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BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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  • Tertiary education
    Research
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Research There are various methods of evaluating evidence which can be grouped either as qualitative or quantitative. One quantitative method is the use of theories while one qualitative method is fieldwork. Theories involve the use of hypothesis which needs to be verified through data and fact-finding, comparing data among others; this is a method that involves the use of statistics, data, surveys and numbers to confirm or dispute situation on the ground. In this manner, a supposition or a system is used to explain an event, specifically basing on general principles which are not dependent on the event being explained (LoBiondo-Wood, Geri, and Judith 122). Theories can apply to different situations, and they are abstract in nature without any specified topic area or content; they have shapes and boundaries but lack content on the inside and only make sense and become useful when filled with goals, problems, and practical topics. On the other hand, fieldwork makes use of subjective devices among them being interviews, journaling, drawings among others. Fieldwork is research dealing with processes and meanings, patient perception and experience. There is a challenge of measuring criteria in fieldwork hence it needs interpretation and emphatic understanding. Furthermore, variables and results are contextual in fieldwork, it involves conducting interviews, to ascertain perceptions and attitudes of the population under study (LoBiondo-Wood, Geri, and Judith 157). Fieldwork differs from theories as a method of evaluating evidence in that it entails well-defined methods such as making direct observations, informal interviews, taking part in group work, collective discussions, examinations of personal documents in a group setting and carrying out self-analysis. As theories make justification through the use of numbers, fieldwork evaluates evidence by checking character, lineament, and caliber of ingredients of evidence. Work Cited LoBiondo-Wood, Geri, and Judith Haber. Nursing Research-E-Book: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014.
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  • Tertiary education
    Health Care
    Critique of US Healthcare & Suggested Reforms Name Institution Introduction Healthcare is a fundamental component of a governance system that determines the quality of life in nations. Healthcare involves medication and nursing activities that are undertaken to improve the well-being of individuals. Without proper health care system, a nation cannot realize its full potential given that the productivity levels of the citizens would be low. According to Vanthuyne et al. (2013), nations should strive to improve the quality of healthcare services due to its importance in influencing performance and wellbeing of individuals. This should be done by eliminating discrimination and common inequalities that characterize healthcare provision in most settings. Human rights based approach (HRBA) is a framework that strives to address the increasing healthcare concerns and inequities globally. The conceptual framework applies to litigation, advocacy, and programming activities with the aim of upholding the defined international human rights provisions or laws (Vanthuyne et al., 2013). The framework is a product of bilateral deliberations on how to transform health sector by increasing access to health services, advancing accountability and protection of the human right to quality healthcare without discrimination. The framework is aligned with the SDG goals that focus on expanding health care services under the universal access to health care program (WHO, 2017). The rationale is that everyone in the world should have access to quality, timely and affordable healthcare services. This paper provides comprehensive information about the human rights-based approach to health care and a universal healthcare plan that aims at eliminating the barriers to equitable access to quality health services. Human Rights Based Approach to health care As noted, the human rights-based approach is set with clear goals that are geared towards facilitating equality in healthcare service delivery. The overall objective of the framework is to promote universal access to medical care by everyone regardless of status, color, and gender. The framework is based on numerous principles that include accountability, the participation of stakeholders, non-discrimination, sustainability and linkage to rights among others. The principles also cover interdependence, adherence to the rule of law, indivisibility, inclusion, and inalienability. On the other hand, the notable goals of the framework entail the development of programs that includes the realization of human rights with absolute reduction of poverty. The other goal is to ensure that the healthcare service delivery is guided by the human rights values, principles, and norms (Vanthuyne et al., 2013). The next goal revolves around ensuring that the service providers, right holders and duty bearers systematically fulfill the mandatory obligation towards protecting human rights. Other goals include advancement of financial risk protection, access to quality health services including affordable medicines, monitoring and safeguarding of human rights principles. How the World Health Organization view healthcare The world health organization has adopted the HRBA framework to assist in pushing for the universal access to healthcare. The organization values individuals’ wellbeing and building a healthy society (WHO, 2017). It holds that a society devoid of the chronic illnesses and other forms of diseases that include HIV aids, Cancer and diabetes is viable and promising. In its preamble objectives, the body views healthcare as a basic right and not privilege (Davis, 2013). The organization holds that healthcare should be a priority in every nation and no one should be denied access to quality Medicare. Notably, healthcare encompasses timeliness, affordability, and quality in terms of the professionalism with which services are rendered and adherence to the privacy standards. Critique of the US health system Certainly, the U.S health system has not achieved the standards envisaged under the WHO goals and human rights approach framework or provisions. The health system is considered robust as compared to other nations because of the innovation, quality of services and adherence to the privacy standards (Davis, 2013). However, it cannot be said that the health system is universal and accessible to all as required under the WHO goals. This is evident given that over 32 million people in the U.S have no insurance health cover with over 31% comprising uninsured adults (WHO, 2017). Globally, over 800 million people remained uninsured and exposed to the high cost of medication.
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  • Tertiary education
    Mass Communication, Internet
    The internet as a form of mass communication Name Institution Introduction The Internet is an innovation that is of high value to the global community. The advent of the internet has transformed the way many activities are performed globally. Some of the activities include information sharing, networking initiatives, video shooting, online interaction, sales, and marketing activities including learning in schools. According to Doroschuk, Petrova & Staroverova (2016), the internet has opened the world by making it reachable to all. The world has become a global village courtesy of the valued technology that gains favor from the majority. Communication is no longer a challenge as before where information sharing was done using physical objects such as books, magazines, newspapers, and pamphlets among others (Doroschuk, Petrova & Staroverova, 2016). In some areas, information was relayed using designated individuals who would go round the village shouting messages to the public. The ancient methods were not comprehensive and effective as only a few of the community members would get the information. Reliability was equally a problem due to the risk of information distortion or inaccurate conveyance by the messenger. However, things have changed, and people can now enjoy effective and efficient modes of communication that are digitally powered. The modes of communication are internet based, and they were developed to eliminate the problem of inaccuracy in information delivery, improve efficiency and timeliness of access by the recipients (Doroschuk, Petrova & Staroverova, 2016). Many people are happy about the invention of the internet. They hold that it came at the right time to serve the right purpose when the need arises. The current generation can easily share feelings, views, and emotions wherever they are just by a click of the button. They use various modes of communication that include Facebook, Twitter, online networking sites and Instagram among others (Barber, 2013). The platforms enable someone in the US soil to meet and share information with another in Arica, Europe and Asia with a lot of ease. Agencies and corporations also find the existence of internet beneficial as they use the platform to interact with stakeholders who include employees and customers. This paper provides a comprehensive examination of the impact of the internet as a form of mass communication. The internet as a form of mass communication The internet is a network of networks that aid communication among individuals globally (Barber, 2013). It facilitates mass communication through a system of interconnected devices or computer networks. The network structure comprises private, academic, public including government systems (Olorunnisola & Douai, 2013). It is designed to provide credible links in both local and global scope for ease of interaction between organizations. The technology links the agencies using an array of electronic, optical networking techniques and wireless technologies (Barber, 2013). The application or system targets at fostering information delivery by eliminating bureaucracies that have always hindered smooth flow of mass information. The technology is made up of various resources and services that include communication applications, World Wide Web, electronic mail system, file transfer drives and telephone apparatus. The internet was developed in the 1960s to help in building a robust communication system through computer networks. The technology is credited to the federal government of the US that was concerned about the challenges in communication that were affecting information flow at the time (Bacile, 2013). The founders noticed that there was a great need for such a technology based on the dynamic nature of life and communication issues. They realized that academic activities, military procedures, business events and public issues were not being executed effectively due to poor communication. More profound scrutiny revealed that work could be easier if an interlinked system is developed to create a clear path through which information sharing could be done (Bacile, 2013). The institutions require information from others to operate effectively. No organization can perform independently without support from others. Therefore, the interlinked system created through a computerized network was identified as the best strategy to deal with the issue. As noted, the internet is a brainchild of the Advanced Research Project’s Agency (ARPA) of the US administration. It was developed with the aim of advancing research and communication between researchers in universities. However, the scope of use has expanded exponentially in the current century (Olorunnisola & Douai, 2013). The internet is used to achieve different goals in life for both individuals and institutions. Predominantly, they use it to transfer messages in diverse forms through texts, videos, voices, graphics and computer programs (Doroschuk, Petrova & Staroverova, 2016). Sharing scientific information that is normally in huge volumes has never been a challenge since the inception of the technology. Researchers have also continued to work professionally and contribute to the success of the world order including the establishment of solutions to the emerging concerns ranging from diseases and economic challenges. Indeed, the internet has become a medium of mass communication that cannot be ignored in the current word. The technology has facilitated immense transformation and changes in how information is received and shared globally (Bacile, 2013). It has created a credible platform through which individuals can come together, meet and share information without physical presence. We all understand that communication is the key and the driving force towards having things done in organizations (Baruah, 2013). No Company can achieve the ultimate dream without proper communication channels. The channels must be in place because they determine the information flow and understanding of basic concepts that encourage exemplary performance. With the proper communication, researchers can monitor and coordinate research activities effectively. They can also discuss the findings and share the outcomes with the resourceful people to boost quality decisions on how to manage the global affairs. Similarly, business activities whether local or international cannot run smoothly without effective mass communication (Baruah, 2013). It is through information sharing where business ideas are developed, and deals signed. Communication also enables businesses to create awareness about the products on offer. This is normally done through marketing that must be vibrant to enhance sales units and profitability (Tsatsou, 2014). In the transport sector, the internet has promoted safety in the air, land and water transport systems. The Internet has been integrated into the various modes of transport that links the pilots with the people at the control centers (Mansell & Raboy, 2014). Communication is always above board to ensure that takeoff and landing, especially for planes, are not characterized by technical mistakes. Subsequently, the internet is used in hospitals to assist in the management of patients. The internet-enabled systems link patients, nurses, and doctors including other clinicians. The link fosters fruitful interaction concerning medication and healing process. Such interactions contribute positively to individuals’ recuperation (Barber, 2013). For instance, diagnosis, drug prescription, payments, and distribution are also based on the technology system. As noted by Tsatsou (2014), the internet has expanded the scope of medical service delivery whereby one can be attended to even from another continent. A patient can be screened and have the information shared with a doctor in a different country or location and still get the much-needed assistance. This explains the mass effect of internet given that doctors can attend to many patients without meeting them physically. Consequently, the internet is the technology behind globalization that has become a reality. Nations and public institutions including private organizations have been able to come together through mutual collaborative framework spearheaded by the internet-enabled systems (Ziaul, 2014). The platforms under which the nations share information pertaining to development, resource mobilization, strategic business partnerships, artworks and social events operate with the help of the internet. The most notable thing is that the platforms have allowed the nations to share data efficiently, effectively and within less time (Mansell & Raboy, 2014). For instance, leaders can meet via video conferencing and discuss issues of common interests. Some have been able to issue an official address to the public and institutional stakeholders through the interconnected networks (Ziaul, 2014). Benefits of the internet The first notable benefit of the internet is that it provides a universal system of communication that is cost-effective and user-friendly. It enables people from different parts of the world to artificially meet and share information that transforms their way of life and decisions (Ziaul, 2014). This is apparent because the technology has eliminated time wastage that was common with traditional communication techniques. The techniques had numerous gaps that compromised the quality of the product or information shared. The second benefit is that the technology is anchored on accuracy by ensuring that what is fed in the system is relayed without alteration. The accuracy aspect assists communicators to get the right information as intended and use it to make relevant decisions (Peresadko et al., 2014). This is vital given that accuracy in information sharing was a challenge in the old days. Another benefit is that the internet can manage, receive, process, store and deliver mass messages. The system allows recipients to receive information from different persons at the same time. Alter the receipt they can be stored for a long time thereby allowing the reader time and opportunity to go through all of them. A message sender can also forward one message to many people globally (Peresadko et al., 2014). Indeed, the current trend of mass messaging is a product of the internet technology. For instance, companies use the platform to market products to thousands globally. The adverts are generated from a single source, but they reach majority globally. Some of the companies that have benefited from this include Coca-Cola, Samsung, Nokia and Apple companies.
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  • Tertiary education
    History
    Industrialization and Regulated Economy Name Institution Outline The industrialization changes and regulated economy system between 1865 and 1940 reformed the economy, labor sector and business practices in the U.S. The reforms were facilitated through the: Progressive era’s political reform process across the nation that regulated monopolies while addressing the problems that industrialization, corruption, migration and other unethical practices caused. It is correct that the progressive era’s political reform helped workers and promoted economic stability. The reasoning that it favored large companies while suppressing workers is not justifiable since the changes aimed at eliminating unfairness and injustices.
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  • Tertiary education
    Accounting, litigation
    Litigation, Censures, and Fines Name Institution Outline Accounting firms such as KPMG and Ernst & Young are under obligation to adhere to the set code of conduct and professional standards. Failure to adhere to the standards attract fines, censorship and litigation proceedings. The penalties are imposed as a deterrent measure to ensure that the mistakes are not repeated. Ernst & Young recently got involved in a professional malpractice. The Company was fined $2millon to settle the audit charges that are attributable to audit mistakes. The charges were preferred by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) for filling to adhere to the professional skepticism standard. The issue led to the production of a report that failed to give investors reliable information for accurate decision-making on investment programs.
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  • Tertiary education
    Accounting
    Capstone Research Project Name Institution Date Outline The capstone research project contains nine questions and answers some of the common financial and ethical issues that affect Companies when there is a restatement of financial statements. Moreover, the questions deal with the two forms of leases and their applications. The first question deals with the consequences that a Company faces when it omits critical financial data such as inventory write-down in the financial statements. • The second question talks about the negative consequences of the IRS audit process that leads to the generation of additional tax and penalties to the financial statements and stakeholders • Question three focuses on the relevant federal tax laws, regulations, rulings, and court cases that relate to the stock write-downs. • Question 4 is about the application of the current generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in stock option accounting. • The fifth question captures the necessities for lease reporting under GAAP and IFRS. • The sixth question deals with the international standards of accounting that relate to lease accounting. This is based on the universal market and cross-border leases of assets. • Question 7 examines the main effects of SAS 99 based on the aspects discovered during the initial evaluation of the company. • The eighth question evaluates the probable effects of material misstatement in the statements of accounts. • The last question examines the economic effects of financial statements restatement on investors, employees, customers, and creditors Capstone Research Project
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    OPEN Data, How can we ensure that Open Data is useful AND secure? Name of Student Name of Institution OPEN Data, How can we ensure that Open Data is useful AND secure? Introduction Advancements in computer technology have revolutionized how people access and utilize data, as well as the kind of data that they can access. Open data is one of the biggest phenomenon that has developed because of the ongoing revolution in computing technology (Kucera & Chlapek, 2014). Open data is the form of data that is freely accessible and available to everyone and can be used, re-used, and distributed without stringent restrictions (Lane et al, 2014). Whereas there are multiple sources of open data, governments are among, if not the biggest providers of open data. The United States, through the website, data.gov/open-gov, offers open data with the primary objective of making government and its operations more effective, efficient, accountable and open (Open Government, 2018). Although open data concept has been in existence for almost five decades in the United States, the legal and policy framework that underpins was developed recently in 2009 when the relevant website was launched by Vivek Kundra, who was the then Federal Chief Information Officer (Lane et al, 2014). Subsequently, the Open Data Policy came to force in May 2013 after President Barack Obama issued an executive order. The order was accompanied with a memorandum drafted by the Office of Management and Budget supporting the policy (Open Government, 2018). Since then, the executive branch of government has played an important role in facilitating the effective and efficient implementation of this policy with the view of achieving its objective of promoting accountability and transparency in government, as well as enhancing citizen participation in government, informing decision making in public and private sectors, and creating economic development opportunities (Open Government, 2018). However, considering the important place of open data in contemporary American society, it is important to answer the question about how to guarantee the usefulness and security of open data. Values/Benefits of Open Data Open data is significantly beneficial in the American society. It is more usable, discoverable, and accessible, resulting in a greater impact. It leads to positive effects including spurring business, improving efficiency in government’s services, reducing costs of providing and obtaining government services, boosting performance planning, enhancing scientific and research discoveries, increasing public participation in government, and ensuring transparency and accountability in government (Open Government, 2018). For example, open data offers vital local government information detailing profiles of all cities in the United States such as weather patterns and cost of living thus helping people to make decision on whether to live and/or do business within certain cities. Another example relates to the website providing platform such as Humetrix’s iBlueButton app that allows citizens to download, store, and view personal health details on their mobile devices, which they can share easily when need arises (Open Government, 2018). In addition, it is beneficial in helping to offer information critical in enabling people make informed decisions such as choosing the most appropriate option of financial aid for college (Zuiderwijk et al, 2014). Open Data Security Issues Despite open data being beneficial in many ways, it raises a number of security issues. The first one relates to confidentiality where it creates a possibility of interference or unauthorized access to sensitive information of the American people or the government agencies (Garg, 2018). The second issue is about integrity; even though the open source strives to maintain trustworthiness, accuracy, and consistency of data, it faces the risk of the data being altered, particularly by unauthorized people thereby leading to violation of confidentiality (Martin et al, 2013). The third issue concerns availability; the government makes all efforts to maintain correct and seamless functioning of the open data environment. However, it faces the risk of not achieving this objective due to issues such as software conflicts (Zuiderwijk et al, 2014). The other concern is about authenticity where the open data source needs to assure that a transaction or message on its platforms are from the claimed sources. Hacking can violate this principle. The final major security issue is on non-repudiation which is an assurance that the government cannot deny that the outcome of its open data sources (Kucera & Chlapek, 2014). Best Practices Considering the threats that the above security issues pose on the ability of the open data to achieve its objectives, it is important that the government responds appropriately to address each of them. Restricting access to only authorized persons will address the confidentiality concerns. It may also include special training for government officials and contracted parties who are privy to open data source documents (Lane et al, 2014). In guaranteeing integrity of the open data, it is best practice to take measures that include user access and file permissions controls. Concerning ensuring availability, the best practice requires the government to keep current with all the critical system upgrades. It also needs to offer sufficient communication bandwidth, in addition to preventing bottlenecks’ occurrences (Martin et al, 2013). Equally important, is the need to have failover and redundancy to mitigate adverse effects in an event hardware challenges occur (Zuiderwijk et al, 2014). The authenticity issue can be addressed through implementation of a multi-factor and two-factor authentication. The best practice to deal with is capturing biometric information of users since other digital signature method are not foolproof (Garg, 2018).
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    Online Marketing Plan for Dees Company Name Institution Affiliation Date Online Marketing Plan for Dees Company Executive Summary The report talks about the strategies and options that Dees Company would employ to achieve its online marketing plan and goals. It starts by elaborating extensively on the dynamics that e-commerce and online marketing experiences in the contemporary times and factors and variables that have impacted the phenomenon positively in the situation analysis part. It then presents a market summary that talks about the target markets as well as market demographics and needs that Dees Company would analyze and help it determine the strategies and approaches to use to reach the targeted markets and marketing goals. It briefly highlights the online marketing trends and later SWOT analysis of the Dees marketing team noting its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats likely to be encountered by the team. The piece then discusses the online marketing strategies that Dees would employ to realize its online marketing ambitions that include web design, email marketing, social media strategy as well as discussed other online marketing strategies such as Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and affiliate marketing among others. It also notes the metrics to be used to determine success and performance of the employed strategies such as Website Bounce Rate and Lead Conversion Rate among others. It finalizes by stating the marketing objectives of Dees and concludes by briefly stating how the financial aspects shall contribute to the implementation of the online marketing strategies by the team. Situation Analysis Businesses in the contemporary times continue to experience intense competition due to several factors that include liberalization of markets as a result of globalization concept. Small, medium and large scale businesses compete for the same opportunities that have continued to increase competition. Flexibility in the business world is relevant as it helps business firms reciprocate to changes in the market and, hence, help them realize business goals and objectives with ease in the ever dynamic and changing business environment. Technology development in the contemporary times has supported innovations and inventions not only in the business world but also in aspects that deal with the political as well as social aspects. The use of technology as a strategy to enhance business goals and objectives has also increased in the recent times. The changes noted in the modern lifestyle supported by technology advancements and innovation has led to the increase in the use of technology supported platforms to enhance organizations goals and marketing is no exemption (Kingsnorth, 2016). E-commerce, for instance, is the trend that many business firms have adopted due to the dynamic and changing lifestyles that have developed technology that enables businesses and clients to interact and enhance transactions by use of online supported technology advancements. The ever-increasing number of users who access and use online facilities that range from social media sites as well as online financial transactions and services such as banks among others has created new demands and shifted how businesses and in particular marketing is done in the contemporary times. It has compelled marketing departments in an organization to reciprocate to the new realities and design marketing strategy that would help the business realize its goals and objectives to reach online clients and users and, Dees Company is not exempted. Online marketing is dynamic and requires different strategy and designs that are different from conventional marketing situations. There are different target markets within the online market and, thus, the marketing team has to strategize correctly in order to enhance and increase the chance of the marketing teams to realize their full potential and help the businesses achieve set goals and objectives (Johnsen, 2017). Dees Company is an e-commerce site that will specifically deal with apparels of both men and women as well as kids accessories and, consequently, requires an online marketing plan that would help the company realize its ambitious business goals and objectives in the short and long-term. It has to develop the best strategies to be adopted by the company that would ensure it succeeds in its business endeavours to be covered in the financial year 2018-2019. The apparels sector is among the most evolving sector sensitive to the fashion trends and weather seasons resulting in great innovations and designs with ever-changing and dynamic customer preferences and tastes. Dees Company is ready and prepared to confront the market demands and trends and has developed an ambitious plan and strategy that will help it sail through its vision in the business and ensure it realizes the desired business set goals and objectives. Online marketing is one of the approaches that Dees Company has preferred due to the changing trends and lifestyles among its target customers that have embraced online activities in conducting their social as well as economic engagements. Many of Dee's competitors have also embraced online marketing and e-commerce business and, as a result, it compels the company to come up with an exceptional online marketing plan and strategy that would help it overcome possible threats and weakness that might bring difficulties for the organization to realize its business goal and ambitions as noted in Roy, Datta and Basu (2017) piece. It is imperative to note that marketing is an important part of any business that plays a critical role linking businesses to customers and convincing the clients among other stakeholders to transact with the company. Market Summary Online marketing as a new concept in the recent times borrows much of the traditional marketing techniques and strategies that are applied to the online marketing platform. Dees Company conforms to the fact that the products that they would offer would target different markets that include both men and women as well as kids accessories. Moreover, with the diverse and dynamic tastes and preferences of the different target markets that use online and internet facilities, it would develop strategies that address each targeted market as they display different characteristics that are all linked to online and internet use (Meyerson, 2015). For example, the strategy to be employed that intends to sell the company among social media users that form a target market would be different with that that uses the Search Engine Optimization (SEO) or even email marketing among others. The apparels sector is among the most evolving characterized by great innovations and designs as well as changing consumer trends. It is among the basic needs of life and, therefore, the market for the products continues to grow and is sustained as people must put on clothes and related accessories. The use of e-commerce is spreading faster in the industry and, thus, the online marketing plan has to point out the target markets that the online campaign would target in order to help the Dees Company realize its full potential in the business. The target markets for the online marketing campaign include the social media users that include Twitter, Instagram, facebook, linkedIn, Google+, Snapchat and Pinterest among others. The marketing campaign would also target search engine users, for example, those using Google to find different content and information of concern to them. Content developers and content marketers would also constitute an important part of the targeted market as well as affiliates to the business that includes suppliers, financial partners and customers among others (Amerland, 2011). The market exhibits dynamic and different online platforms that are dynamic in nature. For example, it ranges from social media users who mostly engage in social activities to professional bodies that include suppliers and financial partners as well as other businesses involved in marketing by providing platforms that allow searches, for example, Google. The social media users constitute the largest part and target of the online marketing plan that has also more than five social media platforms that continues to grow by the day. The majority of active social media users are young in terms of age. The number of content marketers and content developers also continues to grow as many of business continue to shift to the e-commerce platforms that is becoming a common trend in the contemporary times where access to internet services and electronic gadgets such as Smartphone and computers have become a norm in the world enhanced by improved technology and innovations. Companies that offer search services also are increasing gradually that include Bing, Ask.com and Yahoo among others even though Google has dominated the industry and the highest costs required to establish the infrastructure that supports such services have contributed to limited growth. The needs of the targeted market induce speed, quality content and compatible technology and related issues that can enable the faster spread of information to the highest number of audience to maximize on the possible benefits resulting from marketing (Kingsnorth, 2016). The use of internet is expensive and costly and, hence, users need to spend a limited time in the different services that can enhance online marketing and use to save on costs and time and, therefore, marketing products that are short, precise and appealing, for example, through the use of graphics would play a critical role in fulfilling the needs of the markets. Marketing content, thus, would be different to suit the dynamic demographics characteristics showed by the different target markets. Market Trends Different online marketing players have continued to rely on research to note and determine the effect that different online marketing approaches have and have developed possible strategies to improve and help businesses realize their full potential. Most of the e-commerce businesses have developed websites that can allow potential users to reach them for business deals. To maximize on the online market, marketing firms and business organizations have relied on several online platforms that they design and incorporate multifaceted marketing strategies to help them meet the set marketing and business goals with ease (Costa-Sánchez, 2017). The choice and use of particular marketing platforms, hence, would be determined by a variety of factors that the online marketers have to consider before choosing a strategy to be used. The primary products of Dees Company, for this reason, would play an important role in determining the online marketing options to be employed in the plan to satisfy the identified market niche. Online marketing and trends keep on changing and, thus, the team has to be proactive in the online marketing process and capitalize on the latest needs to design marketing products that satisfy the business and market requirements. SWOT Analysis It is imperative to consider an organization internal and external structure and relate it to the marketing strategy formulated by a business (Roy, Datta, & Basu, 2017). The strengths of the company include the company already has a strong brand name resulting from its products that are of high quality and affordable by most of the people and, therefore, launching an online marketing campaign to enhance the e-commerce aspects of the business would be easier as the brand is already known. The Dees Company also has a dedicated team and leadership that are ready to set resources to support implement the online marketing plan and support the e-commerce business goals and strategies. The company, moreover, has experienced marketing team and, hence, transiting to an online platform would be much easier as they would embrace marketing techniques and strategies that prove effective in the online marketing platform. Furthermore, there exist diverse online marketing platforms that range from the social media, email marketing, search engines and affiliate options for marketing and, thus, Dees Company would choose options that conform to their financial expenses as a result of flexibility in terms of options and choices to be used in the online marketing campaign. The weaknesses that Dees has include limited financial support for the project to implement and embrace different online marketing strategies. Implementing such dynamic online marketing strategies at once might prove expensive that might in the long-term impact on the operations and business goals of the project. The opportunities presented by the project and Dees Company include rapid increase and expansion of internet and online services users that continues to expand by the day. It presents and increases the chance of rapid realization of the online marketing goals and ultimately business targets. The company also has abroad affiliate networks that they have worked and partnered with in the past and, consequently, they create the opportunity of establishing affiliate online marketing that can bring additional income to the company. For example, credit companies and dealers that offer financial services can register by following on links provided at the Dees site and generate income for the company through commissions. The threats likely to be experienced by the company include intense competition from businesses in the same clothing industry that has already established and embraced online transactions and business through e-commerce. Also, the ever-changing and dynamic online marketing strategies and platforms determined by the ever-changing customer tastes and preferences might bring the threat of failure to realize set targets in the marketing plan due to such changes. Marketing Strategy The online marketing plan for Dees would embrace different strategies. The strategies would elaborate extensively on the different aspects and how they relate to online marketing concepts and ideologies. Website Design (Please include a link to the website in this section. Free programs such as wix.com are a great choice; however, please feel free to use a program of course). The website for Dees would play an integral part that would not only ensure that online marketing goals are met but also it would provide a platform that would enable stakeholders such as clients and suppliers to interact with the company on business issues. The strategy to be used in designing the website would be to provide a quality website that is easy to use and that can allow clients and visitors of the website to go deeper and understand the Dees business and the different product it offers. It would be able to show graphics and design of the different products offered by the company. Moreover, the website should be able to allow customers make online transactions and orders from the site by creating an interface that allows communication. The designs of the website should also enable easy manoeuvrability in the site that allows clients to access different products offered by Dees Company. It should also have contacts that include telephone and email options that can allow clients and visitors to the site to further reach the company for more business enquiries. It should also have links and might enable visitors access and have more information that might help them enhance business transactions. For example, it would have links that can allow visitors register their credit cards and sign for such facilities that can enhance the e-commerce transaction with the business. Such options would also help the company earn income and help it recover funds used in the online marketing strategies. The website shall also have enhanced security features that would protect information of visitors and the company from access by unauthorized people. It shall have online protection and security software that would help in the management and offer safety aspects to users and visitors of the website. It has also to have graphics and valuable media content in pictures and videos that would display more information to the visitors about the Dees Company and its products. Email Marketing Access to customer’s emails would be the first strategy to fulfil. Customers consent and permission to send them information about the business and the products that it has would enhance email marketing. Customers that chose voluntarily to provide their email address shall receive regular updates about the product that Dees has and also benefits that customers would get when they transact with the company such as discounts to subscribers who receive emails and updates about the company business and its products. The emails sent to the clients would be personalized that would indicate their names and also their brief history and interest. Personalization results in open and higher business conversion rates (Johnsen, 2017). Email segmentation strategy would also be used that entails grouping the customers according to certain variables such as product purchased or products for different genders. Automated email tools such as MailChimp would be used to save time and money by automating scheduling and delivery. Drip campaigns would also be encouraged that would allow follow-up to users who fail to respond to the initial emails. Email marketing is considered by some as an old marketing strategy. However, it has proved to be productive and offers high returns especially when customized and segmented. It would also help reach the target market of conservatives and older clients who might prefer it as opposed to the young generation that is active on the social media platforms. Social Media strategy Social media platforms continue to increase by the day that has resulted in hundreds of social media networks. Dees Company would have accounts and handles in the most dominant social media platforms that include Twitter, Instagram, Youtube and Facebook. Dees company will have a twitter account handle that will be posting on issues that promote the business among its stakeholders to allow it have as many followers as possible on its Twitter platform. It shall also build up a YouTube platform that shall have exciting and interesting videos posts about the company showcasing its unique and dynamic products about different aspects related to the business and company at large. The nature and content of such videos shall be of high quality and exciting that can pin down clients and possible interested partners. Dees shall develop a facebook account that will attract as many likes as possible. There are numerous social media platforms and, thus, the content developed by Dees shall ensure it is placed in the right context to allow it give the highest level of return. For example, long-form content such as videos talking about the company and the business shall be put on Youtube and Instagram accounts. On the other hand, short-form content shall be posted on social media accounts such as Facebook and Twitter handles because consumers of such social media platforms have shown less interest in long content (Dutta & Bhat, 2016). Dees Company shall rely on research to note the trends in the social media to develop strategies that would help it capitalize and maximize emerging opportunities to enhance its online marketing strategy. For example, Instagram has proved to be the fastest growing social media platforms that focus on visuals that have surpassed twitter and snapchat when combined. Dees must tap into the growth and showcase its products and drive sales. Snapchat account, for instance, will also be used but strategically where Dees shall use influencers that shall include celebrities indicating that their apparels were bought at Dees that would drive big sales and enhance brand awareness. The trends in social media continue to change and in the recent times, they have noted that advertisements revenue is their largest money maker. It has prompted them to initiate drastic changes and limit organic content and introduce “pay to play” sector. Dees shall incorporate the use of both segments in social media marketing that include organic contents as well as the paid services that sponsor posts creating a large and powerful customer audience. The post sponsored shall be designed strategically that target a particular audience in the market segment. Dees shall develop organic content as well as paid (sponsored) content to be used in different social media market platforms. LinkedIn, for instance, shall be dominated by organic content that will help reach even people that are hard to reach such as business executives and also drive email signups with content that is compellingly posted in such platforms. Other Online Advertising Techniques
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    Case Study 92 Name University Case Study 92 Question 1 Stereotactic breast needle biopsy is a technique that precisely identifies and biopsy breast abnormalities. The biopsy is conducted when a radiologist suspects abnormalities with the breast (Casciato & Territo, 2012). In some of the cases, the abnormalities can be detected through a physical examination. A stereotactic biopsy technique can help in the determination of whether a person has breast cancer or other abnormalities in the breast. Question 2 A positive sentinel node means that there are malignant cells in the sentinel lymph node. A positive sentinel node implies that there should be an immediate follow-up using a thorough axillary node assessment (Casciato & Territo, 2012). There is also the risk of the spread of cancerous nodes to axillary nodes. Question 3 Based on the TNM staging system, the patient has large and high-grade cancer. Additionally, the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes. It has not been complete removed, but she has been seen by a pathologist. The grouping of the TNM staging system is Pt4, pN2, M1 R1 G3, which can be considered as stage 2b. Question 4 Her hormone receptor status is significant because it will help her doctor decide the best way to treat her (Gunderson & Tepper, 2017). In this case, her cancer has both of the hormone receptors. This means that hormone therapy medication can be used. Question 5 The M.D had a modified radical mastectomy in which her lymph node was dissected. Additionally, an implanted port was placed during the surgical procedure (Gunderson & Tepper, 2017). During the modified radical mastectomy, her entire breast was removed including the areola, skin, nipple, and axillary lymph nodes. Question 6 Chemotherapy is needed even after the cancer has been removed and the patient put on medication (Gunderson & Tepper, 2017). Chemotherapy reduces the chance of cancer coming back. It is vital to note that microscopic cancer cells can remain and they are undetectable with current methods. Question 11 The white blood cell count is below the normal range, which is an indication that the patient is at risk of an infection. The patient also has a low Hct level, which is an indication that she has low levels of iron. It could also be an indication that she is dehydrated.
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    Analysis of Scenario C Introduction It is important to monitor patients that have undergone angioplasty procedures to ensure that they recover as required. At times, these patients develop complications that may slow done their recovery process. As such, it is important to assess the patients on admission and record any incidences of complications to ensure that appropriate actions are taken in time to improve their health outcomes (Thomas, 2012). Assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation are important steps in postoperative care as they enable data collection on the needs of the patients and their problems. This case study covers the case of a patient that has undergone an angioplasty and placement of a stent. It assesses the condition of the patient on admission and then provides the postoperative care. Holistic Assessment of the Patient on Admission to the Ward It is important to conduct postoperative assessment before admission to the ward in order to determine the needs of the patient. The purpose of postoperative care is to promote the healing process after surgery, prevent complications that may slow the healing process and return the patients to good health (Sinclair, 2009). As such, the postoperative assessment data should be comprehensive and focus on the needs of the patient at that particular time and in future after discharge (Radford,Williamson, & Evans, 2011). Effective nursing care requires that the nurse properly assess and identify patients’ needs before planning the type of care required. Therefore it is important to conduct a holistic assessment to ascertain their needs and the required type of care (Smith, McWhinnie, & Jackson, 2012). Holistic assessment is comprised of six major aspects namely spiritual, psychological, cultural, sociological, physiological and developmental aspects (Draznin, 2011). In the assessment stage, both objective and subjective data will be gathered from the patient and family members. The assessment should include family relationships, occupational pursuits, physiological functioning, religion, growth and development and social networks. It is important that it covers the daily activities that the patients are involved in throughout their lives. A holistic assessment will enable the nurse to provide patient centered care in care delivery. Furthermore, the holistic approach is helpful in addressing the developmental, cultural, physiological, spiritual, psychological and sociological needs of the patients under their care (Barnett, 2006). The patient will be observed immediately he enters the post anaesthetic care unit at bed rest. Mr Chris Lever will remain in bed for about 6 – 24 hours after angioplasty and placement of a stent to allow the healing of the access site. Airway patency, consciousness level and vital signs will be assessed first upon admission to the ward. He will be closely monitored to check for complications if any. On admission to the ward, the initial assessment will establish his stability and status of vascular distribution to the site of access. Furthermore the puncture site will be monitored periodically to check for any complications. The nurse will conduct hemodynamic assessment to detect haemorrhage and any delayed ruptures. The holistic assessment will also include patency of drainage tubes, vomiting/ nausea, urinary output, body temperature, respiratory and pain status. The activities of daily living (ADLs) that are important for Mr Chris Lever are breathing, working and playing, elimination, mobility and safe environment. All the remaining ADLs are equally important although at the moment there are not needed in the assessment. Breathing is a critical part of assessing his condition. Breathing without difficulties implies that the patient can attempt other activities with less difficulty. He does not smoke but has a very high BMI i.e. 38 which falls within the obese range and can cause breathing problems. Elimination is essential in this case and will be assessed because the medication may cause frequent urination or constipation. The chronic chest problems and the higher BMI may cause urinary incontinence (Holt, 2009). Mobility will be a problem for the patient owing to the breathing difficulties and the angioplasty and placement of a stent. Therefore he will be under bed rest for 24 hours. A risk assessment for falls will be conducted because his light headedness may cause falls. Pathophysiology of the Medical Condition Diabetes, Angina and Hypertension Diabetes The major pathophysiological features of diabetes type 2 are increased resistance to insulin and impaired secretion insulin. It is often progressive and the body gradually loses its ability to produce insulin or it becomes resistant to the effects of insulin. This leads to a decline in the function of the β-cell and its eventual failure (Joslin & Kahn, 2005). The impaired secretion of insulin decreases the ability of the body to respond to glucose leading to impaired glucose tolerance. On resistance to insulin, the body fails to exert an action that is proportionate to insulin concentration. The impairment targets major organs like the muscles and liver. The liver gets programmed to produce excess glucose under utilise it (Topol, 2007). The resistance to insulin and impaired secretion of insulin both contribute to the pathophysiological conditions. The causes of diabetes type 2 still remain unknown although it is highly correlated with lifestyle risk factors that can easily be modified. However it is linked with both environmental and genetic risk factors. It is a heterogeneous syndrome that is characterised by abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. Majority of the patients with type 2 diabetes have obesity and central visceral adiposity (Donnelly & Horton, 2005). Angina ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the most severe acute coronary syndrome and it occurs when a coronary artery is ruptured by atherosclerotic plaque (Fuster, Topol & Nabel, 2005). This rupture often leads to the formation of blood clots in the artery thereby blocking it partially or completely. The heart muscle that is supplied by the affected artery then starts suffering from ischemia that is normally manifested as angina. When the blockage is extreme, the affected muscle starts to die leading to myocardial infarction. The atherosclerotic plaques often develop gradually with time and often begin with LDL cholesterol accumulating and fats saturating in the inner layer of blood vessels (Tcheng, 2009). The leukocytes then stick to the endothelium, diapedesis enter the intima and accumulate lipids that later become foam cells (Antman, 2007). In a STEMI the clot blocks the artery completely and the affected muscle starts to die. In many cases it is often preceded by NSTEMI. Hypertension Hypertension is a high risk factor for myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease, stroke and vascular disease. The pathophysiology of hypertension still remains extremely uncertain although about 2 – 5% of the patients often have adrenal or renal disease that raise their blood pressure (Shrikhande & McKinsey, 2012). For the remaining cases, there is often no clear cause that can be identified leading to the condition being labelled “primary hypertension”. Primary (essential) hypertension is the most common type of hypertension. Various physiological mechanisms like vascular reactivity, neural stimulation, blood viscosity, humoral mediators and others play a role in maintaining normal blood pressure and any derangement may lead to essential hypertension. Essential hypertension is a progressive disease that starts from occasional problem to established hypertension. With time, persistent hypertension often advances into established hypertension that may damage the kidneys, aorta, heart, arteries, central nervous system and the retina (Fisher, 2012). Medical Condition Care for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with diabetes are at an increased risk of having worse outcomes after surgery. The mental and physical stress caused by surgery may lead to undesirable changes in the level of hormones .Such changes can cause increased resistance to insulin, less glucose uptake and lower secretion of insulin (Joslin & Kahn, 2005). This increases the hyperglycaemia risk for the diabetic patient. Hypoglycaemia is often associated with increased infection susceptibility, nutrients loss through glycosuria and poor wound healing. The gastrointestinal instability caused by medications, anaesthesia and vagal overlay may lead to dehydration, nausea and vomiting. The objective of postoperative management is optimising metabolic control by judicious insulin use, caloric and fluid repletion and close monitoring. The action plan for managing diabetes includes postoperative analgesia (to aid in glucose control), fluid prescription and treatment for vomiting and nausea (Schmilowski & Swanton, 2012). Insulin will be administered in consultation with the patient as provided in the NPSA guidance. The objective will be to attain a 6-10 mmol/L CBG range safely ( 4-12 mmol/Lisa also acceptable). The electrolytes and fluid balance will also be monitored and appropriate fluids prescribed. Furthermore the vomiting and postoperative nausea will be treated to ensure that the patient starts feeding normally. Foot and pressure areas will also be monitored regularly. Care for Angina The patient will be closely monitored and assessed for any signs of deterioration. He will be required to lie on his back for about for a few hours as he recovers from the surgery. The pain management process will be initiated and the patient given fluids. Vital signs monitor will be attached to take the signs and ascertain if the patient needs more attention. The oxygen mask will be on for 24 hours to help the patient breathe as instructed. The analgesia of the patient will be optimised and postoperative vomiting and nausea treated. The surgical site will be regularly monitored to check if there is bleeding or any other complications. The patient will be educated on all the issues that affect his condition like the treatment, prescriptions and lifestyle changes. He is obese and as such will be advised to start exercising more than he does, check on his diet and reduce alcohol intake. He will also be taught how to self-manage his condition in case the symptoms recur and seek immediate medical attention. Care for Hypertension Treating high blood pressure after myocardial ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is extremely important in decreasing mortality and reinfarction. Hypertension management for this patient will be aiming at preventing death, stroke, myocardial infarction and improve his symptoms. This will be done using pharmacologic therapy and modifications in lifestyle. The blood pressure should be kept at a level less than 140/90mm Hg (Mogensen, 2007). As part of the care the patient will be advised on the importance of excising regularly, reducing alcohol intake and checking on his diet in order to control his weight which is a contributory factor to his current situation. Post-Operative Care for the Patient after Revascularization and Stenting Airway and Breathing management
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    The Characteristics and Skill Set of Management and Leadership in Nursing Practice Name of Student Name of Institution The Characteristics and Skill Set of Management and Leadership in Nursing Practice Nurse leaders and managers play an integral role in health care sector, which ultimately leads to delivery of quality care to the patients. The nurse leaders and managers are responsible for facilitating daily operations of health care organizations while ensuring that healthcare personnel work towards the realization of the organization’s long-term goals and objectives (Kelly & Quesnelle, 2016). The presence of the nurse leaders and managers within a healthcare setting ensures that healthcare services are provided smoothly, effectively, and efficiently. However, whereas management and leadership in the nursing practice are inextricably linked, particularly within the overarching health system, their characteristics and skill sets differ in some ways (Yoder-Wise, 2013). The differences in characteristics and skills sets between nurse leaders and nurse managers work in complementarity to sustain the delivery of quality care to the patients vising a hospital or a healthcare facility. Management in nursing practice involves nurse managers who are responsible for overseeing the team of nurses within a health facility. Their roles include aspects such as focusing on the hiring and retention of nurses, overseeing daily work of nurses, and speaking for nurses’ interests with the hospital management or healthcare admins (Huber, 2013). The first skill set required of management in nursing practice is communication skills. Nurse managers should have the ability of conveying information in a concise and effective manner (Yoder-Wise, 2013). The second characteristic and skill set relates to understanding the ins-and-outs of teamwork; they should build a well-functioning team and ensure they work seamlessly. The other characteristic is positive attitude, which requires the nurse managers to remain positive since the entire nursing team depends on their support (Sullivan, 2013). The nurse managers should equally be good critical thinkers and efficient decision makers. Nurses rely on the nurse managers to make prompt and appropriate decisions and offer guidance, especially in times of crisis or acute care management. As such, nurse managers should possess excellent decision-making and problem solving skills. The managers should also have mentorship skills to ensure that their juniors continue to grow professionally (Kelly & Quesnelle, 2016). Concerning leadership in the nursing practice, the nurse leaders do more than simply overseeing the operations of their organizations. Their roles entail aspects such as directing, dictating, delegating duties, and motivating their team members to realize their highest potential (Yoder-Wise, 2013). Therefore, the nurse leaders require a different set of characteristics and skills compared to nurse managers. Their first main feature and skill is collaboration. It involves problem setting and direction setting, in addition to synthesizing various perspectives to establish solutions that could otherwise not be accomplished by an individual. It also entails diverse skills such as organizational and planning skills. The second feature and skill of nurse leadership relates to negotiation (Kelly & Quesnelle, 2016). Nurse leaders should deal effectively with issues in their organization such as conflicts by putting into work mediation and arbitration skills. The third feature and skill is communication. Nurse leaders should have the ability of communicating effectively in a way that allows nurses to interact and establish relationships among themselves and also with other professionals and patients (Sullivan, 2013). In addition, nurse leaders should have the characteristic and skill of coordination, which requires them to organize, supervise, and direct others, along with delegating roles to others. The final important characteristic and skill for nurse managers is evaluation. It is critical for nurse leaders to assess new information and ascertain its usefulness in the short, medium, and long-term (Huber, 2013). Management and leadership in nursing practice are integral in ensuring smooth running of operations in health care organizations and the realization of better patient care and health outcomes. The characteristics and skill set between nurse leaders and nurse managers differ to some extent. However, the two concept have are some similarities such as concerning the area of communication where both nurse leaders and managers are required to possess effective communication skills.
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    Nursing Informatics: Improving Quality and Safety Name Institution Affiliation Date Nursing Informatics: Improving Quality and Safety Technology has proved to be critical in many fields that touch on the economic, political as well as social concerns in the world, and healthcare sector is no exception. Healthcare sector across many societies play an important role. It has attracted support from governments and private sector among other interested stakeholders that support the sector directly and indirectly. Many agree with the view that a healthy nation is indeed a wealthy nation. Thus, any development in any part of the world can be realized when the population is healthy and able to engage in meaningful socio-economic projects. In the contemporary times, however, innovation and invention have resulted in advanced technology that is used across many fields. It improves service as well as product generation, and the health department is not exempted. Experts, hence, encourage people and organization to embrace technology development to improve service delivery in general production. Moreover, view technology as an investment as opposed to expenditure. However, this paper presents a scenario that shows how a clinical setting can use technology to improve patient quality and safety areas. Description of the Clinical Unit The clinical unit is a medium size that continues to experience expansion in terms of staff and patients (clients) who visit the facility for various health care services. It has a dedicated administration headed by the CEO and 6 senior staff. They are responsible for different administrative responsibilities such as finance, operations, development, human resource and research among other critical responsibilities in the clinical setup. The average patient population served by the clinical facility is 1000 patients on a monthly basis. According to the data from the clinical Unit records, the majorities of the populations (patients) are adults of age 45 years and above that constitutes followed by children or minors constitute the other portion of patients that visit the clinical facility as well as persons with disabilities who are the least. The diagnostic profiles offered by the facility vary. It mostly constitutes the men’s health profiles, women health profiles, cardiovascular profiles, blood tests profiles as well as the Infectious Diseases profiles. The specialty areas served by the unit include the cardiovascular care, Pediatric Intensive Care, and Dental care services. Description of the Clinical or Patient Care Issue of Improvement of Workflow or Patient Record System The chosen patient care issue to be improved by the technology touches on the workflow and patient record system. Record keeping is an integral part of any organization not only in the health care sector but also others fields. However, patient records in the health care sector prove critical. It guides and provides direction to care givers in both the short and long-term. It enables them to understand how the different health care services offered to patients respond, that is, either positively or negatively. Also, the impact they have in enhancing quality and safety. Many diagnoses offered to patients are systemic that moves from stage to the other. It creates a professional work flow as noted in the international standards. And, therefore, keeping such records proves critical to care givers and the patients at large as it offers guidelines. The clinical facility keeps the patients records manually and it has not fully digitized. There are some work flows that rely on manuals guidelines to help the care givers deliver specific services to patients. Embracing technology, thus, would help improve to a great extent the service delivery in the clinical facility in the work flow and record keeping system. The impact would be objective as it would help all stakeholders that include administrators, care givers and patients improve in terms of safety and quality aspects. Technology that would help all stakeholders have easier access to information. Moreover, share information between care givers for instance as well as patients accessing their health information. For example, use of common technological gadgets such as personal computers, phones, and applications that can be downloaded to help them improve on the quality and safety aspects holistically. The technology, thus, should improve the work flow and patients records system. It should enable online sharing of information between and among care givers, between care givers and patients from any part of the world. Also, monitor the patient’s health records and responses online all with the view to improve quality and safety. Literature Review Various scholars have engaged in research that shows and analyses the possible impacts that technology has in the provision of safety and quality healthcare services. The subject has attracted various interests that note how different variables can be improved as a result of embracing technology such as improved quality and safety of nursing care. Clarke et al. (2015) in their study assessed how the implementation of the Electronics Patients Records (EPRs) impacted various aspects in the health care provider services. Moreover, the objective impact of improving quality and safety not only in the nursing but also other healthcare services offered. The study analyzed the impact on the mental health, NHS acute as well as community care hospitals that result from the use and implementation of technology that impacted positively the use of work flow and patient record system. The study followed the professional research procedures in terms of choosing the participants and venues for the research. It embraced the use of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques such as the use of surveys and interviews resulting in a quality clinical research finding. The findings of the study as noted by Clarke et al. (2015) after analyzing the data and results of the processes using descriptive and thematic analysis indicated. The use of technology and in particular EPR resulted in improved efficiency, easy access to information as well as easy availability of critical information. It helps care givers make informed and professional decisions with ease and, thus, improve the quality and safety of care given to patients. As well as enhance safety and professionalism between and among care givers as well as administrators. Finally, the outcome of the study also noted that patient’s safety is enhanced and improved as care givers are able to make decisions based on available data and information. It increases the probability of making correct and professional decisions while instituting the services to the patients. The study further analyzed and looked at possible challenges that hinder clinical and other health care units from implementing the EPR among other technological advancements that can result in improved safety and quality of nursing and other care services. It noted that limited availability of human resources as well as financial resources, difficulties posed by government and national policies in regard to the use of EPR among other technology. Lastly, it notes the challenge of the difficulty in securing clinical involvement. Lan, Varadharajan, and Gopinath (2016) also analyzed the subject of technology and how it improves the safety and quality of patients and care services offered at the clinical facility. In particular importance to the three was the use of Cloud storage system to enhance storage of health records. The article notes that many health care organizations are not exempted in the use of cloud technology. Health care records are considered to have private and confidential information. And, thus, the main challenge and concern for the researchers also included the safety and security of the information and data contained in the health records and in particular those using or stored in a public cloud. The piece considers a novel role-based encryption technique to help secure and protect the EHR system. The authors further propose a model that addresses the security concerns in the noted models by improving on the weakness of the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) system. The piece asserts that the proposed system can be used in the commercial healthcare system, hence, can be adopted and recommended by the policy and decision-makers in matters of health care. It is because it blends the existing policies and regulations in terms of use of electronic or technology in enhancing safety and quality of health care services. As well as addresses the concerns such as those of security and privacy among others, hence, can play a critical role in shaping the quality and safety of health care services. Ki Hyuk et al. (2013) also note how technology is used to enhance quality and safety in the provision of health care services. They studied how useful clinical pathway (CP) is using electronic medical record (EMR) and the impact on hospital cost, hospital stay as well as the satisfaction of the care givers involved. The findings of the study indicated that the efficiency of the treatment was enhanced where the process was streamlined reducing the course. It had no impact on the hospital cost as well as the length of stay in the hospitals. The project studied pediatric patients undergoing closed pinning for supracondylar fracture of the humerus. The outcome asserted that it decreased the length of hospital stay, the costs as well as satisfied the care givers involved in the project. The three kinds of literature indicate how technology can impact on various aspects of the health care service resulting in improved quality and safety for all the stakeholders involved in the provision of health care. Recommendation The technological resource that would address the concerns of the clinic would be the one that facilitates the blending of Electronic Patients Records (EPRs) and improved work flows. The technological resource would allow easier access to patient information and exchange of information by care givers. Also, safe, secure storage of information, ease of monitoring and follow up of care given to patients. Finally, facilitate easy management of clinical facilities and also reduce time and costs of access of health care services. The noted benefits, thus, would address the challenges experienced in the clinic facility and as a result, improve patient safety and patient care delivery. Description of the Steps to Use to Implement the System or Technology in the Setting The implementation of the EPRs and Work Flow system in the clinical facility would start by an analysis of the existing infrastructure that would be supported by the technology. Next, design work layout and software applications that support the intended infrastructures, information, and acquisition of the hardware and software for the project. Then, buying of the noted hardware’s and software and feeding them with data and relevant information. After that, Test the functionality of the technology and project by trying and pilot on the effectiveness and efficiency. Training of the care givers on the new technology and ensure they are well acquainted with its use. Finally, launching and commissioning the technological project officially by the clinic unit administrators. Regulations or Ethical Practices to Be Outlined By Staff in the New Technological Resource or Health Information System The ethical concern has to be addressed by all users and in particular the staff. They would have access to the data and information on the system about patient’s records and work flows. The information in the records is private and confidential. The care givers should not abuse or use it for other reason other than enhances health care safety and quality. Each and every user has a responsibility to ensure the safety of the patients and other critical clinical information is protected against unauthorized persons. They have to establish passwords among other security features that would enhance privacy and confidentiality of the users of the new technology. The staff should use the technology and its infrastructure to enhance and improve the quality and safety of users and not for private or personal needs not related to the nature of work at the clinic facility. References Clarke, A., Adamson, J., Sheard, L., Cairns, P., Watt, I., & Wright, J. (2015). Implementing electronic patient record systems (EPRs) into England's acute, mental health and community care trusts: a mixed methods study. BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making, 151-8. doi:10.1186/s12911-015-0204-0 Ki Hyuk, S., Chin Youb, C., Kyoung Min, L., Seung Yeol, L., Soyeon, A., Somin, P., & ... Moon Seok, P. (2013). Application of clinical pathway using electronic medical record system in pediatric patients with supracondylar fracture of the humerus: a before and after comparative study. BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making, 13(1), 1-8. doi:10.1186/1472-6947-13-87 Lan, Z., Varadharajan, V., & Gopinath, K. (2016). A Secure Role-Based Cloud Storage System For Encrypted Patient-Centric Health Records. Computer Journal, 59(11), 1593-1611. doi:10.1093/comjnl/bxw019
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    Nurse Practitioners Bridging the Gap in Primary Healthcare Name University Table of Contents
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    Stewards of the Army Profession Name Institution Affiliation Stewards of the Army Profession Military since time immemorial has contributed positively towards the changes that are realized in the world either in the economic, political as well as social aspects. Militaries in the past also actively contributed in issues of governance and administration of states and regions a position that has changed drastically as witnessed in the contemporary times where soldiers have enhanced the military profession and stayed away from governance and executive issues as noted in many places currently. The profession of the army or soldiers, in the past and present, requires commitment and the highest level of professionalism to enhance the career in the army. However, this paper talks about the stewards of the Army profession. Soldier’s life and careers differ in great extent when compared to that of other civilian jobs. Right from the training that army personnel experience and the nature of tasks and missions that they fulfill in different parts of the world presents a different scenario that would encourage stewardship. It is due to the enormous requirements and qualification in order for the soldiers to enhance a successful military career and profession that enables them realizes their full potential not only during military life and career but also after discharge and smooth absorption into the civilian world. It is also imperative to note that army personnel with honorable discharge papers are highly sorted after in the civilian world and job opportunities available. Those that more often are linked and related to the military with the unique and exceptional experience and training that the army personnel have undergone. Stewardship allows men and women in uniform to take care of selves and enhance the chances of having a successful professional career. Moreover, protecting the image of the military or army institution as well as the parent nation-state as well the constitution and clauses that relate to army life and responsibility. The three key pillars that enable successful stewardship in the army include serving the nation selflessly, upholding the army ethics and finally living the Army values in all aspects of life and performance of duty. Each way has designed and set rules and regulations that guide the army personnel achieves each objective with the ease that enhances the competencies as well as successful career growth and promotions in leadership positions. The military, therefore, has developed programs from living and existing case examples of successful army life and career from fellow soldiers that have achieved great success in the profession in the past and enable others to learn from them. The action has gone beyond military training and college programs but also analysis of successful military missions and tasks in different parts of the world. Stewards in the army more often are chosen from exemplary performers not only in leadership but also other military duties and tasks. The key objective of such acts is to empower the army personnel to take and make the right decisions when confronted with different and dynamic nature of scenarios. Moreover, it also enhances the welfare of the army society that includes army families and army professionals. Lastly, the stewardship programs target to inspire and motivate the army personnel and increase the chances of a successful military career. The honorable service is realized by strengthening the commitment by living the army values not only in an individual set up but also as a team. In conclusion, stewardship in the army has played an important role that has enhanced successful military careers and post-military life in the civilian world. It should be emulated and encouraged by all people in the army and also those that aspire to join the armed forces for them to have a successful army career. Stewardship also has made the soldier life and experience easier as they provide true and living models that help them become the best by following the examples and ethics that leaders and stewards have had in the past.
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    Stewards of the Army Profession Name Institution Affiliation Stewards of the Army Profession Military since time immemorial has contributed positively towards the changes that are realized in the world either in the economic, political as well as social aspects. Militaries in the past also actively contributed in issues of governance and administration of states and regions a position that has changed drastically as witnessed in the contemporary times where soldiers have enhanced the military profession and stayed away from governance and executive issues as noted in many places currently. The profession of the army or soldiers, in the past and present, requires commitment and the highest level of professionalism to enhance the career in the army. However, this paper talks about the stewards of the Army profession. Soldier’s life and careers differ in great extent when compared to that of other civilian jobs. Right from the training that army personnel experience and the nature of tasks and missions that they fulfill in different parts of the world presents a different scenario that would encourage stewardship. It is due to the enormous requirements and qualification in order for the soldiers to enhance a successful military career and profession that enables them realizes their full potential not only during military life and career but also after discharge and smooth absorption into the civilian world. It is also imperative to note that army personnel with honorable discharge papers are highly sorted after in the civilian world and job opportunities available. Those that more often are linked and related to the military with the unique and exceptional experience and training that the army personnel have undergone. Stewardship allows men and women in uniform to take care of selves and enhance the chances of having a successful professional career. Moreover, protecting the image of the military or army institution as well as the parent nation-state as well the constitution and clauses that relate to army life and responsibility. The three key pillars that enable successful stewardship in the army include serving the nation selflessly, upholding the army ethics and finally living the Army values in all aspects of life and performance of duty. Each way has designed and set rules and regulations that guide the army personnel achieves each objective with the ease that enhances the competencies as well as successful career growth and promotions in leadership positions. The military, therefore, has developed programs from living and existing case examples of successful army life and career from fellow soldiers that have achieved great success in the profession in the past and enable others to learn from them. The action has gone beyond military training and college programs but also analysis of successful military missions and tasks in different parts of the world. Stewards in the army more often are chosen from exemplary performers not only in leadership but also other military duties and tasks. The key objective of such acts is to empower the army personnel to take and make the right decisions when confronted with different and dynamic nature of scenarios. Moreover, it also enhances the welfare of the army society that includes army families and army professionals. Lastly, the stewardship programs target to inspire and motivate the army personnel and increase the chances of a successful military career. The honorable service is realized by strengthening the commitment by living the army values not only in an individual set up but also as a team. In conclusion, stewardship in the army has played an important role that has enhanced successful military careers and post-military life in the civilian world. It should be emulated and encouraged by all people in the army and also those that aspire to join the armed forces for them to have a successful army career. Stewardship also has made the soldier life and experience easier as they provide true and living models that help them become the best by following the examples and ethics that leaders and stewards have had in the past.
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    NextGen Case study Name of Student Name of University NextGen Case study Defining the Problem The NextGen Air Transportation System is a complex and revolutionary redevelopment of the broad U.S air traffic control. Based on its complexity and broadness, the system is characterized by numerous challenges and interrelated components and concepts including the transfer from a radar ground-based system to a GPS satellite based system. Additionally, its multi-year implementation touches on every aspect of aviation operations. Thus, it presents numerous potential human factors challenges that can affect aviation system. The challenge that I will focus on is the transfer from a radar ground based system to a GPS satellite based system. The transfer from a radar ground-based system to a GPS satellite-based system poses active and passive security weaknesses, which are associated with the workability of the system. Presently, world air-traffic infrastructure relies on radar with the radar sending out high-power interrogation information and receiving responses from an airplane’s transponder. After receiving signals from a transponder, it replies with information such as an aircraft’s identification code and altitude. Ground-based personnel use this information to identify the exact location of the aircraft. This approach has worked well over the years, and it is widely used in the military. However, as the skies became more crowded, it is likely that airplanes will overwhelm the radar air-traffic mechanism, which might lead to an increase in delays, increased environmental impact, and increased costs (Weijun, Yang & Ziliang, 2015). This led the aviation industry in collaboration with research institutions to develop and implement the NextGen system. One of the backbones of the NextGen system is the automatic dependent surveillance –broadcast, which poses security weaknesses. Because of these weaknesses, the exchange of data between a control tower and an aircraft can be manipulated and spoofed. This means that the system lacks a mechanism to protect the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of data. Unlike the traditional point-to-point system, which is a wired network that has physical access barriers, the NextGen system lacks an impediment for attackers trying to access the wireless broadcast network. Additionally, the security issue that is caused by the openness of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast network is magnified by the fact that messages are broadcasted as unencrypted plaintext (Weijun, Yang & Ziliang, 2015). Because of the broadcast nature and the unencrypted message format, access control mechanisms for the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast are difficult to implement. Adding to the challenges caused by accessibility, there is a widespread obtainability of the inexpensive RF implementation software and hardware that facilitate the capability of hackers to design successful exploits. Passive listening or eavesdropping to the unsecured transmissions is the most direct and simplest form of the security vulnerabilities present in the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast. Because the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast messages are usually plaintext over a communication network, the protocol is susceptible to eavesdropping. Through the combination of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast with publicly available data sources, it is possible for attackers to retrieve sufficient information to launch a targeted attack (Weijun, Yang & Ziliang, 2015). On this system, it is practically impossible to detect eavesdropping and difficult to prevent it without fully encrypting information and data. In addition to eavesdropping, the GPS satellite based system is vulnerable to jamming. This is a more complex attack than eavesdropping and it affects a single or multiple nodes of a wireless network. Through a jamming attack, an attacker can disrupt the transmission and reception of messages through the transmission of a high-powered signal that attacks the wireless frequency. Its impact on the aviation industry is exacerbated by the unrestricted access to the wide-open spaces of the system and the time-critical nature of the data. The two most common categories of jamming attacks on the automatic dependent surveillance are the aircraft flood denial and the ground-station flood denial (Weijun, Yang & Ziliang, 2015). In both attacks, the intention is to effectively block surveillance networks and disrupt communication frequencies. One of the most serious challenges of the satellite-based system is message interjection. Even though it is much difficult to implement than eavesdropping and jamming, it is possible by using simple and readily available technologies. It is vital to note that the satellite-based system does not require authentication measures. Message injection attack has the potential to target airborne and ground-based targets, producing illegitimate ghost targets, which appear as valid nodes. Means of Mitigating this Human Factors Challenge This human factor challenge can be mitigated through the development of a secure broadcast authentication solution. The description of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast shows that communications between nodes on the system are unidirectional broadcasts. Based on the broadcast architecture, there are potential security mechanisms that can preserve the open architecture of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast with the aim of restricting communications on the network (Sampigethaya & Poovendran, 2014). Lack of backing for reliable transfer of data and two-way communication between the nodes makes message authentication challenging than point-to-point communication networks. Security solutions are a means for authenticating the unidirectional broadcast messages (Sampigethaya & Poovendran, 2014). One of the security measure is cryptographic approaches including both asymmetric and symmetric mechanisms for the authentication of messages. Cryptographic security schemes are an established means for securing communication in a wireless network. It is possible for secure broadcast authentication schemes to be implemented as a global mechanism on a network (Sampigethaya & Poovendran, 2014). This can also be designed to selectively respond or detect threats on a network. This reactive authentication mechanism is useful in the reduction of interference on a network. It can be achieved by requiring additional security during times when incidents seem likely. It can also minimize additional communicational and computational overheads.
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    Name of Student Name of Professor Course title Date of Submission News and News Sources Question: The Different Sources of News News is a significant source of information about public affairs and politics especially to people with limited or no connection to politicians. Personally, I get most of my news from social media sources such as Facebook and Twitter. In addition, I have multiple times visited websites of broadcasters and newspapers to get local news and information. On a normal day, I usually log into my Facebook account at least four times daily, from where I access news, especially on entertainment. In addition, my friend Curtis, a self-proclaimed political analyst will take me through all major political news across the globe. His day starts with visiting BBC and CNN news websites for news. Am a slowly adapting this trend as I have a number of times visited these websites during my leisure. Finally, I do not like watching TV but occasionally, I will check it out for news. Question 2: News Source Reliability Decades ago, print newspapers, local evening news, and national evening news programs were full of fact-reporting stories. However, modern-day news sources are not too reliable as most of them present personal or organizational positions and pieces of analysis rather than the objective analysis of presented information. Most news sources are full of bias. Media bias takes place when news producers and journalists intentionally portray bias in the selection of stories and events to cover or report (Lee & Ma 333). In my view, social media news sources portray some form of bias. Often than not, social media platforms serve as a preliminary source of information which. As such, social media users should seek more clarification from a more reliable source. For instance, Sunil Tripathi was labeled one of the key suspects to the Boston Marathon bombing over social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter before it emerged that his accusation was just an allegation. As such, I always prefer confirming the legitimacy of news I get from Facebook and Twitter from credible news sources such as BBC and CNN. At times, my friend’s news can be trusted at times. However, on some occasions, he will just be giving opinions or personal analysis. Question 3: News of Perceptions Created in News The deformed daisies are some of the victims of Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant nuclear disaster in Japan. According to agricultural experts, the flower suffered an abnormal growth due to hormonal imbalance resulted from the nuclear disaster. The condition is called fasciation and is attributed to making some plants to increase volume and weight. It was also reported that some vegetables and fruits became mutated after groundwater mixed with the nuclear leak. This post provides are strong evidence about the condition around the nuclear disaster point. This is because its specifics were also reported on other news sources as late aftermaths of the disaster. The credibility of a news source can be evaluated by comparing the number of news sources that bear similar information. The higher the number of correlations, the higher the likelihood of its credibility. Question 4: The Importance of Watching News Actually, it is important to keep up with the news. Firstly, I think news can be entertainment. For example, often than not, a significant portion of news in social media is entertaining. In the course of entertaining social media users, it helps to connect people. In addition, the news keeps people updated on important local and international events. Moreover, through news, we get to know places and occurrences across the world at the comfort of our living room. In addition, news serves as a tool that enhances decision-making processes and helps to evade danger in society. For example, if there is a dangerous road within a certain locality, news agencies will report about it to make road users aware of it. Internationally, news help to people to understand each other based on their culture and beliefs (Lee & Ma 333). This way, it promotes global peace and understanding.
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    New Deal Documentary Assignment Name Institution Affiliation Date New Deal Documentary Assignment 1) How did Franklin Delano Roosevelt communicate his agenda to the American people? He communicated through his campaigns pledges and also in his acceptance speech as the Democratic presidential candidate. He also used close allies and friends from the “Tammany Hall” group to advance FDR agenda as well as leaders from the minority groups such as the black community and immigrants. 2) How did FDR restore confidence in the American banking system? By introducing reforms such as the emergency banking bill that revitalized the banking and credit system of the US. The banks first closed and were only reopened when they were solvent. The changes, in addition, brought adjustments such as that of moderate currency inflation relieved debtors and controlled prices. 3) What was the “alphabet soup” of the New Deal? What were three of the programs mentioned, and what did they accomplish? It was the new deal Acts and agencies that was formed in the second part of the reforms. The three include the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and Public Works Administration (PWA). They accomplished reforms in the sector that created jobs for millions, provide economic relief to farmers and created strong unions (Yiu, 2012). 4) What were some of the reasons given by critics for opposing the New Deal? The deal did not provide enough relief, some aspects of the deal such as AAA were seen as unconstitutional, and the deals favored only big business and co-operate interests. 5) What was Tammany Hall? How did it control New York City politics? It was a New York City political organization. It organized campaigns and funded campaigns for the mayoral elections in New York. It advocated for the interests of the poor and immigrants of the New York City that were the majority in New York a factor that helped it control the politics of New York City. 6) How did Mayor Fiorella LaGuardia promote reforms in his district and in New York City during the Great Depression? The mayor embraced the reforms and ensured that it worked in his District that it was more apparent and seen than other Districts in the New York and in America at large. He read comic strips on the radio, fought the perception of bossism and worked along firefighters in putting out fires and also introduced slum- clearance projects. 7) How did the fight between FDR and Robert Moses impact LaGuardia’s plans for New York City? It impacted LaGuardia plans negatively by dividing the followers and supporters in New York that contributed to the revolt and continuous criticism of the New Deal. Robert Moses was equally popular and influential. It increased resistance to the mayor’s plans for the City. 8) How did the residents of Harlem cope with the Depression and participate in the New Deal? The Harlem residents that most were of African-American race were hard hit by the depression that resulted in massive retrenchment and worsened the black people’s economy and society. They, hence, formed movements and political organizations that advocated for the interests of the black community, for example, ‘Jobs for Negroes.” The leaders of Harlem communities supported the New Deal and advised FDR on the issues that affected the black community. 9) What was the Works Progress Administration? Why was it so important? Works Progress Administration was the second new deal that targeted to solve the economic and social measures to counter poverty and unemployment. It targeted to provide work for the people rather than welfare. It was important as it helped the economy by empowering people and induces consumption that would help stimulate economic growth. Reference Yiu, R. (2012, Oct 13). The Great Depression 3 - New Deal, New York. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5n4u4cF4Pg
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    Intersectionality and Crime Name of Student Name of University Intersectionality and Crime The concept of “Intersectionality” within the broader criminology study is fundamental in helping to understand the various dynamics underpinning the issue of crime and security in the society. It provides a basis upon which the structures of domination and power including homophobia, sexism, and racism operate simultaneously (Creek and Dunn, 2014). Intersectionality analysis to issues linked to punishment, surveillance and crime with particular reference to how aspects of ability, sexuality, race, gender, and class influence experiences of people in the criminal justice system is considered vital in explaining the specific dynamics within this system (Brown, 2015). As an analytic framework, the concept of intersectionality helps scholars and practitioners in the field of criminal justice system to identify how various interlinked power structures affect individuals and groups that are marginalized in the society (Oliver, 2013). This paper will discuss the experience of my friend, Michael, using the concept of intersectionality. Michael is an African American young male adult living in one of the poor neighborhoods in Chicago. Due to his race and low socio-economic class, people have frequently subjected him to suspicion of engaging in criminal activities in his neighborhood, in addition to being subjected to oppression and victimization by police. On a number of occasions when criminal activities have been reported in his neighborhood, he has been among the first ones to be questioned by the local security guards and law enforcement officers. He has been rounded up on many occasions by police when in a group of other African American young men. This has happened on mere suspicion that they might be planning to commit crime even when in reality they are just walking around the neighborhood or simply relaxing in the car of one of their friends talking and “catching up”. This predicament has deprived Michael of his dignity and self-confidence. He does not understand why despite being a law-abiding citizen, he has to be harassed and oppressed by law enforcement officers. Michael’s experiences relate significantly to that of many young African American male adults around the United States, especially those living or coming from poor neighborhoods. In the most extreme cases, the “criminalization” of the African American young men can go beyond mere suspicions; it can result in tragic police shootings of innocent black individuals assumed to be criminal (Oliver, 2013). Naturally, an individual may be mistakenly assumed a criminal or violent due to a host of variables such as gender, dress, and age. However, in the United States, race seems to be a major contributory factor as black men are often targeted by police as criminals even when in reality they are not (Rios, 2011). According to Brown (2015), this trend can be explained using key intersectionality concepts, particularly those relating to the interlocking oppression matrix. The interlocking oppression matrix is also called oppression and privilege vectors which refers to how differences among individuals including age, race, class and sexual orientation serve as an oppressive measures towards individuals and alter the experience of how they live in the society (Creek and Dunn, 2014). Michael’s experiences are supported by crime statistics in the United States, which shows that African American males are stereotyped, perceived, and depicted as dangerous criminals. It is a perception that appears regularly in the popular culture of the American society (Oliver, 2013). It has also been linked to the consequences in the American criminal justice system such as stiffer sentences for African American defendants facing trials. Available statistics show that in 2015, the blacks against the whites (Brown, 2015) committed about 92 percent of interracial crimes in America. In addition, statistics show that even though racial disparity in American prison populations for African Americans from 80 percent in 1979 to 61 percent in 2008, this category of population still represents the majority of those incarcerated (Brown, 2015). Statistics further show that African Americans account for the majority of those who commit crimes such as aggravated assault, rape, murder, and robbery. It is estimated that they are approximately six times more likely to be apprehended for committing violent crimes compared to the whites (Rios, 2011). Besides, statistics show that they constitute the majority of those who commit homicide offences. Additionally, African Americans have been found to be the majority of those incarcerated for crimes linked to drugs. It is estimated that they are as twice as likely to be arrested for this kind of crime compared to the whites (Oliver, 2013). The negative portrayal of African Americans on crime-related issues has led to their criminalization, a situation that has contributed to their oppression. The American society has internalized this criminal perception about African Americans. In this regard, statistics indicate that over 80 percent of the African Americans believe that they are viewed as violent and more likely to engage in crime by the whites (Brown, 2015). This portrayal and perception also has an impact on the justice system. According to psychologists, cultural stereotype of criminality of African Americans can result in an unconscious but significant influence regarding how people/society form judgments, process information, and perceive others (Rios, 2011)). This explains why Michael and other young adults from his race face criminal stereotype. It contributes to the reason behind why they are disproportionately more likely to be oppressed and targeted by law enforcement officers as suspects while their white counterparts are less likely to be targeted. It is due to this stereotyping that Michael has on several occasions been interrogated and some of his African American peers wrongfully convicted (Creek and Dunn, 2014). The concept of intersectionality equally explains the privilege that Michael’s white friends enjoy within the same neighborhood. Even though they all live in a poor neighborhood, his white friends are rarely interrogated by law enforcement officers in spite of crime level being very high. This privilege is attached to other social identity features and stereotypes as well. In the neighborhood where Michael lives, and in other parts of the United States, the white race is the epitome of prestige, power and beauty (Rios, 2011). It is believed that the fairer the complexion of an individual the more power they possess. It is a perception that has had negative effects in other aspects of life as well and which consequently shape the dynamics in the criminal justice system (Creek and Dunn, 2014). For example, the whites often earn more wages/salaries compared to the African Americans even when they are doing the same kind of work. In addition, the whites are more likely to get employed than the blacks. The aggregate implication of these trends is that a bigger proportion of the black population is likely to be poor and unemployed thereby increasing their likelihood of being involved in crime (Oliver, 2013). Conclusively, it is evident from the above discussion that the concept of intersectionality provides a framework to analyze issues related to crime, surveillance, and punishment. Based on the experiences of my friend, Michael, it is clear that structures of power such as race and age operate simultaneously to influence people’s experiences in the criminal justice system. The case of Michael demonstrates how African Americans are more likely to be oppressed on crime related issues compared to the whites. They are more likely to be interrogated and wrongfully convicted merely because of their race. References Brown, W. (2015). An Intersectional Approach to Criminological Theory: Incorporating the
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    Percentage of Oxygen in a Compound: Stoichiometry and Catalysis Name of Student Name of University Percentage of Oxygen in a Compound: Stoichiometry and Catalysis Purpose The aim of this lab experiment was to determine the percentage of oxygen in potassium chlorate. The experiment also used stoichiometry to determine the percentage potassium chlorate in a mixture of potassium chloride and potassium chlorate. Both the weighting technique and use of stoichiometry to determine the percentage of substances were reviewed. Introduction The relationship among products and reactants in a chemical reaction is quantitative and it is known as stoichiometry. This chemical reaction is used in different ways. Firstly, stoichiometry is used to predict the amount of products formed when the amount of the starting reactant is known. Conversely, it can determine the starting amount of reactants when a product is desired. Stoichiometry is at the core of most of the calculations done in chemistry. Heat can decompose most of the compounds that contain oxygen. For instance, potassium chlorate (KCIO3) can be subjected to heat to remove oxygen in the compound. The resultant product is potassium chloride and the reaction is 2KCIO3 (s) heat 2 KCL (s) + 3O2 (g). The quantity of oxygen expelled can be determined by weighing the compound before and after heating it. The mass difference represents the amount of oxygen released (Burdge, 2014). In case the grams of oxygen released are unknown, then stoichiometry can determine the grams of KCIO3 that have decomposed. This enables the calculation of the amount of KCIO3 in a mixture that contains KCL and KCIO (Graves, 2013). It is vital to note that in this experiment, one of the reactants does not have oxygen. This validates the equation because one of the reactants does not have oxygen. Thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate is usually a slow reaction. To observe the reaction in a laboratory setting, it is essential to use a catalyst, which speeds up the reaction. The catalyst used in this experiment is manganese dioxide. Therefore, thermal decomposition of
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    Narcissist, Psychopath, or Sociopath: How to Spot the Differences Name of Student Name of University Narcissist, Psychopath, or Sociopath: How to Spot the Differences From The Information Presented In The Video, Discuss Narcissism (A Person Who Is A Narcissist) The video provides valuable insights into narcissism, psychopath, and sociopath and their differences.
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    Mythological Creatures in Ancient Grecian Culture Name Student ID: For (Course) Professor: Seminar leader: Date: Mythological Creatures in Ancient Grecian Culture History plays an important part that has enables people to understand different aspects of life that touch on the social, economic as well as political features in life. Ancient communities such as the Roman Empire, the Greek community as well as the Egyptian empire have contributed positively to shaping the world history and archaeology studies in many aspects. It is because of the unique and exceptional products that depicted the culture of the ancient people at the time as well as tangible products such as buildings and pyramids among others that showed different cultures of the people at the time in ancient times from 3000 B.C. and 31 B.C. The ancient Grecian culture is rich not only in its history but also on the many physical products that defined its rich culture at the time that has continued to impact the present populations in many aspects that touch on religion aspects, politics, architecture, war and military among many other aspects of culture that dominated the Grecian community. It is, hence, imperative to conduct a thorough analysis of the ancient culture by a review of its primary and secondary sources and the impacts that it had at the time and presently. However, this paper appreciates the domestic architecture of the Grecian culture and notes the impact of ancient Grecian architectural designs that showed proportion, harmony, simplicity, and perspective in their buildings greatly influenced the Roman world and beyond that provided the foundation for architectural orders. The piece presents the classical architectural orders that note how the Greeks contributed in influencing others. It then discusses the materials it used to develop different architectural products and the impact that such action had on the roman and the entire world. Next, it notes how Temples, treasuries, and stoas also contributed to shaping the architectural field in the past and presently. Theatre and stadium as well are presented indicating the Greeks contribution and finalizes by looking at housing as a product of the architectural process. Different architectural products of the ancient Greek were strategically placed where most were placed in cities and towns at the time as well as religious places and political administration places among other strategical places. The Architectural Orders Classical architecture presents five orders that place different architectural products and designs developed at various times as stated by the Romans that included architects products from the Greeks. The orders include Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite. The first three mentioned in that category were created by the Greeks, and they were genuine innovation.1 Eberhart 2011, 184. The latter two originated from the Romans that were composites. Columns in the buildings and architectural products developed formed the order and category used in the classification of the groups that were made with or without a base and an entablature. Doric column in stone an architectural idea from the Greeks evolved from the earlier use of wooden pillars. The development of different pillars and columns by incorporating newer ideas and materials such as adding of a base and volute or scroll capital among others that resulted in Ionic architectural order showed how the Greeks would impact the world of architecture positively. The other order also saw the incorporation of newer ideas and practices that resulted in the different classification of the orders. It was through innovation and creativity showed by the Greeks that it resulted in exceptional products that were emulated by the Romans in the creation of the architectural products noted in the Tuscan and Composite orders that used composites other than genuine innovations. The influence that the Greeks had in the development and progress of architecture traversed the Roman empire and times to include the western architecture that many architectures and designers have referenced in one way or the other in the formulation and design of their work. It is noted in many cities in the world presently that show buildings and other architectural products that have similarities in one element or the other to those developed by the Greeks2 Senseney 2011, 23-24. . The buildings among other architectural products showed by the Greeks displayed artistic and designed elements that enabled proportion, harmony, perspective, and simplicity presented in the architectural buildings and other construction made by the Greeks. It not only added beauty and aesthetic to such products but also conveyed messages that resonated to a particular ideology and events at the time that touched on the political, economic as well as social concerns in the society. Materials Materials play a significant part in any design and construction project. The materials used in the architectural plans and products displayed by the Greeks indicated a variety of options that at times incorporated using both in different parts of the buildings and architectural designs that they developed3 Casper 2014, 360.. The Greeks as indicated in most of their public buildings used and preferred marble, but wood also played an essential role in the materials that they used to develop different architectural products and in particular in the interior designs of the buildings constructed as well as the support of columns. The choice of materials used in the architectural buildings mainly was determined by the type of structure and the purpose that the building had to serve including projected number of people that could use the premises at any one time. It is the reasons most architectural structures developed by the Greeks showed strength and durability that some have been able to survive for centuries to the present times requiring minimal service and maintenance4 Seaman and Schultz 2017, 17. . It has helped the society realize benefits such as arising from tourists where millions of tourists flock the country to see the genius of architecture and buildings constructed by the Greeks many years ago. Temples that had thatched roofs were noted in 7-8 BCE that was later changed to include durable materials that made them exists for a longer time such as the use of stone edifices. A mixture of materials in the construction of such architectural buildings enhances beauty and decoration where architects and those buildings such products relied on creativity and innovation to mix materials used such in the creation of column capitals and entablature among others parts of the constructed buildings. The wooden architectural elements also have resulted in the development of carpentry as a profession and technical skills involved where some have specialized in wooden products that blend well with different architectural designs as observed in the different Greeks architectural products. The primary materials that the Greeks preferred include limestone that often was polished by marble dust stucco but pure white marble were also used and in particular in high profiled areas such as palaces and administrative units at the time. Carved stones that allowed presentation of different symbols that include gods, as well as other symbols of worship and religion as noted in temples among others sculptures designed and curved from stones, were polished with chamois. It provided resistance to water and gave a bright finish that made the products recognized from a distance, hence, making Greeks products earn respect and recognition in the architectural world beyond the times that such products were developed to include the present times5
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    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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