Benefits and Pitfalls of Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing can still be understandably defined as an infant technological invention since most of its provisions are yet to be completely designed. Nonetheless, for clarification, the model of cloud computing may not be perceived as a new invention nor does the system embody any significant technological breakthrough. Instead, the model incorporates a number of existing computing techniques. The title ‘Cloud’ has conventionally been applied to refer to all the Internet-based services, although Cloud Computing has contemporarily been preferred in referral to the Internet derived services. Clouds offer a dominant computing podium which permits individuals as well as firms the opportunity to administer a range of standard functions, including Internet storage, espousal of commercial applications, designing of personalized computer software, along with establishment of a “realistic” infrastructure setting. In preceding years, the rate of interest in cloud services has rapidly escalated, and insurmountable amount of statistics have been bestowed within the cloud computing setting. On the contrary, information violations to cloud services have equally become rampant, with the numerous modern hackers who are often attempting to capitalize on the security failures of cloud computing services. Although the Cloud provides organizations with an affordable option, firms ought to be aware of, and not to be deluded by the ‘all Cloud’ solution propaganda. The paper particularly aims to extensively analyze the various benefits and drawbacks of Cloud Computing, given the objective of responding to the question, “Do the benefits of cloud computing outweigh the pitfalls of its security issues?” It in the process provides an overview, history, services, functions and characteristics of Cloud Computing, before concluding with the entire contextual derived restatement.
Do the Benefits of Cloud Computing Outweigh the Pitfalls of its Security Issues?
Knowledge-intensive institutions normally rely on an extensive range of data techniques to accomplish their routine missions. The data techniques serves as decisive resources alongside services required for the institutional operations. These range from computing and networking systems, to software models and appliances. Ample pecuniary and personnel resources have been assigned to maintain, administrate, as well as invent the institutional data agendas, besides the infrastructures. Skilled personnel exceptionally depend on data technologies to accomplish their mandates. According to Géczy et al (2011), data technologies are often perceived as task-indispensable for awareness-concentrated firms. Companies though exhibit inadequately harmonized approaches in initial espousal of data systems. Several departments within the firms have been implementing models that only meet their distinctive requirements. This has resulted in a series of installations with incompatible accountabilities alongside absent interoperability. The necessity to economize circulated data technology assets has emerged. Institutional portals have granted an effective resolution.
The portals facilitate single-point entry to circulated statistics. The facilitating technology integrating together diversity of customized adaptations along with fused front-terminus has been the service-tailored planning and modification. The service-derived approaches and models have permitted reapplication of prevailing institutional data technology assets alongside their convenience over networks. Accessibility of circulated data via the networks has provided the foundation for cloud computing. In cloud computing, data storage services are retrievable through the intranet, internet, or portable networks, which might as well be supplied upon request. This provision system highlights more cost-effective along with convenient application of technology-based statistic resources. Nevertheless, regarding the debate as to whether “the benefits of cloud computing outweigh the pitfalls of its security issues.” Advantages of cloud-tailored services are collectively over-embraced by the outside providers, whereas drawbacks are almost entirely overlooked, thus raising the concern pertaining to the probability of its benefits outweighing its drawbacks. Cloud-derived services’ current potentials, threats and drawbacks, mainly involve the externally dispensed or provided services.
Overview of Cloud Computing
Cloud computing refers to a model where software services and functions are typically retrieved and applied via an Internet link, thus the term “cloud” symbolizes the Internet. The software is often available on numerous servers from diverse locations, and the user might not trace or establish its location. Numerous applicants within an organization can retrieve the software from different Internet connected points. The charges of cloud computing often depend on the application system, with compensations being estimated on duration, utilization or occasion basis as noted by White (2010). In pragmatism, cloud computing permits to subcontract computer services as well as networks to a Cloud Service Provider (CSP). This enables clients to retrieve software programs via the internet as opposed to implementing the programs on every workstation. Conventionally, organizations would implement software on all the occupational terminals, and file statistics on a restricted server that is exceptionally viewable through the organizations intranet. With the latest cloud computing technique, companies might subcontract networks, apart from indistinctly retrieving third party program stored on secluded infrastructure. Furthermore, cloud computing provides organizations with the alternative of implementing or developing their own programs within the cloud networks. In synopsis, cloud computing is a system that facilitates continuous, expedient, required infrastructure entry to computing resources that might be swiftly provided and discharged with limited endeavor or intervention. However, espousal of cloud service programs by firms has presently witnessed considerable disinclination. As reported by Murdoch (2011), cloud-derived services involve networked dispensation of services through internal or external suppliers. The services encompass information storage, collective interrelation and teamwork hold up appliances, to multifaceted service packages catalyzing commercialized procedures within firms. The main reservation regards relying on services of outside suppliers and retrieving them via the internet. The external supplier among other third parties might infiltrate institutional information as well as services; hence, creating considerable security threats. Conversion of information and services to outside suppliers may prompt potential loss of influence regarding timely administration and preservation, generally, cloud espousal and exploitation by firm’s demands thorough primary extensive appraisals.
Cloud computing is a conventionally derived technology that was initially emphasized in the 1960s when one of the digital community founders, John McCarthy, presented his approach to ‘utility computing’ where firms supplied computing clout for distinctive services or functions. During the mini-mainframes era, all computing services were Cloud-based. Firms purchased appliances of computing period as well as spent long hours on undersized centers installing information and formulating reports as reported by GFI (2010). The course was always slow, exhausting and needed the help of professional programmers, among other necessities which rendered it expensive. The collective Internet provision system dominated for over 20 years and was only outdated with the invention of personal computer.
The Federal Wiretapping Act
Employers usually monitor their employee’s activities by tapping their conversations and recording phone calls. Monitoring helps in ensuring workers provide quality service for instance at call centers. In addition, it is crucial in detecting misappropriation of the company’s resources, illegal disclosure of confidential client information or collusion with external parties to defraud a firm. More importantly however, phone records are critical in investigating harassment complaints especially in the service industries. Although employers have an obligation to monitor employee’s conversations, they are bound by certain laws and regulations. Indeed, any unwarranted violation of employee privacy may lead to grave lawsuits (Twomey, 2010).
Consequently, specific federal and state laws (18 U.S.C. § 2511) in the fourth amendment outlaws the interception of private phone conversations save for special instances especially at the work place. Conversely, the wiretap act protects employees against illegal interceptions of their conversations. The act further encompasses any tapping by use of phones and any other devices as defined by the law 18 USC 2510(5). To a larger extent, the electronic communications privacy act further safeguards employees from malicious infiltration into their conversations by spying employers. In addition, to hijacking a conversation, the act further prohibits the spreading of such a conversation to third parties without the initiators consent 18 U.S.C. § 2511(2)(d).
However, the act accords two major concessions when an employer can infiltrate their employee’s conversations without violating the latter’s rights. The first instant relates to when the employee gives consent to the employer to overhear their conversation either implicitly or explicitly 18 U.S.C. § 2511(2) (c), (2) (d). Consent by employees may be expressed in the form of a written agreement. Alternatively, it may be implied regarding the nature of employment. For instance, an employee may be informed beforehand on monitoring all communication channels. However, express consent to infiltrate private conversations should be sought from the employee to avoid legal tussles (Twomey, 2010).
In addition, consent cannot be casually implied since the wiretapping act seeks to protect employee’s privacy. Accordingly, an employee consenting to the monitoring of business does not necessarily permit monitoring of their personal calls under the act. A violation of his privacy through illegal wiretapping therefore leads to liability by the employer. In Griffin v. City of Milwaukee (74 F.3d 824) there was no violation of the Wiretap Act since the employee, a policewoman gave implied consent to interception of her telephone conversations due to the nature of her work. In contrast, in Deal v. Spears, it was established that notice to start monitoring calls after the contract was signed was not sufficient to invoke the implied consent rule as the employee had not consented to the directive (Twomey, 2010).
Business Extension Exception
The ordinary course of business means any activity related to the business, conducted in the precincts of the business and during business hours. According to the act monitoring phone calls and emails in the course of running the business does not require prior consent U.S.C. § 2510(5)(a). However, this exemption is only applicable if certain recording equipment is used and the recording itself must solely be related to the business. This exemption therefore covers phone and telegraph instruments, their components, related equipment and intercepting emails before delivery. However, it does not cover infiltrating stored emails (Twomey, 2010).
Prevention of Malaria in Brest Fed Children
Around a million deaths in children are caused by malaria world annually besides the disease contributing to healthcare problems, hospitalizations in many parts of the world. Although many people on the earth planet live under the threat of malaria, much of the comorbidity and mortality is prominent in the sub-Saharan Africa. Just like the children living in the areas where malaria is endemic, travelling children are also exposed to this risk when they visit those areas (Fischer & Bialek, 2002). On annual basis, more than a thousand cases of malaria are transported back to US and more than seven thousand into Europe by infected children or adults. Combat efforts to eradicate malaria have undergone through different phases which started with eradication efforts and campaigns of the 1950’s, control efforts tried in the 1980’s and the current program of roll back. The current efforts have been spurred by optimism that malaria can be prevented and slowed down especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are several ways through which malaria in children can be prevented and include; avoiding malaria infections and taking preemptive action to counter mortality rates of the disease such as chemoprophylaxis (Shetty & Woods, 2006).
Malaria is caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites from the Plasmodium genus. From this genus, there are four species that are highly associated with all human cases of malaria. These species include; P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. falciparum and are blamed for most of the malaria in Sub- African region. The species P. ovale and P. vivax are known to form hypnozoites in the liver which are resting stages and can be reactivated leading to clinical relapse many months following infection. In addition, the anopheline female mosquito can transmit malaria although they conform to different behavioral patterns. This differential behavioral pattern causes the differing epidemiological patterns of malaria around the globe. Although these mosquito species transmit malaria, there are found in different regions of the world owing to the climatic conditions that are prevalent in those regions. P. vivax is capable of developing in mosquitoes that inhabit low temperature regions than P. falciparum and therefore it is more widespread than P. vivax (Fischer & Bialek, 2002).
Prevention strategies for malaria in children usually differ for travelling children and those that are born in areas where malaria is endemic. For malaria prevention in travelling children, the strategies include; infection risk assessment, avoiding infection by preventing mosquito bites (personal protection measures PPM), and prevention of the disease through chemoprophylaxis. Avoidance of mosquito bites is the most important and first line of defense against malaria infection. Evidently, it is known that mosquitoes are very active in dawn and dusk when they usually feed. At these times, it is advisable for travelers to stay indoors in screened areas. Sleeping under insecticide treated mosquito nets is also recommended because it keeps the mosquitoes at bay (Greenwood, Bojang, Whitty & Targett, 2005). Conversely, children older than 2 months when outdoors are recommended to use mosquito repellants that contain more than 30% DEET (diethyltoluamide) on exposed parts of the skin. There are also other non-DEET based repellants such as picaridin (20%), which has been popular in Europe and no adverse side effects have been recorded. When it comes to chemoprophylaxis, the choice is predicated upon many factors such as duration and time of travel, risk of getting malaria, and chances of being exposed to drug resistant strains among other factors. There should be a cost benefit analysis between the caregivers and the parents/guardians of the children that are be given these medications. These drugs act by eliminating the zooparasites in the liver or preventing the blood stage infection development. The indications that are prescribed for adults are the same for children. Pediatric dosages are determined by weight and should not be given as those of adults or exceed them. The regimens are administered between 1 and 7 days prior travelling to the malaria prone areas and then continued for between 1 and 4 four weeks. Although children tolerate these drugs well, sometimes they exhibit adverse reactions. It is highly advisable for children not to venture into regions with high chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (Shetty & Woods, 2006).
Prevention strategies for children born in malaria endemic regions have become a challenge especially in sub-Saharan regions due to financial constraints. The World Health Organization has used the Roll Back Malaria Campaign, which employs strategies such as; ITN’s (insecticide-treated bed nets), early detection of asymptomatic malaria cases and IPT use (intermittent preventive therapy). The control of mosquito (vector) is also undertaken through such programs as source reduction (larval destruction) and IRS (indoor residual spraying). Although vector control is undertaken routinely, it is often plagued with many challenges such as insecticide resistance and cost. ITN has been shown to be effective in the prevention of malaria in infants (Schlagenhauf & Petersen, 2008). Untreated mosquito nets can be effective barriers of mosquitoes but can still bite people through the nets and when they have tears, the nets afford little protection for children sleeping in them. Pyrethroid based insecticides are currently allowed for use in nets by WHO because they have low toxic levels for humans while being highly toxic for mosquitoes. The pyrethroids on nets are to remain for a long time unless exposed to direct sunlight or the nets washed frequently. However, retreatment with the insecticide is required every 6 to 12 months. The costs associated with retreatment and low awareness among the populations living in malaria prone regions have been blamed as barriers to ITN programs effectiveness (Shetty & Woods, 2006). IRS revolves around spraying the indoor surfaces of houses such as walls that kills mosquitoes on contact. Mosquitoes usually prefer to rest on walls after feeding which leads to their elimination if the walls had been sprayed with insecticides. It however requires more than 70% use of IRS within a region for it to be effective since mosquitoes are highly mobile. When it comes to IPT, SP (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) is administered to expectant women in Africa in order to reduce placental infection of the malarial parasite and maternal anemia. In infants, SP should be administered periodically at 3, 4 and 9 months after birth for the best results. Research has shown that IPT in infants is well tolerated with no serious side effects being reported. In matters pertaining to source reduction, it is undertaken when the mosquito species of interest are concentrated in specific areas. As such, filling depressions or holes that leads to water collection after rains and draining of swamps near residential areas is important (Fischer & Bialek, 2002). There are other control measures but they may not be environmentally friendly such as using toxins in large water bodies that act as mosquito breeding sites. Research is on going in the development of sterile male mosquitoes as one of vector control methods. It has been discovered that some species or strains within mosquitoes that transmit malaria are resistant to carriage of the Plasmodium genetically (Shetty & Woods, 2006).
Concisely, malaria is arguably said to have killed many people than any war recorded in history. The disease is generally blamed for more than one million annual deaths worldwide especially in the developing world where WHO is still trying to control it. Campaigns and strategies to handle malaria started way back in the 1960’s and currently WHO is using Roll Back Malaria campaign. The disease is caused by plasmodium which is spread by female anopheles mosquitoes. Although there are differences in the preventive strategies between children born in malaria endemic regions and those that visit the areas, the underlying mechanisms are more or less the same. These strategies include; avoiding malaria infections and taking preemptive action to counter mortality rates of the disease such as chemoprophylaxis.
According to Tech-Faq (1), sustainable security policies, programs and technologies are critical to mitigating a firm from both external and internal threats. Moreover, effective security measures will further aid in meeting customers’ needs due to reduced uptime consequently resulting in reliability and achieving overall performance objectives. Network security systems are also crucial in safeguarding the employees, confidential client information and equipment within the precincts of the protected facility. However, most security plans often have weaknesses often resulting from an inadequate risk and vulnerability assessment.
Network security therefore, encompasses guarding the discretion, integrity and accessibility of records from either accidental or intentional exploitation by external and internal parties. This demands limiting such information solely to authorized parties; averting illegal alterations or corruption of such proprietary data. It further warrants guaranteeing authorized parties’ unrestricted access to critical information and systems. It also ensures that data is transmitted to, received by and “shared with” only the intended party; and provides security for ownership of information (Tech-Faq 1).
According to Microsoft (1), sniffing involves monitoring traffic on the network for plaintext passwords and configuration information. Hackers therefore, use simple packet sniffers to decipher communication. Moreover, attackers usually target data packets encrypted by simple hashing algorithms. Alternatively, they may run a port scanner, which probes for open ports on a network. After identifying the running services, devices and the operating system they easily infiltrate the presumably vulnerable network. They may also “spoof” or hide their true identity to penetrate the network. This ranges from falsifying their source address to get more privileges into a network to taking control over the entire network’s administration.
Accordingly, hackers may also exploit an SQL injection attack which authorizes them to run random commands in the network. It usually occurs when a network’s code relies on procedures that are shared through unfiltered users input. Conversely, if a hacker can “Revert to Self,” they can gain access in to the administrator’s account with unlimited privileges. Elsewhere, some hackers scan entire lists of telephone numbers using a modem to automatically locate computers in their local networks. This procedure called war dialing aids them in password guessing to infiltrate such networks (Microsoft, 1).
Illegal key logging however, involves using special software and hardware to record, store and transmits data from the computer once the accredited user logs in. A hacker may later access a network and confidential data without the administrator’s permission. Conversely, the use of brute force to crack passwords involves several trials until successful. Brute force software runs on the network with an aim of guessing the most likely password from dictionary words to the user’s family names (Microsoft, 1).
Indeed, inadequate access controls create loopholes for unauthorized users to access classified information and execute restricted operations. The most common vulnerability leading to unauthorized access is a weak IIS web access control. This consequently results in penetrable web permissions and weak NTFS approvals (Microsoft, 1). However, applying .NET Framework access control, URL authorizations and principal permission demands will shield a network against most of the above threats.
Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Worms
While a virus is a program hatched into the system to perform malicious acts thereby causing disruption a Trojan horses are malicious codes contained in data files or executable programs. Worms however, self-replicate over several servers and are not easily detectable. Effective measures against these threats include constantly updating your operating system and software patches, blocking all unused ports both at the firewall and host and disabling idle protocols and services (Microsoft, 1).
In conclusion, a comprehensive security network risk assessment must always identify the assets to be protected in relation to their overall importance. Furthermore, the assessment must identify and characterize all potential threats. Consequently, a systematic survey that considers the physical and operational features of a network is critical to counter any potential hacker’s attacks.
Research pertaining to women and crime has not been undertaken seriously since crime has always been associated with men. Investigations and studies into women serial killers are even limited especially in the US academic fraternity (Arrigo and Williams 2006, p. 6). Interestingly, the current literature on the rationale behind murders committed by women is attributed to cruelty or suffering that women undergo through the hands of their spouses or partners. This is contrary to theorists that content that women who commit homicide are influenced by factors that surpass battered women’s syndrome defense. It must also be understood that some women may kill in a self defense stance while others kill due to homicide tendencies and their plan to kill.
This paper aims at discussing serial and predatory homicide committed by women under the guise of other reasons other than repeated victimization and justifiable homicide. Accordingly, to handle this discussion comprehensively, attachment theory and psychopathy literature are articulated as the underpinnings of the paper. Attachment theory is accredited with the idea of forming affective strong bonds between adolescents and their guardians which in turn influences their personality development (Thompson & Ricard 2009, p. 265). In addition, various researches have documented that there is a high correlation between psychopathy and violent crime (Frei, Völlm, Graf & Dittmann 2006, p. 172). In spite of this correlation, there is limited knowledge about the impact of psychopathy-crime relationship on women who kill serially and predatorily. This paper analyzes the case of Aileen Wuornos who was convicted of seven homicides and sentenced to hand for her crimes. In the discussion, the paper tries to use psychopathy and attachment theory as the worthwhile basis for gaining insight into serial murders perpetrated by women.
As is typical of all serial killers, Aileen Wuornos had a very troubled past and upbringing. Born in 1956, her parents at the time who were very young divorced even before she was born. Her biological father was a known child molester who never contributed in any way to her upbringing. He ended his miserable life in Kansas prison while serving a term for defiling a 7 year old girl. On the other hand, her mother was a serious alcoholic who abandoned her and other siblings before she could know what was happening. Her maternal grandparents then took over in raising her who also had alcoholism problem like their daughter Aileen’s mother. It is reported that the grandfather was abusive both verbally and emotionally which took a toll on the young Aileen as grew up. The grandmother was not any better and overlooked the abuses of her husband on the grandchildren and instead he helped him abuse the children emotionally. It is reported that in her childhood, Aileen had behavior problems which made not to have good relationships with other children. She constantly fought with other children and her behavior soon worsened to violence and stealing from family and friend. At an early age of 13, she became pregnant and had to hide the pregnancy from the grandparents for fear of victimization. When they eventually knew, she was sent to foster home and forced to offer her son for adoption after birth. At this time she was drinking and engaging in sexual activities for the fun of it and getting high. She later moved to Florida where she married an aged man whom she divorced after 2 months because the man was abusive. She admits that she attempted suicide six times in her entire times, which were not successful. While in her preferred career choice (prostitution), she was always high on drugs and alcohol and in many times, she would end being sexually abused and raped (Ahern, 2001).
Research about the correlation between psychopathy and crime has been done on a wide scale and a lot of data is available. This has been carried on different levels starting at the juvenile delinquent level. Furthermore, the relationship of crime and psychopathy has also been investigated in relation to homicides that are committed by male offenders. The various results from the research undertaken shows that psychopathy related crimes are among the most widely researched crime phenomena and as such, they are involved in most of the modern crimes ranging from illicit drug taking , prostitution to murder (Myers, Gooch & Meloy 2005, p. 656).
In all the research undertaken, there has been no clear association between female psychopathy and homicide. The little information known about female psychopath homicide does not account for women associated homicides because there is a subclass of female homicides that suggest the women involved have high tendencies of murderous conduct. Psychopathy is often associated with such grandiose traits such as pathological lying, a high sense of worth, lack of remorse, callous empathy, and parasitic lifestyle among others. All these behaviors and traits are often gauged by psychopathy checklist. It has been proposed that there are many ways of interpreting psychopathy and one of them is analyzing in a predatory violence context. In this regards, the process of psychopathy behavior predisposes, perpetuates and precipitates predatory violence due to its dynamic traits and structure (Pearson 2007, p. 261). Conversely, the underpinnings of predatory violence under the guise of pyschopathy closely supported by attachment theory is a salient platform under which women serial homicides can be explained and understood. The perceived malice in psychopaths is blamed for the sustenance of the planning and goal directed actions of the underlying predatory violence of an assailant.
As a child, Aileen underwent through inconsistent care besides being abused physically, emotionally and possibly sexually at the hands of her grandparents and other caregivers. In order to escape from the reality, she manifested a dismissing lifestyle that was marked by detachment, impulsive behavior, hostility, poor sensitivity and social withdrawal. Pearson (2007, p. 259) asserts that the failure to form bonds and interact freely with other people and later failure to be empathetic about others develop due to lack of caring and inconsistency in care giving during formative years of an individual. As per the attachment theory, it is very important for children to develop and get security and trust from their caregivers. Without this rapport, children tend to form internal thinking and understanding that other people are unreliable, unresponsive and untrustworthy to their needs (Shipley, 2001, p. 399).
This is evident in Aileen’s early life where she developed conditional strategies like detachment in order to cope with the highly abusive environment that had inconsistent care. As seen in her biography, she did not have any contact or knowledge of her biological father. However, her father Leo Pittman had violent behavior which brings into sharp focus the contribution of biological psychopathy to her condition. As such, both environmental and biological factors contributed immensely to her psychopathy condition. The fits of rage seen in Aileen’s lack of concern for other people are the same traits that characterized her father although they never met or lived together for one to conclude that she learnt them from him. The most damaging relationship in all of them was perhaps that with her grandfather whom was supposed to be her father figure. From a tender age, her grandfather abused her both physically and emotionally and from attachment theory Weather by, Blanche and Jones (2008, p. 12) posits that Aileen learnt that she was worthless, hated by her caregivers besides being wicked.
Pearson (2007, p. 259) notes that there at least three guaranteed reactionary states that result when there is separation from an attachment figure like in the case of Aileen. These states are protest, detachment and despair. The abandonment by her mother early in her life was a real separation. However, the loss of concern by her grandmother and real abuse from the grandfather only served to exacerbate further the separation problem and alienate her from the people that were supposed to close to her. While detachment is often seen as a mechanism for adapting and coping with abusive environment adopted by many children, it is usually clinically destructive because it inhibits children from forming any meaningful relationships. Although Aileen did find some solace and minimal relationship with her grandmother, she could not fully open to her about her emotional problems and needs for support. Avoidant primary caregivers usually push away those children that would have otherwise opened because they do not show concern or listen to the children. In addition, research shows that children of avoidant caregivers are often nervous, poor communicators and tend to have poor relations with their fathers. Aileen’s mother and grandmother exhibited their avoidance tendencies in their unique ways. Lauri (Aileen’s mother) was often abusive emotionally and occasionally violent. These descriptions clearly befit Britta and the relations that she had with Aileen her granddaughter. The various avoidant patterns of detachment have a positive correlation with a person’s increased anger towards the parents and the hurtful father figure when the victim was growing as a child.
Undoubtedly, this is clearly seen in Aileen who openly expressed her dislike for the grandfather. The favor was also reciprocated by the grandfather who openly despised Aileen, which culminated in the various forms of abuse. Aileen was increasingly becoming an outsider within her family which was supposed to take care of her and show concern. Outside her family circle, her peers did not want to associate with her. On the one hand, much of her woes were of her making because she mishandled and pushed her friends away. On the other hand, although she pushed her friends away, it was due to automatic psychological reaction to the problems that she was experiencing at home. As Thompson & Ricard (2008, p. 269) posit, intense sense of isolation and abandonment usually traumatize a person and create anticipatory effects that are negative. Children usually learn and condition their minds to face the future with no expectation of help form outside quarters because they have not gotten any help from their primary caregivers.
According to Arrigo and Williams (2006, p. 5), psychopathic people usually direct their social isolation feelings to social withdrawal, hostility and aggression which is typified by Aileen. As research indicates, good attachments with parents usually impact positively the ability of people to form good relations with friends and other people (Myers, Gooch & Meloy 2005, p. 656). Aileen had no knowledge of her real parents let alone being positively bonded to them. Her relation and attachment to her siblings were fragmented and awkward at best. She however enjoyed close relations with Keith her brother although she was emotionally distant as far as other siblings were concerned. Their bond gave them some hope and sense of protection at the time of intense abuse irrespective of its fragility.
Frei, Völlm, Graf & Dittmann (2006, p. 170) are of the opinion that bonds between siblings are formed out of necessity and help at times of persecution. While it was alleged that the bond between these two (Aileen and Keith) was unhealthy due to incest allegations, Aileen was despondent when Keith died. It might be said that it was a common human behavior when a relative passes on but the bond that they formed early in childhood was still strong. During Aileen’s mid teen years, she was already being resentful towards herself and other people around her. Her resentment was specially directed at the male people and figures around her whom she viewed as being useless and not able to support in her life just like her grandfather. Under the circumstance and state of being resentful, the most dominant emotion that was readily and often expressed was anger.
Propaganda Art during the Cultural Revolution
The Chinese Cultural Revolution was an uprising called by Mao Zedong in 1966 to rid out old ideas, culture, habits and customs. The call for this revolution was motivated by Mao’s desire to get rid of his opponents in the Communist Party after his policies in Great Leap Forward campaign failed. For him to actualize this revolution, he used propaganda art, which employed different forms of mainstream art. Throughout history, propaganda has been defined differently and Jacques (1965) defines it as an attempt by an organized group of individuals to bring on board active participation of the masses into their social undertakings. As such, propaganda as a tool employs constructed language through media to influence and implant ideas in the minds of people. Additionally, it is used to create tendencies among the people to become susceptible to governing authorities at a personal or individual level. Mittler (2008) posits that the human tendency to trust and rely on authorities is vastly exploited by propaganda in order to bring about the desired societal changes.
Undeniably, it follows then that widespread propaganda including art was very critical in the Chinese Cultural Revolution by urging the youth to actively become involved changing their society by ridding it of the old customs. Art propaganda took many forms and shapes for instance, disfiguring the pictorial images of opponents, distortion of figures to represent the desired groups bigger than opponents among art propaganda. In order to reinforce the desired theme or effect, the propaganda art was accompanied by unorthodox belittling of the opposition in the propaganda art (Denton, 2000). The desired effect was to intimidate the opposition and then influence the masses to join their bandwagon to have a larger following (Francesca, 1999). Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to articulate the role played by propaganda art during the Chinese Cultural Revolution.
Through the creation of propaganda art that articulate a constant message of revolution by diverse artistic techniques resulted in the creation of the popular propaganda art when the issue is reviewed from hindsight (Jacques, 1965) The message of the propaganda art for the Chinese state was twofold in that it aspired to be considered high art and at the same time popular art. Consequently, that meant that its artistic value was depended upon its excellence in educating the populations and putting across its intended revolution message. Popular culture is a bit excessive in terms of being striking and overly being more expressive in putting across its message to a point of being termed as melodramatic, superficial or even sensational. The Cultural Revolution experienced in China through propaganda art was very successful owing to the ideological and political intonations that accompanied it. People were whipped into a frenzy of supporting the revolution in large numbers especially in the villages. As much as the masses were not aware of the ideological underpinnings of Mao’s revolution message, it worked in bringing about a revolution. This is because Mao Zedong was interested in defeating his opponents who advocated for a move from socialism. The dehumanizing and depiction of the opponents of Mao as being smaller than him in posters played an important role spreading the propaganda art (Mittler, 2008).
It is important to first understand the underlying factors that necessitated the Chinese Cultural revolution besides knowing the motivation that moved Mao Zedong to start this propaganda. This was important because Mao knew that he had messed up the Chinese economy and wanted other people especially his opponents to take the fall. The movement and push dubbed the Great Leap Forward by Mao Zedong that hoped to propel China to surpass both the US and Britain economically was a flop because instead of improving matters it led to economic devastation. Zedong had envisioned ways through which he could create a communist utopia of mass production by supporting local massive communal farming (Hung, 2007; Hung, 2005). Mao’s undertakings such as supporting the local steel industries was a big let down and instead of producing tools for farming, the industry ended up consuming all steel with no outputs. Due to failure of this Great leap Forward campaign, around 40 million civilians lost their lives through famine, but the propaganda art campaign was still sold to the starving masses for over three years. As much as this campaign was palatable to the people, the authorities used propaganda art posters larger than human beings, fruits as well bountiful harvests from communal land (Denton, 2000). It took sometime before the masses could wake up from the stupor of propaganda posters and finally towards the end of 1958, Mao resigned from PRC (People’ Republic of China) as the chairman of the party. Consequently, this resulted to the transfer of power to his opponents who were seen as political reformists (Andrews, 1994).
Following the failure of the Great Leap Forward policies by Mao to overhaul the US and Britain as economic powerhouses, PRC was clearly divided right in the middle on the line of those who were pro-Mao and his ideology while the other side was the opponents. The opponents against Mao’s rigid social leadership structure and instead favoured a more liberal economic model of production. These opponents were regarded as revisionists and were fast gaining prominence at the expense of Mao and his zealots and therefore they became enemies of reforms in the CPR party (Mittler, 2008). Propaganda posters that painted Mao’s opponents in bad light especially the working class revisionists were printed in bulk. These posters showed revisionists as public enemies and used excessive red colour in their backgrounds to encourage armed struggle against them the reformists. The various prominent characters in the posters in posters wore red armbands which were a mark of a devotion to the red army and Mao. Big red letters printed on a clearly white background became the hallmark of the state produced posters and those that were produced by the zealots and ardent supporters of Mao in the hope of fanning the flames of revolution further. Prominent revisionist figures were eventually targeted and arrested on unfounded claims of being behind the failed Great Leap forward campaign and consequently prosecuted (Denton, 2000). This propaganda seemed to be a worthwhile tool for gaining lost grounds by Mao and his supporters and getting back at their opponents and using them as scapegoats for their own shortcomings and failings.
Disclosure of the names of the revisionists in the posters availed an avenue through which the uneducated and misinformed masses could vent their frustrations. In a nutshell, the masses had suffered immensely especially from absolute poverty and massive loss of life. Any scapegoat was sufficient enough to suffer the wrath of these people and the revisionists came in handy. Conversely, by using working tools such as shovels, painting brushes and guns, the working proletariat headed by Mao Zedong was able to spread their propagandas as wild bush fires among the villagers. In advancing their campaigns further through the posters, Mao and his supporters were depicted larger than their opponents in that the proletariat was much stronger and united than the dishevelled opposition that was credited with bringing social suffering (Francesca, 1999).
The power of convincing the people in these posters can be explained through role theory and epistemic merit model of propaganda. First off, the use of enlarged Mao figure who is a revered and well known proletariat in China was for the exploitation of the people’s instinctive desire to have a leading figure to guide them. Secondly, these posters were aimed at bringing to the masses communism and capitalism modes of mass production, which were poorly known by the masses. On the one hand, Mao and his supporters were adherent and proponents of communism while on the other hand the revisionist supported capitalism as a mode of mass production. As much as the power play between these two opposing powers affected the common man, the poor individuals at the village had almost no idea what ideologies these two big power brokers were haggling and hustling about. To them, the problem laid squarely with the revisionists who had plunged the country into poverty while in reality, it was the group of Mao and their ideologies that had failed the country. In retrospect, the propaganda created a stage that would inevitably lead to a revolution by influencing the young people in the 1960’s and also directed the flow of Chinese politics. More importantly, the government encouraged the participation and presence of youth extremism in order to absolve itself from previous shortcomings in its policies (Dikötter, 2010). In the inception of the Chinese Revolution, Mao organized and rallied for young activists to form themselves into armed militias he called the Red Guards that were supposed to stop his opponents. This militia was guided by the Little Red Book that encouraged adherents to become radicalized and move back to upcountry upon defeating and extinguishing their opponents. Using this militia, he devolved them to different areas within the country so as to recapture back his lost glory besides spreading the terror that he had unleashed on the city residents (Dikötter, 2010).
There have been many questions revolving around the reasons why instead of invoking more resistance, the Cultural Revolution Propaganda instead led to profound victories in fanning out Mao’s propaganda against his opponents. Primarily, propaganda was the most prominent though, not exclusively that could have been used during the Cultural Revolution. On the side of the masses, the people also got the opportunity to take part in the revolution because propaganda availed a means through which all people could participate culturally. Owing to the low levels of literacy in the country at the time, many people depended mainly on the few who could read and write to interpret whatever the posters were saying. Some posters were also self explanatory since they only involved pictorial presentation of the Mao proletarian in prominence over their opponents. First off, the youth that were transferred from the cities to the villages were very prominent in interpreting these posters using the unofficial material that they had. Secondly, propaganda used the most accessible and common media such as posters, Beijing opera and oil paintings. Some of these genres of art that were selected were very common and widely spread all over China and therefore, made sure that the propaganda was well spread. Thirdly, Cultural Revolution was not a remaking of propaganda art, but rather propaganda art that found an avenue through culture for influencing the people and bringing about change. Undoubtedly, it follows then that Cultural Revolution was only using propaganda art as a platform to continue its popularity among the masses (Hung, 2007).
Human Resource: Training Cost and Training and Career Development
Human Resource Management
Accordingly, it can be quite frustrating and irritating when things that are supposed to work out do not and suddenly vanish, and businesses with heavy investments only run into losses. Wisdom tells us that when our hopes and expectations do not line up, we need to give ourselves a gentle hand back up. We can only move forward when we pause to reflect on where we have gone wrong. In career building and in the organizational culture, what we need when things do no lineup is training. Training reminds us that sometimes we succeed and sometimes do not, that we make mistakes, and that practice makes perfect. Training is the driving force behind success. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) defines it as the organizational process designed to impart information while enhancing the trainees’ performance to achieve the required level of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) so that the trainees can be more effective in their current duties (Youssef, 2012). Whether it is conventional training or any other, this activity has very specific and intended goals.
What should be the Role of Training?
Training is intended to maximize employee potentials to achieve the desired goals by equipping them with necessary knowledge, skills and abilities. According to the ASTD, many firms in the US have entrenched the importance of training in all sectors of performance. This is clearly seen as firms spent over $ 130 billion in the year 2007 in regards to employee trainings and relevant developments. Basically, human resources are ultimately enhanced by training. When employees are properly and effectively trained, the knowledge and skills that they acquire enable them attain the organization targets as well as individualistic goals. This also, revitalizes the development of human resources and provides the opportunity and broad structure for technical, behavioral and personal skills for employees that enhance development in an organization. Certainly, training increases productivity and inculcates the sense of team spirit. Moreover, it helps build the zeal to learn and work as a team within the employees. Training helps foster organizational culture, climate and morale. It helps create a learning culture, foster the positive sentiment and acuity regarding the organization, enhances corporate image, prevent obsolescence and improve quality of work. Indeed, it helps in developing leadership skills, organizing talents strategically, managing workplace challenges, and identifying new motivational approaches (Youssef, 2012).
What is HR’s Role in Impacting the Career Development of Employees?
In any serious organization, HR is not only an enabler of major activities, but also a facilitator of corporate strategies. It is the role of human resource manager (HRM) to train and guide employees, attract and retain talents, organize continuous coaching and effective orientation of the workforce, provide maximum opportunities for the workforce to exploit their potentials to the best of their abilities, foster employee motivation, facilitate high level performance, equip employees with the necessary skills needed to achieve higher performance, and play an integral role in organizational planning. With trainings, in particular, HRMs can foster growth within the organization by improving employee morale, enhancing interpersonal and promotional skills, and committing the workforce to the organization. Undoubtedly, HRMs can greatly impact on the career development of the employees if they take the initiatives to introduce incentive plans designed to foster employee motivation. Conversely, it is the role of HR to develop leadership abilities by organizing innovative management programs and impacting confidence in the employees. Evidently, HR can impact the career development of employees by clearly communicating organizational expectations, defining roles and job descriptions, establishing achievable benchmarks, and making the employees understand the importance of aligning their expectations with the organizational objectives. No one is best placed than the HR to help employees reconcile their personal goals with those of the organization. Indeed, through performance discussions, forums, monitoring and evaluations, HRMs are able to diagnose problems at their early stages, and thus help employees develop their career without much setbacks (WorldatWork & Sibson Consulting, 2007).
How has Technology Fostered New Cost-effective Virtual Methods of Training?
There is no doubt that changes in technology have had a significant effect on the human experience of work over many years. Technology has changed how things are done in modern organizations. Additionally, it has improved the capabilities of managing the dynamic challenges and increasing complexity (Hakansson et al., 2009). Today organizations operate with greater levels of efficiency because of improved technology. Above all, technology has molded implicit and cost-effective modes of training through the latest Internet tools such as emails and web conferencing, mobile computing applications and telecommuting devices among others. Through these applications, devices and networking, communications have become instantaneous and flexible, allowing trainees attend training programs via electronic media as per the time that is best convenient to them (Aswathappa, 2006). Secondly, with technology there is the advantage of electronically sending training materials to the trainees well in time through the training interface. Actually, technology has not only reduced the costs and time spent in travelling to the training centers, but has also reduced expenses of printing materials and shipping costs (Salvendy, 2012).
One of my most treasured places that I have grown love and cherish is my bathroom, which I must visit at least once everyday in the morning. My bathroom is spacious, airy and opens to my bedroom on one side while the other side there is a balcony that lets in fresh air. In the middle of the room, there is a big bathtub that guarantees a warm bubbly bath early in the wee hours of the morning. The decorations and accessories that adorn the room are soothing with cool and comforting colors that reflect tranquility, rarely found in any other room. On the floor, there are white tiles that are intermittently interlaced with white ones while towards the door there are soft rugs that dry and massage my feet after a bath. There is also a fog free mirror that is permanently fixed on the wall that is extraordinary especially after having a hot shower in the morning. Accordingly, to complement all the accessories in this room, there is piped music that is intricately wired to provide harmonious tunes while taking a shower or just relaxing there. The music can be changed to one’s preference because different people prefer different music genres.
The hygiene and freshness in that bathroom is simply breathtaking, which is important in revitalizing my energy in order to tackle the challenges ahead. From the balcony, one can hear the natural humming of birds that complements the music from the stereo and adds a soothing effect. Slipping into the warm water at the bathtub is therapeutic that brings a special awakening and fuses both and mind. Sitting in that bathtub for awhile brings another virtual reality that casts all restraints and lets the mind wander into dream world if only to escape for a moment the cares of this world. After massaging my body and taking shower, I gently ease into my slippers as I towel myself with soft petal towel that caresses my body as I move towards the fog free mirror. This fog free mirror is a hallmark of soothing and luxurious bathroom that remain clear even when the bathroom is saturated with smog after a hot shower. It is always good to check on the different parts of the body using the mirror so that in case of any problems can be noted.
Many people usually take the bathroom for granted since it is a room that they always have and use on a daily basis without much reflection on its importance. First off, this is the room that one visits the first thing in the morning in order to prepare for the day ahead. The way in which one starts a day is very important because if a day is started on a wrong foot, it is most likely that the whole day will be a huge mess. Secondly, the aura that is found within the bathroom provides a relaxing moment that energizes and revitalizes internal energy to undertake challenges of the day. The music and decorations of the bathroom are important in gleaming away the problems in life momentarily at that important time in the morning when preparing for the day. In the event that an individual does not offload the mental problems and anguish that are part of daily life in this contemporary world, then it becomes very hard to remain sane. While the bathroom is used mainly for taking showers, it can also be used for morning mediation and reflection because of the privacy it offers. When one wants to get in touch with the inner self or pray, the bathroom comes in handy with its soothing environment.
Phillips Ellen. ‘Kick the Clutter: Clear Out Excess Stuff Without Losing What You Love.’ New York: Rodale, 2008
Scott Jeffrey and James Jeffery. ‘Poop Tales: The Perfect Reading Material for Any Bathroom a Compilation of Hilarious Stories.’ New York: AuthorHouse, 2009
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant ascended from the military leadership of an Illinois brigade to a chief general of the entire Union forces between 1861 and 1865 of the American Civil War years. He later from 1867 to 1877 served as the 18th US federal president. After triumphing at decisive combats in the Western theater, Grant moved to Virginia by March 1864 as a freshly promoted deputy general and later became the commander of the Union forces. Grant humbly opted to join his Potomac Army in the battlefield despite the priority to command the proceedings from the Washington, D.C., headquarters. He particularly offered supreme leadership to the army between May 1864 and April 1865. His rank as the top Union commander helped him to regain in the White House for ten years, and his achievement have, though arguable, been perceived as that of a commanding chief who inspired victory for the Union.
Born on 27th April, 1822 into a Point Pleasant, Ohio based-economically stable family, as Hiram Ulysses Grant. He graduated from the West Point US Military Academy with a standard intellectual accomplishment by 1843, where he emerged as number twenty-one out of thirty-nine candidates. Because of errors in his graduation credentials, he also graduated from the institution as Julia Dent Grant, a wrong name that he cherished in his entire future life. According Hollar (8-150), he staged an exceptional performance during the Mexican War between 1846 and 48, as compared to other performance in his overall antebellum military service. Selected for incursion in an isolated region, he lamented the comfort of his wife alongside the growing household. As the trend with most military men, he sought consolation in alcohol even though his potentiality to consume such drinks was allegedly below the military standard. He eventually declined military duty by 1854 and settled in Missouri.
Contributions to the American Civil war
Over the next seven years, he tried a range of career endeavors, but failed to succeed as his stature as a hopeless failure persisted to gain publicity. When the Civil War erupted, he was residing and working in Galena, Illinois, as a store clerk for his father. The shortage of skilled soldiers, alongside the support for the native congressman, brought him the colonelcy over the 21st Illinois Infantry, an irregular as well as unprofessional unit that he nurtured into competence. His performance at this modest rank of leadership signaled an exceptional assignment of military accountability. He was endorsed as brigadier general late in 1861 at Cairo, Illinois, as he embraced control of the Southern region of his espoused state. By early 1862, he had liberated two significant Confederate bastions, Fort Henry and Fort Donelson of Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers respectfully, thus exposing extensive regions under Confederacy to Union incursion, apart from granting the North its initial major combat triumph (Hollar 8-150).
Eight weeks later, he was faced with unexpected disastrous raid at Shiloh Church in the banks of the Tennessee River, and only redeemed himself the following day albeit what became the deadliest battle in the preceding history of America. As observed by Civil War Trust (1), the tumbling at Shiloh culminated into severe censorship, particularly from his jealous military seniors such as Major General Henry W. Halleck, against his leadership and character including past drinking problems. This led to mounted calls for President Lincoln to relieve him of his duties, but the president was not ready to heed the calls as he pointed out Grants’ past inspired victories. Lincoln’s assessment turned out to be right, as Grant prevailed over his opponents to orchestrate a historic crusade over the spring of 1863, which witnessed the liberation of the Confederates stronghold along the Mississippi River, Vicksburg. His next assignment was at Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he courageously upturned Union routing by eliminating the blockade of Chattanooga, before forcing the Confederate forces into withdrawal at the Battles of Lookout Mountain along with Missionary Ridge.
The accomplishments rendered him as the single-most-successful Union combat commander, which afterwards convinced Lincoln and the U.S. Congress to honor him with the position of lieutenant general as well as the chief officer of all the Union forces. In contrast to his predecessor, Grant decided to join his Army of the Potomac’s at the winter camps around Culpeper, Virginia, instead of commanding from the capital. That army’s commandant, Major General George G. Meade, reportedly anticipated to be fired due to his delay in attacking the Confederate Army following the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg, as it was the case with most of his predecessors (Civil War Trust 1). However, Grant retained him, but with a limitation of his mandates to administrative along with strategic command of Army, as Grant personally assumed the command of the Army of the Potomac. As he equally and uniquely masterminded other combat operations of the Union forces, such as the capturing of Atlanta, Richmond, and Virginia over the 1864 that eventually signaled the end of Civil War by 1865.
As the general commander of the US Army following President Lincoln’s murder and the tumultuous regime of President Andrew Johnson, and despite showing no interest in the US presidency, Grant succumbed to pressure to run for the White House through the Republican Party to become the 18th US President by 1868. He retired ten years later, although the latter stages of his legacy were tainted by corrupt and unscrupulous subordinates, thus marking one of the dark eras in the US politics as reported by Hollar (8-150). Grant afterwards attempted to tour the world, particularly Egypt, as a top US diplomat, besides writing his memoirs, but all this were halted by his meager income and commercial ventures. He was though aided by Mark Twain to publish his memoirs in 1885, as he shortly succumbed to throat cancer at his home in Mount McGregor, New York, where his body was preserved in Grant’s Tomb, a magnificent Riverside Drive, New York-based mausoleum.
Apart from allegations, such as falling off the wagon in the battlefield, Grant’s critics have so far failed to provide any proof that his liquor addiction ever undermined his combat character, which renders them irrelevant to his achievements as a military chief officer. His opponents have claimed using scanty explanation that Grant’s triumphs throughout the final year of the Civil War should be attributed to the growing inequality in wealth between North and South as opposed to his military brilliance as noted by Civil War Trust (1). Nevertheless, to overlook Grant as a sluggish and uninspired commander undermines the courageous and intelligent tactical incursions that ensured success at Vicksburg as well as Chattanooga ahead of committed and professional rivals. Generally, his most significant military traits included focus to capturing and sustaining the target, his understanding of the political aspect of the contemporary combat, apart from his self-esteem as a commandant. This approach inspired him over all of his crusades, mainly in Virginia where, most of his predecessors retreated due to adverse prospects.
Grant was clearly aware of the significance of commanding within the confines of political margins. He steered clear of policy issues and embraced zero political motives, which granted the faith and assurance of Abraham Lincoln, besides imposing himself regardless of the combat proceedings. Lastly, Grant trusted his decisions, and once dedicated to a mission; he trailed that track despite the inevitable discouragements, censors, and setbacks. Occasionally the approach misled him, for instance at Cold Harbor, though in other places entailing Shiloh, the Wilderness, and Vicksburg among others, his commitment guaranteed him success. Evan though not impeccable, Ulysses S. Grant’s military contributions to the American Civil War merits more of gratitude and praise as opposed censorship.
Cultural Diversity & Nursing
I. Introduction: The healthcare environment is a reflection of the complexities and cultural diversity of the US society in terms of age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, ethnic backgrounds among others
II. Advancements of Cultural Diversity
Trans-cultural movement has been born out of push for cultural diversity
Goals of cultural diversity incorporated into The American Nurses association (ANA)
Other institutions such as Center for Minority Health are also involved
Life is about making choices. Things do not just happen. Whether one is conscious about it or not, everyone designs his or her own life. You can choose to be happy. You can choose success. You can choose to have friends. You can also choose unhappiness or misery. The choices are yours. Strategy is about making tough choices. It is the choices that make the differences. It is even harder choosing not to make any strategic choice. Business leaders spend a lot of time thinking how to improve their businesses, about what solutions to offer to their clients, how to invest their resources, and how to win against their competitors. Precisely what is involved in this thinking is strategic choice. Strategic choices are central to strategic decisions. It is said that proactive people initiate choices and control situations. They are believed to be responsible for their actions. They make strategic choices and make things happen. Negotiation is about making strategic choices. Before entering into a negotiation, the negotiator must understand the situation, capitalize on his strengths and the other party’s weaknesses, and prepare for the strategic choice that will best suit the situation depending on the interests. Lewicki, Hiam and Olander (2007) argue that ‘if you are proactive about strategic choice, you are much more likely to get what you want than if you wait for the other to initiate action.’ This paper discusses and analyses this view. It also develops an argument on whether it agrees or disagrees with the hypothesis and the reasons to support the view.
Yes, I agree with the argument that if you are proactive about strategic choice, you are much more likely to get what you want than if you wait for the other to initiate actions. To be proactive simply means taking charge of situations before they happen rather than reacting after they happen. Proactive people make things happen. They initiate actions rather than waiting to respond to them or avoiding them. They are able to understand, predict and anticipate events because it is based on behaviour personalization. They don’t wait for answers to appear, they look for them (Wanberg, 2012). Proactive people are quick in making strategic choices. If they are customer service representatives, they easily reach out to their clients, find out how they feel about the new product or if there is anything that needs to be added. Indeed, proactive people are instigators of actions; they institute systems, create ideas and plan well for the future. Proactive persons prepare for all possible outcomes. Flexibility is their trait. It is true proactive salesmen can be annoying especially if they don’t give up and keep on pressurizing you to purchase their product. Nonetheless, proactive persons self-reflect, examine themselves critically, try to be more efficient in their tasks, develop a problem-solving mind, anticipate events, and prioritize their tasks. They are actively engaged; they are resourceful. In a nutshell, people who are proactive about their strategic choices predict events, prevent problems, plan for the future, are actively involved, and perform their work effectively. They are aware of their choices; make decisions in their lives, control situations, and focus on accomplishing their goals (Seibert et al., 2001).
In contrast, reactive people wait for situations to happen and then they react. They don’t initiate actions, institute no systems, even if they have ideas they don’t take charge of them. When things go wrong, they are known to shift blames either to other people or the environment. They fault genetics, situations, and behaviour. Reactive people simply ‘fight fires’. Instead of managing their lives they are managed by the happenings in their environment. The problem with reacting is that sometimes you get caught up in situations that you even fail to act. Business leaders who are reactive to strategic choices see themselves at the pity of the market conditions. They cannot start their own businesses unless they are sure somebody else is doing a similar thing. In this way, if they fail they can always blame it on the poor industry.
Scoring Guide for Week Five Grammar Final Exam:
-10 errors or less =10 pts.
-11 to -15= 9 pts.
-16 to -20 = 8 pts.
-21 to -25 = 7 pts.
-26 to -30 = 6 pts.
-31 or more= 5 pts.
**Please rewrite or correct sentences in another font color than black so your corrected response is easier to read. Thanks.
University of Phoenix Material
Final Grammar Quiz
Part I: True or False
The following word group is a FRAGMENT: These fruits are some of my favorites.
Two Description Paper
The weather is calm and cloudless signifying a beautiful day for basking outside in the sandy beaches of the holiday inn. The breeze is gentle and warm, which brushes against the skin bringing a much needed comfort and relaxation among the people who are leisurely strolling down the beach. Even the palm trees in the beach sway to the gentle breeze and the birds chirp melodiously electrifying the atmosphere with a soothing tranquility. The ocean waves break gently on the rocks over the cliff bringing into life the cool waters of the oceans. Couples sit idly cuddling and giggling in shades along the beach as they debate on different things touching on their lives and the society. Life here seems as sweet as honey which is attested by all creatures and elements of weather that are in perfect harmony. In the background, there is unforgettable hushing and twittering noise of nature which seems to echo the harmony being displayed at the beach.
The sun is hot and dry which brings about a scorching effect on the few people that brazenly stroll down the beach. The ocean line seems to have receded a few meters living behind several sea creatures that seem as dead as Dodo. A pungent and obnoxious smell greets holiday makers emanates from the droppings of quails on the sea shore. Apparently, the palm trees have also shed their leaves and the nature seems to agree that it is not a good time to visit this place. Employees of the holiday inn also seem to be wary of the harsh conditions and are erratic in their service. Prices are inflated, the services are poor and the waiters seem to be few and taking their sweet time in serving the holiday makers.
Analysis of the Above Description
The first strategy that is employed in coming up the two descriptive essays is a good organization of the ideas. It is clear from the two essays that the description of the holiday destination starts with the beach, the weather and the how the surroundings affect the people in the place. From this description, it is easy to discern how people will react to aura seems to surround the place. In addition, it is imperative to use correct mechanics of writing including good sentence structures so that the message can come out clearly. Another strategy that is employed here in these two essays is the use of figurative speech which involves the comparison of two different events using either similes or metaphors. In both essays similes are used whereby in the first essay, the simile ‘life here seems as sweet as honey’ is employed to show the attractiveness of the holiday inn. In the second essay, the simile ‘sea creatures that seem as dead as Dodo’ is also used to show the boring nature of the beach. Besides these two strategies of descriptive writing, there is also vivid sensory detailing of events that is employed here. This detailed and vivid description is important in helping to paint a clear picture in the mind of the reader of how the place looks like. As such, it leaves little room for any other imaginations because all what is to know about the place is clearly described in the essay. As writer, the most important thing that I have learnt from this writing experience is that perception is very important in describing an object or things. This perception will in turn be supported by the strategies that will be employed in an endeavor to develop the descriptive prowess.
Levinson’s Adult Development Theory
The study about adult development has been constant for some time now, but it can still be asserted that it is at its infancy stage. While a lot has been learned and understood with regards to adult development, very little has been done with regards to developing and advancing on the available theories of adult development (Dannefer, 1984). In addition, several fields in psychology such as child development have become cognizant of the fact that, adult development forms an important facet in understanding the development of human beings. As such, adult development forms a vital link as a discipline between other disciplines such as biology and sociology and psychology. All the theories that attempt to define and measure adult development usually start do it from two points of view. The first one is the lifecycle concept while the second one involves description of adult development as a distinct field of study (Minter & Samuels, 1998). This paper is therefore geared towards analyzing Daniel Levinson’s theory on adult development and how it applies to my life in terms of different aspects or experiences that I have undergone.
Reasons for your Choice of the Theory
Several attitudes and expectations are effectively covered and catered for in Levinson’s theory that affects the society. First off, many people make transition between different stages in life with euphemism and hope and their fate can be described by this theory. In addition, this theory also seems to take into account a lot of happenings that culminate in the development of an adult which is important in whole development and well being of an adult. The course of life is one of the important things in the life of human beings and yet it one of the poorly examined. The word course in its elementary meaning alludes to a sequence of events that follows one another and the life of human beings is made of many events that shape and describe it. In order to understand this word and its application in the theory of adult development, one must put into consideration continuity, progression or even stagnation phases that take place in one’s life. It is not enough to just focus on one event in one’s life and that event is the one that is thought to be important. But rather, all events in life irrespective of how insignificant they may seem, they are important in defining and building the course of life hence shaping adult development. According to the Levinson’s theory on adult development, there is generally accepted sequence of events of development between adulthood to adulthood. After reaching adulthood, development continues with other many sequences that equips and shapes the being of an adult. This theory seems to be an improvement and development of Erickson’s conception about life course which revolves around events and happenings around an individual and how they influence life development. These happening are very important in shaping how an adult perceives and interacts with the world around. For instance, the sequence of events constitutes building relationships and changing already existing ones for the betterment of oneself. As such, accepting that changes are normal life events is very crucial in adult development because people are able to change jobs, relationships and other things at different times of adulthood ((Kittrell, 1998).
Summary of the Key Points of the Theory
Levinson also posits that life events undergoes through developmental stages that he calls life cycles (Dannefer, 1984). On the one hand, this theory recognizes that each life is unique due to a blend of endless cultural as well as individual variations while on the other hand, each life must follow a defined sequence of events that overlap with each having a period of 20 years. The four distinct although overlapping phases of development are quite unique and as such, each has unique set of characters and developmental demands. These eras have been grouped into ages that culminate into pre, early, middle and late adulthood. Between these different phases of development, there are transition periods, which can present problems to individuals since moving from one era to another involves self actualization. Accordingly, one of the hardest transition periods is the changeover from middle life to late adulthood, which is often referred to as mid life crisis. During this period, a person undergoes some problems in trying to adjust to the reality of life with goals and dreams that had been planned earlier in life. Many individuals wake up to find that they have not achieved much of what they envisaged earlier in life and as such, many reconsider their goals in careers, marriage and life. This transition is among the key hurdles that each adult must face. Undeniably, this becomes a turning point for many individuals especially when people want to live their lives. In the event that a person has been dreaming wrongly, then life must be changed and be conformed to the societal expectations because people just discover that a lot is expected from them (Minter & Samuels, 1998).
"Pros" and "Cons" Perspectives for the Theory
The strong points about Levinson’s theory on adult development is that it is quite realistic and provides several overlapping periods that many people can identify with in their development as adults. The middle life crisis in particular is a phenomenon that is supported by both theory and life events of many individuals. Middle life crisis is a well known concept that has been studied and it occurs between 37 and 45 years of age for different people. At that time, many people tend to settle down and then examine their lives, goals and dreams that they had. On the other hand, this theory has its own demerits such as the data that was used to construct the theory is quite old and the period the data was collected may not apply to all situations. In addition, times have changed and the people that have grown within the last four decades have faced different situations from the ones experienced when the theory was developed. As such, it is quite challenging to correctly apply this theory in the modern day man who has got different aspirations and goals from those of the olden times (Kittrell, 1998).
Strategic Initiative Paper
According to Steiner (2010), strategic planning involves charting an organization’s course by preparing for future eventualities based on its core vision, mission and the current operating environment. However, financial planning demands projections for adequate cash flow to accomplish these goals in the strategic plan. Firms merge financial analysis and strategic planning to survive in the highly competitive and volatile economy. Moreover, the efficient integration of these strategies is crucial in prioritizing projects according to viability consequently gaining a competitive advantage.
Conversely, the core purpose of strategic planning is establishing the direction of the firm and setting viable goals aligned with the firm's core values and capabilities. To guarantee smooth implementation, a clear timeline and distribution of the various tasks involved in the long term plan must clearly be drawn. Strategic plans cover mid to long term plans in organizations and normally range from five to ten year plans. Occasionally, strategic planning aims to increase growth of a firm through gaining competitive advantage, expanding into new markets, improving quality or reducing operating costs (Steiner 2010).
Accordingly, the process of strategic planning involves monitoring the firm’s internal and external environment. This enables the firm to forecast the future of such trends. Furthermore, it involves setting realistic goals that conform to firm’s values. Thereafter, the management must take the requisite action necessary to achieve these goals in the desired timeframe. However, during implementation, necessary measures are necessary to monitor the progress and make necessary changes in line with such long term plans (Steiner, 2010).
Equally, financial planning entails a conversation between the management and financial advisers on the best financial planning process. In addition, it enables the adviser gather crucial financial information to enable the management allocate sufficient resources to key areas of their strategic plan. Furthermore, it enables management set realistic financial goals based on their capabilities and through effective monitoring of key areas (Steiner, 2010).
Steiner (2010) confirms that, strategic planning in most organizations is conducted by the senior management. Essentially, the leadership with approval of key shareholders determines the future direction of the organization. Tasks are then distributed amongst teams by assigning responsibilities to the various departments in the organization. Similarly, fiscal planning is done by the financial adviser in conjunction the management. The advisers are crucial in implementing strategies that target efficient use of resources through sufficient allocations to induce accountability.
NIKE Inc. – Direct to Consumer Strategic Plan
As part of its strategic plan for growth Nike Inc., should expand market outreach to its customers globally. In the Direct to Consumer initiative, the company outlines a five year plan to open approximately three hundred new NIKE-branded stores globally. Apart from elevating consumer experience, this will position NIKE in the global first-class shopping locations while also accelerating its growth in digital commerce by leveraging the fast growth of NIKE. Through this initiative, NIKE, Inc. projects an additional $2.2-2.6 billion by 2015 (Nike, 2013).
Also highlighted in the annual report is more focus on collaborating with retail outlets. This will create a more elevated and distinguished consumer experience comprising successful execution of market segmented models within major markets. However, NIKE’s wholesale business concept is expected to be the central driver of long-term growth. Conversely, our retail partners are further expected to represent approximately 80 % of the company’s global business by 2015.To build and reinforce this global retail presence, NIKE, Inc. plans to invest $500-600 million up to 2015 to strengthen the direct to consumer business segment. This capital investment will further build more capacity to support its wholesale and retail stores productivity for improved performance (Nike, 2013).
Ideally, strategic and financial planning operates in a cyclic manner in all businesses. Indeed, any change to the budget imposes a re-evaluation of the strategy in place. For instance, if an organization wants to change its strategy, it must have sufficient financial capacity to actualize the plan lest it fails miserably.
In a way, Pericles fulfils Gower's claim in his opening Prologue to provide "restoratives" (0.9) to readers and viewers, reiterated at the very end of the play as the hope that our "patience" will bring "New joy" ("Epilogue" 2357-58). However, the fulfillment is not direct but can be seen in the folding saga that ensues. This is because in the book, it is alleged that because ‘evil is punished, good is rewarded, and bad fortune reversed’ which all happens in the book but is not direct affair. On the one hand, we have King Antiochus who has incestuous relations with his beautiful daughter and does everything within his power to hide it and prevent his daughter from getting married. On the other hand, there is Pericles who is courageous enough to attempt to solve the riddle put forward by King Antiochus as a requirement to marrying his daughter.
On the part of Pericles, he proves to be wise and noble. He quickly deciphers the meaning of the riddle and knows that revealing of the real meaning of the riddle would have dire consequences. After Pericles is given forty days to reveal the meaning of the riddle, he escapes because he knows that King Antiochus will attempt to kill him. Even after fleeing to Tyre, King Antiochus sends assassins after him. The only way out of this predicament for Pericles is to mark time through travelling and wait to see if King Antiochus will change his behavior and attitude towards him. Eventually, Pericles wins the heart of another beautiful lady Thaisa who happens to be a daughter of Simonides. Meanwhile, King Antiochus and his daughter perish through God’s fire from heaven and he is free to return home. The story takes many twists and turns but in the end, the patient Pericles is reunited with his lost wife and Antiochus who wanted to harm him is long dead and each gets what they deserved.
Pericles, Prince of Tyre (Modern)
Meaning of the Details of the Riddle in the Opening Scene
The prologue is recited by an actor before the Antioch palace who recants about a story which is supposed to be a new version of a Greek story that is quite entertaining. The story revolves around the confounding circumstances of the city’s founder Antiochus who eventually was guilty of incest. It followed then that all people who would come to seek his daughter’s hand in marriage had to solve a riddle on the infamous incest or alternatively forfeit their lives.
Antiochus who is the king of Pericles sets this riddle in act I so that he may protect and perpetuate his unnatural sexual relations with his daughter. All the prospective candidates accept this riddle or challenge on one condition that they either unravel the meaning of the riddle or lose their lives. In the riddle, the third and fourth lines are quite clear in their meaning. The pronoun I denotes the daughter, which shows her incestuous relations with her dad. In the previous first and second lines, she paraphrases the same whereby she alleges that the flesh which she feed son belongs to her mother. This flesh that she feeds on belongs to her father because her mother’s flesh is rightly her father’s flesh. However, the riddle becomes tough from lines five and six whereby the usage of son and mother in the riddle are not matching to the whole scheme. It cannot be understood whether they were used deliberately there to have any sense but later their meaning can be forced out by appending such words as in laws which is not uncommon and unparalleled in Shakespeare. By the virtue and the fact that Antiochus marries his own daughter, he not only makes her his own wife but also creates another role from his own act whereby he becomes his own son in law. In essence, the I there denotes that he is I the mother and he’s son. This line of thinking is the only logical to say the least and the only one which makes sense in the light of the provided clues of the riddle.
Besides from these two clues of the riddle in terms of its general meaning, the rest is relatively easy to decipher. Ironically, this simplicity is not straightforward to understand for most people. As such, the superficial complexity of the riddle is good enough to serve its purpose of the scene and or act. However, it seems quite easy especially in the context of the many suitors who failed to solve the riddle despite them being intelligible enough and thought that they could solve it. A comparison of the two forms of the riddle especially the one in the Glower with the one in Pericles version, it is quite clear to discern that the new derivative is quite off key. This comparison is important to show the need for the simplification and why it was done in the new derivative. In essence, this new version or derivative detaches itself from the reality and paints a new picture of a gruesome scene. In a nutshell, the wordings of the riddle in the first act were meant to be overbearing and protective of the awry relationship between a father and a daughter. In addition, the wording was also meant to discourage suitors from proposing to the daughter especially after deciphering the meaning of the riddle.
Pericles Prince of Tyre.
Do you feel that the Internet should be treated, like a print media or a broadcast media? Why? How do you has it been treated since the article was written?
As per my rationale, the Internet should not be treated as a print or a broadcast media, since the former is distinctively dual communication model as opposed to the erstwhile, which is a one way broadcasting channel. For instance, one way media outlets such as television and radio channels can effectively be used for commercial marketing, which involves banner advertisements as noted by Wright (2012). However, a similar venture might not work in the Internet, which is more compatible with searchable advertisements; hence, the Internet should particularly be perceived as well as embraced as a communication media.
Do you think the content of the Internet should be regulated? Why? How should it be regulated? Are there social implications of regulating the Internet?
Internet content can successfully be monitored by the relevant authorities and institution as they have the aptitude to obligate Internet suppliers to regulate the activities of the online community and terminate a user’s service, though this should be done without violating their ethical entitlements such speech, expression and privacy rights. For instance, some suppliers of the latest operating systems normally retain the legal power to limit a user’s access to specific material or resources, which they regard as unsuitable (Collins, 2012). On the other hand, when the government and corporations are granted the power to monitor Internet content, they are likely or tend to infringe some legal user contents that do not favor them such as online political forums, which are tantamount to subjugating liberal enterprises, criticism, the media, and hence violating human rights. Such cases have predominantly been witnessed in autocratic states such as China, North Korea and Iran. Even though, the merits of Internet content regulation overweigh the impact of its present free status, such amendments should be strictly limited to containing abuses alongside exploitation.
What does pornography on the Internet tell us about American sexual behaviors and attitudes? Has the Internet maintained pre-Internet attitudes about sex, or has it caused Americans to view sex in a fundamentally new way? Provide evidence for you position.
Personal Statement Social Worker
[Name of Writer]
[Name of Institution]
Personal Statement Social Worker
Motivation for graduate studies
Study has always been my burning ambition since my childhood. I strongly believe that with studies I can not only make a different in my life but also be an instrument to help others help themselves. My major objective is to become a successful person in life and more importantly as a social worker. This is the reason that motivates me for graduate studies. In this time period, I realize that the roots of a successful future are founded in education. Education increases one’s chances of having a happy life in the future, and it is actually the surest path for a good life. I also realize that graduate studies are of utmost importance especially in the present scenario where employment and earnings are directly linked to the level of studies one has. Even so, I further realize that graduate students’ life are not just only about learning from books and passing exams. It is purely about using the time to create a framework of the future, setting goals, creative thinking, self motivation techniques, brainstorming, planning long term strategies and problem solving. Speaking in-depth, the knowledge and skills that I currently possess as well as my experiences as a qualified social worker, have provided me with valuable insight to the aim, ethics and values of the social workers within local authorities and how these responsibilities are applied in practice.
Motivation for Social Work
Initially, I consider social work as a noble profession. Not everyone will find it exciting as I do, but I personally believe that the ability to render social work is a gift. There are many people with great talents and abilities in the society, but I believe not many of them can wholly devote themselves to serve others through social work. I developed interest in social work at a tender age. As a young boy, hailing from a relatively poor background, I had noticed the disparities in the society. I had seen that the more advantaged individuals were not willing to champion for the needs of the marginalized in the society. My burning ambition to excel in education was primarily as a result of the need to transform the society by reaching out to this marginalized sector through social work.
Nonetheless, my increased commitment and motivation to study Social Work are fairly recent as a direct experience that I gained through building houses for the less fortunate, donating to orphanages in the last couple of years, and voluntarily choosing to assist children in school. Befriending and focusing on resolving issues among the marginalized has been a motivation to me to go inside and explore key areas of social work.
Why study Masters of Social Work
In view of choosing to study masters of social work, I enthusiastically hope to acquire more knowledge and skills and prepare myself for leadership and mentoring roles in social work profession. Conversely, I strongly believe that I am best suited to pursue masters of social work for one reason that I am a diligent student, voracious reader and technically oriented individual with passion for social work aspiring to help people hailing from the disadvantaged backgrounds, and for the other reason that I excel a lot in social work-related subjects. I acknowledge the fact that I have gained a lot from previous work experiences, especially volunteer work, but I still believe that with the distinguished state-of-the-art facilities and academic discipline of Our Lady of the Lake University I will fully be able to cultivate as many skills as possible, and thus increase my chances of excelling in life and improving the society. In addition, the enhanced mobility of people, particularly the labor industry, in the present society has created new demands for social work and its professionals. The demand for professionals with skills to understand cultural diversity, global perspectives of social issues, over and above a comparative approach to different societies have progressed throughout the world. There is a translucent necessity for experts to understand the exceptional traits of the increased mobility of people in multicultural environments. I equally believe that masters in social work will provide me with more work opportunities in a variety of settings.
My graduation study in masters of a social work will further influence my career and more importantly, this level of education will allow me opportunity to work with veterans in a special capacity that an undergraduate study will not offer. My aspiration related to career is to serve as a social worker for Our Lady of the Lake University (Texas); however to obtain employment as a social worker within Worden School of Social Service requires candidates with a minimum Masters degree (18 years of education). If accepted, I will utilize my expertise to serve clients from economically disadvantaged backgrounds and to generate and disseminate knowledge that advances social and economic justice, enhances human well-being, and promote effective practices with emphasis on Hispanic children and families.
Why study at Our Lady of the Lake University
I must say I am impressed by the Mission of the Catholic University of Our Lady of the Lake to ensuring that students acquire quality, innovative, spiritual, and professional growth in their academic and wholesome endeavors in life. It is also clear to me that Master of Social Work program at the University provides exceptional talents and services to social workers that will enable them reach out to the marginalized sector and thus positively transform the society. Moreover, the University enjoys distinct accreditation, particularly its Worden School of Social Service, as one of the most outstanding schools of Social Work in the U.S. Under the spirituality, charisma and sponsorship of the Sisters of Divine Providence, I strongly believe that my commitment and time at the University will not be wasted. By the time I graduate, I am hoping to have developed unwavering service and championship to the marginalized sector in the society of which the Catholic mission is a part.
In addition, by joining Masters of Social Work at Our Lady of the Lake University (Texas), I am particularly impressed by the research in the department of social work development. I have a strong interest in working with children in the future and also impressed by the recent research that supports specialized intervention in direct practice with emphasis on Hispanic children and families. I am more inspired to discover that the impact of this involvement will have positive change in respect to current intervention policies and strategies. Furthermore, I have also planned for my dissertation in this particular area, with hope that I will be completely able to use some significant findings to make application in practices when I finally graduate. Having a full support in a subject area that I am passionate about will become one of the key motivational factors to realizing my social work potentials. I also believe that Our Lady of the Lake University (Texas) required more social workers who not just only meet the requirement related with education but also services connected combat veteran who can relate the basic needs of other veterans and their respective families (Schwartz, 1961).
Knowledge and work experiences
As I look forward to obtaining the distinct advantage of the Our Lady of the Lake University, if my application for admission is accepted, I will be joining the masters program with a lot of experiences in terms of work and the know-how. I have briefly studied ethical values of social work via modules in a deviance and social policy in different articles and books. I am purely enthused by the non-judgmental values approach to people and positive belief in my credibility of self-empowerment through social work effective interventions. These have made me more curious about my social work study and led me to deeply research on more relevant articles in the field. I also studied that for any successful social worker, it is important to be effective in the respective job. I have also been able to gain practical experiences, insight and different challenges of working with clients in the settings of social work.
I am currently working in the Army of the United States as a Specialist of Human Resource. The elements of ethics and values in this voluntary role, have not only increased my sense of job satisfaction, but also made me realize how this role plays important role in gaining trust of clients. My instrumental ability to demonstrate the personal qualities of tact, diplomacy and empathy in different situations at US army HR specialist have further convinced me to pursue this profession.
I have also gained practical experiences by volunteering to read to children at school, building houses for the less fortunate and donating to orphans. I must say that voluntary work has been one of my best experiences, particularly getting the opportunity to help people who are not strong financially and learning about how the health care industry operates (Weinbach, & Taylor, 1994). Through social work, I was also able to get into the community and meet with diverse people. It was such an exciting experience being loved with people you are meeting for the first time in life and falling back in love with them. I remember the conversations we used to have. That was such a great time and great people to be with. The time was awesome because I always met cute, innocent and interesting children every day. Children became my closest friends. They shared their stories, and I generously responded back to them.
As services connected to combat veteran’s affairs, I am purely confident that Veterans objectives and Administrative values would highly complement to my personal strength and enthusiasm. During my working experience, I also strove to provide clarity on any single misrepresentation or biasness perceived by my peers. I am now well aware with different cultures in today’s society that interact from an ecological perspective, constantly affluent and changing. I personally believe that there is some concept that human social service workers have to incorporate in their everyday practices such as, distinguishing various cultures and societies that constantly interact and understand the diverse subgroups and mores, as well as acknowledgment on how society starts changes to various cultures and subgroups. I just prefer to help my peers and enlighten them about a lot of services and resources available to Hispanic children and their families through which their life start improving. Over the years, I have realized that Hispanic children are eager to learn, it is only that their parents cannot afford to pay their fees that result in downfall of literacy rate in our country (Castex, 1994). Government has to take a significant step to offer free education and livelihood setup that helps them to step up in their own potential and participate in the developing the country. Indeed, I have been in a responsible position in my college as students’ welfare representative, developing strong skills of advocacy and listening. My major aim was helping students by empowering them to make positive self change in and outside University.
Castex, G. M. (1994). Providing services to Hispanic/Latino populations: Profiles in diversity. Social Work, 39(3), 288-296.
Schwartz, W. (1961). The social worker in the group. New perspectives on services to groups: Theory, organization, and practice, 7-34.
Weinbach, R. W., & Taylor, L. M. (1994). The social worker as manager. Pearson Allyn and Bacon.
GLOBALISATION AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the world has been irreversibly changed by globalisation. Career development has not been exempted by the changes realized by globalisation. Whereas globalisation has brought new opportunities in career development, it has also led to emergence of new challenges. Numerous global challenges have emerged, which confront the field of career development and psychology. Through the advancement of globalisation, workers are forced to relocate between countries, while companies set new operations in oversees countries. The export and import of career development services into new settings has also been in the increase. In this regard, career development has been under pressure to adapt to the rapid global change. With the heightened globalisation activities, career development is expected to reconsider its ability to meet the diverse needs of global clients including those of low-skilled work, lower socioeconomic status, women, different cultural groups, refugees, and immigrants. In particular, the current global demographic trends have led to a rapid increase in workforce diversity. Through globalisation, countries and corporations are more focused on the concept of inclusion in the workforce. This has led to profound increase in workforce diversity.
Globalisation is a force that cannot be wished out as far as workforce diversity is concerned. Over the last couple of decades, globalisation has emerged as a power, which shapes organizational workforce diversity. Globalisation tends to influence the mobility and choices of people on work opportunities. In fact globalisation has spurred related language and enhanced international competition, internationalization, free trade zones, and global economy. All these forces have opened up the global job markets for people from different nations, cultural backgrounds, religions, and gender. At present, many nations of the world are in transition both economically, politically, and socially. These scenarios have been induced by the forces of globalisation, whereby nations are adopting inclusive ideologies guided by the concept of liberalization. As a result, people from different backgrounds find themselves in nearly all forms of workplaces (Siriner and Nenicka 2011).
The effects of globalisation in the workplace are highly felt in the developed countries as well as developing countries. In the case of modern American workforce, diversity is the defining characteristics. This is different from the last four decades, whereby diversity was not a dominating factor in the workplace. Over the last couple of decades, broad segments of the population were not included in the work environment. This scenario has changed in present day, whereby workforce diversity has taken dominance in the 21st century. Individuals of both genders are now taking equal opportunities in the workplace in the developed world of America and Europe. This scenario is not different from what is happening in China, India, Africa and the Arab world whereby gender equality has been in the rise leading to workforce diversity in terms of gender. Other demographic categories of religion, race, age range, national origin, physical disability, and sexual orientation has dominated the workplace in present days. The corporate organisations are in an increased pursuit to demonstrate inclusiveness in employment (Pollitt 2006).
Due to the force of globalisation, there has been a paramount shift in demographic trends in the workplace. To begin with, the demographic category of gender has been the most affected. By the year 2008, the percentage of women in the workforce has been projected to increase by 48%. This is a significant shift, which is primarily influenced by globalisation. Whereas America and most European nations have embraced gender equality in the workplace for years, the trend has been spread to other nations of Africa and Asia. Women are offered equal employment opportunities as their male counterparts thus contributing to workforce diversity. The dramatic demographic trends based on gender are attributed to the changing family obligations. This has forced women to enter, leave and re-enter the workplace as they wish. On the other hand, the issue of race has also taken a dramatic change in relation to workforce diversity. In the modern world, the corporate world is offering equal employment opportunities to majority, minority, and immigrant groups. This scenario has eroded the earlier setup whereby workforce was dominated by natives and majority groups, in the case of the US workforce, blacks, Hispanic and Asians are offered equal opportunities as the Native Americans. These minority groups have grown to take considerable share of the workforce thanks to the development of globalisation. The need for global competitiveness among corporate organisations as well as the call for corporate responsibility is driving forces towards workforce diversity. For instance in the US, out of every six new workers, five are either female, Hispanic-American, African-American, or immigrant group (Kronos 2005).
The demographic trends in workforce diversity are characteristic of the impacts of globalisation. Over the last 3 to 4 decades, the changes in workplace diversity in the US and Europe is commendable. The specific trends in age composition, gender, disability, culture, race, and ethnicity are due to the advancement of globalisation. The current mix up of old and young population in the workplace is due to the aging of baby boomers and the dramatic pursuit for organisations to recruit young and dynamic employees. It is expected that the population of aging workers in the US will rise by over 17% and 37% in the period 2010 and 2020. The proportions of workforce based on gender, ethnicity, and age are also expected to change in the future. The current demographic trends in the workplace are already explicit on the impacts of globalisation. The shifts in ethnic and gender composition are expected to continue in coming decades as has been witnessed over the last three decades. Immigrants and racial minorities are also expected to account for considerable proportion of the workforce. Non-Hispanic entrants, Asians, Hispanics, Asian-Americans, and black Americans are rapidly taking large share of the US workforce (Lerman 2013).