terrorism Student’s Name International issues in criminal justice Institution Introduction All countries, even the super powers, are susceptible to dangerous and threatening situations, including bomb threats, terrorist attack, natural disasters and other catastrophic events, which can disrupt their political affairs, social stability and economic development. Terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001 on the United States, clearly demonstrated that terrorism and other dangerous and threatening situations can severely interrupt the stability of a country. Indeed, following this incident terrorism has become a matter of national concern for everyone. Given its potential impacts, many governments have launched counter-terrorism units and plans to help prevent or at least minimize the possible effects of future attacks. As a Homeland Security officer of a mid size police department I have developed a well thought contingency plan for terrorist attacks and has drawn an elaborate training for all officers regarding terrorism. Contingency plan for Terrorist Attacks In today’s increasingly insecure world, there is an important reality that is often overlooked. Most countries, and even the business world, rarely prepare for a disaster management. The September attack clearly shows that no matter how much any government disrupts terrorist plans; it is only a matter of time before at least one attack succeeds. Considering this reality, governments must re-examine ways to avoid or at least lessen effects of a disaster when it strikes. The set of tools for re-examining disaster management is what has been called the contingency plan. It refers to a properly organized preparation to respond to situations that are likely to arise and respond to them in an effective manner. It is a plan that is devised for any eventuality. It includes anticipation and identification of disasters before they arise. It also includes setting up critical procedures and resources, which could help in responding to the situations in order to lessen their effects (Ray, 2006). Often when a disaster strikes, things happen fast and simultaneously. Disruptions, chaos, and people fleeing the scene or the facility of the attack can be dreadful. Top on the list of my contingency plan for terrorist attacks is a well written policies for terrorism clearly defining how to respond to terrorism if it so happens. Secondly, I have drawn a list of those to assist in risk and emergency assessment and response, particularly security agencies. Third on the list is the evacuation procedure. It describes how to evacuate people and resources from the affected facilities or buildings. Fourthly, there is the treatment measures, including enhancing the security of the facility together with the surrounding buildings. Lastly, there is the crisis management. This plan helps in managing the effects, eliminating confusion and creating situational awareness (Dyson, 2011). Training of Security officers on Terrorism A number of elements should be considered when drawing up training for security officers. One, the training should focus on ‘flexibility’ of the officers. Most terrorist activities are well planned, and when they attack usually there are elements of surprise. The training of the officers must therefore go beyond what happened in the past to the unthinkable. Officers must think outside the box (IFPO, 2003). Secondly, training of the officers must focus on coordination. In the event of disaster, usually several activities take place with different security and evacuation agencies, together with people fleeing the scene, moving all over the place. ‘Coordination’ is therefore a very important element in the planning process. In addition, there must also be proper coordination between the local, state and federal agencies in responding to the emergency. Thirdly, training should focus on the communication channels. Officers must know who to take orders from, media relations and the secure communication lines to use in all responses. Finally, training of security officers must focus on contingencies. It includes taking precautions for their own safety, emergency facilities, evacuation options and emergency responders. It also includes the understanding of the support services such as volunteers, family services and procedures for credentialing (Jaquish, 2006). Primary Agencies in Responding to a Terrorist Threat/Attack Usually a response to terrorist threat or attack involves a highly coordinated multi-agency mission. It involves the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), which represents the Department of Justice (DOJ); Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA); Department of Defense (DOD); Department of Energy (DOE); Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS); and, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Other lead agencies include Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the American Red Cross. Besides these agencies, there are also the emergency response teams. They include: security teams, fire control teams, first aid teams, damage assessment and recovery teams, service teams, and supplies teams. The successful response to terrorism threat or incident depends on how well these agencies and teams are coordinated. Conclusion All countries are susceptible to dangerous and threatening situations. The September attack clearly shows that no matter how much any government disrupts terrorist plans; it is only a matter of time before they succeed. Considering this reality that is often overlooked, the need for a contingency plan is not just an option, but a necessary plan in re-examining ways to respond to dangerous and threatening situations. Contingency plan includes anticipation and identification of disasters before they arise. It also includes setting up critical procedures and resources, which can help in responding to the emergencies. Police officers need to be well trained to respond to these situations.
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    Name Tutor Course Date The Scientific Benefits of Halal Meat Halal meat refers to meat derived from slaughtering an animal in compliance with Sharia laws. However, a pig for instance even if slaughtered in conformance with Islamic laws is never halal. Islamic law asserts that for meat to be halal, the slaughter of the animal usually referred to as "zabihah" must obey certain conditions. For instance, Allah's name must be pronounced during slaughter. In addition, the device in use must be sufficiently sharp to ensure humane slaughter. The animal’s main neck arteries are consequently cut swiftly without interfering with its spinal cord (Beyond Halal 2011). Therefore, all forms of beating and mutilation disqualify meat from being halal. In essence, the method of slaughter must be quick with the animal experiencing the least amount of pain. However, an animal’s throat must be slit while it is still conscious. It is also compulsory to hang the animal upside down allowing it to bleed out slowly. Furthermore, eating blood and blood stained meat is haram. Animals that qualify to give halal meat must also have been bred on natural diets without contamination by inorganic chemicals such as pesticides (Beyond Halal 2011). Muslims strictly adhere to partaking of Halal meat and its absence may only take eggs or fish for protein. Technically, Muslims are restricted from partaking kafir foods but are allowed to eat only the food of the ‘people of the book’. Muslims are further allowed to take ‘Kosher’ meat as Jews follow almost the same practice when slaughtering their animals. Orthodox Christians also call the name of God before slaughtering their animals although they do not fully comply with all Islamic conditions of slaughtering their animals (Beyond Halal 1). Health benefits of halal meat According to Maffei (1), the Islam religious slaughter of animals majorly conforms to exemplifying humanity in killing an animal. However, halal meat has numerous health benefits apart from the religious compliance aspect. First, during the process, an animal’s spinal cord remains relatively while the cut neck arteries drain out all the blood from the body since the heart is still functional. The major benefit here is that while consuming blood is prohibited in Islam the latter also carries all body viruses, bacteria and toxins. Consequently, halal meat is more hygienic and safe since it is free from major toxins and disease causing micro-organisms. Indeed, blood transfusion is a major cause of disease transfer but by eating halal meat the dangers are drastically lowered. Furthermore, halal meat has a lighter color since the slaughtering process allows all blood to drain out. This makes the meat healthier compared to meat from more common slaughtering procedures such as electrical, gas or percussive stunning. These latter processes kill the animal instantly with high chances of blood clotting thus putting unknowing consumers at risk of infection. Moreover, halal meat has a longer shelf life compared to meat from electrocuted animals following the process of draining out blood. This makes it healthier with higher nutrient content (Maffei 1). Halal meat is exclusively sourced from animals that fed on natural pasture. The resulting benefit of this is indeed passed to Muslims who eventually eat them. For instance, consuming roughage, usually found from grass and pasture forages stimulates saliva production. Saliva in turn helps in neutralizing acid in an animal’s digestive system consequently leading to healthier animals. Eating meat from such animals greatly reduce the risk of disease transmission to final consumers (Maffei 1). She further argues that grass-fed beef have a higher nutrient content compared to cattle raised on inorganic grain. Consequently, halal meat portends higher nutritional benefits to Muslims. Moreover, allowing cattle to graze naturally produces meat with a higher beta-carotene, Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids. In addition, grass fed beef reveals smaller levels of both unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This makes it a better alternative for promoting cardiovascular health. Furthermore, it shields consumers against harmful hormones and antibiotics prevalent in most inorganic feed grains. Similarities between operation of halal farms and organic meat farms The fundamental rule of organic farming is employing natural breeding techniques and control measures in raising food for human consumption. This is only possible through implementing critical measures that are both environmentally friendly and sustainable. Similarly, halal farming promotes natural breeding techniques with an additional rule of treating animals’ humanely during slaughter (Bonne & Verbeke 38). Both organic meat farms and halal farms strictly promote beef from cattle which were nurtured on natural grass pasture throughout their existence. Indeed, to promote the purity of beef and to retain its natural content both halal farms and organic farms strictly adhere to organic agricultural practices. Such practices prohibit use of industrial antibiotics, hormonal injections and application of pesticides to fight disease. Both practices further promote letting cattle graze in natural open fields of grass (Bonne & Verbeke 40). However, in both instances, the grass must also be pure from all forms of inorganic material contamination. Therefore, genetically engineered pasture is unacceptable in both halal and organic ranching. Moreover, halal farming discourages feeding cattle on grain which is more difficult to digest compared to natural pasture. Regarding other sources of meat for instance poultry, the chicken must be allowed to bask in the sun while feeding on their natural food such as weeds and insects (Bonne & Verbeke 35). Conclusion Indeed, consuming wholesome food free from harmful ingredients such as pesticides, contaminants and other chemicals is a virtue not limited to Muslims. However, it is critical for all of humanity for healthy living. Therefore, it is a non-discriminative universal common need, desire and right. In light of the health benefits of halal meat, the issue is not only a religious or ethnic issue but a critical health matter to be considered by everyone.
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    TEST QUESTIONS Students Name Course/Name Date Instructors Name #1. Discuss in detail the five types of sentencing systems, and compare their strengths and weaknesses. When an individual is accused of committing an offence, he or she is normally detained while awaiting court arraignment, where he or she will be sentenced upon pleading and/ or when found guilty. However, the variety of sentencing models normally differs depending on the magnitude of the crime, and regardless of individual social status. The Federal Criminal Justice Act recognizes five types of sentencing systems ranging from retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and reparation. Retribution is intended to obligate the offender in admitting that his or her actions were illegal and uncalled for, thus justifying the penalty. This sentencing model is often perceived as revenge, although vengeance implies harming the prisoner in anger retaliation as supported by Hanna (2010). Whilst, retribution is a logical hypothesis that criminals deserves to be accordingly penalized for their actions. Incapacitation or protection of the public regards the phenomenon where sentencing acts as a disciplining mode in the society, and is tantamount to ascertaining that an offender becomes a responsible person. Though most radical forms of incapacitation entails life sentencing or detachment of the offender’s body parts such as hands and legs. Thirdly, deterrence involves both individual and collective crime prevention, with exceptional emphasis on the future. Individual deterrence is mainly concerned with dissuading individuals from being repeat offenders via penalties such as incarceration, and hefty fines. The concept of deterrence assumes that the ex-convict will be wary of the accountabilities of committing another offense and generally breaking laws. The fourth sentencing model, rehabilitation aspires to reform as well as rehabilitate criminals back to the community. Where the criminals conduct is changed through punishment, given the need to demoralize them from indulging in criminal activities. Lastly, reparation involves compensating the casualty of the offense normally by obligating the suspect to relinquish an equivalent amount of cash to the victim. #2. Discuss in detail the two approaches for addressing police corruption and misconduct, and compare the pros and cons of each. Police corruption and misconduct regards the infringement of state and federal policies or the contravention of individual liberties and entitlements by police officers, and/ or when the officers indulge in illegal activities for individual benefit. Hence generally, police corruption and misconduct usually amount to the misuse of professional mandate. Occasionally applied in place of each other, corruption and misconduct involves a broad scope of protocol, criminal, along with civil infringements. Specifically, misconduct is a protocol when referring to an officer who disobeyed departmental orders and policies, and is criminal when citing an officer who breached state as well as national rules, and unconstitutional when pertaining to an officer who contravened a civilians public liberty and entitlements or any incorporation of thereof. Frequent incidents of misconduct include brutal physical attacks, prejudicial detention, corporal or verbal abuse, alongside selective upholding of law. On the other hand, police corruption involves the misuse of institutional mandates for individual benefit. These might entail proceeds or any other form of material earning secured unlawfully via the use of agency mandates. Common models of corruption range from bribery, acquiring or covering stolen assets, extortion, and dealing with drug cartels, or selling narcotic drugs. Corruption can equally be used in describing tendencies of misconduct in a particular police agency or special unit, more so where crimes are recurrently conducted with involvement of the commanders or via other prevailing unwillingness to restore them. According to Young (2012), the two alternatives of resolving police corruption and misconduct are present in each article of the agencies charter. The first one require police agencies to independently instill behavioral codes, nurture new aspirants, and inspect and punish officers, if necessary in coordination to public complaint analysis commission that were formed to offer liberal appraisal and reformation directions. Whereas, the second one relies on policy tailored protections at either state or federal levels that allows casualties to sue officers for the committed offence via civil charges. Generally, such accusation might be apprehended for claims involving brutality, wrongful detention, doctored sentencing, and unjust Death.
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    Reaction Paper: Article on Sociology Students Name Course/Name INSTITUTION The article, Responding to Calgary’s ‘‘Gang War’’: A Political Sociology of Criminological Ideas,” particularly meets the required course’ sociological perspective, and was as result selected and used to accomplish the assignment. Based on the ‘political sociology ideas,’ the researchers reviewed expansion of policing rate as the preferred crime containment solution, despite the limited resources on its pragmatic performance. Furthermore, studies that empirically appraise the link between deploying more officers and ensuing declines in transgression are collectively differing. Although, when insecurity is deemed to be rising, legislators normally insists that the best alternative is to intensify the presence of police in the neighborhoods. According to Rollwagen & Beland (2012), the article evaluates why expanding policing is often preferred as an insecurity management approach, with the use of political sociology of concepts as one of the most popular hypothetical structures. While the Calgary, Alberta criminal model is used as a practical event to demonstrate transgression crises, through assessment of ideal news media reports among other resources, and to eventually reveal how policing intensification has historically been imposed as the crime control policy model by the political actors. Article Description The article particularly reviews the effectiveness of one of the most redundantly embraced crime management policy; the enhancement of policing, which despite being highly regarded, only brief studies have so far been conducted to establish its potentiality to reduce crime, albeit increasingly doubtful reports of its alleged competency. This clearly renders the article a comprehensive primary analysis of the preceding reports, as it uses two of the contemporary criminology ideas and the qualitative research concept to construe the causes of increasing crime rates in Calgary, in consideration to the suggested solution. Summary As per my comprehension of the article, news reports on the case study of gang activities in Calgary between January 2002 and January 2010 were extensively analyzed, using the qualitative evaluation approach, in relation to the relevant police interventions, given direct statements issued by policing agencies, legislative officials, and representatives of regional interest unions. The approach allowed the researchers to compile and interpret the decisive communications, besides substantiating hypothetical links. In a focus on the proposed control ideologies, latest themes were analyzed, in regard to the wider duration of political sociology events (Rollwagen & Beland, 2012). The highlighted statements were then applied to exclusively account for the procedure in which Calgary’s crime incidents were reported, and consequently, how the policing alternative came to be selected as the most suitable. Article in the Field of Sociology In connection with the sociological course chapter, the article generally evaluates how political players usually utilize distinctive opportunities as well as under respective structural confines to manipulate and modify a particular crisis depending on the prevailing concepts regarding insecurity or offense along with social order. The researchers particularly identified two relevant social concepts; ‘the criminology of everyday life,’ and ‘the criminology of the other,’ and then applied them to comprehend insecurity situation in Calgary, Alberta, before proposing the enhancement of policing, in terms of personnel and resources, as the most suitable and effective solution. The two criminology approaches concurrently perceived insecurity as the outcome of lapses in control; hence, intensifying the rate of surveillance via policing was emphasized as a rational and competent alternative as supported by Rollwagen & Beland (2012). Comparison of the Article and Non-Scholarly Periodicals Even though, both scholarly and non-academic periodicals are often tailored on the prevailing civic issues. This article, in similarity with other scholarly articles, is particularly based on purposeful research, normally to resolve unclear academic issue, practical incidents or model examples, given the utilization of relevant research concepts, and the presentation of findings, alongside the recommendation for future studies. In contrast, non-scholarly articles involves direct reporting of incidents or summaries of historical as well as contemporary events, besides entailing the use of propaganda and adjustment of the actual incident in an attempt to facilitate the social, political or economical agendas and maintain the status quo of the communal elites.
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    Nightmare in Green Student’s Name Philosophy- Critical Thinking Institution The Authoritarian Environmental Movement Wants to Destroy Industrial Civilization (Jarret B. Wollstein) Introduction Wollstein begins his argument by putting up an acrimonious conflict between economic development and environmental bureaucrats. He does acknowledge at the beginning of his article that there was indeed an emerging environmental crisis that needed solution. He mentions for instance the untreated sewages and toxic acids that were being discharged into coastal estuaries, killing fish and birds. However, this process of finding a solution has been hijacked by authoritarian environmentalists who are increasingly issuing draconian regulations and orders. He explains that the conditions under which these movements are emerging and their roles in the political process are becoming a great threat to economic development. Precisely, Wollstein views the on-going environmental war as an open war against human beings. This view is indeed authentic going by the statement of one of the authoritarian environmentalists, Reed Noss, when he disgustingly said that the combined desires of non-human class must take primacy over the requirements and needs of humans (Noss, 1995). This paper summarizes Wollstein’s arguments in four sections of his article: Implementing the World Environmental Regime, The Environmental Elite, Sustainable Development and Fighting Back. The Environmental Elite Wollstein begins this section by citing issues of environmental degradation that were negatively impacting on the environment in the early 1970s. Like many concerned Americans who were looking for solutions to the problem, he had himself joined a private environmental organization. This search for alternative solutions has, however, today radically changed as many environmental groups are becoming extremely influential and powerful. Wollstein says that the environmental war has turned out to be a war of political agenda, rather than science. The goal of environmental protection has changed from having a clean air and water and a safe environment for humans to one of protecting ‘sacred Mother Earth’. This goal, he says, is being driven by the ‘environmental elites’. This group view man as the enemy of the environment. Wollstein points out some of the views of extreme environmentalists, including David Foreman’s declaration that human beings are a cancer on nature. The worst determination, however, is from David Graber who is only hoping for the right virus to come along (Wollstein, 1998). The Rio Summit and Green Marxism The Rio Summit was a United Nations’ conference held in Rio to discuss environmental crisis, attended by some of the most extreme environmentalists. Top on its agenda was the Earth Summit. The conference was particularly concerned about the United States’ continued exploitation of the Third World. The summit resolved to end the crisis by redistributing of the available wealth through worldwide levies and absolute expropriation. In a meeting dominated by representatives of authoritarian regimes, they also came up with an enforcement mechanism giving the U.N the mandate to imprison environmental offenders and confiscate their assets without trial. This mechanism was meant to inevitably transfer wealth from the U.S to the Third World. Authoritarian environmentalists also used the opportunity to try to create a world government. All the schemes in this conference were spelled out in the conference’s Rio Declaration, Earth Charter, and Agenda 21. Implementing the World Environment Regime (The Biodiversity Treaty) With the environmental objectives already well spelled out, the remaining stage was how to implement them. Wollstein says that the Earth Summit decided to implement the environmental objectives of the regime, particularly agenda 21, by subjecting the world to international treaties. In reality, out of all the 300 international treaties that have been passed by the United Nations, the U.S. has ratified the majority of them. According to Wollstein, even though these treaties are about to have negative effects on the lives of Americans, the lawmakers and media have never given them a thoughtful debate and continue to ignore their impacts (Wollstein, 1998). The Biodiversity Treaty makes it a criminal offense to violate United Nations’ environmental resolutions. The primary objective of this treaty is to ensure sustainable development. It was signed by President Clinton, under the U.S. constitution, but until today it has not been approved by the Senate. Nevertheless, the IUCN plans to make half of the U.S into an ‘eco-park’. This literary means that if is implemented in its current form; literally there will be no human activity in the marked towns and communities.
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    Creativity in Bahrain: The Concept of Polymathy Name Date Course Creativity in Bahrain: The Concept of Polymathy Introduction Creativity is a fundamental factor in learning and thinking which cuts across every discipline. It is a core factor in enhancing the generation of innovation and new knowledge and is thus a crucial construct in the educational field. Over the years creativity has turned out to be a feature of expanding interests in the fields of psychology and education. It’s regarded to be a greatly coveted feature of thinking and is connected with emotional social, professional and cognitive benefits and advantages. Education in Bahrain The education system in Bahrain entails six years of primary education and three years of intermediate education. Primary education and intermediate stages of education forms basic education. Basic education is followed by secondary education which normally takes three years. Secondary stage of Bahrain’s education system is regarded as complementary to basic education as well as a new stage where students are prepared to enter higher learning institutions or universities. In universities and colleges, a student specializes in one field and specialization in different fields is not common. The government has been working hard over years to improve education scheme which its populace goes through along with offering, responsive, accessible, superior quality services. The aim of the ministry of education is to make sure that education at every level is evidence based through effective use of resources such as libraries, and schools and by encouraging individual responsibility among learners. The government has introduced school improvement program that is focused on lifting performance of all students and improvement of upcoming career outcomes for learners via several projects that influences the entire process of teaching and learning (Shirawi, M, 2005). Creativity and Education Systems Creativity within education systems is regarded as an artistic trait. If a person is creative, she or he is artistic, other than enthusiastic about a particular topic of interest. Creativity polymathy, which is the capability to creative in more than a single field, is believed to be a hierarchical Scheme. Students can be taught or trained how to be creative, bypassing any assumption that certain individuals are creative while others are not. If there exists a hierarchy of creativity and a person can be trained, then people have the capability of progressing to greater levels of creativity, making sure that they develop skills like critical thinking. When critical thinking is merged with Socratic scheme of asking questions it offer a much greater level of perception or understanding of knowhow other than mere memorization, while equipping a learner that will enable them to excel in different fields and all life aspects (Hayes, 2004) Critical thinking assists rationality and metacognition, enabling one’s logical thought skills. Question asking helps cognitive flexibility which in turn aids one in the development of creativity. This makes sure that instead of learning memorization of information and later abandoning it after doing an exam, one is able to both innovation and learning, applying critical thinking and creativity to ideas to generate greater polymathy levels, which enables one to conceptualize as well as understand information much better. Hayes (2004) notes that Socratic method, which is a teaching scheme utilized by Socrates trains or teaches learners purely via asking questions. A person can take a certain idea, question and improve it and this can in turn help one to acquire the concept of cognitive flexibility and greater level reasoning and also helps in metacognition. Questioning an idea directly helps a person’s critical thinking. As a kind of positive hypothesis eradication, which is the attainment of novel hypothesis through removal of old hypothesis as a result of finding problem of contradictions with them, it educates one to critique their own thoughts and ideas in a way comparable to metacognition and the thoughts and ideas one is taught or told. Teaching an individual this expertise is very much better than when one is taught the fantastic rote memorization skill. It expands one’s mind in diverse ways that offers one skills in different fields (Root-Bernstein, 2003). How Creativity is Viewed in Bahrain
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    Name Tutor Course Date Monitoring The US constitution has been very patent on the privacy of an individual over the years due to the 4th Amendment under the bill of rights, which protected any citizen from seizures and without clear affirmation by an oath that may warrant any state agent to do so. Nevertheless, following the 9/11 attacks, everything seemed to have changed more so, by the inception of the Patriot Act. The Act promoted seizures and searches that may be carried out by the government in view of fighting terror threats. Certainly, any state agent may monitor an individual thought to be involved in aiding terror agents that may in turn harm the American security. In this regard, this may not be seen as a violation of the Constitution, since the Patriot Act, is acting as a shield. Accordingly, to some extend this may be seen as a total contradiction and violation of an individual privacy, since any state agent or any citizen may wrong fully monitor an innocent person and in the process may be detained and jailed without trial, for the Patriot Act has such provisions of even a US citizen may be denied attorney, or be not be allowed to prove his or her innocence. There are confirmed incidences that even before the inception of the Patriot Act; the State could secretly monitor an individual’s conversations by tapping phone calls and many other privacy contraventions. Indeed, the Act came as a rubber stamp, and this has been seen to harm many innocent US citizens, and should not be allowed. There is also a case in point in regards to ‘Stop-and-Frisk’ being carried out by the New York police whereby, certain people of particular races and ages are stopped randomly for questioning and searching. This has not gone down well, since many innocent people are wrongly accused in this process of profiling, hence privacy is eroded. In a nutshell, there is a total breach of individual rights, and to deter these viciously acts, the Patriot Act must be repealed to uphold privacy since it cannot be evaded.
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    Why it is Wrong to put a Pillow on a Man’s Head Student’s Name Nursing Course level: First year 09/10/2013 Instructor’s Name Introduction There is irresistible proof that a good number of patients are harmed while still in hospitals and as a result end up either staying longer in those hospitals, developing certain conditions including permanent damage, and sometimes even catastrophic death. The harm caused to patients from their healthcare is however not caused internationally by healthcare professionals, but rather by system failures of healthcare itself. No one intends to harm patients. To err is human. Besides, sometimes when patients are attended to by many healthcare providers it becomes really difficult to ensure that they get safe care. Nevertheless, there are cases that arise from negligence, errors and violations of the healthcare providers as a result of adverse activities while attending to patients. Putting a pillow on a man’s head, wrongfully prescribing antibiotics, administering multiple drugs, misuse of technology to attend to patients, delays in treatment, poor medical management, and poor communication among others have the potentials to cause harm to patients (Vincent, 2011). This paper discusses one such activity, ‘putting a pillow on a man’s head’, and explains why nurses should always think of patient’s safety at all times. Reasons why it's wrong to put a pillow on a man's head Putting a pillow on a man’s head may be considered a form of psychological restraint because it involves the control of behavior. As such, patients find themselves in a situation where they cannot choose what to do but follow as they are told. Precisely, it involves depriving the person of lifestyle choices. The person is told what to do and is warned against doing the contrary because doing so would endanger his health. Often the threat of danger is only pretence to cover the abusive practice, which can consequently bring about harm. Secondly, putting a pillow on a man’s head also constitutes physical restraint because it involves physically holding a person to control either his behavior or movement. This is particularly true to persons who have dementia (Lejman et al., 2013). As it is known, people with such condition often are unable to settle. They constantly wander and make a lot of movements. While nurses may consider restraining persons with this condition to their beds, especially if they do not have enough rest at night, physically holding them to their beds entails controlling their behavior and limiting their freedom. Such activity can be considered abusive and unacceptable especially if the nurses do not follow the ethical and legal principles involved. In UK, for example, it is unacceptable and indeed criminal to use devices such as pillow and vests designed to restraint patients from getting out of bed. These devices not only control the patient’s behavior, but also remove an individual’s choice because their consent is never asked (Vincent, 2011). Another reason is that it is malicious and abusive to put a pillow on a man’s head. Most patients not only feel they have lost their independence, but also become worried about their safety. There is also the loss of the patient’s dignity especially when the patient is subjected to planned or purposeful placement of pillow on his head. The loss of dignity further arises from the fact that the patient cannot give an informed consent to the abusive practice. When patients are restricted, there is also the aspect of high levels of intrusion. No one wants to be told what to do and not to do when that is not necessary. Closely monitoring a patient in a way that violates his freedom may as well be considered a form of intrusion (Byers & White, 2004). The other reason why it is wrong to put a pillow on a man’s head is the aspect of reliance on others. The abusive practice creates an environment where individuals feel they are less valued and are at the mercy of their abusive environment. As a result, they lose confidence in the healthcare service and begin looking for ways to escape the care. Putting a pillow on a man’s head equally implies that authorization has not been given voluntarily. This further implies that a threat, coercion or manipulation has been used to put a pillow on the patient’s head. In this situation, the person attending to the individual has not only acted in an unlawful manner but has also engaged in a professional misconduct which is inherently criminal. Putting a pillow on a man’s head can also amount to the violation of an individual’s right to freedom. Under the Human Rights Act (1998), considerations that override the patient’s right to freedom can only be justified when such actions are believed to prevent harm to either the patient or others. Putting a pillow on a man’s head does not prevent aggression or violence, and therefore cannot be justified. On the contrary, such action can lead to both psychological and physical harm especially if the individual is aware that he has been forcefully restrained against his will. Under the criminal law, restraining an individual against his consent is enough to be considered a criminal activity (The Joint Commission, 2009). How Does the Family Feel? It is painful, confusing, and stressful when a member of the family is suffering harm at the hands of a healthcare professional especially when they believe that the harm arises from negligence of the provider. Physical and psychological restraint, such as putting a pillow on a man’s head, is used abusively because it involves controlling the patient’s behavior when there is no necessity to justify the practice. When a person develops permanent disability or even ends up dead, especially for a breadwinner, the unexpected loss of financial and emotional stability can affect the family in varied ways. An example can be the loss of independence and the need to begin looking for somewhere else to meet their needs. Putting a pillow on a man’s head, therefore, causes unexpected discomfort, loss of dignity and the need to rely on others for help. Reasons why a nurse Should Always Think of Patient's Safety
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    Organizational Effectiveness Student’s Name Managing Criminal Justice Personnel 17/10/2013 Instructor’s Name Organizational Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness refers to the ability of an organization to achieve its goals. This concept of effectiveness can be described in two ways: producing a desired effect and producing without waste. An organization produces a desired effect when it accomplishes its goals. In the same way, an organization produces without waste if it has maximized its profits (Bass & Avolio, 1994). Scholars admit, however, that organizational effectiveness is an abstract notion, which has manifold dimensions. Max Weber describes an effective organization as goal-oriented, while Peter F. Drucker defines it as doing the right things. The whole idea of effectiveness rests in accomplishing the intended goals. Generally, organizational effectiveness is closely tied to efficiency, adaptability and culture. Efficiency means doing things right; adaptability refers to adapting to the dynamic environment of opportunities and obstacles; and, culture refers to how things are done in the organization. Being an abstract concept, many scholars find it difficult to directly measure the effectiveness of the organization. Nevertheless, it can still be measured by evaluating other proxy measures usually by assessing the performance of the organization, looking at the customer satisfaction, growth data, economic evaluation, net profitability, target profitability, corporate social responsibility and the broader outcomes associated with effective operations (Martz, 2008). Conversely, it can also be measured by looking at its communicative competence and ethics. Ethical qualities such as respect, honesty, integrity and equity, along with communicative competence are extremely necessary in achieving the desired outcomes. Accordingly, it can also be measured by looking at factors such as discipline and authority within the organization. In a non-profit organization, its effectiveness can be measured by determining the actual activities of its members and volunteers towards generating the intended outcomes. Even the turnover and the demographics of the people making requests are important factors. Besides these factors, the effectiveness of a typical non-profit organization is measured by applying the logical models (Flynn & Hodgkinson, 2001). Usually these models give a detailed program evaluation such as inputs and outputs and their impacts on the organization. They also specify activities that assist the organization in accomplishing its intended effects such as trainings, fundraisings, and programmatic administration (Herman & Renz, 2008). Other factors in measuring organizational effectiveness include productivity, which arises from the employee, owner, customer and society satisfaction; Approaches to Measuring Organizational Effectiveness According to Daft, there are five approaches to measuring organizational effectiveness. One, the goal approach refers to the effectiveness of an organization in accomplishing its goals. Two, internal process approach which is the ability of the organization to excel in internal efficiency. It includes employee motivation, competence, and satisfaction. Three, system resource approach which refers to how effective an organization is in acquiring scarce and valued resources from its dynamic environment. Four, constituency approach refers to the ability of the organization in achieving its strategic constituencies. Finally, domain approach refers to the organization’s effectiveness in excelling in multiple domains. Theories of Organizational Effectiveness to the Management of Criminal Justice Personnel Everyone would clearly agree that the management of the criminal justice personnel should be effective and efficient. This kind of effectiveness can be measured by knowing the organization’s mission and goals, analyzing crime statistics, and assessing the performance of the various agencies of the criminal justice system. Further, the management of the criminal justice personnel can be determined by looking at the supervisory level, the leadership style structure and the administration of the various agencies of the criminal justice system (Daft et al., 2010).. Scholars mainly use the control theory to explain organizational effectiveness within the management of the criminal justice personnel. The idea of this theory is that people need to be controlled to conform to the desired behavior. Proponents of this theory argue that people become antisocial and lawless because they are sufficiently controlled. According to Hirschi, individuals develop deviant behavior because they are not connected to the society. In order to conform back to the society, they need to be constrained and sanctioned. According to Taylor, the effectiveness of an organization depends on the mutual trust between the management and the personnel. He referred to this theory as the scientific management approach. In reference to the management of the criminal justice personnel, he would argue that the system could operate effectively and efficiently if there was much cooperation between the management and workers rather than the rule of thumb. According to the bureaucratic approach formulated by Weber, an organization is simply part of the larger society (Bass & Avolio, 1994). Methods for Exerting Control in an Organizational Setting
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    Attachment in the Military Family Presentation Presented by: Date:
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    Why it is Wrong to put a Pillow on a Man’s Head Student’s Name Nursing Course level: First year 09/10/2013 Instructor’s Name Introduction There is irresistible proof that a good number of patients are harmed while still in hospitals and as a result end up either staying longer in those hospitals, developing certain conditions including permanent damage, and sometimes even catastrophic death. The harm caused to patients from their healthcare is however not caused internationally by healthcare professionals, but rather by system failures of healthcare itself. No one intends to harm patients. To err is human. Besides, sometimes when patients are attended to by many healthcare providers it becomes really difficult to ensure that they get safe care. Nevertheless, there are cases that arise from negligence, errors and violations of the healthcare providers as a result of adverse activities while attending to patients. Putting a pillow on a man’s head, wrongfully prescribing antibiotics, administering multiple drugs, misuse of technology to attend to patients, delays in treatment, poor medical management, and poor communication among others have the potentials to cause harm to patients (Vincent, 2011). This paper discusses one such activity, ‘putting a pillow on a man’s head’, and explains why nurses should always think of patient’s safety at all times. Reasons why it's wrong to put a pillow on a man's head Putting a pillow on a man’s head may be considered a form of psychological restraint because it involves the control of behavior. As such, patients find themselves in a situation where they cannot choose what to do but follow as they are told. Precisely, it involves depriving the person of lifestyle choices. The person is told what to do and is warned against doing the contrary because doing so would endanger his health. Often the threat of danger is only pretence to cover the abusive practice, which can consequently bring about harm. Secondly, putting a pillow on a man’s head also constitutes physical restraint because it involves physically holding a person to control either his behavior or movement. This is particularly true to persons who have dementia (Lejman et al., 2013). As it is known, people with such condition often are unable to settle. They constantly wander and make a lot of movements. While nurses may consider restraining persons with this condition to their beds, especially if they do not have enough rest at night, physically holding them to their beds entails controlling their behavior and limiting their freedom. Such activity can be considered abusive and unacceptable especially if the nurses do not follow the ethical and legal principles involved. In UK, for example, it is unacceptable and indeed criminal to use devices such as pillow and vests designed to restraint patients from getting out of bed. These devices not only control the patient’s behavior, but also remove an individual’s choice because their consent is never asked (Vincent, 2011). Another reason is that it is malicious and abusive to put a pillow on a man’s head. Most patients not only feel they have lost their independence, but also become worried about their safety. There is also the loss of the patient’s dignity especially when the patient is subjected to planned or purposeful placement of pillow on his head. The loss of dignity further arises from the fact that the patient cannot give an informed consent to the abusive practice. When patients are restricted, there is also the aspect of high levels of intrusion. No one wants to be told what to do and not to do when that is not necessary. Closely monitoring a patient in a way that violates his freedom may as well be considered a form of intrusion (Byers & White, 2004). The other reason why it is wrong to put a pillow on a man’s head is the aspect of reliance on others. The abusive practice creates an environment where individuals feel they are less valued and are at the mercy of their abusive environment. As a result, they lose confidence in the healthcare service and begin looking for ways to escape the care. Putting a pillow on a man’s head equally implies that authorization has not been given voluntarily. This further implies that a threat, coercion or manipulation has been used to put a pillow on the patient’s head. In this situation, the person attending to the individual has not only acted in an unlawful manner but has also engaged in a professional misconduct which is inherently criminal. Putting a pillow on a man’s head can also amount to the violation of an individual’s right to freedom. Under the Human Rights Act (1998), considerations that override the patient’s right to freedom can only be justified when such actions are believed to prevent harm to either the patient or others. Putting a pillow on a man’s head does not prevent aggression or violence, and therefore cannot be justified. On the contrary, such action can lead to both psychological and physical harm especially if the individual is aware that he has been forcefully restrained against his will. Under the criminal law, restraining an individual against his consent is enough to be considered a criminal activity (The Joint Commission, 2009). How Does the Family Feel? It is painful, confusing, and stressful when a member of the family is suffering harm at the hands of a healthcare professional especially when they believe that the harm arises from negligence of the provider. Physical and psychological restraint, such as putting a pillow on a man’s head, is used abusively because it involves controlling the patient’s behavior when there is no necessity to justify the practice. When a person develops permanent disability or even ends up dead, especially for a breadwinner, the unexpected loss of financial and emotional stability can affect the family in varied ways. An example can be the loss of independence and the need to begin looking for somewhere else to meet their needs. Putting a pillow on a man’s head, therefore, causes unexpected discomfort, loss of dignity and the need to rely on others for help. Reasons why a nurse Should Always Think of Patient's Safety
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    psychology
    Cardiac: Cardiac arrest Students Name Course/Name Date Instructors Name Cardiac arrest Introduction Cardiac arrest refers to a state where the heart has ceased or is not functioning suitably to prolong life. The disorder often occurs in an instantly fatal manner in absence of swift medical interventions such as the CPR and defibrillation prescriptions, besides the sophisticated life sustaining alternatives. The condition in most cases is caused by a type of adverse cardiac arrhythmias, which normally develop after the failure of the hearts electrical conduction coordinator that arise particularly as an aftermath of some impairments that includes heart attacks. Apart from cardiac arrhythmias, the condition can occur as an aftermath of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, heartbeat lapses, cardiac asystole, drowning, respiratory arrest, trauma, electrocution, and choking among other heart electrical system irregularities. The paper selects a relevant article on the disease, provides a standard summary and a comprehensive evaluation of the article, before concluding with contextually derived restatement. “Andrew D. Krahn, Jeffrey S. Healey, Vijay Chauhan, David H. Birnie, Christopher S. Simpson, Jean Champagne, Martin Gardner, Shubhayan Sanatani, Derek V. Exner, George J. Klein, Raymond Yee, Allan C. Skanes, Lorne J. Gula and Michael H. Gollob,” authored the selected article, “Systematic Assessment of Patients with Unexplained Cardiac Arrest.” The article was published on the American Heart Association Journal on July 13, 2009. Summary of the Article In this journal article, Krahn et al (2009), suggests that cardiac arrest in absence of symptoms cardiac infirmity might be as a result of subclinical genetic dysfunctions. Hence stimulating diagnosis to distinguish a phenotype is always recommended to discover key electrical impairment, direct genetic examination, along with conducting familial medical history evaluation. The study method involved, voluntarily recruited patient-subjects with detected mysterious cardiac arrest as well as the no proof cardiac impairment, who were taken through methodical assessment that entailed cardiac magnetic reverberation imaging, standard-response ECG, physical analysis, substance challenge, alongside relevant electrophysiological examination. Diagnostic measures were derived from recommended approaches or stimulation of the distinguishing medical aspects for long-QT disorder, Brugada condition, myocarditis, premature repolarization, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, together with coronary spasm. The sixty-three victim samples, 34 males and 29 women with an average age of approximately forty-three, were willingly recruited to partake in the study. Assessments were conducted in fifty-six percent of the participants as noted from Krahn et al (2009). The results revealed that eight of them were suffering from Long-QT disorder, while eight tested positive to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, six had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, five had premature repolarization, four tested coronary spasm, three tested positive to Brugada syndrome, and one was infected with myocarditis. Furthermore, premeditated genetic evaluation revealed symptoms of underlying mutations in nine of the nineteen selected victims. Assessment of the sixty-four participant’s family’s medical records confirmed that fifteen suffering individuals had been successfully treated, whereas, the other twenty-eight of them were classified as suffering from idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Methodical clinical diagnosis, involving substance provocation along with sophisticated imaging, consequently led to the establishment of the conditions cause as a perceptibly mysterious cardiac arrest in fifty percent of the participants. The concept was particularly critical in guiding the genetic evaluation in an attempt to establish genetically interceded arrhythmia conditions, which ensured reliable outcomes in familial evaluations.
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    Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Transportation system in San Francisco CA, USA The transportation system of San Francisco city is unique and has vast provisions that can be compared to very few cities in the US or perhaps around the globe. Accordingly, as any other major city in the world would offer, San Francisco presents numerous transportation modes that should be used according to needs and locations at any given time. Moving around by car in San Francisco is fun and presents opportunities of viewing the vast city in various corners and regions using tall interchanging roads and ramps. The main challenge is the heavy traffic that is touted as among the nightmares of the city due to its legendry car culture. Since their inception in 1873, cable cars acting as mobile landmarks, have reigned in the city throughout the year. The cable car lines are mostly popular with tourists since they offer vast panoramic views by the three main cable line companies. Undeniably, the natives also enjoy rides in these cable cars around the city. Streetcars using light rails network in the city are also exceptional in getting any individual around the city. Like the cable cars, these Metro lines or also historic to San Francisco. Conversely, they are known to be less crowded during early morning and late evening hours. There are also buses and trolley buses that move around the city in almost every minute. Caltrains also offer standard train services between San Jose to San Francisco and, the Peninsula. There are also ferry services operating between Sausalito and Alcatraz. Further ferries are accessible to Oakland, Angel Island, Alameda and other places within the pacific waters. Indeed San Francisco has also major airports that serve both domestically and internationally. Los Angeles and San Francisco airports are considered among the busiest airports in the US, due to their panoramic locations and major tourist attraction across the region (Getting Around 2013). The Transportation System of Singapore Transportation system in Singapore is generally Land-based. Various regions of Singapore are reachable by road connecting the islands such as Jurong and Sentosa. Singapore has also exceptional road link to the neighboring state of Malaysia. There are definitely major challenges facing Singapore’s road transport especially the growing urban population and limited space. Compared to other world major cities, Singapore also experiences heavy traffic mainly on major roads and this has necessitated the government to impose certain ways to minimize the influx of vehicles in the streets, since buses and cars are the major road users. There is also the cable car transport system that operates between the mainland, Sentosa Island and Mount Faber. Since its recent refurbishment in 2010, the Cable car system is seen as a fine option of accessing other regions in Singapore in quick-time especially by tourists. Singapore also thrives with a standard rail gauge system that aids railway transport. The city has about four major functioning rail systems that are managed by private companies like, SBS Transit, Circle Line and others. The rail network link is estimated to be over 95 miles hosting around 102 stations. Accordingly, some are still under construction and intensive planning. There also exists Light Rail Transit (LRT) structure comprising of 14 stations, which originally introduced in Bukit Panjang in 1999 with the length of 7.8kms. Another (LRT) line was also commissioned in 2003 and 2005 in Sengkang and Punggol respectively, serving the residences. Hitachi Asia Company also built 2.1 km Sentosa monorail 2007 to assist in the rail transport. Boats and ferry transport to the surrounding islands are available at Changi and other major terminal like Tanah Merah. Cruise ships are also available more so, to visitors that are visiting the country. Undeniably, Singapore boasts as the busiest and best seaport in Asia, outshining Shanghai and Hong Kong. Air transport is also a thriving business in Singapore as it is known for famous tourist attractions. Changi airport is among the vital air hubs in the region. Seletar airport is also a great hub though, is mainly used for private aviation linking Redang and Tioman Islands (Getting Around 2013) Dubai's Train Transport In the year 1997, the municipality of Dubai saw a great need for a modern railway system to ease congestion on the major roads and mitigate pressures on the existing infrastructure. The groundwork engineering contract was awarded to Systra and the Dubai Rail Link (DURL), which entails four major companies led by Japan’s Mitsubishi. The initial scheme was to build two lines of high-tech driverless swift transport composition. In September 2009, the municipality inaugurated the first urban metro network in the Gulf’s Arab States. Certainly, the intended purpose was met, since the system alleviated the daily strain of road commuters who were mainly workers in the emirates. According to facts release by the authorities, over 1.7 million people were recorded to have used the metro system in its first month of functioning. The Red Line section was the first to be completed by April 2010, and the average travelers on this segment alone surpass 180,000 passengers on a daily basis. The Green Line which started became operational in September 2011, has recorded passenger usage of up to 100, 000 people daily. Aggressive property development, financial services, air transport and tourism Dubai has a rapid growing population which is expected to trigger heavy traffic congestion. It is estimated that by 2017, the population will reach the three million mark as the increase has been consistent citing the annual rise of 6.4%. In view of these facts, when the metro system will be fully operational, approximately 1.2 million passengers or about 355 million people will use the system each day. Consequently, the DURL is also negotiating with multi-international firms to acquire brand-rights and advertisements in view of increasing the metro revenues. In the world stage, the Dubai metro spans at 74.69 km and as the longest driverless system which by 2012, was entered in the Guinness World Records. Evidently, the massive work carried out on the metro system is spectacular, since the metro tracks at no point cross highways, though there are feeder services for the buses and taxis to ease inconveniences at some points. There are also underground constructions that never affected the existing buildings. There also exists elevated train viaducts designed to augment the urban structural designs along the course (Khaleej Times1). Transportation System of Tokyo Japan Tokyo Japan is among the major cities in the world that bustles with massive transportation infrastructure. The rail transport system is the main mode of commuting and has been legendry, since some subways were built in 1927. Indeed, Tokyo is touted to have the most widespread metropolitan railway registering 40 million passengers daily. There are over 880 unified rail stations and 282 Subways in the Tokyo Metropolis. Despite this immensity, expansion is continuous where there are upgrades and few new systems. The government owns some of the companies running the rail metro systems, while many are owned my individual firms. Definitely, during peak hours, these trains are extremely crowded that some people are pushed into trains by contracted pushers (Kato, Yuichiro and Masashi 777-778). Buses and trams in Tokyo are believed to serving secondary purposes after the railways, and are mainly feeding from rail stations and subways. Undeniably, there are also long distance buses that mainly ply routes that are not properly covered by the metro system or passengers will luggage though, they are few. Taxis are also present in Tokyo serving as buses, but are mainly used during later hours when the trains are not in use. Business individuals that need to move around the city use taxis to avoid difficulties in accessing certain parts at will. Passenger ferries are also functioning between Tokyo, Yokosuka, Yokohama among others. One of the prominent ferry services is Tokyo-Wan Ferry. There are also other cruise ships between Hokkaido and Okinawa Island. Private boats are also available plying between Tokyo and other Japanese Islands. In Tokyo, there is a Tokyo Haneda and Narita airport serving as international arrivals and commercial functions. There are also other connecting airports like Shizuoka and Sapporo, which are more popular for their low-cost services. Helicopter services are also available in other places especially in Narita linking parts of Tokyo (Japan-guide.com1). The Transportation Benefits of Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge in China Danyang–Kunshan is the world longest bridge completed in 2010 and opened after a year. The bridge is located in Jiangsu province and is essentially along the rail-road between Nanjing and Shanghai. Accordingly, the bridge is built corresponding to the Yangtze River and passes through Danyang via Wuxi to Kunshan. The bridge guzzled $8.5 billion, employed 10,000 workers and completed within 4 years. Danyang-Kunshan Bridge is 165 km long and among the marvels of architecture. Certainly, among actual benefit of Danyang-Kunshan Bridge is to facilitate the Beijing high-speed railway system. Chinese travelers and businessmen benefit from this bridge, since it provide vital transportation tool. The bridge also serves as the main highway across the Hangzhou Bay. The travel time from Ningbo to Jiaxing is by over a half since it was 4.5 hours and has reduced to only 2 hours. The bridge is also the current tourist destination and this has generated tremendous revenue, as it also holds the current Guinness World Record. Halfway, when going along the bridge, there is a conference center, a gas station, a hotel and recreational facilities entailing a lookout tower attracting tourists. Indeed, within few decades, China has 11 of the 15 longest bridges in the world. This also shows the aggressive nature and consistencies the communist nation has taken to venture massive architectural marvels that lure other under-developed countries to seek assistance from China. Undeniably, the Danyang-Kunshan Bridge is self-demonstration meant to capture attention of the rest of the globe by concisely ascertaining that there is an emerging superpower in waiting. Succinctly, China has taken almost major construction projects in the African continent including oil exploration and space expeditions. In a nutshell, these are a few of the Chinese ventures that essentially are working to their advantage in the struggle for the world superiority (Pickup 1).
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    psychology
    Motivation and Persuasion Strategies Students Name Course/Name Date Instructors Name Motivation and Persuasion Strategies Introduction Employees are the utmost asset in any organization. In their absence, no objective can be achieved. However, the attitude towards performing their duties is of more essence than their number hence, the need to have an engaged and motivated workforce. There are numerous theories that have been developed by scholars to help human resource managers to maximise employee aptitudes to attain strategic goals. Among these theories include Theory X and Theory Y developed by Douglas McGregor. This paper uses the latter’s theory to develop strategies that one can employ to motivate workers and persuade behaviours outside the work setting. Application of Douglas McGregor Theory in Motivating and Persuading Workers Teamwork is of great essence in any organization. Accordingly, it enables any goal set by the organization to be achieved in a faster and more effective means. The team members come up with disparate ideas for selection. It also means that various workers are voluntarily uniting to attain a particular goal. Using a football game whilst applying McGregor theory, would be a good scenario for helping an organization to develop a strong teamwork among its workers (Litham, 2007). McGregor emphasized on the need for managers to take responsibility on the role they play in employee motivation. McGregor asserted that there are two main types of administrators: leaders, who believe that their employees are basically indolent as well as self-absorbed, (Theory X) and those administrators who assume that their employees will inherently working towards self-fulfilment (Theory Y) (Richard et al, 2008). Like a coach managing a football team, a manager should scrutinise his or her own predispositions and make a cautious determination to eliminate any negative thoughts he or she has towards the team. Moreover, the manager should get feedback from his or her employees or team members to know their attitude towards him or her and the working environment (Litham, 2007). Communication is another essential ingredient needed for the accomplishment of goals set by an organization. It enables workers to perform their duties cohesively as well as skilfully. By using McGregor theory, managers can use transparent line of communication in the working environment. The managers should share their expectations with the workers in precise and succinct terms. For instance, the aim of a team playing would be to win the game at the end of match and probably the trophy. With reference to Theory Y, external regulations as well as threat of retributions should not be the only means that managers use during their communication to ensure that their orders are executed. McGregor observes that individuals will practice self-direction as well as self-control in the process of trying to achieve the goals to which they are devoted (Richard et al, 2008). Moreover, McGregor observes that the average person learns, under apposite environment, to assent and seek responsibility. Conversely, it is therefore, necessary that managers ensure that information conveyed to workers is properly received. This can only be successful if managers apply Theory Y whereby, managers put up measures to relate with the employees determine the best way to communicate with them (Litham, 2007). McGregor, through Theory X, asserts that the average person desires to be controlled, avoid duties, has comparatively little determination with security as his or her priority. If a manager notices he or she has the latter type of workers, he or she should be a mentor by showcasing proper behaviour. Firms that utilize positive modelling regularly, do so in every department of the firm, illustrating the manner in which employees should behave whilst performing their duties (Richard et al, 2008). Conclusion McGregor’s Theory Y positive technique in supervising workers is a better method than Theory X negative approach. The constant application of Theory Y in an organization helps in improving how managers handle workers as human beings. Just as in football, workers whether within the working environment or in the field, should be given opportunity to share their views in the management of the firm/team and be mentored, when the need arises.
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