Health Care and Benefits
Health Care and Healthcare Benefits in Terms of Rights or Benefits
Healthcare and healthcare benefits are considered to be among the mandatory matters that the employer is bound by the law to undergo negotiations for current employees. In the event they were benefits, the law would not require the employer to negotiate the terms before employment. After a collective bargaining has been arrived at or otherwise, violation of the collective bargaining can only be resolved through court arbitration. In essence, enforcement by law of the agreement entered into between an employer and employee in matters pertaining to healthcare and its benefits shows that it is a right of every employee. Within the national Labor Relations Act, one of the mandatory collective subjects is benefits of insurance for currently employees. Insurance benefits constitute many aspects and one of them is healthcare and its benefits. In the event that an employer unilaterally or otherwise changes or modifies the benefits enshrined in healthcare benefits agreement, such an undertaking is deemed to be an unfair labor practice. The conceptualization of health care and its benefits depends on the perspective or point of view where it is done. In the case of actively employed persons, healthcare and its benefits is a right whereas to the retirees it is a benefit. This is because in the event the terms of collective bargain is change for the retirees, they are required to increase their premium contribution to their pension kitty so they can enjoy the new health care benefits.
Retirement Benefits for Workers Not Yet Retired
Union members that are still in employment and on a company’s payroll cannot be cut or reduced without due negotiations between the concerned parties. This is in effect means that the retirement benefits of workers not yet retired cannot be considered as bargaining subjects because while they are still in active employment. According to the National Labor Relations Act section 8(d), employers in the private sector are required by law to engage in good bargaining with regards to terms of employment. However, there is a twist of events especially in the case of retirees who are not in employment but their pact involves an already past time when they were in employment. In such circumstances of retirees that are no longer in employment, healthcare benefits cannot be taken to be mandatory bargaining subjects. In the past the US Supreme Court has ruled that healthcare benefits and pension are permissive as opposed to mandatory bargaining subjects. As such, employers are not bound by the law to negotiate in matters pertaining to benefits cuts. It gets even controversial in the light of the National Labor Relations Act section 301 which states that both the employer and/or union can take suits into the federal courts for arbitration in matters pertaining to collective bargaining agreement violation. Some retirees in unionized companies have successfully used section 301 to sue their former employers for unilaterally changing their benefits which results in violation of vested rights of contracts. In other cases, the retirees have sued their former employers on the grounds of Employee Retirement Security Act which safeguards the interests and benefits of retirees. The ERSA guarantees against abrogation of the previously agreed terms in vested contract rights. Conversely, retirement benefits for workers who are
now retired considered bargaining subjects because they were once employees.
Social & Political Theory Course level
Certainly, in order to be heard in the society today, by either governments or the intended party or to achieve certain political objectives it is a conjoint belief that, some sort of political violence is required. In the same way, some governments believe that political violence might be necessary to intimidate their opponents, protect the country from international threats, or force their populace to accept their legitimacy. As such, political violence is easily justified as a means to make certain political demands. Sometimes they give the desired endings, other times the results are disastrous. The most attention-grabbing thing, however, is that some people so much believe in violence that they go ahead to express the opinion that political violence and the modern states are inseparable. This is the accurate view of Machiavelli in The Prince, when he talks about politics and violence as being eminently connected. All together, political violence generally takes many forms depending to who is subscribing to the school of thought. According to Zizek, however, it occurs in three different ways. One, political violence can be subjective. He mentions crime and terror as some of the examples. Two, political violence can be objective. Examples here include; racism, hate-speech, and discrimination. Three, political violence can be systemic. This kind of violence arises from the consequences of poor economic and political structures. Some political analysts add a fourth form called ‘non-action’. This is when the government fails to act when it should. Such reluctance may infuriate others hence leading to violence. I have chosen ‘political violence’ as the major issue in this paper because of its impacts in the society. It doesn’t take much to realize how deep violence is entrenched into the society today. Daily news, for instance, are flooded with reports of human rights violations, one community trying to wipe out the other, countries preparing to go to war with the other, cases of police profiling and brutality, counter-insurgency, gang violence, and so on. Although political violence can sometimes be viewed as a necessary instrument for the pursuit of political goals, this paper approaches it as a serious social and political problem, and provides three solutions that may help eliminate it while refuting counter-arguments.
How to solve Political Violence
Some proponents of political violence would argue that this kind of violence can only be solved by discerning the violence that sustains the very effort to fight violence. In his book, The Prince, Machiavelli understands politics as immanently connected to violence (Machiavelli, 2005). He sees the complex relationship between politics and violence. He advocates the need for rulers to ensure the preservation of the state, and if violence is necessary to enhance this highest good, then it is in order to use it. It will, however, be incorrect to take Machiavelli’s views on political violence as suggesting ‘violence’ in its literal sense. He is not espousing a violence that is overwhelmingly cruel, but only that which is necessary for political survival and the highest good of the people. He does seek to solve political violence by emphasizing on some moderations to it. This is why he calls it virtuous violence. Rulers can only use violence when it is for the overall benefit of the people. A virtuous violence is therefore a violence that is controlled in order to provide effective leadership. Still in The Prince, he does suggest the necessary use of violence toward unruly people to create some sense of fear, but he often backs this statement by asking rulers to always make themselves feared in such a way that even if the people do not have affection towards them, at least they are not hated by them. In another work, The Art of War, he advices rulers of Italy to rather train their citizens in basic military training than hire with mercenaries to defend the state. His idea is that citizens are far more reliable and willing to defend their state than hired gangs who are fundamentally driven by their own self-ambitions. Besides, these gangs (mercenaries) can easily be wooed by the opponents and may not fight to defend the liberty that is inherent in the preservation of the state. In a nutshell, although Machiavelli acknowledges that violence might be necessary on some occasions to maintain power, he despises rulers who use violence to kill fellow citizens or betray their state. A treacherous ruler, for example, can win power but this is not something that can give him glory. Glory is won by establishing relationships with the citizens (Machiavelli, 2005).
Socrates was very thorough when it comes to solving political violence. One thing that he categorically rules out is the use of violence to solve problems. Violence, he believes, never offers the best solutions to the crises in the society. It only generates more violence, and in the process sows seeds of injustice. In Crito 49e, he makes a statement that one should never return harm for harm (Plato, 1961). Actually, one should never harm the other even if they are enemies. There is absolutely no reason to go to the battlefield to express grievances by hurting the other. Genuine grievances can best be solved through reconciliations and peace talks, and not by seeking revenge. In Crito 49b 10-11, he says that injustice should never be returned for injustice. Ideally, what he is expressing is a non-retaliation principle. Without retaliation, Socrates would say, violence can be pushed to its minimum end. This is because we know that revenge is one of the ways through which violence is fuelled. The revenge for one killing only results in another killing. In effect, revenge becomes self-perpetuating to the extent that one cannot pull out once it begins without losing. Socrates is simply saying that in order to avoid violence, do not harm/retaliate back, unless it is self-defense. He totally understands that one can harm his attacker in the process of defending himself, but that does not make it wrong. Hitting back with violence to repay for violence when one is not physically defending himself is what makes it wrong. Instead of advocating for violence, he suggests the pursuit of non-violence. By non-violence, Socrates refers to a wide range of approaches. People who seek reconciliation, for example, are likely to solve their political and social problems more amicably than those who seek revenge. Peaceful resistance is another form of non-violence, and a weapon that has been used to express objectives without having to use violence. One can also talk about moral and selective resistance. In a nutshell, Socrates’ solution to the problem of violence is the principle of non-retaliation. One should never return harm for harm. Rather than live a life of revenge, people should seek a virtuous life founded on effective friendships and community life (Plato, 1961).
Political violence can also be solved by looking at the causes of the violence. More often, violence is caused by more than a single factor. Actually, by the time any factor progresses to violence it has gone through complex levels. To solve violence, it is thus necessary to consider all these complex levels leading to the actual violence. A simple model can begin by first identifying the basic factors, such as biological and personal aspects, that would make a person advance violence against the other. Age, education, and financial status, for example, can speak volumes about a person (Carpenter & Nevin, 2009). Secondly, one can look at the causes of violence by focusing on close relationships with the perpetrators of violence. You may want to know where they live, their families and the type of friends they engage with. Most youths, for instance, join gang groups out of influence from their friends. They move to the streets because somebody has manipulated them. Considering all these factors at this level can help solve both social and political violence. Thirdly, violence can be solved by looking at its causes at the community level. Here one may want to consider the schools around, administrative centers, cultural norms, and the kind of businesses the locals do (Mohammad, 2013). Perhaps they resort to violence out of poverty or some local drugs. Finally, one may want to solve political violence by looking at the national factors. It could be that the people have been sidelined from the government for a long time or they just want their political objectives to be heard. Knowing the causes of violence at these four complex levels can help create a ground to resolving political violence (Carpenter & Nevin, 2009). Besides these causes, most people today will propose solving political violence by establishing democracy, liberalism, civilization, and enhancing the criminal justice system. Socrates despises democracy for the one reason that he saw the harm it was doing to the Athenian life. Nevertheless, he does not absolutely object to it. Despite the fact that he does not regard it as the best form of government, he believes democracy is much better than the rule of the Thirty Tyrants. The Thirty Tyrants ruled with violence and theft thus threatening the stability enjoyed by the Athenians. This explains why democracy was immediately re-instated at the overthrow of the tyrants (Plato, 1961).
Weaknesses and strengths of the proposed solutions
Machiavelli’s assessment of political violence is a bit problematic. He does, on one hand, understand violence as eminently connected to politics, but on the other, suggests that it is only a short-term action. The truth is, as much as he tries to justify the use of violence to maintain power, he can never make it legitimate. Violence is criminal. Even if it is done for good reasons, some of its effects eventually generate the seeds of injustice. Accordingly, Machiavelli fails to acknowledge the seriousness of the impacts of political violence in the society. He does, however, emphasize on the need of rulers to win glory rather than power. Killing fellow citizens, for example, can give one the power, but it can never win him the glory. Socrates’ strength is in his moral life. This perhaps explains why advocates for the principle of non-retaliation. Finally, knowing the causes of violence is of great importance because that knowledge can provide the genesis of why there is political violence in the first place.
According to Nordqvist (2013), in the USA alone, bacterial meningitis affects about 3 out of every 100,000 people while viral meningitis affects about 10 out of every 100,000 people annually. More worryingly, 70% of meningitis patients are under 5 or over 60. Indeed, 10-12% of such cases in the industrialized nations result in fatalities. These figures are further projected to rise in future if adequate measures are not instituted. Consequently, the public needs more reliable and adequate information to stem the growing number of infections. Lately, antibiotic resistance has become a major factor in the global rising rates of meningitis infections. With about 20% of meningitis survivors reporting long-term repercussions including brain damage, kidney failure, hearing loss or limb amputation the impact of the disease can no longer be ignored. This paper therefore seeks to explore the impact of disease by focusing on the causes and measures to recover from the effects of the disease.
Causes of Meningitis
As Donovan and Blewitt (2010) portend, meningitis is inflammation of the three membranes enveloping the brain and the central nervous system. The main function of the meninges' beside the cerebrospinal fluid is protecting the central nervous system. Meningitis generally results from infection by viruses, bacteria and other parasites amongst other organisms. Both congenital and acquired anatomical defects raise the recurrence of bacterial meningitis. Anatomical defects might pave way for bacteria to penetrate the nervous system from the external environment. For instance, skull fractures at the base of the brain or towards the sinuses and petrous pyramids greatly increase the chances of bacterial infection. Consequently, almost 60% of persistent meningitis cases result from anatomical defects, while roughly 36% are caused by weakened immune systems (Nordqvist, 2013). Anatomical defects and a weak immune system further leads to recurring bacterial meningitis. Although viruses are the major causes of most cases of meningitis some non-infectious causes still exist. Viral meningitis is the most widespread but rarely results in serious infections. Various viruses including mosquito-borne viruses result in this form of meningitis which usually disappears without major treatment after a short while (Bartt, 2012).However, bacterial meningitis results in severe infection and in acute cases death. The bacterium Neisseria meningitides causes meningococcal meningitis, while Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumococcal meningitis. Elsewhere, the bacterium streptococci which inhabits in the vagina is the major cause of meningitis among newborns. It also affects most prematurely born babies. In addition, Escherichia coli, which inhabit the digestive tract also causes meningitis among newborns. Finally, Haemophilus influenzae type B mostly affects children under five when they are not vaccinated. Notably, bacterial meningitis is highly contagious when innocent people come into close contact with the infected (Bartt, 2012).
Bratt (2012), further reports that, nearly 80% of adult meningitis illnesses are caused by S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Additionally, individuals that are aged beyond 50 years are highly predisposed to infections caused by L. monocytogenes. Other groups of vulnerable people include victims of skull trauma due to the increased threat of bacteria entering their meningeal space via the nasal cavity. Similarly, patients with cerebral shunts and other devices are predisposed to staphylococci and pseudomonas through such devices. This generally extends to people with weak immune systems (Bartt, 2012).
Symptoms and Ways of Diagnosing Meningitis
In its initial stages, symptoms may include vomiting, nausea, muscle ache and fever. Others include a recurrent body rush that does not easily fade under pressure. It might start with few small spots in one part of the body but eventually spread rapidly. This fresh like bruises result from blood leaking into tissue under the skin. A simple glass test might be effective in diagnosing meningitis by pressing the side of a drinking glass against the rashes. If the rash loses color and fades under pressure from the glass, high chances are the person is not infected. However, if the results are negative consult a physician immediately (Waghdhare et al, 2010).
Conversely, Thompson (2006) further affirms that, meningitis causing viruses are easily secluded in the CSF through the lumbar puncture tests. Since gram stains are 80% present in bacterial meningitis this greatly increases accuracy in diagnosis. Lumbar punctures are performed early in suspected meningitis cases to diagnose thus identify the causative organism. Once identified, antimicrobial pharmacotherapy begins immediately. In addition, CSF results are also used to monitor the progress of viral meningitis. In instances where the patient suffers from seizures and focal deficits an MRI or CT scan is performed to rule out a brain infarction. This must be done prior to the lumbar puncture to reduce the risk of cerebral herniation.
Physical Therapy and Other Treatments
Euthanasia or mercy killing has been in practice for many years. This concept comes from Greek language and refers to good death or compassion killing. This is the ending of a person’s life in a painless way. Over the past couple of decades, there has been heated debate about euthanasia. Whereas euthanasia has been legalized in many countries, it has also remained illegal in other nations. Proponents of euthanasia argue that it is a good practice, which ensures dignified death and relief of endless pain on people. This is however, opposed by critics of euthanasia, which argue that it is unethical and inhumane. There exist two types of euthanasia including active and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia is where a doctor or nurse gives the ill patient some medicine to terminate his/her life. This is different from passive euthanasia where the patient does not get the treatment or medicine that they require in order to remain alive. In other cases, life supporting machines are put off and this allows the patient to die peacefully. Nonetheless, on other scenarios people decide not to offer patients food so as to starve them. This is also similar to the provision of chemotherapy, antibiotics or morphine, which lead to death. Euthanasia has become much discussed in present days due to the advancement in medicine, whereby people are able to live longer (Sather 173).
Pros of Euthanasia
Proponents of euthanasia argue that it is good for terminally ill people. People who endure terminal illnesses on both mental and debilitated deserve euthanasia. Euthanasia helps in peacefully, painlessly and humanely ending the lives of terminally ill people. The main motive of euthanasia is to end the suffering of the ill people. In support of euthanasia, proponents argue that legalizing it would help alleviate the suffering experienced by terminally ill people. Euthanasia brings to an end the inhumane and unfair experiences of terminally ill people who have no hope of recovery. From another perspective, incase of individuals suffering from incurable diseases or conditions with no effective treatment, euthanasia would help in humanely ending their lives. People should be given the liberty to choose induced death (Leming and Dickson 285).
Euthanasia is good since it does not impose death on people but rather serves as an aid in dying painlessly. Euthanasia should be considered and accepted by law since it gives people the liberty to determine their death. The law finds euthanasia or mercy killing worth approving since is only a procedure for maintaining human dignity. Euthanasia is worth approving since it helps doctors and close family members of a terminally ill patient to deal with distress and agony of the patient. Euthanasia follows the same theory of dealing with distress and torment in a way so as to help terminally ill people die peacefully. Euthanasia is praise worthy and is a means of natural extension of patient’s rights by allowing them to decide the value of their life as well as death. Euthanasia goes hand in hand with people’s rights and liberty. Maintaining life support systems as well as use of drugs to extend life against the patient’s wish is unethical. In this case, euthanasia protects the rights and will of the patients. The pain of waiting for death is mostly traumatic and frightening. Based on this case, euthanasia is worth approving (McDougall and Gorman 242).
Proponents of euthanasia argue that it gives people the right to end their life in a quick, compassionate, and dignified manner. The right to die is hereby protected by the law and exercised by allowing euthanasia. By allowing euthanasia, people are able to fully exercise their liberty and rights just as they do in procreation, marriage, or other life events. Euthanasia not only ensures a painless and dignified death but also ensures protection limited resources. In cases of chronic illnesses, euthanasia helps in avoiding wastage of resources, which can be used for assisting other needy people (Sather 173).
Euthanasia is worth approving in the sense that it relieves extreme pain. It also provides a way of relief when the quality of life is low. People who are suffering from chronic illnesses and in deteriorating situation should require painless termination of life. Euthanasia has great economic value in the sense that it frees up limited medical funds so as to help others. This is essential for the treatment of critical diseases, which has limited medical facilities at disposal. Euthanasia should be viewed as a case of freedom of choice. Euthanasia is administered as per the will and wish of the patients and their close relatives (Maisie 1).
Today’s hospitals are overcrowded due to the many diseases and illness in the human society. The number of patients with chronic and critical diseases is increasing day by day. This has led to compromise on quality of medical care. Proponents of euthanasia argue that medical personnel and families members should lead chronically ill people to die. This is a means of giving a chance of living to others who have high probability of recovery. Accordingly, by undertaking euthanasia, more room will be created to allow patients with other treatable diseases to be cured. Actually, from another perspective, the quality of life of chronically ill people is at many a time so bad. These patients may feel much emotional and physical pain. Euthanasia also prevents the anguish and pain, which friends and family members of the patient may be undergoing. Family and friends are allowed to say final goodbye to their loved ones in a dignified manner. It is worth noting that euthanasia helps in saving of vital body organs. Doctors in collaboration with family members are able to save vital organs so as to assist others (Sather 173).
Cons of Euthanasia
Conversely, euthanasia has also received strong criticism. Opponents of euthanasia argue that it devalues human life. Critics of euthanasia argue that doctors have a problem with it since, they have taken an oath not to terminate people’s lives. Euthanasia in this case creates ethical dilemmas among doctors. Euthanasia is controversial in the sense that it is difficult to determine if ill people really wants to die. Euthanasia should be administered only when the ill person wants to die. This is not usually the case since many terminally ill people do not have consent of their situation. This phenomenon is unethical since it transfers the rights and liberties as well as the consent of the ill people to their family members and friends. In this case, the chances of misuse of euthanasia by family members and friends are high. People may take advantage of ill people so as to take their possession by killing them (McDougall and Gorman 242).
Euthanasia is criticized since it creates loopholes for exploiting human rights and dignity. Euthanasia may open up floodgates to non-critical patient suicide or other abuses. Without adequate consent, the ill patients may be denied the chance to live despite of their curable conditions. From a religious perspective, euthanasia has been condemned as being a form of suicide. Many religions terms euthanasia as intentional killing of others without their consent. Opponents of euthanasia argue that family members and doctors may give up on recovery much too early. Despite that many patients may be in stable and curable conditions, the distress of the family and doctor may induce premature mercy killing. This amounts to violation of the individual’s rights and liberty. It should be noted that miracle recoveries and cures can occur, thus doctors and families should not give up too early. Approving euthanasia is giving too much power to doctors and family members over the lives of ill patients. This is unethical and creates loopholes for exploitation and abuse (Leming and Dickson 285).
Conclusively, the different viewpoints regarding euthanasia has been like a mirage that cannot fully be harmonized. Despite its continued adoption, euthanasia has received strong opposition. In a nutshell, euthanasia is very beneficial to the human society. The act of euthanasia is worth approving for the dignity it upholds to human life. In view of terminating tremendous suffering and pain, euthanasia helps in upholding dignified and painless death. This act also gives people the rights and liberty over their lives. The economic aspect of euthanasia can not be assumed, since it helps in saving limited resources, which can be used to treat other curable people. In order to counter the exploitation and abuse of euthanasia by people, strict laws and monitoring should be administered to ensure it is also undertaken whenever necessary.
After doing extensive research on colleges offering business courses I hereby submit my application to be enrolled in your fulltime program at Harvard Business School. This is partly because of the exceptional recognition of the institution due to its highly competitive standards. In addition, I have read remarkable reviews from educational analysts on the outstanding works of alumni from Harvard and their contribution to the society. Apart from being enthusiastic about the business program at Harvard, I also possess exceptional skills to merit my admission.
I am brilliant in book keeping and this has won me several accolades amongst my accounting peers. Moreover, I have practical experience in project management having initiated a business venture for outsourcing accounting projects during my undergraduate studies. Having gained sufficient experience from initiating and guiding this small enterprise, I believe I will scale to greater heights upon completing my studies at this impeccable institution.
Furthermore, I appreciate the crucial role that extra curriculum activities play in development of the whole person. I enjoy swimming and even represented my school at the national stage during my undergraduate studies. During my free time I cycle and occasionally visit the gymnasium to keep fit. I also enjoy indoor games especially monopoly, chess and scrabble. Participation in these activities have enabled me develop my social interaction skills while also providing relief from accounting pressures. Moreover, scrabble and monopoly contests have previously provided the best avenue to meet prospective clients.
I have excellent presentation skills that come in handy in winning clients during exhibitions. I also have full command of Microsoft PowerPoint which I maximize when participating in accounting seminars to win accounting contracts. This excellent presentation skills coupled with my extraordinary communication abilities sets me on a path to make positive transformations in the society. However, my internal drive to be own boss and the ability to work under pressure has also been crucial to my success so far.
I chose to study business at Harvard and specialize in entrepreneurship studies due to the dwindling employment opportunities in the formal job market. Moreover, the economic crisis during the last five years forced many large scale companies to scale down on employees. Consequently, the market is flooded with many unemployed highly trained professionals. By tapping into this group, I will be aiding in alleviating the situation while also developing my entrepreneurial skills profitably.
My family also has a long history of entrepreneurship which I wish to continue through my newly acquired knowledge. Enrolling into the business school will enable me apply my classroom theories to daily practical activities hence achieve the best output. For our family business to compete effectively, it is crucial that I inject fresh ideas hence the need to enroll in the best business school globally. The fast changing business environment also presents new challenges which I will best prepared to handle after finishing my studies at your institution.
After graduation I will apply my new skills in establishing a large scale audit firm to capture the rapidly growing market provided by small scale enterprises. Apart from offering quality services at competitive prices, I will hire fresh graduates thus aid in fighting unemployment. I further intend to outsource for accounting jobs through my website consequently widening my market outreach. This will give me leverage over major audit companies like Ernst & Young and Price Waterhouse Coopers while maintaining good profit margins.
In addition, I will be more active in the running of the family business to greater heights. Consequently, our operating costs will be reduced while enhancing the bottom line through my new acquired skills. Pursuing an Entrepreneurship major is my long-term goal at Harvard school of business. Find attached my application, transcripts, essay and recommendation letters as required in your admissions packet. I appreciate your consideration and look forward to hearing from you soon.
Case Study Amex, Hungary
What are the issues facing Thomas in this case
Clearly, Thomas jumped at the opportunity of working in Hungary without finding out the market dynamics of the country. For instance, he should have known that it takes quiet a long time to get approval from the local authorities on building refurbishments. This bureaucracy from the outset has hindered him from having a functional office therefore, slowing down his project. In addition, bureaucracy in the country’s border points has led to delays in fitting tanks for the stations he had already acquired for AMEX (Gido & Clements, 2009).
However, the biggest challenge facing Thomas is finding the right employees. Most of them are not motivated while the rest are simply incompetent. The interview with Ferenc Erkel clearly demonstrates incompetence amongst qualified even the most qualified prospective staff. Thomas inability to recruit competent has further resulted in a high employee turnover to the detriment of his projects gaining momentum. Of the 16 people he recruited 10 have already left leading to stagnation of his projects.
The prevailing economic situation in the country has further worsened the situation. Thomas is facing a daunting task of setting up gas stations in a country where only 20% of the families own cars. The situation is further made critical by the rising inflation at 32%. This clearly indicates that Thomas and to a further extent AMEX is trying to make inroads in an extremely challenging environment. Furthermore, AMEX’s strategy of targeting first time car owners faces huge challenges in such a depressed economy.
From the interview with Kodaly, it emerges that Thomas faces a language barrier in communication with the natives. This has consequently led to misunderstandings that cost him business. Undoubtedly, Kodaly misunderstood the concept of franchising leading to the collapse of their talks. In addition, Thomas concentrated only on the financial benefits of the agreement (Gido & Clements, 2009).
The proposal to lay off some workers clearly irritated Kodaly hence the failure by Thomas to seal the franchising deal with Kodaly. Finally, he failed to appreciate Kodaly’s conservative nature on social issues such as girls playing football. This further exhibits failure to appreciate the local culture of his foreign work station (Gido & Clements, 2009).
How well is Thomas dealing with these issues
Thomas has not really appreciated the Hungarian market and its culture. His daughters attend the American International School of Budapest and he eats American dishes. This is partly why he has not succeeded .He should stop complaining on the slow progress of the project and take personal initiative to achieve success. This opportunity with its challenges should enable Thomas develop his career instead of procrastinating on responding to emails from the head office.
What suggestions do you have for Thomas in this project Management?
Book Report on leadership models
Summary of Gardner’s book – On Leadership
On Leadership is a book about the nature of leadership published by John Gardner in 1990, and reprinted in 1993. Gardner believes that the problem facing the United States is the lack of leadership and visionary leaders who are able to persuade their followers towards realizing a common goal. On leadership is thus intended to teach leaders what it takes to lead others, and how to strengthen the relationship between the leader and the followers. In fact, he believes that the only purpose of a leader is giving the people back their future. All together, Gardner’s ideas can be summarized into three key points: leadership building, expectations, and values. Leadership building concerns the process by which leadership is developed. Gardner believes that leadership is a quality that is developed. Nobody is born a leader. People get to learn how to be leaders. Hence, to be a leader, one must understand what leadership entails. Understanding leadership is therefore the first step to becoming a leader. He goes ahead to outline other simple steps through which leaders learn how to lead. Secondly, he talks about leadership expectations. A good leader, he believes, must live certain standards. He highlights these standards in a nine overarching leadership expectations, which include envisioning objectives and maintaining moral values. Lastly, he talks about values of a leader. Leaders are visionary people, who are able to persuade, motivate, and induce trust among his followers. He believes that to be trustworthy, a leader must have consistent ideology, act fairly at all times, and be part of the team. Integral to values is the aspect of accountability. Leaders must be accountable for their actions and thoughts in order to lead followers towards common objectives. He makes an important point when he says that a people, nation or organization is defined by looking at their leader. He is their symbol. To be a symbol, however, requires that a leader possesses higher moral and ethical values. Gardner concludes his book by calling on leaders to move into action (Gardner, 1993).
Leadership approach to On Leadership
The purpose of writing On Leadership was to teach leaders how to lead. He does talk about the other two approaches to leadership (followers and situation), but this book was mainly written for leaders. It is the leaders that he blames for the poor leadership in the United States. It is the leaders who have gravely diminished leadership, and failed to envision leadership ideals in order to realize a common goal(s) among his followers. It is, therefore, the leaders who must move into action.
Strengths in Gardner’s On Leadership
The key strength in Gardner’s book, On Leadership, is the basic idea that leaders are developed not born. Nobody is born a leader. Leadership is learned from experiences, by conducting research on previous leadership models, and by undergoing proper skills training. Equally important, is his emphasis on the moral dimension of leadership. Leaders must possess higher moral and ethical values, and must be accountable for their actions and thoughts (Gardner, 1993). There is, however, a paradox as to whether leadership is something that is simply taught or if it must be learned. Gardner does not properly differentiate these two aspects.
How On Leadership resonates with my vision of leadership
Gardner’s leadership concept resonates well with my own vision specifically with the line stating that, within all the properly functioning institutions, all activities including leadership must be carried out in consideration to common beliefs regarding the predetermined set of required conducts that must be observed at all individual levels. A leader at any stage is to revive those common beliefs as well as values, besides utilizing them as the bases of inspiration towards the commitment expected of the team. Regardless of their private commitments, leaders must as well conceive and document objectives using inspirational approaches to drive individuals out of their domestic concerns and assimilate them to ascertain the organizational success (Bennis, 1994).
Principles that help a leader motivate others
Environmental Proposal and Presentation
Patton-Fuller Community Hospital
According to Mawhinney (2011), organizational psychology encompasses several interventionist measures to achieve a firm’s objectives. This may include raising employee performance, improving network relationships or enhancing fairness through equal growth opportunities. These measures rely on psychological theories and concepts relating to change management within organizations. Within the context of Patton-Fuller Community Hospital this will focus on the employees, their teams and external stakeholders especially the community within which it operates. He further adds that organizational psychology starts with the initial diagnosis, followed by design and implementation. Eventually, an evaluation of the efforts is done while continuously monitoring the impact of the process.
This aspect of psychology is highly effective in solving most problems at the hospital while simultaneously increasing productivity. Apart from providing solutions, it also promotes a stress free work environment and assembles strong productive teams. Indeed, organizational psychology is an indispensable tool in business today. Furthermore, it is critical in ensuring survival and long term sustainability in face of the industry wide stiff competition. However, for an optimal income several issues must be considered. These include the nature of business, type of employees and the contextual problems (Mawhinney, 2011).
Strategies to create alliances with external and internal stakeholders
Patton-Fuller Community Hospital operates in an environment with several stakeholders. External stakeholders include the community, patients and other well-wishers. The hospital owes some responsibility to all this stakeholders. For instance, this non profitable health institution which operates in Kelsey owes certain responsibilities to the surrounding community. According to Frooman (1999), as part of its community social responsibility, the hospital is responsible for ensuring the safety of people living in the neighborhood. This requires careful disposal of all waste from the hospital in a hygienic and environmentally friendly manner.
To stem environmental degradation due to pollution the hospital is required to obtain sufficient waste disposal bins. This is part of its responsibility to ensure that its long-term presence in Kesley will not pose any hazard to the surrounding ecosystem. This will definitely create a good relationship with the neighboring community. In addition, the hospital can organize periodic environmental days to create sensitization while also participating in cleanup activities. By abiding to environmental regulations the hospital will create positive alliances with both the local community and local authorities. This will in turn ensure sustained growth for better healthcare in Kesley with the hospital achieving its objectives (Frooman, 1999).
Another strategy for building good rapport with the community would be to organize free medical clinics for the neighboring community. These medical camps aid the impoverished from the nearby community hence continued support. A related strategy to promote affordable healthcare in the community is to introduce medical incentives to locals. For instance, special rates for emergencies would greatly benefit the community. The management should also ensure accountability in the usage of funds from donors to attract more contributions. As Frooman (1999) proposes, employing doctors and other support staff from the Kelsey community, the hospital would also provide an added economic benefit.
1. What are the potential ethical implications raised in your mind on “The Science and Epidemiology of Racism and Health in the United States: An Ecosocial Perspective,” and reading her journal article, “The fall and rise of U.S. inequities in premature mortality: 1960? 2002”?
The ethical implications present in the first article, “The Science and Epidemiology of Racism and Health in the United States: An Ecosocial Perspective,” mainly regards the early detrimental impacts of racism on public health. Basing on the historical studies pertaining to the effects of racism on society, Krieger (2008) extensively evaluates the possible ethical issues that can arise from institutionalization of racism and the resulting related influence on public health. To impeccably present the observation, Krieger analyzes racism from different perspectives, involving biology and health, systematic contests on how to assess the influence of racism on public wellbeing, and the probability of how racial, ethnical, color or class prejudices can determine health practices. She particularly utilizes the racially-derived biological terminologies to demonstrate how physical as well as psychosocial practices can be detrimental as a racial consequence, and in turn affects the innate biology of victims negatively. While the radicalized biological terms are applied to verify how subjective biological characteristics are deliberately perceived as pointers of inherent “racial” diversities.
However, the ethical issues in the second journal article, “The fall and rise of US inequities in premature mortality: 1960-2002,” involves establishing whether the contemporary advancements in public health have helped to abridge or escalate both the racial and ethnical disparities in health. The article particularly gives exceptional focus to premature mortality, and domestic income of the respective study community or state. Krieger et al (2008), eventually points out that the scope of health disparity might either decline or escalate depending on the prevailing conditions, but not necessarily due to public health inequities as conventionally claimed.
2. What experiences have you had in public health or other kinds of work that correspond to the ethical issues she discuss in the article?
The most rampant ethical issues in the public health sector that corresponds to health disparities and inequities as observed in the articles include discrimination in the delivery of health services along racial, ethnical, color, or social classes. For instance, most medical institutions and practitioners often tend to give first priority to well-off patients by randomly admitting or attending to clients instead of maintaining the recommended first-come first-serve protocol of public health service code. Studies have also noted that a similar ethical disparity is also most likely to occur along race, ethnicity, and color among other factors in multicultural societies where familial or personal status might as well be overlooked.
Web Page Analysis
Over the years different companies offering services and products have used diverse methods of relaying information to existing and potential customers. In order to sell a service or a product, there are procedures that must be followed to make any sale or information a success. Accordingly, if the mode of transmitting information to the required target is inadequate, there are negative consequences that are entrenched. The Internet has been a great launching-pad for many businesses through its inception from some years back. Every company using the Internet to convey information needs to take adequate measures more so, if the given company has a website that customers are directed to, in getting the correct picture. For instance, the Coca- cola company, which is the world’s giant beverages producer has a web page that presents information on products, services and any other relevant message an Internet user may require.
Authority of Coca-Cola Company
Certainly, the Coca-Cola Company is clearly accountable for the contents of the webpage it has given out to be accessed. Conversely, the page has several links that describe the company nature, its owners and assorted products the company sells. It is also easier to know the legitimacy of the company, for there are contact details that entail, physical addresses, phone numbers and email addresses since the company have different regional blocks globally. There is also the head office that is governing the entire entities. While going back from the year of Coca-Cola’s inception, it is clear that due to several years in operation, the stability of the company is unquestionable. Indeed, a company which has operated over a century has what it takes to be authentic (Myer 2002). The company webpage also has statements that officially approve the contents and more so it has a copyright holder of the Coca-Cola Company (Alexander & Tate, 2005)
Through the analysis of the Coca-Cola Company website, there are visible provisions of outside sources in regards to product reviews and reports pertaining to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), for verification claims. There are also audit companies that Coca-Cola contracts in carrying out forensic audits and, which may also validate such assertions. Generally, the company seems to adhere to required standards of presenting flawless information that may legitimize its operations (Coca-Cola, 2013).
The objectivities of the company in regards to motivation and societal services are up-to-date in this website. Undoubtedly, the advertising segments on the page are generally different from the information materials. This is seen on the YouTube links and several animations that run concurrently providing views of a mixture of adverts on numerous products and activities carried out by the company, regarding service to the public (Coca-Cola, 2013).
Currency of the Information
The information provided on the Coca-Cola web link is current, and worth relying on. For instance, the latest year that the webpage was revised is in the year 2011, while there is current information that is provided from April 2013, to current time. This clearly shows that the webpage is currently kept and provides non-outdated materials. The company has also filed a financial report of the year 2013 dated 13 December fiscal year, with SEC. Actually, since the Coca-Cola company operates in different regions globally, is has also provided initial reports of every region indicated, and conclusively given a grand report unifying the company operations throughout the globe (Coca-Cola, 2013).
The web page of the Coca-Cola Company seems to be complete if not saturated. There is no doubt that the web page is fully constructed, since it has all the required data if not in excess. According to Myer (2002), there are individual products that are covered extensively by information and strong advertising methods that actually lure customers and probable users to get hooked-up immediately. The descriptions of products are detailed that makes any customer to decide which one use. As much as the information provided concerning the products offered by the Coca-Cola Company throughout the globe may be equal, there are some products in certain regions that may have not been covered adequately. In other countries, there are specific brands that could be confined in those areas and divisions, specifically due to the nature and availability of raw materials.
Indeed, any company using the Internet to relay information to potential customers, existing customers, stakeholders and any other concerned party, must have reliable webpage that has all the required information to make marketing and communication more easier. In the contemporary world, a webpage means a lot to any company, be it globally, regionally or locally to assist in erasing any perceived authenticity issue.
Attributes of Successful Leaders
Attributes of Successful Leaders
1. Describe the strengths or assets that public health leaders in general need for success in leading in this field
The strengths of public health leaders are mainly civic-derived and often obligate exceptional acquaintance, knowledge as well as skills. Initial public leadership roles might extend past dispensing and administering healthcare to entail lobby, social planning, health edification, and political as well as communal initiatives. Moreover, the prevailing public health leadership involves facilitating partnership with pertinent entities, stakeholders, and the public members as supported by Rowitz (2012).
2. Explain why these attributes are necessary.
This attributes are particularly required in leaders to motivate trust as well as confidence among sponsors, shareholders, and public members (Kulbok et al, 2012). In public health, this regards administering staff and groups within agencies, apart from overseeing community developments in cooperation with varied associates within the relevant sectors, as well as across borders or jurisdictions.
3. Briefly describe the leader you interviewed and why you chose him or her.
Nancy Meadows, the Project Director of Central Indiana Alliance for Health (CIA4H), served as the interviewee due to her experience in the field, which involves about twenty-five years of service in medical, value, and policy department. She has particularly facilitated alliance with several agencies and groups in Indiana along with Kentucky, through which she played a leading role in program initiation and enhancement for Medicare Quality Improvement Organization (QIO), distinctive missions, together with tutoring projects meant for advancing healthcare services and quality.
4. What are the most important lessons you learned about leadership from this interview?
Leaders in the sector must exhibit the ability to lead agencies or groups in diverse backgrounds, integrating seamlessly as a group adviser, besides ratifying contemporary, innovative concepts within an institution or across the mainstream society (Kegler et al, 2007).
5. To what degree does he or she demonstrate the attributes of effective public health leaders?
Meadows holds an extensive record in improving public health through partnership which encompass collaborating with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) National Care Transitions Initiative, given the intent to enhance the value of care, by increasing patient and caregiver engagement within the medical facilities and society. The initiative was equally launched to improve the application of medical information technology in endorsing safe and successful care evolution among other purposes.
The Process of Research
The Effect of Disseminating Evidence-Based Interventions That Promote Physical Activity to Health Departments
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology presented in Brownson et al. (2007)?
The strengths of the research methodology ranged from pointing out both the importance of physical activity, such as good health and extensive lifespan, as well as the risks of physical inactivity, such as vulnerability to numerous chronic infirmities, poor health, and limited lifespan. It further recommended a number of proven and successful body exercise programs that are applicable in diverse backgrounds and populations, such as the community guideline. The recommended approaches can be adopted by different communities via the aid of various entities, institutions, and personalities, due to their probability to evaluate civic health challenges, indentify and sponsor ideal programs alongside policies (Brownson et al, 2012). Nonetheless, its weaknesses involved inadequate statistical resources for the recommended disseminating approaches proposed for exercising intercessions in social environs via civic health institutions.
What value did using a quasi- experimental design add to the research study?
Growth in the Transportation in Florida
The state of Florida, formerly the territory of Florida before it was ceded to the United States in 1819 and finally to statehood in 1845, is the fourth most populous state, the fourth largest economy by GDP, and the twenty second largest state in the U.S. It is headquartered in Tallahassee, and like any other U.S state, it is headed by a Governor. Its climate varies from subtropical to tropical depending on the seasons and other environmental factors. Historically, the state has mainly relied on tourism, agriculture, transportation and construction industries for its economic development. However, with the American Civil War and the consecutive World Wars, most of these sectors were either destroyed or underwent varying degrees of decline. The reconstruction of these industries prompted the government and private developers to also expand the economic scope to other areas such as service industries, businesses and professional fields. The latest economic blow to the state of Florida was the ‘Great Recession’ that began sometime in 2007 and reached its peak in 2008. Most economists have projected that growth in the transportation infrastructure will provide a solid foundation for the Florida’s economy, and thus open it up for rapid growth in other sectors like labor market and service industries. Essentially, states that have been able to recover from the “Great economic recession” are those that have greatly invested in transportation projects. Today, for instance, Florida’s unemployment rate remains much higher than the average rate of the United States, at 12% and 10% respectively. Growth in the transportation is expected to create more jobs, open up the state to competitive international markets, raise tax revenue and incomes, and improve the well-being of Floridians (Weisbrod, 2009). This paper discusses growth in the transportation in Florida and how its outcome will affect the state’s economy, as well as how transportation has in the past affected the economy.
Florida’s Transportation Infrastructure
The transportation infrastructures in Florida include: highways, railways, seaports, commercial airports, spaceports, pipelines, waterways and canals. Apart from tourism, these are the key drivers for the state’s economic developments and multipliers. Most of them were built during the European Expansion period and are only undergoing major redevelopments, except for airports, pipelines and highways that are the innovations of the 20th century.
Railroad is one of the strongest transportation systems in Florida. The network has opened up the state to new industries, including expanding tourist industry, and allowing for massive growth of residential and commercial areas. The first rail was built in 1834, and in 1836 the first train was commissioned. The success of the first railroad prompted the community leaders and government officials to channel more funds into the railway development. In 1860, another project was completed, connecting the East and West Florida and thus profoundly impacting on the economy of the two areas. The construction of new railways continued until the beginning of the Civil War. At the end of the war, most railroads were either deconstructed or underwent varying degrees of decline. It took years and a lot of money to re-establish these projects and regulate the abuses in the industry. Today, Florida has some of the most sophisticated and largest railroad systems in the world (Lynch, 2002).
Seaports have significantly contributed to the economy of Florida, and have helped expand the existing industries, including supporting new projects. Florida today serves as the headquarters of most international cruise companies, and the Port of Miami is considered the largest of its kind in the world. Florida also has the highest number of international banks in the U.S. because of this strategic Port.
Measure 11 in Oregon
Measure 11 (M11) refers to a public sponsored bill that was enacted in the State of Oregon on 8th November, 1994. The constitutional ratification approved binding sentence limits for various crimes, following it legalization through civic balloting, with a landslide 788,695 electorates in support, while 412,816 voters rejected it. It restricted ruling judges from granting minor penalties, or waving out M11 charges on the ground of good conduct. It further restricted M11 convicts from being bailed before the elapse of their minimum incarceration terms. The act is applicable to all offenders from the age of fifteen, and is therefore culpable of subjecting juveniles to adult trials. This paper aspires to present an argumentative essay based on the opinions of both proponents and opponents of M11, and its relevant impacts on crime and prison population, before concluding with a summary of the entire content.
The act was primarily introduced to deter the disreputably aggressive, repeat offenders. However, in consideration to the changing trends in crime perpetration, emerging misdemeanors have continuously been integrated, coupled with the gradual extension of minimum charges. According to Freeman (395-396), the description of aggressive crimes appears to be broadening to encompass modern offenses such as non-rape sexual abuse, drinking and driving offenses, unarmed burglary, and child pornography among others. In regard to its constitutional interpretation, all the M11 charges are presumable atrocious as well as appalling. Nevertheless in pragmatism, it doesn’t strictly require an actual aggressive offense for a culprit to be charged under the act. Judges normally reside in Measure 11 verdicts, although they are not always allowed to review sentences once it is delivered.
The act might specifically be unfair when the plaintiff is falsely alleged of committing several M11 offenses. In review of the jurisdictional records, they often tend to plead guilty to one of the M11 charges or a minor crime, despite the fact that they are aware of their innocence, as M11 renders such charges irreversible after a conviction. The act was reportedly settled through public support after a successful proposal appeal by a democratic union known as Crime Victims United (CVU). Kevin Mannix, a serving state representative was one of the leading advocates for the bill, but has presently suggested that aggressive offenders may not be effectively rehabilitated via trial or predetermined prison terms, although the period of incarceration might serve as a security advantage for the public (Walker & Hurley 285-288). Another act, Ballot Measure 10, has in several occasions been introduced a couple of times by the Oregon Legislative Assembly (OLA) in an attempt to review M11. However, it always failed to get the necessary required support for approval.
Advocates of M11 while lobbying for the act claimed that juries were being sympathetic in punishing violent offenders, and hence, perceived the bill as decisive move towards curbing misdemeanor rates. Critics on the other hand retaliated that judges needs be granted liberty, power and support in deciding verdicts, and might only be held accountable for that specific incident of pertinent offense. They equally branded the trial of juveniles in adult courts as abuse and unethical as noted by Tonry (740-741). Prison statistical records of the Oregon State shows that inmate population have steadily surged after the implementation of M11, for instance, by 2004; a forty-one percent rise in inmate population was directly connected to M11. Proponents have contemporarily linked M11 to a reduction in crime rates, while critics have stated that the act is intimidating and obligating innocent and juvenile suspects into petition agreements for minor or non-M11 offenses, because of the risk for long-term mandatory sentences.
Studies prior to as well as after the enactment of M11 on crime patterns alongside trial in Oregon indicates that the act has continuously extended the incarceration terms for convicts of violent misdemeanors, even though only a smaller number of perpetrators have been convicted for such offenses. The adjustment is being partly attributed to the application of prosecutorial prudence, along with the streamlining of offenses rendered as unsuitable for the compulsory prescribed sentences. The adjustments included predetermined judiciary reviews on penalties together with case filing procedures, whereas others ranged from unintended and complicated trial mandates. However, extensive research is desperately required to provide reliable facts in regard to the long-term impacts of Measure 11.
Freeman, Robert M. Correctional Organization and Management: Public Policy Challenges, Behavior, and Structure. Woburn, MA: Elsevier, 1999.
Tonry, Michael. The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice. Minnesota, MN: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Walker, Peter A. & Hurley, Patrick T. Planning Paradise: Politics and Visioning of Land Use in Oregon. Pennsylvania, PA: University of Arizona Press, 2011.
Immigration Reform: The Dream Act
The Dream Act
The Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act), was first tabled in the US Senate in August 2001, encompassing the need to grant conditional citizenship to qualified immigrants of approved conduct. Eligible candidates must be a US high school graduate whom was brought up in the US as minor, or resided in the nation for, at minimal, five consecutive years before the implementation of the bill. In case they can successfully undertake a two-year military service or a similar period of learning at a four-year higher education entity, they would equally be considered for provisional citizenship of a six-year residency. During the six year provisional stay, immigrants can be eligible for permanent citizenship provided they hold any certificate from a US higher academic institution, with impeccable conduct, or have worked with the federal military force for over two years.
Proponents and Opponents Arguments
According to Guzman & Jara (2012), the debates projected in objection of the bill are particularly not convincing, since it is impossible to fault offering minors, without immigration credentials owing to their custodian’s mistakes, a prospect to learn or support the nation via military service. Moreover, the proponents have clearly highlighted the defects as well as apparent misrepresentation of the bill in critic’s most leading censoring arguments. Advocates believe that bill will not be in favor of an ‘amnesty program,’ and might instead facilitate the generation of a range of social as well as economic gains. Nevertheless, opponents argues that it will particularly support illegitimate immigration, besides endorsing future unlawful settlements, luring fraud, and protecting criminal syndicate suspects from deportation.
Among the most misleading arguments against the DREAM Act is the perceived financial burden. Critics have attempted to cite a range of uncorroborated financial effects into the controversy. Accordingly, the neutral Congressional Budget Office (CBO), have confirmed through evaluation that the act would curtail the debit by 2.2 billion dollars within its initial ten years of enactment (Fitz, 2010). Opponents have equally claimed that the bill would support criminal activities; however, this conventional ‘anti-amnesty’ question is particularly irrelevant when juveniles are involved. Infringing their optimism and chance to succeed in life is tantamount to chastisement for an offense that they never committed, while allowing them to pursue careers and acquire residence is in contrary to supporting illegal behavior. Opponents also assume that implementing the DREAM Act will motivate illegal immigrants, but the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) have since suggested that the bill will only facilitate their efforts in curbing criminal together with security threats.
Indeed, the austere conditions of the act, such as the compulsory period of living in the US meant to minimize the cases of unregistered immigrants along the border. Critics have also deliberately stated that the federal immigration body will consider funding extended relatives of immigrants once the recipients of the bill acquire permanent residency, while the immigration policies only allow the aiding of first kin as noted by Kyledeb (2009). Furthermore, if their custodians or siblings are found to be illegally in the country, they might be deported, for at least ten years while pending their residency recognition. They are also required to reside in US for twenty-three years before their parents might legally join them.
Conclusively, the experts have so far proposed probable means of restoring the concerns regarding this minor unregistered population ranging from expelling them to their countries of origin, restricting and subjecting them to a bleak future, or recognizing and providing them with an equal opportunity to succeed in life by endorsing the DREAM Act. However, only the DREAM Act alternative seems to surmount to social, ethical and pragmatic logic. It is also clear that most critics of the act are frightened by the related political issues as opposed to the DREAM Act itself, and legislators have been at the forefront of propagating such fears. Nonetheless, with the present strong civilian endorsement, it is time for Congress among other legislative bodies to respect the people’s will, concede defeat and pass the bill.
Guinea Worm Eradication
Guinea Worm Eradication
1. Describe the Guinea worm health issue in terms of the ecological model
Guinea worm infirmity, commonly known as Dracunculiasis, refers to a communicable disease mainly acquired from drinking contaminated stagnant water, with microscopic fleas, copepods, which serves as breeding grounds for the guinea worm larvae. Once in the body, the larvae requires around twelve months to mature, before exiting via itching blisters upon exposure to water, normally around the lower extremities. This allows the warm to discharge numerous new larvae, besides accomplishing its infective cycle.
2. Diagram a logic model for the Guinea worm eradication project
Applying Systems Thinking to a Public Health Issue
Applying Systems Thinking to a Public Health Issue
1. Briefly describe your selected program and identify the characteristics of this system
Systems thinking regard the probability of espousing efficient and long-term interventions by outlining objectives and analyzing the relevant and inevitable challenges. However in public health, systems thinking can be perceived as an effective problem solving concept given the reliability to study the multifaceted aspect of systems, besides utilizing the necessary mechanisms to understand systems basics and response patterns, with consideration to the duty and expectation of all shareholders. My preferred systems thinking concept for public health and medical care challenges particularly prioritizes transcending intellectual confines to facilitate effective coordination across institutional boundaries as stakeholders and practitioners learn to comprehend and cope with highly multifaceted problems. An essential feature of this approach is the requirement for data sharing alongside synthesis as noted by Leischow & Milstein, (2006).
2. In what ways would using systems thinking help to break down barriers between different departments and different funding sources?
Systems thinking generally present a better way to effectively examine the background of health system challenges, organizations, innovations, and challenge approach within the public health discipline. Numerous health initiatives are presently emphasizing systematic thinking and sharing of data from distinctive disciplines given the need to deter terrorism, limit tobacco indulgence, create awareness on pandemic outbreaks, and establish the cause of foodborne infirmities among other issues. These specifically demonstrates the significance of sharing information, reviewing past studies with experience, building relevant infrastructures, thinking systematically towards the anticipated scenarios, and relaying all intelligence to the implementation departments.
3. Describe some ways in which this system could be tested and validated
Accommodative cyber-infrastructures, entailing a nationwide electronic health records system, might soon be required to facilitate these large-scale information initiatives; otherwise they risk remaining as detached statistical repositories. Under appropriate preparation and measurements against abuse; nevertheless, it might be probable to share data in a manner that guarantees situational consciousness on civic health challenges, and accessible resources, together with alternatives for instant and efficient medical preservation programs. According to McLeroy (2006), these contemporary complex means of sharing information and monitoring underground relationships, involving medical records, as well as regional and nationwide observation systems, hold insightful moral, lawful, fiscal, and public connotations which obligate comprehension and familiarity.
Geology and the Young Earth
Introduction to Geology 1
The quest to understand the planet Earth, particularly its history and the materials of which it is composed, has lived with man across time. There have been attempts to understand, for instance, why there are floods and earthquakes. People want to know what influences volcanic eruptions and floods, whether the Abrahamic God really created the Universe, and if at all the Earth was formed at a precise time. When people talk about climate change, others want to know whether there are climate changes that occurred in the past and whether the future changes can be predicted. These questions and puzzles are indeed very valuable insights into understanding the planet Earth and its composition. They were dealt with in the ancient Greece, during the Roman republic, and in the early modern period. Even with greater strides in the technological advancements in the contemporary world, these geological dilemmas still remain the subjects of many great thinkers.
Geology is generally the science of the physical Earth, the materials of which it is composed, and the structures of these materials (Monroe, Wicander & Hazlett, 2007). Accordingly, geologic materials, refers mainly to rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic) and unconsolidated materials (mainly recent deposits). Geology also includes the processes acting upon these materials and the organisms that have occupied the Earth throughout its history. The study of the planet is extremely important in understanding the past, current and changing conditions of the Earth. In the modern world, for example, there is the problem of climate change. People want to know why climate is changing across time, how it was in the past, and the possible results of the future climates of Earth. Geologic dilemmas are all over. People use products from the Earth daily. They extract natural resources, use water, extort oil, and mine minerals from the Earth. Without doubt, the knowledge of the historical geology is very important in understanding the Earth materials and processes. In addition, by understanding the history of the Earth, geologists have been able to determine, or at least understand, some of these processes and events and why they occur. It has also helped geologists predict environmental problems, such as stream restoration, hydrocarbon exploration, and others (Trent, Hazlett & Bierman, 2010). It has further facilitated better understanding of some of the natural hazards such as floods, tsunamis and earthquakes. Nevertheless, though geology is widely used to refer to the solid Earth, it can also be used in respect to the study of other physical aspects in the celestial body (Monroe, Wicander & Hazlett, 2007).
The materials from which the Earth is composed: Rocks
The Life and Works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig Van Beethoven and Joseph Haydn are distinguished composers who have significantly influenced developments in Classical music. The three composers are referred as triumvirate of composers in Classical style music. The contributions of the three composers are regarded as fundamental input in the music sector. Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven gave the best during their time, which has influenced other composers who came after them. Other distinguished composers added to the three names are Schubert who mostly composed in new Romantic style. The three composers have great similarities based on the fact that they worked during the Classical music era. Mozart was an Austria Composer born in 1756 and who was capable of playing multiple instruments. Like other Classical composers, Mozart aligned himself with different varieties of European patrons and venue and composed many works including symphonies, sonatas, concertos, masses, and operas. Beethoven was a great Classical composer who was baptized in 1770 at Bonn and who was son of a musician. He developed interest in music at an early age. Haydn is regarded one of the creators of fundamental genres of Classical music where he was named Kapellmeister in 1761 after he became an assistant to composer Nicola Porpora. This essay will compare and contrast the lives and works of music composers Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven.
The lives of Mozart, Beethoven, and Haydn distinct to some extent bearing in mind their different times and places of birth as well as death. To begin with, Mozart was born in 1756 and died in 1791. Throughout his life, Mozart was an influential and prolific composer of Classical period. From his earliest childhood, Mozart demonstrated prodigious ability in music. Even at a tender age, he was proficient in violin and keyboard. His first music composition was at the age of five. At the age of 17, Mozart was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg where he composed abundantly despite is restlessness in search of better position. Mozart went to Vienna in 1781 and composed many symphonies, operas, requiem, and concertos which are praised even to date. He had a distinguished ability to learn from others and developed maturity and brilliance of style which entailed the graceful and light along great passion in music. Over his music career, Mozart has composed over 600 works which compose of concertante, symphonic, operatic, chamber and choral music (Burt 299).
Haydn was born in 31st March 1732 and died in May 31st 1809. Haydn was an Austrian composer who grew to be a prominent and prolific composer during the Classical era. Haydn is featured as the father of string quartet and symphony due to his distinguished input to these forms. The evolution of sonata form and piano trio are also attributed to the input of Haydn during the Classical era. Like Mozart, Haydn spent much of his time serving as a court musician. He was isolated from other composers until late stages of his long life. This alienation made him remain original in his composition since he remained isolated from trends in music. His father who was a regarded composer impacted positively in his music career. By the time Haydn met his death, he was among the most celebrated composers across Europe. His greatly influenced Mozart who was his close friend as well as Beethoven who was his student. This relationship between the three composers influenced their style and form of music composition (Burt 179).
Beethoven is the youngest of the three composers whereby he was baptized on 17th December 1770 and died on 26th March 1827. Beethoven was a German pianist and composer and stood as a fundamental figure in the transition from Classical to Romantic era. Beethoven has remained the most influential and famous of all composers. Some of his best compositions are 5 concertos for piano, 9 symphonies, 16 string quartets, and 32 piano sonatas. During his career, Beethoven composed other songs, choral works, and chamber music whereby he displayed his musical talents. Like Mozart, Beethoven was greatly influenced by his father Johann Van Beethoven as well as Christian Gottlob Neefe. Beethoven studies with Mozart and befriended Haydn during his first 22 years in Bonn. Like Mozart who moved in Vienna, Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792 where he studied with Haydn. During his study in Vienna, Beethoven gained high reputation as a virtuoso pianist. Beethoven lived in Vienna till his death in 1827. It is sad to note that Beethoven’s hearing deteriorated in about 1800 and he almost totally became deaf in the last decade of his life. Despite of his deaf condition, he continued to compose and gave up performing and conducting. It is interesting to note that many of his most admired music works are from this period (Burt 27).
The works of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven have great similarities in their music composition. Both three composers worked during the same period of Classical style. The use of Sonata form is common among the trio. Sonata, which is a defining characteristic of the Classical style has been exhibited by the three composers. Sonata form remained outstanding in every genre of music in the Classical era. Church music and opera was also composed by the three artists. The three composers who are of the Classical era developed music works which are hybrid of other forms mainly the sonata form. The three composers blended sonata with variation and rondo form. Basically, sonata style began with simplicity and tonal stability whereby it builds in tension towards the middle and reduces in tension and complexity towards the end. This is a common form of music which was adopted by the three composers. Most of the music composition by the three men had the sonata form which has its climax at the middle (Langlois 1).
Haydn was a master of sonata form though he did not create it. He had an excellent grasp of form and he took few liberties with his conception. His music also exhibited false recapitulation, which is a device used near the end section of a sonata form movement. Alongside the use of false recapitulation, Haydn surprised his listeners with unexpected twists and turns. Haydn was fond of using sudden key changes, harmony, shifts of rhythm, and phrase which leads to totally different than what is expected. In this case, Haydn was a genius in surprising his audience with unexpected things, while still remaining to the sonata form. The music of Haydn was full of eccentric and idiosyncrasies ideas. Haydn liked to startle his listeners with unexpected and sudden rests or unexpected breaks. This is different from the works of Mozart who was more apt to preparing his listeners. Unlike Haydn, Mozart was not fond of surprising his audience with unexpected things. Nevertheless, he was a genius of gradually introducing new remote key and rhythms to his listeners (Langlois 1).
Haydn was fond of taking simple germ and motif in the themes of a movement. He also used it as a type of springboard where different musical ideas emerged throughout the movement. Many of the musical movements by Haydn were monothematic. This characteristic is similar to the musical compositions by Mozart. Mozart was categorized as a great composer who used more than one or two themes in the movement. Like Haydn, Mozart had a knack of using different themes in a single movement. He was keen of using several themes while at the same time maintain unity. One example of his music movements which had different themes while keeping unity is Paris Symphony (Burt 179).
The three composers, Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven showed similarities in their use of monothematic and multiple themes in their movements. In many books and music works of Beethoven, his use of Haydn’s monothematic and Mozart’s multiple themes has been shown. Like these two composers, Beethoven integrated his works with both single and multiple themes to increase the appeal of the music to the listeners. Beethoven increased the appeal of his music by combining different themes and sounds which produced an outgrowth or variation of the first theme. Beethoven’s movements have similar characteristics of the sonata form as those of Haydn and Mozart such as the opening movement of symphony no. 5. The diversity and variations of Beethoven’s methods gives its relationship with Haydn’s music which entailed surprises to the listeners (Langlois 1).
On the contrary, Mozart’s music was more conservative and adhered to rules as compared to Haydn and Beethoven. Despite of his adherence to rules and conservative style, his music remained incomparable. Unlike Mozart and Beethoven, Haydn was given to surprising and shocking the listeners. This is different from Beethoven and Mozart who rarely surprised their listeners. Haydn music was well behaved and more regular. Unlike Mozart who left many incomparable masterpieces, Haydn music was more behaved and within the confines of boundaries. Unlike Haydn who was apt to presenting his theme in recapitulation, Mozart rarely recorded his themes and repeated them verbatim. Mozart engaged in more unaltered repetition of his themes since they were full-blown lyrical melodies (Langlois 1).
The three composers also shared common characteristics in the use of string quartets, piano trios, and symphonies. Nevertheless, Haydn left more great masterpieces as compared to Mozart and Beethoven. This is despite the fact that the last three symphonies by Mozart are exquisite masterpieces which are equal or surpassing to any symphony by Haydn. It is also worth noting that it is not fair to compare Haydn and Mozart due to their distinct age dates. While Haydn died at 36, Mozart died at 77 years, thus making it unfair to compare their works. In regards to opera, Mozart was unsurpassed. Haydn even admitted that Mozart’s operas were incomparable and greater than his. The Classical concerto was however close in style to the opera. In this case, Mozart was successful and great in concertos while Haydn’s concertos are mostly mediocre just like the operas (Burt 299).
In regards to church music, Mozart was more successful and appealing as compared to Haydn. Haydn’s masses for Catholic Church were really symphonies with choir and there lacked stylistic differences between Haydn’s masses and symphonies. Haydn lacked grasp of Baroque ecclesiastic style, which is different from Mozart who had deep understanding of Handel, Bach and other masters of Baroque church music. The music compositions by Beethoven are influenced by both Mozart and Haydn. The compositions by Beethoven demonstrate aspects of Mozart and Haydn styles as well as infusions of his own unique personality. It is worth noting that Beethoven was much influenced by Haydn as opposed to Mozart despite that much of his early works are moderated after Mozart’s works (Langlois 1).
The use of false recapitulation is manifested in Beethoven music. This is a characteristic borrowed from Haydn. Like Haydn, Beethoven also had a strong passion for unexpected and sudden pause as well as fermata. Despite that Beethoven borrowed much of his styles from Haydn and Mozart, he went own to be more fond of sudden surprises that Haydn. On the other side, Beethoven also demonstrated Haydn’s high-spirited wit in his musical composition. Most of the music compositions by Beethoven have great sense of music humor which is borrowed from Haydn. This is mainly from string quarters, piano sonatas, and symphonies. Like Haydn, Beethoven was at times deadly serious and other times overly comic (Langlois 1).
Like Mozart and Haydn, Beethoven adopted the idea of using motif and germ to generate musical energy in his music movement. Beethoven was quick in integrating motif and germ across the entire movement so as to enhance its appeal to listeners. A good example is symphony no. 5 which demonstrates the use of germ or motif in Beethoven’s work. Basically, Beethoven forms and styles were inherited from Mozart and Haydn. This is mainly the rondo, sonata form, and variation form. The main difference of Beethoven works from Mozart and Haydn is that he increased the intensity and length of the development section. Beethoven has a significant variety of creating sonata-form movement. At times, he would at times terse, going quickly from first to second theme and closing soon after presenting the second theme. This is similar to the sonata style of Haydn. Like Mozart, Beethoven used a group of first themes in tonic key and present group of themes in other keys. In other times, Beethoven themes were looser in conception. Based on this case, the variety created by Beethoven in the context of sonata was astounding (Langlois 1).
In later years, Beethoven was more interested in counterpoint and fugues. Beethoven was also interested in variation form, where he used it sometimes in the movement to string quartets and piano sonatas. Most of his works were combinations of sonata form, variations and themes. Despite that it is hard to describe Beethoven music as compared to that of Haydn and Mozart, it is essential to note that his music had three main modes of expression. His music demonstrated both his humorous and playful side. Beethoven music has a dramatic side and powerful to the extent of making his listeners’ skin craw. Another key aspect of Beethoven music is that he was introspective and dreamy (Burt 27).
Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven are influential figures in the Classical music era whose works are still praised to date. The music compositions and styles of Mozart and Beethoven are very similar. Mozart is considered one of the most successful Classical era composers. On the other hand, Beethoven was successful during the transition from Classical to Romantic eras. Beethoven is considered an influential figure of the Classical period and is much credited for the development of new style as well as pushing the boundaries of Classical music. Mozart and Beethoven share similar family backgrounds, whereby their fathers were musicians. This gave them a good time to learn music. Whereas Mozart’s father was a skilled music teacher and composer, Beethoven father was a tenor vocalist who offered lessons in violin and piano and pushed his son into early performances (Langlois 1).
The rise of Beethoven to fame can be attributed to his studies with Haydn in Vienna in early 1790s. Both composers had strong influence on one another, whereby Beethoven borrowed much from Haydn. Most of Beethoven compositions during the time showed his growing range, advancement, and intricacy. Unlike Haydn who focused on his studies and musicality, Beethoven established himself as a composer. Beethoven borrowed significantly from Haydn, where at one time he worked under him for 4 years. On the other hand, Mozart concentrated all his energy in performing and made his name famous across the world (Somoski 1).
Basically the works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven were quite different. Beethoven works stood more than those of Mozart during the Classical music era. The music compositions of Beethoven are more complex on bases of emotions and personality as compared to those of Haydn and Mozart. From another perspective, it could be said that Mozart was ahead of time due to his genius styles of composition. In this case, Beethoven borrowed most of his ideas from different composers including Mozart. This made his work appealing to many people. Mozart was identified as a great innovator during his time and the best Classical pianist ever born. He was regarded creator of the most technically-advanced pieces in Classical era (Somoski 1).
Unlike Haydn and Mozart who had no much work to build from, Beethoven was luck to base his ideas on those of other composers. Beethoven was able to study other composers and learn technicalities of music at a young age. Beethoven was in this case able to compose and play with high degree of expression and passion. Nevertheless, Beethoven music was loosely-structured from peace to piece. Despite that he was well-trained, his music was hard to decipher. Most of Beethoven compositions were hard and complex to understand by the masses. This is different to Mozart’s music which was easy to understand. Mozart wrote music which could be repeatedly played across Europe. Beethoven wrote his music during the transition to Romantic era. The main factor that led Beethoven to be a leading figure in Romanticism movement and be different from Mozart and Haydn is his strong experimentation and willing addition of emotion and expression (Somoski 1).
Though, the music compositions by Haydn and Mozart had strong similarities, Haydn was more talented, creative, and skilled than Mozart. Mozart is identified as one of the most infallible and facile composer who ever lived and whose works are infinitely inspired and fresh. Haydn is the model of his normal music unlike Beethoven who does surprising things. Haydn created a strong sense of expectation than any composer and never seemed to just offer what his audience expects. In Mozart’s music, there exists huge stretches which are four-square and formulaic mainly in orchestral music. He did not seek to sketch his perfect music works like Haydn requiem and quartets. Nevertheless, there are much of Mozart styles which are more formulaic and predictable as contrasted to Haydn works. From another perspective, Mozart did a commendable job by producing the most profoundly poetic, deeply moving, often sad and ecstatic music ever. Alongside being the elegant and facile classicist, Mozart’s genius was outstanding as the first Romantic composer. Even Mozart acknowledged that Haydn was more talented than his beloved young friend. This is a major reason why Mozart struggled a lot with Haydn quartets. As contrasted to Beethoven and Mozart, Haydn was a great composer and a conductor of the greatest orchestra ever (Burt 299).
HOW ARE CANADIAN MINING FIRMS DEALING WITH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?
June 02, 2013
For a long time, mining companies operated in areas without caring about the impacts of their operations to the local communities. Most companies would leave when the areas are completely exhausted of all economically valuable reserves, not to mention the devastating environmental, ethical and social effects of their operations. Because of these negative impacts and ‘devil caring attitude’ of these companies, social groups often opposed mining projects within their locations. The Churches and local communities, for example, often mobilized their members to oppose any attempt to establish extractive industries in their areas. This explains perhaps why there were always rebel groups in areas where the local populations were not involved. It is this conflict between the mining industries and social groupings that led to the establishment of a number of initiatives and practices for the benefits of both the local communities and mining industries.
One particular outcome was the creation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is a business process that is voluntarily undertaken by mining companies to reduce the negative impacts of their operations in the mining areas and to improve the living standards of the local communities.1
Hevina S. Dashwood & Bill.Buenar Puplampu, “Corporate Social Responsibility and Canadian Mining Companies in the Developing World. The Role of Organizational Leadership and Learning.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 30.1-2 (2010): 175-196.
It is important, however, to note that these are ‘voluntary’ initiatives by the mining industries, and are not bound by the legal obligations or the agreement with the social groups. Any binding contract or even labour rights, for instance, cannot be considered part of the CRS policy. CRS activities, therefore, supersede contracts and regulations. In recent years, most mining companies have invested in improving infrastructure in areas where they operate.2
MENA report, “Canada: Harper Government Highlights Canadian Mining Companies Leadership in Creating Jobs and Prosperity at Home and Abroad,” MENA Report, March 4, 2013. Well equipped hospitals, electricity, clean water and proper roads have been some of the initiatives of CRS. Some have participated in social building, like construction of schools and creation of employment for the local communities. Most industries have also invested considerably in environmentally friend technologies to ensure that their environmental standards are way above those set by International Organizations for Standardization (IOS). Nonetheless, CSR activities are not just voluntary activities; they also carry with them the impact that mining firms have the responsibility to account for the effects of their activities.3
Guylaine Vallee, What is Corporate Social Responsibility? The Case of Canada. Managerial Law, 47.5 (2005): 20-46. Getting social license from the people also shows that mining firms equally care for the lives of the local people, and not just for commercial viability. For these reasons, mining firms with CSR policies function pretty well even in situations where there are no legal obligations.4
The Canadian Centre for the Study of Resource Conflict, “Corporate Social Responsibility: Movements and Footprints of Canadian Mining and Exploration Firms in the Developing World,” CSR: Movements and Footprints, October 2009: 3-17.
The purpose of this paper is to look at how Canadian mining firms are dealing with corporate social responsibility in areas where they operate.
Global Warming: Cause and Mitigation
Global Warming: Cause and Mitigation
The topic of global warming has received a lot of attention for the past couple of decades. The massive impacts and risks posed by this phenomenon on humans and environment have been severe, thus calling for swift attention. Basically, globalization refers to the rise of average temperature of oceans and earth’s atmosphere. Global warming is a reality which has faced the human society for over a century now. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the average earth’s surface temperature has gone up by 0.8 °C. Much of the increase in earth’s surface temperature has occurred since 1980. Over the last decades, there have been increased instances of drought, unusual heat fire and storms which are a clear manifestation of global warming and climate change. The issues of extreme weather conditions of drought, wildfires, hurricanes, and water shortages are clear indicators of global warming (Halder, 2011). Global warming is caused by both natural and anthropogenic or human factors.
Causes of Global Warming
Global warming is caused by different factors, which are either natural or anthropogenic/human. Scientists have for long engaged in research on causes of global warming other than the natural factors. This has led to identification of many human related factors towards global warming. Greenhouse gases have been the major factors towards global warming. Both natural and human forces are responsible for triggering greenhouse gases thus causing global warming. Whereas natural causes of global warming are as old as the earth, human factors towards global warming have been rapid since the industrial revolution (Maslin, 2007).
The changes of earth’s temperature can be attributed to natural changes in the earth’s environment over time. The changes on earth’s temperature and climate before the industrial revolution can be attributed to natural causes. These include phenomenon like volcanic eruptions, solar energy and greenhouse gas concentrations. The occurrences of volcanic eruptions releases large amounts of CO2 thus triggering the balance of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, methane which is a leading greenhouse gas is produced through natural process like natural wetlands and decay of fossils. Scientific explanations concerning natural causes of global warming argue that sun spots are exploding thus leading to a rise of heat. The occurrence of large volcanoes also increases gases like CO2 and damping of plants. Over the centuries, the orbit of the earth has changed and is moving to or from the sun hence leading to changes in earth and ocean surface temperatures. This different in orbit changes the distance of earth from sun hence leading to an increase decrease in temperatures. Methane is produced in natural processes in wetlands and arctic tundra the yielding to global warming. Other arguments concerning natural causes of global warming include the explosions of meteors which made contact with the earth thus triggering an increase in temperature. In this regard, the natural causes of global warming are related to the changes in the earth through various evolution processes. Even without human involvement, global warming would still occur (Maslin, 2007).
Anthropogenic (human) Causes
The current changes in earth’s temperature are a result of human expansion of greenhouse effect. Since the industrial, revolution, numerous human activities have been undertaken which have significantly altered greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unlike natural causes of global warming which are gradual, human causes are rapid and have the most damage. The main gases which have influence on greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons. Different human actions trigger the balance or level of these gases in the atmosphere hence contributing to global warming. Human causes of global warming include pollution through burning of fossil fuels which release CO2, and mining which releases methane. The rise in population is also a major cause of global warming through destruction of natural forests, increased industrial activity, agriculture, transportation, and housing all of which trigger greenhouse gases. Since the 1980s, there has been an overwhelming increase in industrial processes and transportation which uses fossil fuels. This has been a major cause of global warming from the release of CO2 into the atmosphere (Shrivastava, 2007).
Mitigation of Global Warming
Freedom of Expression and Speech
Freedom of expression and speech is a right for an individual to express his or her opinion or view freely through speech and writing. The expression is not aimed at causing intentional harm to other people in view of rescinding their reputation (Hensley 8). The expression should not be either false, misleading or in bad taste. Every nation in the entire world should give its citizens freedom of expression and speech. The liberty should be guided by rules in order to minimize cases of defamation and liable suits.
Freedom of speech is the right for an individual to openly air opinion and views as well as hearing what other people are present. Freedom of speech encompasses unrestricted expression, which entails liberty to create and distribute all kinds of messages through movies, songs, texts, pictures, plays or dances. This may include comedy, ridicule or satire. Conversely, this right should never be forbidden or restricted but, only in cases where the message causes discrimination, misleading, false and defamatory or instills violence between individuals or groups. Speech has also been broadened to include symbolic speech, which includes matters that express opinions and views through codes (Chafee 34).
Another form of speaking, is the speech, which covers matters of public unease and can be reflected as connecting to any matter of social, political, or other apprehension to the community. As a matter of fact, any message being relayed to the public must be in good will and may not act as an incitement (The Supreme Court Snyder V. Phelps et al 2010-2011).
Freedom of the Press
Freedom of the press also falls under freedom of expression and speech. Freedom of the press is where the press has the liberty to record, print, broadcast or through any other means discard information to the public without restrictions like licenses or content review. According to Kersch, freedom of expression and speech is more open in the US than any other nation in the world, while federal and state laws have guiding rules on the issue (85).
According to The Supreme Court of the U S, to decide whether a speech is of general public or is of private concern needs us to critically examine the different aspects of the speech such as the content, form, and the context in which it is being used. Prior to some amendments, the court was obligated to come up with an independent analysis of the entire record so as to certify that the ultimate decision does not enclose an illegal interruption on the field of free expression. It is therefore, generally important to put into consideration various factors before coming up with a final conclusion about what has been uttered by an individual (Kersch 43).
The 1st amendment of the US constitution, prohibits the Congress not to enact clauses that may limit the freedom of press or speech. Accordingly, this gives the US citizens freedom to expression and speech, which also leads to the freedom of the press. Although this freedom prevails, but state laws have been put forward to restrict the press especially in cases that can lead to liable and slander. Defamation of any kind whether written or spoken is very offensive and can lead to serious legal suits (Kersch 132)
Other forms of speech to be avoided by the press are obscenity, which involves anything that may corrupt public morals by its content of indecency, seditious words or information that threatens the government directly or tends to upset any state authority or hate speech directed at racial groups. Sexual harassment is another form of discourse that the press should avoid. Indeed, this may include physical conduct, pictorial or verbal nature that is aimed at a particular individual or a group of people. This is applied especially in work places and academic institutions (Chafee 212)
According to the current state laws in the US, freedom of expression and speech does not protect speech that contains abusive and insulting language that may cause an immediate violent response, defamation, obscenities and sexual harassment cases. The country still continues to struggle in knowing or defining what amounts to freedom of expression and speech and what is not inclusive. Indeed, citizens have the right to freedom of expression and speech and they continue to enjoy this liberty, but caution must be taken while exercising this right. Certain limits and restrictions should be embedded in order for individuals not to breach this right and offend others in the process. It is also important to note that speech is a powerful element, where in some cases it can stir people to action. The state has the obligation to make a sound judgment that protects the interests of the majority. The US, lawmakers over the years have on several occasions, ratified freedom of speech clauses to conform to the daily challenges that keep on cropping up in the contemporary world. It is worth noting that other developing countries have been stuck with archaic laws that prohibit citizens from free expression hence, bringing the uprisings. In a nutshell, while more needs to be redefined in the US constitution, most oppressive laws negating free expression and speech clauses have been ratified. Further, this should necessitate other oppressive states to rectify their laws that prohibit required freedoms.
Chafee, Zacharia. Freedom of speech. Harcourt: Bruce and Hower, 1920.
Hensley, R. Thomas. The Boundaries of Freedom of Expression and Order in American Democracy. Ohio, OH: Kent State University Press, 2001.
Kersch I. Ken. "Freedom of speech." Rights and Liberties Under The Law. California: ABC-
The Supreme Court of the United States. Snyder V. Phelps et al. Certiorari to the United States
Courts of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. No. 09-751, 2010.