Certified Health Education Specialist
To be a certified health specialist the candidate must pass the CHES examination. This is a mandatory exam that measures the possession, effective application and accurate interpretation of knowledge in the health educator’s areas of responsibility. The exam consists of 165 multiple-choice questions and is offered across several colleges throughout the United States. Qualifications for taking the Certified Health Education Specialist examination are exclusively based on superior academic papers. Individuals are therefore eligible to take the examination if they have a bachelors, masters or doctoral degree from a recognized institution of higher learning. In addition they must present official transcripts that prove they majored in health education. For instance, majors in Health Education, Community Health or Public Health Education are an added advantage (nchec.org 2008).
Alternatively, the prospective candidates must have done at least 25 semester course work hours and achieved at least a C grade. The next exam is due on 19th October and registration is currently ongoing. The “seven areas of responsibility” in respect to health education specialist form the basis for the exams and they can further be broken down as follows. Assessing needs assets and capacity for health education which requires planning the entire process and assessing existing information and data relating to health. The second step is planning for the health education process. Here, the specialist must develop his intended goals and objectives as well as select the most viable design and strategy to achieve these goals. Implementing health education comprises the highest percentage (24%) of questions (nchec.org 2008).
At this stage it is crucial to actualize the plan by training individuals in project implementation and also maintain controls to monitor the progress of projects. The fourth area is conducting evaluation and related research. At this stage it is critical to critique the data collection tools and consequently design the best instruments for data collection.
In administering and managing health education, it is crucial to manage financial resources and seek adequate support from all stakeholders to ensure project viability. The next step is serving as a health education resource person to the concerned community. Key competencies at this stage include providing training to opinion leaders by serving as a reliable health consultant (nchec.org 2008).
The final area is advocating for health education by influencing policy and developing an effective communication channel to promote the needs of the community. The Certified Health Education Specialist credentials are renewable annually by payment of a $55.00 annual fee. Recertification, however, is after five years and the requirements include accrual of continuing education contact hours and timely payment of the annual fee. For automatic recertification a CHES accumulate 75 hours. However, they may retake the examination if they fail to earn these hours within the five year window. A fail in the exams however translates to an immediate expiration of CHES certification (nchec.org 2008).
Gawain and the Lady of the Castle’s Behavior
The third part of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is about the three days that Sir Gawain leaves the Castle to be united with the Green Knight. In the first day, the lord wakes up early with the intention of going hunting. This day is vividly described by the poet as the hunting begins with blood hounds in a hot pursuit of a deer. There is an instantaneous switch of scenes whereby the reader is taken to the bedroom of Gawain where is still sleeping before dawn. The lady of the castle stealthily enters Gawain’s bedroom who pretends he has not noticed her. In the end, he wakes up and feigns a surprise of finding her there.
After this early encounter between these two, an animated conversation ensues whereby both the lady of the castle and Sir Gawain are on their guards to avoid besetting each other. During this conversation, Gawain is careful to use his wisdom diplomatically to evade and thwart the lady’s sexual advances. First off, the lady flirtatiously attempts to hold him as prisoner in the castle and goes ahead to praise his bravery as a knight and then assures him that they are perfectly safe from any prying eyes. Conversely, the lady offers herself to the knight for a sexual intimacy. On the part of Gawain, he handles her with care and evasion by declaring that he is honored (Gardner l. 1247). Nonetheless, he goes ahead to declare that he does not befit the lady’s class because he is unworthy. The lady is still not convinced and repudiates harshly his words and still sees him as worthy of her. She asserts that if it were within her powers or capacity to choose a husband, she would have chosen Gawain as her preferred husband.
Gawain goes on the offensive and aptly reminds her that she has thus far conducted herself well as the lady of the castles. However, he makes sure that he drives home the sobering fact that the lady is married and that cannot be undone. Their interesting and animated conversation continues for awhile until mid morning where the lady gives up her attempts to entice Gawain to go into bed with her. Before Gawain leaves for the hunting expedition on the first day, the lady requests for a kiss. Before this, she also asks for a gift like a glove. However, Gawain does not have anything to give her because since he had not come with anything valuable so that she can remember him by beholding the gift. However, the lady gives him a green girdle for protection during the hunting trip. She claims that the wearer of the girdle cannot be killed by a mortal. Gawain on his part obliges and accepts the gift in the prospects of getting much needed protection (1851-1854).
This scene is punctuated by sexual intonations and passes from the lady of the castle who is interested in Gawain. On the other hand, Gawain is keen on avoiding all advances of the lady and moves fast to contain the situation albeit in a cunning and trickery fashion. Their behavior is condescending and wanting especially in view of the time and place where it is taking place. The lady is oblivious of this fact and goes ahead to assure and entice Gawain to bed. Gawain is caught between a rock and a hard place whereby he wriggles out of the situation by avoiding the subject of the lady’s morning visit. In summary, the lady’s behavior can be termed as pure assumptions and foolish, while Gawain’s behavior is wise and befitting of a knight.
The original Gawain manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x...
The U.S.A. Patriot Act: A Necessary Evil
The US PATRIOT Act or “The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, was proposed for legislation a few days after the devastating 9/11, 2001 attack. The bill was afterwards rapidly ratified and incorporated into the constitution by 26th October, 2001, 45 days following the attack. The influential, 342 page bill was particularly implemented to curb terror via legally recognized actions. However, the act was ironically not obstructed by routine federal due processes, such as the hearings and integrity ballot assessments, as the President Bush-led government capitalized on the aftermath of the 9/11 attack to secure the necessary approvals for the bill.
The paper aims to provide a brief background of the Patriotic Act, highlight the powers it grants to the federal Intelligence as well as law enforcement, besides reviewing its implementations along with potential benefits. It also reviews the negative implications of the bill, such as the violation of constitutional liberties, and suggests the relevant reforms that should be made to sway public trust, before concluding with a summary of existing advantages.
The US PATRIOTIC Act considerably intensified law enforcement’s scrutiny alongside inspection powers, besides rectifying over 15 distinctive constitutional charters, involving the “Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA), the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), and the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)” among others as reported by Mayeux (2013). Other key objectives of the bill ranged from imposing wiretap and intelligence policies to cope with the modern digital era, monitoring concurrent along with stored communications, such as email and voicemail, and allowing detectives to conduct instant inspection of property. Advocates and critics of the Patriot Act have persistently; either supported or censored it on countless platforms. The Act comprises of 10 Sections, with each posing benefits along with drawbacks to the both American citizens and non-citizens.
Provisions to the Federal Intelligence and Law Enforcement Bodies
According to Bergen (2002), Chapter one of the Patriot Act was particularly premeditated to increase domestic surveillance by allocating increased endowment to the FBI’s technological department. This will enable the FBI to keep in touch with technological shifts, and alleviate the persistent equipment challenges that have conventional hindered its surveillance efforts. The chapter equally condemns prejudicing against personalities or immigrants, while defending the constitutional entitlements of Arabs along with Muslim Americans among other racial minorities and spiritual-cultural values practiced within the federal jurisdiction. Chapter Four of the Act offers compensation to people who might provide or reveal incriminating intelligence to surveillance agencies concerning terrorist plans and activities. Section Five necessitates supplementary administrative sponsorship required to establish welfare centers for the casualties of 9/11, alongside their households; hence the chapter exceptionally benefits victimized civilians. However, both Section Two and Three of the Act have been objected as well as suspected by many to be in contravention of the Rights and Civil Liberties of most ethnic communities.
The Patriot Act within these two Chapters plainly shows a scope of favoritism, prejudice, along with discrimination, which would have rather been evaded. For instance in Chapter Two, it grants detectives the permission to search and confiscate private data of ventures for positional financial fraud. Records indicate that most targeted ventures for searches belong to non-White Americans, a development that is tantamount to racial discrimination. This is despite the Fourth Amendment of the Federal Constitution providing protection against unwarranted searches and confiscations. Nonetheless, the chapter exempts the national government from verifying the actual cause, or seeking a warrant (Williams, 2001). Chapter Three gives the national government authority to detain and briefly incarcerate suspects in absence of charges. This infringes the Sixth Amendment Right, which obligates officers to brief suspects on the committed offence and timely judgment. The Chapter similarly contravenes the right to provide security to all civilians, irrespective of state policies or procedure. For instance, the law enforcement reportedly capitalized on the provision to racially trace and detain thousands of people via their visas, although such cases were eventually dismissed owing to the violation of constitutional rights.
Critical review of the trends in political science publication
The need to learn publishing for career survival often manipulates the choices of countless intellectuals, although most graduate scholars seem to be unfamiliar with the publishing procedure. Despite having other essential obligations to oversee, graduate scholars are expected to timely master the procedure, in order to display productive publishing capability upon joining the professional sphere. Even though ten years ago, publishing among graduate students was minimally valued, the practice is contemporarily considered among the precondition of political science peer-assessment publications as well as recruitment basic in the job market. In most learning institutions, new recruits are anticipated to instantly conduct publishable reviews, besides teaching; hence publishing presents one of the indispensable credentials for a contender to optimistically undertake this procedure.
The paper extensively reviews the key trends in political science publication, as well as analyzes the publishing process based on the relevant resources. It further presents the implications of the recommended readings to researchers, scholars, and the political science discipline, before concluding with a summary of Rosenson et al.’s appraisal of American senators as well as policymaking conduct.
Trends in political science publication
Owing to the current expectations in publishing as well as the commercial spheres prerequisites, graduate scholar’s needs to make timely exploitation of the potentiality to publish professionally before seeking for employment as observed by Rich (376-379). This has largely been fueled by the need to ensure sustainability or economic viability in the university press sector, by being self sponsored in the face of dwindling fund allocations by the commercially-derived modern institution administrators. Accordingly, the objective is to identify a sustainable business strategy that would permit the presses to deliver their conventional endowment aid to the investigative society. However, economic viability is often mistaken for maintainability, which is not compatible with the contemporary situation of the university publishers, who have been faced with annual reduction of funds by their respective institutions as well as the intensifying challenges in the market outlets.
Viability involves upholding status quo, thus obligates university publishers to be innovative, focus beyond the present commercial trends, and contemplate enhancements in the prospective market. To ensure sustainability particularly in university political science publications, peer review should be utilized. Taking into consideration the notion that virtues of intellectual projects are best determined by exposing them to expertise evaluation, which is core to the dual objective of retaining value and guaranteeing integrity to published resources. Leading academic publishers in political science frequently collect over 700 updated writings from graduate scholars alongside departments. Reviewers of these journal publishers normally hire over 3,000 distinguished political scientists to anonymously appraise this writings’ viability for incorporation into the respective journals. The submission rate of this appraisals duration collectively surpassed 50 percent. Neutral peer assessment is core to the scientific assumption that, all of researchers are involved and needs a considerable number of professional volunteers to oversee its mission (Miller et al, 2013).
Nevertheless, students capable and ready to review manuscripts normally concede considerable opportunity costs such as time, which they might have as well channeled on project alongside teaching obligations. Moreover, researchers might stress the significance of the peer-review procedure, they always perceive reexamining manuscripts as a work burden, and hence, are not likely to dedicate adequate time to the process. There are, however, important benefits to consider such as persistent exposure to distinctive research, getting familiar with the reality of refinement process, as well as mastering a multiplicity of writing models and styles, apart from being able to distinguish and or apply the variations among writing resources for tutorials, conferences, alongside journals. Furthermore, most intellectual journals expose analyzers to alternative assessment approaches of a single manuscript, thus in turn providing them with the opportunity to compare their observations with those of other reviewers (Thatcher, 129-132).
Publishing process: the Five Stages of book publishing
The Five Stage procedure of journal publication entails a structure to assist in identifying the areas of development. The approach to some extent covers all the components of the multi-billion international book sector though, with exceptional focus given specifically to the American university press sector. According to Germano (5-28), a contemporary effective model for a university press should encompass tackling the prevailing environmental changes, which obligates facing the undaunted hurdles associated with marketing academic books. The stage five publishing mainly involves the vending venue, publication medium, either direct or indirect marketing, along with the auctioning of books on a distinct center, and or auctioning them as component of a subscription. Most university presses are still in stage one of publishing; venue vending, though the outlets of the paradigm such as library and bookstores have continued to record deteriorating fortunes, particularly because of technological developments such as the Internet.
Stage two mainly involves online auctioning of printed books through firms such as Amazon. The change from Stage One to Two mainly involves graduating from a locally based store to an online and globally accessible store. The collectively accessible nature of the online stores thus terminates several copyright accords between the conventional book vendors. While Stage Three involves online selling of particularly e-books and is dominated by technologically based or responsive companies such as Apple and Google. Stage Four of publishing involves selling books electronically or online directly to readers instead of using search engines such as Google and Amazon stores. Stage Five involves limiting expenses that might be accrued as a result of the direct marketing in Stage Four, by directly selling a variety of published products and providing subscription services, involving popular music among other items, to the online consumers.
Implications of the findings
The research primarily indicate that professionals, students and the institutional department in political science publication must particularly acknowledge the importance of peer-review to their careers such as in espousing different approaches and styles of writing. However, the political science publishing community, mainly graduate students, must also recognize that the process can occasionally be time consuming and obstructive to other academic commitments including research and lecturing. Aspiring publishers in political science faculty who are graduate scholars are equally challenged to embrace and master professional writing and publishing before their learning period elapses as noted by Rich (376-379). This would either boost their chances of securing occupation after the completion of their courses, or diminish their hopes of being economically viable in case they lack publication orientation as most employers in the sector normally regard new recruits as experts. Even though over fifty percent of university presses are still based on stage one and two of the publication process, graduate students in the faculty of political science publication are expected to be familiar with the details of the Five-Stage publishing procedure.
According to Rosen et al (73-91), previous studies on the conduct of American senators and or lawmakers indicates that congressional legislation toward Israel was greatly determined by the racial and spiritual affiliation of both lawmakers as well as their constituents, and not merely by leaders’ excerpt views of the federal agendas. Some research though retracted the possibility that constituent grievances might influence Congressional legislations. The authors further established that Israel’s leading advocates between 1993-2002, 103rd–107th Congresses were Jewish, traditionalist, Republican, alongside evangelical congressmen. Elite status prevailed over constituency issues in decision making, with the exclusion of the Jewish residents among the lawmakers communities. Although Jewish as well as conformist legislators have historically advocated support for Israel, Republicans alongside evangelical congressmen have rarely embraced such extreme pro-Israel perceptions, and are therefore regarded as emerging support for the established pro-Israel alliance. Hence the pro-Israel alliance suggests both persistency as well as a widening shift to integrate its new advocates. The researchers though believe that the alliance may prospectively concede further changes.
Germano, William. Getting It Published, 2nd Edition: A Guide for Scholars and Anyone Else Serious about Serious Books. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Miller, et al. How to Be a Peer Reviewer: A Guide for Recent and Soon-to-be PhDs. The Professions, January, 2013.
Rich, Timothy S. Publishing as a Graduate Student: A Quick and (Hopefully) Painless Guide to Establishing Yourself as a Scholar. The Profession, April, 2013.
Rosenson, et al. U.S. Senators’ Support for Israel Examined Through Sponsorship⁄Cosponsorship Decisions, 1993–2002: The Influence of Elite and Constituent Factors. Foreign Policy Analysis, 5.1, (2009): 73–91.
According to West (2012), the improved application of smart phones has greatly transformed several sectors including entertainment, commerce and more recently health. Apart from improving service delivery, mobile technology has also increased efficiency through making information widely accessible. Lately, this technology has revolutionized patient experience and the cost of quality health care. The mobile revolution or mHealth is aiding in chronic disease management and empowering the elderly. 24-hour health call centers, which handle patient inquiries, are widespread across all hospitals in the nation. In addition, phone reminders are crucial in ensuring patients take their medication on time.
Accordingly, due to globalization, physicians need tenuously access to patient information and clinical tools. In view of this, smartphones and various applications empower doctors to handle their patients faster and with greater accuracy using mobile technology. Today, obstetricians use applications to keep track of fetal heart tracings and maternal contraction patterns in real time. In addition to increasing efficiency; the need to reduce the rising cost of health has further catalyzed the adoption of mobile technology in healthcare. Remote monitoring mobile applications aid patients in recording their health measures and electronically forwarding these to their physicians. This essentially reduces their physical visits to the hospital for routine procedures. Apart from reducing health care costs, it also enables a single doctor to serve more patients simultaneously (West, 2012).
West (2012) further estimates that, these remote monitoring applications could save the nation approximately $197 billion in the next 25 years. These cost savings are likely to come from the chronic disease areas of heart failure, pulmonary disease and diabetes. Apple’s iPad tablet popularity in the United States has further led to development of numerous medical applications for mobile devices. For instance, Airstrip Cardiology enables physicians view electrocardiograms while Mobile MIM shows various forms of medical imaging. Apple iTunes stores over 12,000 health care related applications in addition to the approximately 40,000 mobile health applications across multiple platforms.
The mobile revolution in healthcare has raised several issues regarding the government’s role in regulating medical devices and diagnostic tools. This role lies with the Food and Drug Administration and its main task is ensuring the safety and benefits of all medical devices. Consequently, for doctors to rely on remote monitoring devices and mobile applications in transmitting patient data, the latter must be certified accurately (healthit.gov, 2013). Web 2.0 however, puts patients at risk since the information shared on these platforms may not be verifiable, credible and authentic. Moreover, impostors may infiltrate these forums and edit health information thereby putting unsuspecting users at risk of using falsified health information.
While mobile applications have the potential to improve healthcare, they must be accompanied with clinical analysis from an expert to raise the quality of patient care. Therefore, without clinical research for support, they may be a waste of valuable resources. Consequently, in 2011, the FDA published guidelines on interpreting imaging scans from mobile device applications. Concern was raised on the screen size, contrast ration and ambient light of the platform, which could easily result in wrong diagnosis and treatment (healthit.gov, 2013).
Mobile technology further faces resistance from several physicians. For instance, clinicians fear that if patients become empowered with basic information relating to price and basic diagnosis techniques, they will lose revenue and control of the medical profession. Conversely, the traditional role of doctors as the guide to health treatment may fade as consumers rely more on mobile health applications. Finally, several patients have also raised concern about the confidentiality and security of mHealth. They are worried that increased reliance on mobile phones may easily compromise the privacy of their medical information. This can occur if someone losses their phone (West, 2012). However, they may also fall victim to fraud on information sharing sites under Web 2.0 platform.
Patient Portals, Personal Health Records and Patient Engagement
Understanding and navigating the US health system continues to be a major problem in the country. In fact, the National Adult Literacy Survey approximates that almost 50% of adults have difficulty understanding several aspects of healthcare. These range from prescriptions, appointment slips to health education materials. Online patient portals will therefore help in eradicating health illiteracy through the interactive sessions with health specialists. Apart from being secure, the portals operate 24 hours to the convenience of the patients. These will reduce physical doctor visits while getting the same services more conveniently (healthit.gov, 2013).
Performance Management Essay
Performance Management Essay
My preferred career in the non-governmental sector has always been with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). I have particularly been motivated by the autonomous and neutrality of the organization’s humanitarian missions and ambition to safeguard the wellbeing as well as the integrity of warfare and natural disaster casualties, and the need to supply them with basic needs and resources. Besides, the ICRC mainly presents such victims with hope as well as opportunity to reconstruct and, or redeem their lives, which to me is indispensable particularly after witnessing or being part of a devastating inhuman event.1
UIA. (2008). What Is an NGO? A Guide to NGOs for the Military; Union of International Associations (UIA), 3(1): 19-28.
Counseling Adolescents Experiencing Ethical Issues
Associated with Internet Use
Ethics in Practice C7462
September 9, 2013
Today, more adolescents are communicating through the wide spread use of social networking sites. However, combining adolescents technological skills with minimal to no adult supervision, leads to high risk behaviors. Some of these behaviors include: being exposed to pornography, drugs, violence and cyber bullying (Aguston, Kowalski & Limber, 2007). As we live in a rapidly growing and ever changing technological time, adolescents are not using appropriate ethical decision-making when interacting in cyberspace. Counselors are confronted with ethical issues as well as challenges when working with adolescents dealing with cyber bullying, addiction and depression. While adhering to the code of ethics and moral reasoning, counselors must assist adolescents in developing strategies to resolve their dilemmas (Slonje, Smith & Frisen, 2013).
In addition, the rising number of disturbing stories concerning adolescents on the Internet underscores the real danger of cyber bullies, sexual predators and online scams that jeopardize vulnerable teenagers (Sanders et al, 2000, Mishna et al, 2011, Kwan & Scoric, 2013). Interestingly, most teenagers still spend several hours online on social networks, instant messaging and in extreme cases gambling. As adolescents spend more time on social networks, it negatively affects their academic performance and their family and peer relationships.
In addition, Internet addiction can easily develop into a psychiatric diagnosis if unchecked. Heavy users spend several hours on social media chatting, posting photos and updating status. However, it also creates a medium that easily isolates a segment of the adolescents. Consequently, this lot is teased and bullied resulting in school delinquencies (Sengupta & Chaudhuri, 2011).
Alternatively, adolescents who are desperate to meet and connect with new people easily fall prey to flimsy chat rooms and gaming sites on social media. For counselors to assist adolescents’ addicted to social media it is crucial to determine their hobbies and behaviors. Although adolescents may seem okay on the outset, Internet addiction and especially to social media is usually underlined by other factors. These include depression, substance use and learning difficulties (Mishna et al, 2011, Kowalski & Limber, 2007). Therefore social network addiction is just an epitome of a deeper problem facing our adolescents.
According to Pope and Vasquez (2010), this problem often reveals in the school setting with an unexplained slip in academic performance. Any attempt to adjust computer use or limit Internet access erupts into defiance and angry outbursts from the affected teenager. In older adolescents between ages 18 and 25, Internet use is intertwined with illicit sex escapades, gambling and drug problems. Conversely, these adolescents spend several hours playing online poker and increasingly become single-minded and isolated.
Consequently, complaints against adolescent Internet ethics are on the rise. Undoubtedly, adolescents’ morals in cyberspace are wanting. Since they do not have to reveal their real identities on social networking sites, these teenagers are notorious for behaving in unethical and immoral behaviors. Apart from posting comments using foul language, they also upload nude photos and pornographic material against the society’s moral standards. Others post threatening or demeaning comments, create death hoaxes and write unsubstantiated articles on their peers thus destroy their reputation. Moreover, the situation is further worsened since most teenagers do not regret these behaviors attributing it to freedom of expression. However, such behavior is both unethical and in violation of several laws (Sengupta & Chauhduri, 2011).
The major problem bedeviling adolescents’ Internet ethics stems from inadequate knowledge in the area. Schools’ counselors rarely organize talks about morals in the cyberspace. If such talks are held, teenagers easily forget their content thereby repeating the wrongdoings. In addition, parents rarely teach adolescents the implication of Internet ethics as they are either busy or ignorant. However, adolescents further behave poorly in cyberspace due to mere curiosity. This majorly underlines adolescence exposure to pornographic websites and sharing on social networks. Since sex is still a taboo in most societies, youngsters turn to social media to share illicit images (Kowalski & Limber, 2007).
Moving forward parents have a crucial role to play in promoting ethics in the cyber world. For instance, they should be flexible on sex topics for adolescents to stop Googling and sharing explicit sex content on social networks. In addition, both teachers and parents must aid adolescents in abiding by the societal norms concerning ethical behavior. However, teenagers must learn to appreciate the significance of Internet ethics (Slonje, Smith & Frisen, 2013).
Adolescent’s use of communicating through the social media is not likely to slow down in the near future. Social networking sites have allowed the youth of today to expand their social networks. This has also given way for bully’s to attack their victims anonymously, with a much larger audience. Therefore, it is imperative to continue attention on the implications of social media on our teenagers (Slonje, Smith & Frisen, 2013).
Communicating the Social Justice Perspective
Communicating the Social Justice Perspective
1. What would you tell this person in order to communicate the social justice perspective and values to this market-justice leader in the community?
Primarily, I would explain to him or her that though the modern society is dominated by the culture of capitalism; public health’s social justice view mainly emphasizes equal distribution of basic benefits as well as the sharing of widespread challenges. This entails the identical ethical inclinations, which motivate public health to enhance civic wellbeing status by reforming health, besides meeting the requirements of the most underprivileged, and in turn, marginalizing the leading prejudices in healthcare as supported by Gostin & Powers (2006). The jurisdictional authorities should hence venture in a well established public health entity apart from being ready to curb the challenges that might neglect the administration boundaries. The perspective further emphasizes the need for state involvement in fighting the leading causes of poor wellbeing, which normally obligates transcending alongside sharing liability across different administrative setups. Most importantly, the justice view would prioritize the civic wellbeing on individual basis as well as an economic freedom, coupled with perceiving it to encompass a dedication to the health along with equivalent value of all individuals in the society.
2. Identify and discuss 2 to 3 of the principles on influencing others and surviving as a leader that you would want to apply in this scenario
According to Heifetz & Linsky (2002), it is fascinating to guide others during both good and challenging periods; however, leadership equally involves the unavoidable destabilizing forces that often render it impossible for leaders to ascertain their organizational objectives. Reforms obligate mobilizing people to overcome the prevailing crisis, by retiring their customary or established values and behaviors. This might often result in direct and individual objections in an attempt to weaken the leader’s mandates, or convince them to abandon change. To manage under such hostile situations and to bode well with the organizational goals, leaders need to apply relevant principles depending on the threat such as ‘operating in and above the fray’ and prolonging the confrontation. Managing above the fray involves identifying the key ongoing hurdles to new initiatives, the specific motive or purpose of the resistance, and the individuals behind it. This awareness will from then onwards be critical as the leadership will explore how to overcome its main critics. While courting the uncommitted involves convincing the different organizational staff that the new initiatives are geared towards progressive goals and discharging individuals that are not prepared to embrace the proposed changes.
Assessment of Global Business Environment
Global Business Environment
The world of computers and information technology has become such an important aspect of our lives that practically, it is highly doubtful there will be a return to traditional methods of conducting business. In almost every corner of the globe, whether it is in first or third world countries, technology has become omnipresent and is reshaping both the economies and every aspect of life. Coupled with the increasing global environment of businesses, changes in technology continue to significantly affect human civilization, human experiences of work, the management of organizations, and how information is gathered, processed, stored and retrieved. It has indeed improved the capabilities of managing the dynamic challenges and increasing complexity of global business environments. Today, industries operate with greater levels of efficiency because of improved expertise. Technology has further enhanced quality and quantity production, and facilitated excellence in services provided (Hakansson et al., 2009). Improvements in Internet-based tools, such as social networking websites and the World Wide Web, have facilitated proficiency gains in all segments of the economy. In a nutshell, technology has become the driving factor in the process of international marketing (Thatcher & Oliver, 2011). The discussion in this paper focuses on the impact of new technology on telecommunication industry. Before that however, it analyses the concept of globalization and its impact on businesses and the key theories of international trade. It also looks at the impact of other global factors in the telecommunications industry besides new technology. Finally, it concludes by identifying the available strategic choices for the global expansions and recommend appropriate strategy on the basis of analysis.
Concept of Globalization and its Impact on Businesses
While recent advances in technology have become the driving factors in the process of globalization, it is indeed globalization that is accelerating the revolution on the telecommunication sector. It is globalization that is facilitating increased liberalization and privatization of the industry. This paper defines globalization as the international marketing in which businesses operate directly or indirectly across national boundaries. Most companies engage in global marketing through mergers, alliances, affiliations and subsidiaries. Other large organizations such as Ford are involved in international marketing through direct operations worldwide (Wells et al., 2001).
According to the United Nations, about 6.6 billion people are involved in international trade today. This number is projected to increase to 10 billion people in the next 30 years. Besides the participants in the global marketplace, international trade services in 2012 alone amounted to about US$2.4 trillion. Equally, when looking at the most wealthy organizations in the world, it is evident that about 80% of their total sales and investments are in multinational or global corporations. These figures can give an estimation of the impact of globalization on businesses today. While traditional international trade was mainly penetrated by first world countries, in recent years developing countries across the six contents, especially Asia, have been increasing their influence in the global marketplace. The increased influence in numbers and income growth can further indicate the intensity of globalization on businesses. Companies such as Nike and Sony Walkman have created ‘global youth culture’ as their competitive advantage in winning over pre-adults, who are technically half the world’s population. Even the third generation language used in most media houses and social networks, especially among the third world countries, is also driven by the global youth culture. This does not mean, however, that older consumers are no longer relevant in the global market. Most of the people in this age bracket identify themselves by, for instance, driving international cars or taking holidays to international countries.
The Practice of Cannibalism among the Members of the Neanderthal Family
The Neanderthals were members of an ancient human species that lived about 200,000 years ago, but became extinct during the Ice Age largely because of climate change, interbreeding with humans, and affirmed cannibalism behavior. Ever since their discovery about 200 years ago, they have fascinated modern humans in many ways. It is interesting, for instance, that just a decade ago they were called all sorts of weird names such as primitive subhuman, brutish cavemen, ancient species lacking refinement, and stupid-looking confrontational species that were only capable of hunting. Consequently, no one, ever imagined that Neanderthals could share a common ancestry with modern humans. As expressed by Stringer, “We probably all carry genes from archaic species such as Neanderthals.” (33),
According to Rightmire (918), “as might be expected for specimens of such antiquity, the Sima Crania show many primitive features that are found in other early Europeans, and in Middle Pleistocene skulls from Africa and Asia.” Furthermore, according to fast-accumulating data, their biological and cultural innovations were much more like modern humans. They also used to communicate, same as the modern man. There are new speculations in the contemporary world that, Neanderthals practiced cannibalism. Take for instance the Neanderthal cranium at Monte Circeo. White and Toth reports, ‘the skull bears two mutilations: one caused by one or more violent blows on the right temporal region…. The other mutilation consists of the careful and symmetric incising of the periphery of the foramen magnum (118).” Evidently, the careful mutilation of the skull is a sign of ritual cannibalism by Neanderthals. Other caves that suggest Neanderthals were cannibals include Bones at Sima de los Huesos, Moula-Guercy, and Trou de la Naulette and Krapina. “These bone modifications indicate that the human individuals were defleshed and disarticulated. After this, the marrow cavity was exposed by a hammer-on-anvil technique” (Defleur, Alban, et al.131). Without doubt, consistent scientific evidences and the deliberately butchered cut marks provide sufficient evidence to believe some members of the Neanderthal families did practice cannibalism.
Were the Neanderthals Cannibals?
In view of the question, there have been speculations that Neanderthals were cannibals. However, as White and Toth (118) say, “We are not claiming that all Neanderthals were cannibals, rather, that there were some cannibals among the Neanderthals.” The smashed and broken bones, all stripped of flesh and bone marrows, and the deliberately butchered cuts suggest the practice of cannibalism among some members of the Neanderthal family. “These men simply ate each other,” as affirms by Hotz (13). Besides, new fossils now suggest human consumption was a practice in the everyday life of Neanderthals. “Human and mammal remains were treated very similarly,” (Defleur, Alban, et al 128). Conversely, others might have practiced it as a ritual but most of them were driven by starvation that struck the period. One of the researches carried out by scientists in Spain confirmed that there was satisfactory evidence of cannibalism by these ancient species. The research was done by analyzing the bones and DNA of a dozen members of Neanderthals butchered by cannibals. “Many of the bones suggested a deliberate butchering for meat”, remarked Green, Richard et al. (330). The results further indicated that the marrow had been sucked from the hollow bones and that all the flesh had been stripped from the skeletons. As reported by Defleur et al. (129), “In both taxa, marrow bones were systematically broken, and bones without marrow were not damaged.” Certainly, there was nothing to suggest they were eaten by wild animals. Besides, given that cannibalism is still practiced in some parts of the world both as a ritual and the last resort of survival; it is highly probable that Neanderthals ate their fellow men.
In Belgium and Croatia, the large sample of Neanderthal jaws found at Trou de la Naulette and Vindija respectively, helped furnish evidence that indeed the species were cannibals. The jaws suggested that Neanderthals used their teeth to tear flesh from bones. Their jaws were large and robust, typical of cannibals. There was also stunning evidence in Croatia with the discovery of the skeletons from Krapina. The Croatian paleontologist, Karl Gorjanovic-Kramberger, confirmed the cannibalism behavior of the species by analyzing the evidence. The skeletons showed that the bones had been cracked open and marrows sucked. The sucking was not of animals, but of human nature. In the end, he affirmed that indeed Neanderthals were cannibals. In Australia, paleoanthropologists excavated slashed and butchered bones of members of the Neanderthal family. Most of these bones were deliberately cut, limbs dismembered, and marrows sucked from the bones. According to Cooper (175), “there was palaeological evidence that Neanderthals ate the brain tissue of their own deceased as well as that of deer and goats.”
The latest extracted evidence of cannibalism by Neanderthals is reported at Moula-Guercy Cave in France. Found at the site were broken and cut human bones, presumably believed to have been bones of six individuals. “Marks on the bones clearly revealed that these early humans filleted the chewing muscle from the heads of two young Neanderthals, sliced out the tongue of at least one, and smashed the leg bone of a large adult to get at the marrow” (Culotta 18). The cuts further indicated that they were done only by sharp tools as the cuts had been severed, presumably to remove the limbs. Other skeletons lacked thigh muscles, indicating that they had been removed. Archaeologists assert that these were Neanderthals eating fellow beings because there was no evidence of gnawing at the site, which could indicate that they had possibly been eaten by animals. Ritualistic cannibalism can also be ruled out, though without certainty, because most of the bones had typical marks of butchering rather than stripped flesh removed during rituals.
Neanderthals are also said to have been cannibals based on the evidence of the impacts of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) during the Ice Age. One of the arguments begins from a simple syllogism. Neanderthal men are said to have exhibited cannibalism. Cannibalism is known to transmit TSE. Certainly, it is possible therefore, that these men were wiped out by TSE transmitted through cannibalism, thus led to the extinction of Neanderthals. Aside from the syllogism, investigations into the effects of TSE reveal that the latter stages of the disease could easily kill humans. According to a well calculated hypothesis, there are claims that TSE can wipe out an entire species within 250 years. The hypothesis is further affirmed by Cooper that; “those who consumed the remains of infected individuals would then contract a form of the disease and eventually infect others. If that occurred, then the Neanderthal diet could have contributed to their eventual demise” (175).
Another theory that gives claim to Neanderthal cannibalism is based on the human-like behavior. The genetic blueprint shows that we share common ancestry with Neanderthals, and that at one time we even interbred and co-existed with them before they were eventually wiped out. In today’s society, there have been widespread evidences of humans eating other humans in many parts of the world. Among the Korowai people and Melanesian tribes for instance, cannibalism is practiced as a ritualistic behavior. In the 19th century, cannibalism was evident among the Carib tribe in the Lesser Antilles. The Second World War was largely an error of human cannibalism. There have been evidences of cannibalism in some parts of Fiji and South Pacific cultures. Other documented regions include Congo, New Zealand, Liberia, Australia, India and North Korea. Whether practiced as a ritual or nutritional food, various researches have suggested that this form of behavior was also common among the Neanderthals. In Italy, for instance, the skulls of Neanderthal men found buried in Monte Circeo not only indicated that they practiced mortuary practices, but also ritualistic cannibalism. In a nutshell, Culotta further indicates that, “Neanderthals might have been desperate for dietary fat by winter’s end- and brains and marrow are rich sources of fat” (19).
Furthermore, some theoretical models now claim that Neanderthals did not just disappear during the Ice Age; they ate each other. Churchill, as reported by Bosveld, proves this by conducting a study on the bones. In the end he says, “……, but Shanidar 3’s wound is most consistent with injury from a lightweight long-range projectile weapon (49).” Definitely, he confirms Neanderthals role in the killing. Evidently, several anthropologists after considering the possible factors that could have led to the extinction of Neanderthals, links ritualistic cannibalism to the ancient species and makes a claim that the practice of cannibalism might have contributed to their disappearance. It is also believed that the cold climate brought hunger to starving members of the Neanderthal family. As a result, some Neanderthals resorted to Cannibalism for survival. Other studies suggest a consistent practice of cannibalism among the Neanderthal families.
For a long time, it was speculated that Neanderthals were cannibals, but there was no evidence to ascertain such claims. However, recent evidence while affirming the practice of cannibalism among the ancient species, suggest that not all Neanderthals were cannibals, but they did practice cannibalism on occasions. The butchery marks on the Neanderthal bones at Krapina Cave in Croatia indicate that the cuts were severely made to extract marrow from the bones. The broken and smashed bones at Sima de los Huesos Cave further indicate that the bones were broken, presumably to remove the limbs. Other sites, which suggest the practice of cannibalism among Neanderthals include Moula-Guercy, Trou de la Naulette, Vindija, Oviedo, and El Sidron caves. Along these evidences at the caves, other views that have been used to suggest cannibalism among Neanderthals include the human-like behavior and the impacts of TSE, which is transmitted through cannibalism. Concisely, Neanderthals were cannibals.
Leading Change in Public Health
Leading Change in Public Health
The current reality on obesity
Obesity, which regards being overweight, is normally caused by energy imbalance in the body, and entails consuming excessive calories, or overfeeding, as well as the lack of adequate body exercise. The main risk factors of obesity involve environment, genes, individual conducts, socioeconomic class, lifestyle or culture, and metabolism. With the currently abundant and affordable high calorie food products of unhealthy ingredients such as sugars, fats and salt, and the trendy sedentary lifestyles, along with globalization, obesity and overweight cases have consequently multiplied over the recent decades.
According to Vivo (2011), the population of overweight individuals has gradually tripled to an extent of competing the underweight percentage, thus offsetting the wellbeing relieves gained from the currently successful initiatives against hunger. Developed countries are the most affected, with global statistics showing that about 55 percent of grownup American civilians are obese, while two in ten American teenagers are likely to be overweight. In an attempt to explain the recent increase in obesity-associated endemic infirmities, such as Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease, studies have also confirmed that about 45 million of the globes underage population is obese.
The most unacceptable and a derailing obstacle to the fight against obesity is the marketing of unhealthy food products, particularly in target of minors. Public health leaders across the globe have unsuccessfully lobbied for more stringent measures against promoting food products with high sugar, salt, and fat content in an attempt to curtail the increasing global obesity. Experts have equally declared promoting harmful food as a successfully detrimental catalyst of the obesity crisis as noted by Mehta (2007). The marketing of unhealthy food products in recent times has been classified as a major risk aspect for obesity, as well as the cause of diet-linked non-communicable infirmities. Public health agencies have further classified the media as the leading facilitator of such unhealthy promotions, with over seventy percent in target of minors who are likely to dedicate two hours a day on television programs. Hence, besides consuming unhealthy foods such as biscuits and soft drinks, media audiences also tends to stay physically inactive, a dangerous lifestyle that is favorable to developing obesity among other overweight-related diseases.
Public health vision for obesity
The public health vision for obesity should primarily focus on behavior, lifestyle and environment, which are likely to play a key role in rendering individuals to be vulnerable to excessive weight and obesity. They equally present the most important focus point for effective obesity prevention, cure, and management approaches. The condition is normally caused by extensive energy imbalance in the body. The development of energy imbalance normally varies with every victim and might be as a result of numerous factors, ranging from genetics, behaviors, and environment among others as reported by Leeman et al (2012).
Generally, public health vision should primarily be aimed at educating the public on healthy dietary habits, challenging them to readopt homemade food, and to empower the entire global community to eradicate obesity. Regardless of the fact that obesity is genetically inheritable, the genetic structure normally takes sometimes to adjust; hence, for the radical growth in obesity and overweight, emphasis must primarily be placed on the non-genetic aspects. Genetics alongside environment usually combines to heighten the obese susceptibility. Nonetheless, the individual lifestyle choices regarding foods and body exercise considerably limits or supports obesity, while behavior exposes an individual to the pandemic (Raising Children Network, 2013).
The outcome goals
Obesity epidemic has turned out to be a leading public health challenge to people of all age groups globally. In childhood, the condition is linked with several detrimental influences, which entails a range of health problems such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes and sleeping disorders, besides the prospect of being an overweight adult. Adults who were overweight as teenagers are highly vulnerable to obesity-related diseases. According to Shah (2010), these wellbeing predicaments of obesity often come with the supplementary burden of medical expenses. Hence the outcome goals of obesity should involve countering the condition by embracing healthy and ideal lifestyles for the upcoming generations. Creating and maintaining relation between youth and adulthood obesity deterrence agencies, and public health sponsors and experts, alongside other members of the society. The goals should also involve advancing studies and approaches to obesity control, and highlighting culturally convenient and effective obesity limitation measures that are compatible with institutional structures at all standards of social setting.
The Walt Disney Company
In a perfect market, it is normal to assume that there are different market participants (sellers and consumers) in the marketplace. In such a setting, it is also perfectly normal to assume that there is competition in the market. Where there is competition, one can go ahead to assume that prices change, and that sellers are interdependent in their decisions. Alternatively with competition, it can also be assumed that there are substitutes of products in the market, so that buyers only go for those products that are cheaper and of quality. Additionally, in an ideal market one can assume that both the sellers and buyers influence market trends. This is, however, not always the case in most market structures. Accordingly, as an international trading company, Walt Disney has over the years traded in many volatile situations and this will be a great example of how it fits in the four market types.
Perfect competition is an idealized market type differentiated by four factors. One, it involves large number of small firms. Each of these firms is usually smaller than the overall size of the market. This ensures that none of them controls the market, in terms of prices and quantity. It also ensures that when one firm withdraws it does not affect the market. Two, firms in a perfect competition, sell identical products. The products might not be perfectly the same, but at least the buyers should not be able to notice the differences. Three, this market structure involves resource mobility. Firms enter and leave the market without any restriction. Four, both the buyers and sellers have perfect knowledge of the market prices and products. Perfect competition is considered the ideal market structure. Though it is an unrealistic in the real world, it is often used as an excellent benchmark for setting standards for the other markets (Machovec, 1995).
Imperfect competition is a market structure involving a large number of firms, selling different products. It is considered imperfect in nature because each firm sets its prices that will result in the desired profits. It also leaves room for one industry to control and dominate the overall market. There are four major forms of imperfect competition: monopoly (where one company controls the market), monopolistic (many sellers, different products), oligopoly (few companies sell a particular product), and monopsony (one buyer for particular goods). Oligopsony is also considered a form of imperfect market competition. Generally, imperfect competition does not favor the buyers as in the perfect competitive market structure. This is because prices are influenced by the sellers, and buyers have no perfect knowledge of the product and market prices. It also explains why firms in this market structure earn surplus profits. In a nutshell, this kind of market type is the real world situation (Hasek, 1957).
Contract and Law Agency
Case Study 1 Employment Agreements: Conditions, Warranties and Innominate Terms
In legal terminologies, conditions are terms agreed upon by the parties in the agreement and they must be performed. In the event that one of the concerned parties fails to honour the agreed conditions, the other party is entitled to terminate the agreement or consider it ended. Once it has been established that a breach of any of the conditions involved has occurred, the offended party has to options handle the matter. One option is to terminate the contract forthwith besides suing for damages while the second option is affirm or continue upholding the contract, sue for damages while pursuing other appropriate injunctions. Conditions are identified through statues which imply that some terms are to be construed to mean conditions. Moreover, case laws can also determine the terms that identify conditions in an employment contract (Tabalujan & Toit-Low, 2009). For example, a common condition in employment is the annual leave which is governed by a statue and the terms used show that it is a condition.
There is no relation between this warranty and the warranty that is given after a purchase of goods. In law, warranty is used to denote less important terms than conditions in an agreement. Unlike in the case of condition breaching, when a warranty is breached, the aggrieved party is not allowed to terminate the agreement. However, he or she is allowed for some reprieve through suing for loss suffered or damages. In the event that the innocent party terminates the agreement, he or she can instead be sued for unjustified or unfair termination of contract. Identification of warranties from conditions can be done through determining whether a term deals with the contract’s primary obligation (Dicke & Ott, 1999).
Reporting Practices and Ethical Paper
While healthcare accounts for a large proportion of global spending, the current financial reporting practices in the industry often lack the structure found in other sectors. Consequently, the industry needs to drop these obsolete financial reporting that is predominantly manual and paper-based. Instead, healthcare firms should adopt more advanced financial reporting and ethical standards. Apart from adhering to the generally accepted accounting practices, the industry must adapt to the rapidly changing environment in financial reporting (Jamali, Hallal & Abdala 2010). In recognition of these changes, analysis of the current reporting practices and the ethical challenges involved ought to be scrutinized.
Elements of Financial managements
Jamali, Hallal and Abdala (2010), state that the most crucial elements in financial management in the health care industry are financial planning, control, organization and finally decision making. Management must therefore, ensure that there is adequate funding to meet both the short term and long term needs of the health institution. For instance, recurrent expenditures go into purchasing medicinal stock, paying doctors and routine hospital maintenance services. However, in the mid and long term, additional funding is crucial in raising the productive capacity of health facilities through making major acquisitions to expand operating capacity.
In addition, financial control is critical in the health care sector to ensure entities meet their obligations cost-effectively. The most crucial areas under control therefore, include efficient use of assets, securing the firms’ assets and acting in the best interest of shareholders. Efficient use of assets pertains to maximizing use of the institutions facilities. For instance, a hospital with a bed capacity of 200 should operate at about 80% occupancy for efficient resource use. Security of assets however, ensures that the firm’s property and acquisitions are legally protected against pilferage (Jamali, Hallal & Abdala, 2010). Furthermore, management’s decisions on investments must always benefit the firm’s shareholders.
Major decisions on acquisitions and alternative investments through diversification must consequently, get the requisite approval from shareholders before implementation. For optimum efficiency, the entity’s assets must be organized in accordance with the firm’s objectives. Indeed, resource allocation is directly linked to business profitability. This includes both human and financial resources in the overall organizational structure. The key facets of financial decision-making in the health sector relate to additional investment in resources, nature of financing and awarding dividends to shareholders (Jamali, Hallal & Abdala, 2010).
Considering that investments must be financed in various ways, the firm must always opt for the most cost- effective method. The options available in the health sector include floating new shares, issuing rights to existing shareholders, borrowing from key financial institutions or applying for credit from key suppliers. However, the chosen alternative must serve the best interest of the health firm. According to Jamali, Hallal and Abdala (2010), a common financing decision in the health sector is whether to distribute profits as dividends or plough back the funding into expansion. Conversely, if the dividend payout is extravagant, a health facility is easily starved of reinvestment resources for future growth and higher profitability.
Generally accepted accounting principles and financial ethical standards include the principle of regularity which requires all accountants to comply with the profession’s obligatory rules and regulations. The principle of sincerity however requires that the accountant presents a true reflection of an entity’s financial status. Meanwhile, the principle of consistency affirms that a firm should enter all similar items consistently over all financial years following the same method. Prudence, on the other hand requires financial reports to show reality as it is (Pronovost, Miller & Wachter, 2007).
Utmost good faith requires full disclosure of the company’s information to all potential investors. The same applies to the principle of disclosure or materiality. The principle of periodicity allocates each entry to a specific period divided across the financial period in question. While presenting financial information it is further assumed the business will not be interrupted hence the principle of continuity (Pronovost, Miller & Wachter, 2007).
According to Richardson (2009), ethical standards of financial reporting standards demand clear indications in the heading of each income, equity and cash flow statements. For instance, labeling just one of these statements as the period ending December 31 is not enough. The perceived reader must have sufficient information to comprehend if the statement covers only the one week ending December 31, the month ended December 31, three months ending December 31, or the entire year ending December 31.The firm must further provide full information relating to its assets and liabilities to ascertain its liquidity. Financial ethics further demand that the firm provides ownership structures of public companies.
Define the term Arabs and its relation
The title ‘Arabs’ was conventionally used to refer to the people of a Semitic decent who mainly resided in the Arabian Peninsula, particularly the region that bordered Palestine to the east. Historically, the Arabs were pastoralist Bedouins. The Bedouins were the early inheritors of the Middle East desert lands. Contemporarily, people of Arab lineage resides all over the world though, their native homelands entails Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Yemen, Egypt, Bahrain, Algeria, Jordan, Djibouti, Tunisia, Morocco, and Lebanon among other middle eastern countries. Even though not all the Semitic races embraced Arabic as their formal language, the dialect acted as a one of the major unifying as well as divisional factor for the Arab communities. Among the leading misapprehensions is that Islam is a uniting factor for the Arab communities, when all Arab customs are not necessarily Islamic. Moreover, the Islam Religion is not always considered a distinguishing factor between Arabs and other races. The paper aspires to define and extensively analyze the term Arabs, and its association with Pan-Arabism as well as Arab nationalism, by particularly highlighting the difference between Arab world and the Muslim World.
Regarding the difference between Arabs and Muslims, the great Islam prophet, Muhammad once suggested that, “The desert Arabians are most confirmed in unbelief and hypocrisy.” Furthermore, Indonesia is the home to the leading Muslim population as compared to a combined Muslim populace in all the Arab nations, while China is also home to over thirty million Muslims. According to Free Republic (2008), it’s a common trend in most states to find Christians and Muslims cordially coexisting with each other, but in the Arab world, where Islam is the most popular religion, it is unusual to find that Arab Muslims, Jews, and Christians resides in one neighborhood. In the Crusading era of the Middle Ages, the excursing Christians developed a trend of applying the titles ‘Arab, Pagan, Turk, Infidel and Muslim,’ alternatively. Presently, most westerners have tended to relate the name Muslim more frequently with the title ‘Arab.’ This misconception is the end product of associating religion with culture. Geographically, the Arab world covers a peninsula distance of 3,200 by 965 km long, and stretches from Asia to the northern regions of Africa.
Most of the Arab world is desert, and hence relies on oases as the main source of clean water. The most agriculturally productive parcels lie along the coastal regions, such as the western parts of the Red Sea. The main trade routes that linked the Arab world with rest of world passed through Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt along with the northern coastal hemispheres of Syria together with Palestine as noted by Lewis (2002). The titles Arabs and Arabia have also been commonly used in the Bible, to refer particularly to the nomadic tent-occupants who inhabited the northwestern region of the Middle East peninsula, which provided a sustaining pasture for their animals. During the ancient times, a cordial association persisted among the Israelite empire and the Arabs, mainly with the affluent southern realms dating from the Solomon period onwards. Valuable commodities such as Gold, silver, and bronze from the neighboring territories, including Sheba and Ramah, were exchanged with cattle’s as a form of gratitude from the nomads.
Historical events also indicate that Arabs attempted to occupy Judea following the demolition of the First Temple. They particularly tried to stop Nehemiah from reconstructing the ruined perimeter of Jerusalem. Generally, the origin of the name Arab is indistinguishable, although its meaning has evolved numerous times depending on the period. Various Arab intellects have linked Joktan to the primeval Arab patriarch Qahtan. Qahtan are believed to have migrated from Saudi Arabia. According to Watt and Cachia (2007), the Assyrian writing of the ninth century B.C., reportedly called the nomadic communities living in the northern Arabian Peninsula as Arabs, as opposed to the contemporary sedentary inhabitants of the southern peninsula. Originally, the title Arabs was applied in referral to the entire Arabian Peninsula together with the Middle East dry lands, but over the Middle Ages the occupants increasingly become to known as Saracens.
Arab nationalism refers to a pro-autonomy dogma that was formed in commemoration of the splendor days of the Arab culture, its dialects, alongside the Arab literatures. The movement particularly lobbied for transformation and political coalition in the entire Arab world. Its core aspect regarded the legitimate descendants of the Arab World as pure Arabs, residing in the land within the Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian waters. Its agenda involved forming a solitary Arab state bound by dialects, customs, and religion, besides the collective civilization legacy. This was primarily aimed at terminating Western presence in the Arab territories, which was perceived as the basis of Arab power, as well as the elimination of those Arab administrations believed to be reliant on Western support. It initially gained prominence due to the decline of the Ottoman Empire over the twentieth century, which was facilitated by a devastating rout by the Arab forces, historically recalled as the Six Day War as noted by Goldschmidt & Lawrence (2010).
Business Skills in Public Health
Business Skills in Public Health
Briefly summarize the main points of each article
The first article, “The management academy for public health: The South Carolina experience,” is based on the challenges of a public health labor force that was not competent enough to take over from an imminently retiring entity particularly in terms of experience, leadership, alongside organizational awareness. The situation was apparently brought by the lack of systematic and accommodative transitional orientation, coupled with the annual reduction in state funding (Cumbey & Edison, 2006). However, via Management Academy concept, the public health sector of the state reacted, though late, but exceptionally and swiftly to train a more than effective contemporary agency that eventually replaced the aging personnel’s. The reaction was mainly prompted by the bioterrorism events that occurred in the late 1990s and in 2001. The concept has been since earmarked as one of the most ideal models for struggling institutions to learn from.
The second article, “a sustainable behavioral health program integrated with public health primary care,” is tailored on the successful reaction of a South Carolina county public health institution to mental health diagnosis and medication dispensed as component of preliminary care services. After securing adequate funds from stakeholders, the institution utilized the Management Academy model to develop a highly effectual procedure of ensuring patients mental wellbeing. This accomplishment particularly demonstrated how public health organizations can rely on commercial strategies to enhance public wellbeing as well as facilitate wide-ranging developments as reported by Mims (2006).
Describe what you learned from these articles regarding the specific concepts of ROI, revenue generation, social marketing, entrepreneurship, or other business planning skills
Diabetes, or Diabetes Mellitus (DM), entails a number of metabolic impairments, where all victims experience an escalation in blood sugar content due to failure of the pancreas to generate sufficient insulin, or impassiveness of the cells to the available insulin in the body. The increased sugar content in the blood system will consequently trigger the typical diabetes symptoms, which encompasses uncontrollable urination or polyuria, undying thirst or polydipsia, alongside persistent hunger or polyphagia. The disease occurs in four distinguished forms; Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, gestational diabetes, and other types. Type 1-D is often caused by a breakdown in body insulin generation, and contemporarily obligates victims to either carry with them an external insulin pump or undergo regular insulin injections; hence was primarily referred to as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).
Type 2-D concerns the failure or reluctance of cells to utilize the available insulin, or the insufficient insulin production, and was originally recognized as “adult-onset diabetes.” Whilst, gestational diabetes normally develops when expectant mothers with no history of diabetes diagnosis concedes high blood glucose content, which might at same time serve as a sign of Type 2 diabetes (Lindstrom et al, 2003). Other models of the disease entail congenital diabetes that is usually linked with genetic impairments of insulin generation, cystic fibrosis-diabetes, monogenic diabetes, and steroid diabetes.
Regardless of the diverse forms, any risk to diabetes infection involves a high probability of prospective terminal infirmities. Such fatal complications usually require between ten to twenty years to develop, though might act as the primary symptom for individuals who have never been previously diagnosed, and might develop as a result of blood vessels defections. Apart from obliterating the capillaries, diabetes further doubles the vulnerability to cardiovascular infirmities such as stroke and ischemic heart complications. Whereas, diabetic retinopathy that obstructs blood vessel establishment in the eye retina, might interfere with the eyesight and cause poor vision, and eventually blindness as noted by The Nutrition Source (2013).
Diabetic nephropathy might also alternate kidney tissues, the content of urine protein, and ultimately relentless kidney complications obligating dialysis. Diabetic neuropathy, which is the effect of the disease on the nervous system, is likely to result in insensitiveness, itchiness, and feet pain, besides a higher susceptibility to skin impairment, owing to shifted sensation. Proximal diabetic neuropathy is accountable for aching muscle twisting as well as weakness (Schneider, 2013). When combined with the presence of vascular leg infections, neuropathy equally exposes the victims to diabetes-linked foot complications, which are almost impossible to reverse, and might in dire cases obligate amputation.
Since diabetes has no effective remedial prescription, limitation of risk factors mainly emphasizes on maintaining or regulating blood sugar levels in the body. According to Lindstrom et al (2003), this is normally achieved via proper dieting, and physical activity, together with pertinent medications. Public awareness programs and involvement is also decisive, because diabetes infections are generally unpopular with regulated blood sugar contents. Several health challenges that might increase the risk of diabetes such as obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, body inactiveness, and elevated cholesterol should as well be avoided.
Furthermore, in consideration to the increased exposure to cardiovascular infirmity, lifestyle changes, such as weight control, regular body exercise, and eating balanced diets, are essential to regulating blood pressure (Schneider, 2013). For instance, alternating sugary drinks with more healthy drinks such as coffee and water, and using healthy fats in place of unhealthy once among other good dietaries might be crucial to deterring diabetes risk factors. Moreover, quitting cigarette smoking by itself will help in limiting diabetes diseases by fifty percent, while moderate consumption of alcohol may facilitate the proficiency of insulin to ensure glucose-cell absorption.
Persuasive Essay Against Death Penalty
Largely, several myths about the death penalty appear in public opinion polls. The proponents of the death penalty owe their devotion independently of changes in the economic outlook, legal culture, public opinion, or findings from social science research. Normally they assert its supposedly retributive, deterrent, therapeutic, or economic advantages without the need for recourse to any social science confirmatory data. Some proponents express support for it, but still acknowledge that it can be applied unfairly consequently resulting in the conviction and execution of innocent people after lengthy and expensive legal processes (Dellapiana, 2009). This paper essentially seeks to reinforce the opinion that the cost, ineffectiveness and wrongful executions resulting from the death penalty outweigh its perceived benefits.
Proportional deterrent and economic theories of human nature both imply that penalties must appear severe enough to a calculating criminal to outweigh the supposed benefits of crime. Ideally, in making an economic calculation of costs and benefits a would-be murderer consequently reverts from committing the offence. Berry (2010) affirms that this follows the basic principle that the pain of execution outweighs the expected psychological pleasures from the contemplated crime. Conversely, if all criminals feared the death penalty homicides would be nonexistent. The founders of modern utilitarianism adopted this calculus to suggest to legislators that they could ensure that costs outweigh the pleasures of crime by the simple expedient of increasing the degree of pain inflicted (Gray, 2011).
Accordingly, the growing statistics of homicide dispute the argument that the severity of a punishment acts as a deterrent. Indeed, the deterrent role of the death penalty is just not working. For instance, evidence gathered by Bedau & Radalet (1987) while focusing on the deterrence significance of the death penalty on police homicides revealed worrying statistics. Over a thirteen year period their study concluded that capital punishment did not accord the police any measure of protection.
Moreover, according to FBI Uniform Crime Report statistics, American states that least apply the death penalty are surprisingly safest for law enforcers. Police in the southern states which carry out 80% of all executions are in most danger of being killed compared to the northern states which have abolished capital punishment. California led the states where officers were killed followed by Texas and Florida in 1998. Notably, all these states had enforced the death penalty but still it failed to deter killings especially of law enforcers (Deathpenalty.org, 2013).We get a deterrent effect only if we punish individuals who are believed to be guilty.
Traditionally, deterrence has been given as a utilitarian rationale for punishment, in which suffering imposed on actual criminals is justified by its tendency to dissuade others from committing such crimes, thereby reducing overall suffering. Previous executions of innocent victims have effectively eroded confidence in the death penalty. If individuals believed innocent were also punished, then citizens would not be able to avoid punishment by avoiding crime since there would be no incentive to do so. Therefore, to punish criminals is creating a watertight judicial mechanism. Moreover, the applied procedure must always refrain others from committing crimes (Dellapiana, 2009).The death penalty has failed to achieve this objective.
Fairness in Execution
Justice requires the elimination of any unfair advantage. A criminal may obtain an unfair advantage over others by evading taxes, by killing a rival for a job, or by stealing someone’s purse. Certainly, it is justified to punish criminals for taking unfair to discourage potential criminals from repeating such acts. The criminal must therefore repay their perceived debt to society. The punishment must not be similar to their offense, but the punishment must fit the crime. The death penalty is not modeled on the act of getting an unfair advantage over others. In addition, this model of unfair advantage does not work as well with sadistic crimes that may leave the criminal psychologically worse off (Gray, 2011).
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data Collection
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data Collection
Describe your experience of conducting a brief observation and the experience of this form of data collection
The importance of observation in ethnographic studies involves enabling researchers to monitor and examine characters, such as people, within their natural settings in an attempt to comprehend ‘things’ from their perception. Observation normally obligates researchers to dedicate extensive time to their projects, given the necessity to play numerous duties in an endeavor to gain full awareness of the characters under study as noted by CDC (2008). However, qualitative data collection entails assessing and describing people’s conducts within their natural backgrounds, based on non-numerical as well as suggestive languages, graphics, extensive data, and personal interpretations. While quantitative approaches regards focusing on distinctive and quantifiable conducts, applying numerical values, alongside extensive samples.
Compare this experience with your data analysis experiences in biostatistics
Ethical Dilemmas in Public Health
Ethical Dilemmas in Public Health
1. Briefly describe the ethical dilemma or issue
Ethics and Infectious Disease Control: The spread of infectious infirmities in recent times has led to various moral related concerns, and as per the prevailing moral concept alongside biomedical ethics, exceptional focus should always be given to individual entitlements, on values of self-sufficiency as well as determination. Though, fundamental as those principles are, the apparently recognized legality of controlling them. The ethics in other words implies that, when the practice of an individual’s autonomy surmounts to the violation of other peoples fundamental rights, then the administration might legally mediate. The contravention code further grants a collectively acknowledged validation of enacting restrictions on rights as noted by Selgelid (2005).
2. Referring specifically to the “Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health,” identify principles that should be applied
The first value of ethical practice which states that, “Public health should address principally the fundamental causes of disease and requirements for health, aiming to prevent adverse health outcomes,” clearly allows and presents an ideal outline on how the principle should be exercised in an attempt to restrict infectious diseases. According to Thomas et al (2002), the principle is specifically tailored on the public health norm suggesting that the only way when autonomy can be legitimately imposed on any civilian of a tolerant society, irrespective of his stance, is to protect others from harm. In such situations, his individual wellbeing, both of corporal right, might not be regarded as adequate merit.
3. Describe how you would apply these principles
The principle provides priority to either disease deterrence or endorsement of wellbeing, at the maximum dynamic levels. It also recognizes that the public wellbeing involves direct causes as well as remedial liabilities. For instance, the management of treatable infirmities is essential to the deterrence of spreading the infirmity to others.
4. What actions would be ideal to take in this situation?
The disease must primarily be confirmed to be within the principles provisions, by categorically being infectious and only controllable by infringing the rights of the victims. A legal interpretation may as well be required to limit barriers, apart from avoiding court issues as supported by Selgelid (2005).
5. What are the barriers or costs of taking those actions?
The principle may not be applied in situations where the disease is not infectious or can be effectively controlled using other alternative approaches (Thomas et al, 2002). The code must also be appropriately interpreted to ensure that it is being exercised within the legal limits, for instance, the title ‘public health’ is applied in all the principles to reflect the whole sector of public health, which encompasses administrative entities and learning institutions of public health among others.