home > Tertiary education

BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
    $ 0.13
    12,670words / 1page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Lowering the Drinking Age To 18 Societies experience dynamic challenges in the world that touch on economic, political as well as social aspects. The society also analyzes the dynamic challenges from different perspectives and philosophies that have led to conflicting positions on the way issues need to be tackled and addressed in the society. The legislators, for example, have the responsibility to formulate laws that help the society address its different concerns that it experiences. Such laws have worked in some instances but on other occasions have failed to help the society address its challenges objectively. It implies that with the ever-changing and dynamic life situations, it has become difficult to have solutions that address societal challenges forever. It, thus, requires frequent review to determine if the initially implemented measures are still effective or not in addressing issues in the society. Drinking is one aspect that people have differed on the best ways to address and handle concerns related to drinking. In the US, for instance, the minimum drinking age was raised to 21 from 18 years many years ago in a 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act. Nevertheless, the impact of such legislation has not helped the society address the concerns related to drinking objectively. Therefore, it is the reason this paper argues that lowering the drinking age to 18 will lower many risks on drink driving among others benefits. The main reason that led to the rise in the age of drinking to 21 years was to reduce traffic accidents and fatalities that were experienced in the past. However, the objective has not been met and there many incidences where accidents have continued to occur among young adults even not related to alcohol or drink driving. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration produced statistics that indicated that the Act increasing the drinking age to 21 had reduced cases of fatal accidents among young drivers by over 13 percent (Smith, par 8). However, critics of the data and statement counter it by comparing the data to countries especially in Europe that allow drinking at the age of 18 and above that indicate contrasting data that have posted few drink driving accidents and fatalities. Furthermore, they note that despite the law that prohibits below age 21 from drinking; the percentage of reduction in accidents related to drinking driving in the US was lower when compared to the European countries that allow drinking from the age of 18 and above. The facts and evidence presented that supports the age 21 years limit for drinking, thus, can be challenged as it is not satisfactory and has discrepancies in terms of justifying the actions. On the contrary, those that supports lowering the drinking age to 18 notes that 18 years is the age that allows people to graduate into adulthood. It is the age that many other factors in the society are allowed such as marriage, driving, joins the military and other forces, signing of contracts among others freedom and liberations allowed by the law. They argue, therefore, that the age of 18years limit is, then, not consistent with the freedom and liberties that great country like the US needs to have. They, further, argue that the law that limits 18 years old from drinking has only acted to increase more cases of drunk driving. The argument is that they acknowledge that despite the limits, human beings will always invent ways to counter the regulations and drink. This according to their views has increased the case of binge drinking sessions, which results in highest alcohol content in blood within the shortest period. It implies the consumption of at least four to five beers within a two hour period. To further point and support their argument, they point statistic that indicates that in the US, which shows that over 90 percent of alcohol consumed in the US by young adults is consumed during a binge drinking session (Behrmann, Par 7). The reason that binge drinking session is dominant among young adults is that of the oppressive law. They make young adults explore and use the limited time they get any chance of drinking to practice binge drinking. It is imperative to note that since they are allowed to drive at age 18 and above, they would then proceed to drive that result in more accidents and fatalities. They argue that in the event that the legal drinking age was reduced to 18 years, it would impact on the society positively and reduce the cases of drink driving as many of the young ‘drinkers’ would do it in an open and permitted place without fear or abuse that results from the restrictions. They would even seek for taxi services among other transport options available when drunk as they would be acting responsibly because the legislation would have also empowered them to act responsibly as noted in other cases that allow 18 years to engage in such as the signing of contracts, marrying and joining the forces among others. They challenge those that support the law permitting only 21 and above to drink to research and find the possible cause of over 90 percent of young Americans drinking session to be binge (Kiesbye, 12). They hint that the possible cause is because of the law and should it be changed, it can change the statistics drastically that would also directly impact on the drunk driving cases among the young drivers and reduce the accidents and fatalities related to drink driving by a bigger portion and margin. Lowering the age, according to supporters of drinking at age 18 and above, would lower the rebellious motivation to break the law and support responsible drinking as a practice done in civilized societies. Rising the drinking has been ineffective. It is according to a report presented by the National center on addiction and substance abuse in 2006, which indicated that over 17.5 percent of consumer spending for alcohol in the US was done by underage youths (Behrmann, par. 3). When the US and European countries are compared, the law that allows 18 years old to drink in Europe has developed the culture of a positive attitude towards alcohol and drinking viewed as a normal social behavior. It has helped develop a positive attitude towards responsible drinking unlike in the US that has enhanced drinking stigma especially among the young adults resulting in increased binge drinking and hideouts for young people when drinking. Supporters of drinking from age 18 years, further, defend their position from the medical point of view. They note that the difference between 18 years old and 21 years old that is the legal age allowed for drinking is minor as both displays the same level of psychological and physiological development. They at times point incidences where the 18 years old has made a bold and smart decision than the 21 years old. They, hence, argue that age limit even if it was raised to 30 years or 40 years, those that would be locked out of the bracket would still device ways that they can use to continue drinking. Moreover, they further note that there are numerous accidents and fatalities that have been done by 21 years and above and, therefore, stating that only those below 21 years old cause or get involved in accidents is a misrepresentation of facts as accidents can be caused by anybody provided they are driving whether they have the age of 18, 21 or even 30 and above (McCartt, et al, 177). In defense of the position of lowering the drinking age to 18, they note that the highest number of driving accidents in the United States is also contributed by the highest ration of the number of vehicles to people. In the US, for every 1000 residents, the number of vehicles is close to 800. Most of the European countries have a ratio close to 500 vehicles per 1000 residents. The drinking culture in such countries is supported by the fact that they rely on using public transport system that includes railways and public transport vehicles among others. Therefore, changing the culture by lowering the age to 18 years and above that would allow many village pubs and restaurants setups that would allow people to walk home or use public transport system available would provide and impact more positively on the drink driving challenge experience in the United States. Moreover, it would also economically impact positively on such businesses as it would increase the number of consumers of alcoholic products but on a positive note that would embrace responsible drinking. The 21 year age limit that allows drinking, hence, has less contributed to reducing drink driving accidents (Smith, par 12). In the above set up, an American would likely drive 20 miles away from his or her house to a chain of restaurants simply to get alcohol products and drinking places. The American culture of limited use of public transport system has to be changed and encourage people to use public transport system for mobility and transportation services to help address cases of drink driving accidents and fatalities rather than emphasize on the 21 age limit that has proved to be ineffective. From the international level and perspective, the defenders of age 18 years as the recommended age to allow people to start drinking point out countries that have the age 21 limit. They note the countries to be mostly from the Middle East as well as Asian countries that have displayed or are characterized by limited freedom of expression and democratic principles. They note that such countries, for example, Oman and Sri Lanka, are examples of countries that at the international level have less reputation and influence because of the limitations of freedom and democratic processes. According to them, grouping America among the group is an indicator of a wrong approach and limitation of freedom and democratic choices that the US is globally known and recognized for. The age 21 rule, thus, fails to achieve its goals as it has failed to reduce the drink driving accidents and fatalities as well as taints the positive image and brand that the US has at the international level that embraces and encourages freedom and democratic principles (McCartt, et al, 175). In conclusion, lowering the drinking age to 18 years would impacts more positively to the American society. It would reduce drink driving accidents and fatalities by a bigger margin as it would encourage and nurture the culture of responsible drinking as witnessed in the European countries. The lack of enough evidence and support to justify the primary reason that led to the increase of the drinking age to 21 years from 18 has made proving and defending the option difficult. Many states in the US have failed to initiate changes to the oppressive legislation simply because of the threat to lose federal highway funds from the state. However, the state can be bold enough to convince the legislators to change the law and allow drinking age to start from age 18 years as it would help and impact the state objectively reducing the drink driving accidents and fatalities. Works Cited. Behrmann, Russell. “The US should lower the drinking age to 18,” Dailyevergreen.Com., 19 Nov 2015, https://dailyevergreen.com/9136/opinion/the-us-should-lower-the-drinking-age-to-18/. Accessed 21 march 2018. Kiesbye, Stefan. Should the Legal Drinking Age Be Lowered? Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Print. McCartt, Anne T., et al. "The Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age 21 Laws on Alcohol-Related Driving in the United States." Journal of Safety Research, vol. 41, no. 2, Apr. 2010, pp. 173-181. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2010.01.002. Smith, Philip. “Is It Time to Lower the Legal Drinking Age?.The U.S. is out of step with the rest of the world,” Alternet.Org, 1 Feb 2018, https://www.alternet.org/drugs/it-time-lower-legal-drinking-age-18-21. Accessed 21 march 2018.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    University Long-Term Stability of Orthodontic Treatment Author Date Professor’s name Program of Study Long-Term Stability of Orthodontic Treatment Discussion The long-term stability of dental arrangement after orthodontic treatment has been a challenge to the orthodontic calling. For the most part, the objective of orthodontic treatment is to create an ordinary or supposed perfect impediment that is morphological stable, stylishly, and practically balanced. There is, notwithstanding, a huge variety in treatment result be-reason for the seriousness and kind of malocclusion, treatment approach, tolerant participation, and development and flexibility of the hard and delicate tissues. Follow-up investigations of treated cases have demonstrated that although’ ‘ideal' impediment and dental arrangement have been accomplished, there is an inclination for backslide toward the first malocclusion post treatment. Long-term solidness of orthodontic treatment results must be considered in connection to maturing, periodontal sickness, caries, and different kinds of dental rebuilding efforts (Bjering and Vandeska-Radunovic 2015). In view of these elements, and in connection to the length, exertion, and cost put resources into orthodontic treatment, the decision of a subsequent time of no less than 5 years after finished maintenance appears to be sensible when steadiness of orthodontic treatment is evaluated. When assessing post maintenance transformations, it is of crucial significance to consider the normal development changes found in people who have had no orthodontic treatment. In addition, in light of the fact that orthodontic treatment improves facial and dental appearance, evaluation of the long haul result of orthodontic treatment ought to incorporate patient fulfillment as for dental and facial appearance in treated just as in untreated gatherings (Schutz, Lindsten, Bjerklin and Bondemark 2016). It is in this manner proper and prudent to utilize coordinated untreated control groups. To date, a few examinations have been distributed concerning long-term stability of orthodontic treatment, and an efficient survey of the present learning is inspired.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    University Long-Term Stability of Orthodontic Treatment Author Date Professor’s name Program of Study Long-Term Stability of Orthodontic Treatment Discussion The long-term stability of dental arrangement after orthodontic treatment has been a challenge to the orthodontic calling. For the most part, the objective of orthodontic treatment is to create an ordinary or supposed perfect impediment that is morphological stable, stylishly, and practically balanced. There is, notwithstanding, a huge variety in treatment result be-reason for the seriousness and kind of malocclusion, treatment approach, tolerant participation, and development and flexibility of the hard and delicate tissues. Follow-up investigations of treated cases have demonstrated that although’ ‘ideal' impediment and dental arrangement have been accomplished, there is an inclination for backslide toward the first malocclusion post treatment. The study by Ragnar Bjering and Vaska Vandevska-Radunovic (2017) examined the long-term impact of mandibular anterior alignment and fixed retention on maxillary. The researchers analyzed the effect of fixed retention on post-treatment changes in Little’s Irregularities Index. This was analyzed for both regression and jaw analysis. Two groups were compared for the maxilla MX0 and MX10. Three groups were compared for the mandible, MD3, MD10 fixed retainer, and MD5. The researchers found that the Peer Assessment Rating Index with a percentage improvement of 79 percent at T10. The researchers also established a gradual deterioration of occlusal components with an insignificant change in the sub-period. When corrected for pre-treatment irregularity, MX10 demonstrated 0.6mm lower than MX0. Additionally, MD10 had a better alignment than MD5 and MD3. Long-term solidness of orthodontic treatment results must be considered in connection to maturing, periodontal sickness, caries, and different kinds of dental rebuilding efforts (Bjering and Vandeska-Radunovic 2015). In view of these elements, and in connection to the length, exertion, and cost put resources into orthodontic treatment, the decision of a subsequent time of no less than 5 years after finished maintenance appears to be sensible when steadiness of orthodontic treatment is evaluated. When assessing post maintenance transformations, it is of crucial significance to consider the normal development changes found in people who have had no orthodontic treatment. In addition, in light of the fact that orthodontic treatment improves facial and dental appearance, evaluation of the long-term result of orthodontic treatment ought to incorporate patient fulfillment as for dental and facial appearance in treated just as in untreated gatherings (Schutz, Lindsten, Bjerklin and Bondemark 2016). It is in this manner proper and prudent to utilize coordinated untreated control groups. To date, a few examinations have been distributed concerning long-term stability of orthodontic treatment, and an efficient survey of the present learning is inspired. Ulrike Schutz-Fransson, Rune Lindsten, Krister Bjering, and Lars Bondemark (2016) compared the long-term outcomes nine years after the removal of two types of fixed retainers that were used for the stabilization of mandibular anterior segment. The researchers observed no significant differences between the two groups at long-term follow-up based on Little’s Irregularity Index for the mandibular incisors. They also observed that the overbite and overjet were reduced following treatment and stayed stable during the observation period.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    University Long-Term Stability of Orthodontic Treatment Author Date Professor’s name Program of Study Long-Term Stability of Orthodontic Treatment Discussion The long-term stability of the arrangement of the dental formula after orthodontic treatment has been a problem for the orthodontic profession. The aim of orthodontic treatment is to establish a normal or supposedly perfect arrangement that is morphological stable and practically balanced. There is a huge variety in treatment result for the seriousness and kind of malocclusion, treatment approach, tolerant participation, and development and flexibility of the hard and delicate tissues. Follow-up investigations of treated cases have demonstrated that although’ ‘ideal' impediment and dental arrangement have been accomplished, there is an inclination for backslide toward the first malocclusion post treatment. The study by Ragnar Bjering and Vaska Vandevska-Radunovic (2017) examined the long-term impact of mandibular anterior alignment and fixed retention on maxillary. The researchers analyzed the effect of fixed retention on post-treatment changes in Little’s Irregularities Index. This was analyzed for both regression and jaw analysis. Two groups were compared for the maxilla MX0 and MX10. Three groups were compared for the mandible, MD3, MD10 fixed retainer, and MD5. The researchers found that the Peer Assessment Rating Index with a percentage improvement of 79 percent at T10. The researchers also established a gradual deterioration of occlusal components with an insignificant change in the sub-period. When corrected for pre-treatment irregularity, MX10 demonstrated 0.6mm lower than MX0. Additionally, MD10 had a better alignment than MD5 and MD3. Long-term solidness of orthodontic treatment results must be considered in connection to maturing, periodontal sickness, caries, and different kinds of dental rebuilding efforts (Bjering and Vandeska-Radunovic 2015). In view of these elements, and in connection to the length, exertion, and cost put resources into orthodontic treatment, the decision of a subsequent time of not less than 5 years after finished maintenance appears to be sensible when steadiness of orthodontic treatment is evaluated. When assessing post maintenance transformations, it is of crucial significance to consider the normal development changes found in people who have had no orthodontic treatment. In addition, in light of the fact that orthodontic treatment improves facial and dental appearance, evaluation of the long-term result of orthodontic treatment ought to incorporate patient fulfillment as for dental and facial appearance in treated just as in untreated gatherings (Schutz, Lindsten, Bjerklin and Bondemark 2016). It is in this manner proper and prudent to utilize coordinated untreated control groups. To date, a few examinations have been distributed concerning long-term stability of orthodontic treatment, and an efficient survey of the present learning is inspired. Ulrike Schutz-Fransson, Rune Lindsten, Krister Bjering, and Lars Bondemark (2016) compared the long-term outcomes nine years after the removal of two types of fixed retainers that were used for the stabilization of mandibular anterior segment. The researchers observed no significant differences between the two groups at long-term follow-up based on Little’s Irregularity Index for the mandibular incisors. They also observed that the overbite and overjet were reduced following treatment and stayed stable during the observation period.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Name Instructor Course Date Loneliness in “The Horse Dealer's Daughter” and in “A Rose for Emily The Horse Dealer’s Daughter is a story about orphaned young adults who are at a loss about the life ahead. Like it is often the case, the passing on of parents or guardians leaves children desolate, unaware of what to do about their lives in the absence of the parents who provided a sense of direction, care and unconditional love (“A study guide for D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter”). In this story, the demise of the horse dealer brings an end to his empire, as the world crumbles around the children, leaving them lonely and anxious about the life ahead. The theme of loneliness and isolation permeates the novel right from the onset. The story opens with the four children, three brothers and a sister seated around the desolate dining table, “attempting some sort of desultory consultation” (Lawrence 198). In most families, the dining table signifies oneness and love as family members sit around the table to share a meal. The desolate dining table in this introductory paragraph therefore signifies the disintegration of the family since members will no longer share the unity they traditionally shared around the table following the demise of the parents. Moreover, the desolate dining table symbolizes the cloud of loneliness that has engulfed the four children in the absence of their parents. Amidst the silence and pensive atmosphere around the dining table, Joe asks his sister Mabel with an attitude that the author describes as a foolish flippancy, “Well, Mabel, what are you going to do with yourself?” (Lawrence 198). he then working a grain of tobacco into his mouth and spitting it out in a manner that suggested he felt safe himself. This question and Joe’s uncaring attitude signals the fact the children were set to go their separate ways and that Joe did no longer view himself as belonging a to family unit. Rather, he was prepared to face life alone and felt safe about it. This underscores the theme of loneliness which would characterize the future lives of the four children. Additionally, the consultative forum around the table underscores the solitude in each of the four children. The consultations amongst the three brothers amounted to nothing as each of them smoked tobacco and reflected on their own condition. The sister, Mabel is described a lone, short, sullen looking woman who would have been good looking had it not been for the fixity of her face, a sign of worry and anxiety that engulfed her life (Lawrence). The girl had always felt lonely because she was the only female around the house and did not always share the same life as her brothers. The horse dealer’s family had grown up in a large ranch, where they bred and took horses around the farm for exercises. Therefore, the children had grown in isolation from the rest of the society. This underscores the fact that children had grown up lonely with horses as their companions and no children to play around with. When the horses are finally driven away, the three brothers felt as if their lives had just collapsed. As the author states, “They watched the horses being led away with a critical callous look, feeling a sense of disaster that left them no inner freedom” (Lawrence 199). In essence, the boys had grown up around the horses and the thought of never seeing the horses again instilled in them a deep sense of emptiness. The departure of the horses marked the ultimate downfall of the horse dealer’s family. Joe, the elder, watched the last horse disappear into the horizon with a glaze of hopelessness in his eyes, feeling as though a part of his body had been taken away from him (Lawrence). His only hope in life was to marry his fiancée, a woman of his age and daughter of a steward. He hoped that the woman’s father would grant him a job, marking a transition of his life from a master to servant. Notably, Joe was set to go his own way and lead an isolated life away from his siblings. Back to the dining table, the three brothers engaged in a discussion about Mabel’s future. Fred Henry, the second eldest brother advised her to move in with Lucy, a family friend, while Malcolm, the youngest brother advised her to take up a nursing course. Mabel did not pay much attention to the conversation going on around her because she had grown up in a lonely world where the brothers hardly paid attention to her feelings or interests. As the author states, “the brothers had talked at her and around her for so long that she no longer cared to listen to them” (Lawrence 200). This manifests the fact that Mabel being the only girl in her family had grown up inwardly feeling alone about everything, as no one really understood her worldview or inner feelings. Eventually the three brothers depart, leaving behind Mabel who has to keep the expansive home all alone for ten years awaiting the return of her ineffectual brothers. Unable to cope with the enduring loneliness, Mabel contemplates suicide, seeing death a way of reuniting with her late parents and an alternative to a life characterized by solitude and isolation. Luckily for Mabel, the cloud of loneliness that engulfed her entire life suddenly comes to an end when she falls in love with a doctor named Jack Ferguson (Lawrence). William Faulkner’s short story, A Roe for Emily revolves around a woman’s struggles with identity, isolation and loneliness in a society dominated by chauvinistic and domineering male characters. Through the recluse life of Emily, Faulkner develops and advances loneliness and isolation as core themes of the story, perhaps in effort to highlight the challenges faced by women in the 1930s American society. From the onset of the story, Emily the main character leads a life of social isolation and immense loneliness. Growing up as young girl under a looming, possessive figure of a father, Emily leaves in constant fear of being reprimanded. As a result, she keeps to herself most of the time for lack of confidante or someone to turn to for counsel. This upbringing confines Emily to a lonely life as teenager. When the father dies, Emily is scared of the world around her and chooses to live the rest of her life in isolation. Emily’s loneliness also manifests in her unwillingness to let go of the dead body of Homer Baron, locking herself with his corpse for three days in denial of the fact that he was no more (Faulkner 419). Loneliness seemingly drives her to insanity as she appears to be the only one not disturbed by stench of the decomposing body. This is indicative of the fact that Emily had no life outside her home and did not know how to face life without the domineering father commanding her on what to do. The life of captivity to which the father subjected Emily continues its hold on her because she has no one to turn to when the father dies. Miss Emily belonged to the high society and led a life totally cut off from the rest of the society around her. Living under the shadow of her father, Emily grew up with the notion that she belonged to a higher echelon of the society and the people around her viewed her in similar manner. Her father believed that no man was good enough to court or even befriend her (Claridge 50). As a result, she lived isolated and with no friends or acquaintances outside her family home. The solitude lifestyle that Emily’s father imposed upon her subjected her to lifelong loneliness, which only became apparent when the father dies, leaving all alone. This is why she is surprised when the neighbors turn up for the funeral, wondering who invited them to her home (Robinette and Faulkner 9) While Emily’s loneliness is a product of her upbringing in a high society family living in a diverse southern town, her own resistance to change and a preference for a recluse lifestyle seems to perpetuate her loneliness long after the death of her possessive father (Claridge 53). She seems incapable to cope with the rapid change taking place in American southern society in the 1930s, preferring to remain isolated rather than embrace change and the racial diversity taking root around her. As a result, she keeps just one black servant, when she never really grows fond of and refuses to let the neighbors into her house (Faulkner 3). When she finds love in Homer Baron, the neighbors are happy that Emily’s loneliness is finally over, but she ruins it by killing him for the mere obsession of not losing him and ending up alone again. It is not until she dies that the neighbors get a glimpse of Emily’s house when her body is finally carried away for funeral. This marks a rather sad end to a woman who led a mysterious and solitary life merely because she was not trained to mingle with the other members of the community. The Horse Dealer’s Daughter and A Rose for Emily depict the themes of isolation and loneliness occasioned by both secluded upbringing and the death of loved ones. The stories also depict social isolation and loneliness that male dominated societies imposed on women. In The Horse Dealers’ Daughter, the three brothers and their sister Mabel endure immense loneliness upon the death of their parents, especially when they are compelled to leave their ranch and live separately without the family support they enjoyed as children. Mabel further endures a life of loneliness because being the only girl in a family of boys no one appeared to care about her feelings. In A Rose for Emily, Miss Emily’s upbringing as a high society girl pushes her into a recluse life, without friends or neighbors to confide in. The loneliness drives her into a state of madness when she decides to kill her lover because she is scared of losing him when what she is really scared of is loneliness. Works Cited “A study guide for D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter"” Gale, Cengage Learning, 2015, books.google.fr/books?id=MkovDAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+horse+dealer%27s+daughter+book+reviews+pdf&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEz5z_wvrhAhWIb1AKHS8ECFoQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q&f=false Claridge, Henry. William Faulkner: Critical Assessments, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis, 1999, https://books.google.fr/books?id=N8NfMoJfnHYC&pg=PR5&dq=A+rose+for+Emily+book+reviews&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9kPvPv_rhAhVCJ1AKHbVrDAo4ChDoAQg7MAM#v=onepage&q=A%20rose%20for%20Emily%20book%20reviews&f=false. Accessed 1 May 2019. Faulkner, William. A Rose for Emily and Other Stories. Random House Publishing Group, 2012, books.google.fr/books?id=208-RYc-xlgC&dq=A+rose+for+Emily+book+reviews&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Accessed 1 May 2019. Lawrence, David H. England, My England and Other Stories. ebooks@Adelaide, University of Adelaide Library, 2015, ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/l/lawrence/dh/l41en/index.html. Accessed 1 May 2019. Lawrence, David H. The Horse Dealer’s Daughter, bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/webpub/english/artandcraftoffiction1e/Fiction-11_short_stories/Lawrence%20Horse%20Dealers%20Daughter.pdf. Accessed 1 May 2019. Top of Form Robinette, Joseph, and William Faulkner. A Rose for Emily: A One-Act Play. Chicago: Dramatic Pub. Co, 1983, books.google.fr/books?id=nIdOT0ne15EC&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+rose+for+Emily+book+reviews&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjri8nZuvrhAhVBYVAKHZOcCLUQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 1May 2019.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Literature Review Name Institution Affiliation Literature Review Neuropsychology as a subject has helped many scholars, researchers, and professionals in the discipline of sociology and related studies to understand better the link that exists between the two issues that arise from the topic. The relationship that exists between behavior, cognition, and emotion is linked to the functions of the brain that has helped solve the gap in the knowledge that had puzzled many to understand the mysteries in behavior, cognition, and emotion and how they relate to the functioning of the brain. Children provide hope for future, and as a result, much attention has focused on the behavior of children and their active participation and living not only in their homes but also in schools and places of learning that children visit. Children behavior, thus, becomes an exciting subject and topic that has attracted interest and research from many people because of the communication puzzles that children exhibit. Children communication has at times proved difficult where they could not communicate as adults to enable the people surrounding them offer the right help and intervention and, therefore, the studies that might help people and in particular those interested in children behavior, growth and development would prove to be critical and essential as it helps provide more information that helps people understand the issue affecting children. It can improve on the right interventions and strategies to offer the right response and, thus, Neuropsychology as a field has helped many address the questions that link behavior, emotion, cognition to the functioning of the brain. Schizophrenia is among the most challenging disorders that have long-term effects not only noted in children but also adults. However, this paper indicates the relationship that exists on traumatized children and Schizophrenia disease. It is essential to help stakeholders involved execute the right strategies and intervention to help address the concern objectively. Schroeder, Langeland, Fisher, Huber & Schäfer (2016) presents in-depth research that talks about different variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders from children and adulthood adverse experiences relating how the variables link and interplay. Schroeder et al., (2016) notes the adverse effect that many children go through in life as a result of abusive parenting relationship such as physical and sexual abuse, early loss of parents, domestic violence as well as parental dysfunction. Besides, they also note the undesirable experiences that adults go through that include physical and sexual abuse on dissociative systems using adults that have schizophrenia-spectrum disorder challenge. The authors start by a thorough analysis and review of relevant literature related to the subject of interest that they had and noting the gaps that exist in information about schizophrenia disorders. An examination of psychotic symptoms in 145 patients was conducted and recorded data about the outcomes from the patient. They recorded both positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) that captured dissociative systems Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) of a German version noted in children and adults with traumatized experience as indicated in the interviews. Schroeder et al. (2016) emphasized each variable in undesirable experiences that children experience where physical abuse and loss of parents led in the outcome of the study by 32% and 26% respectively. Children that had witnessed domestic violence (18%) and 17% were represented by children that had experienced sexual abuse. The regression model and analysis showed that paternal dysfunction and sexual abuse in children were associated with adult dissociation independently. The conclusions reached by Schroeder et al. (2016) recommended the importance that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should be asked frequently about their childhood experiences and the possibility of different childhood adverse to initiate appropriate that can help address the challenge objectively. Their results post that psychosis patients with adult dissociation can be linked and related to their past childhood lives and specifially if they experienced the different adverse relationship with people in the environment that they were brought up. Li et al. (2017) also present a similar subject and content related to that of Schroeder et al. (2016) that notes how childhood trauma in their past lives is linked and connected to schizophrenia disorder. Different childhood trauma related experience in Chinese patients with schizophrenia disorder such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect and how they influenced the disease was analyzed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). The study also tried to establish a relationship that exists between cognitive functions, demographic characteristics and childhood trauma. The results of the study by Li et al. (2017) indicated a strong correlation that exists between the different childhood trauma and the current status of life such as attention, delayed memory as well as impacting on the cognitive functions of the patients. The study observed and used professional research requirements such as sampling of the patients among others to eliminate the possibility of bias that would make the study compromised. The results of the study ascertained that specific cognitive functions in Chinese schizophrenia patients were impacted by childhood trauma and related negative experience that children in abusive parenting environment go through. Li et al. (2017) recommend that trauma-focused mental interventions for schizophrenia patients should be developed and routinely offered to patients. The position is rational statements that would enhance more information about the disease and help the stakeholders involved particularly child protection that can initiate actions that can empower parents with knowledge as well as law enforcement agencies and the whole community at large on the possible steps that they can undertake to help protect and enhance children. The study by Li et al. (2017) as well as that of Schroeder et al. (2016) posts similar recommendations that emphasizes that patients with schizophrenia disorder background has to be thoroughly analyzed that can help shade more information and light about the patients current status and possibly initiate treatment options that can be effective in the short and long-term. Larsson et al. (2013) researched on the relationship that exists between childhood trauma and different psychiatric disorders. The disorder mainly linked with the study includes bipolar disorder and depressive episodes that show psychotic features. A sample of schizophrenia spectrum was used in the study that determined to note the real prevalence that existed resulting from childhood trauma. The hypothesis that they had was that childhood trauma plays an essential part that occurs in most mental illnesses such as schizophrenia among others. Larsson et al. (2013) assessed 305 patients that came from 3 major hospitals in Oslo, Norway. They used questionnaires and interviews that addressed different aspects related to childhood abuse. The results of the study and research conducted by Larsson et al. (2013) posted shocking revelation where it indicated that over 82 percent of the patients interviewed had experienced childhood trauma of different type in their lives. The study revealed that emotional neglect as a childhood trauma was the most dominant among the different childhood trauma that was assessed. The two groups (schizophrenia spectrum group and the effective group) researched in the study also posted different results that indicated that physical abuse impacted more the schizophrenia spectrum group than the affective group. Physical neglect also as a childhood trauma also showed similar results among the two groups. The conclusion reached by the researchers indicated that there was a high prevalence of childhood trauma in the patients that had mental disorder challenges. Larsson et al. (2013) recommend that more research has to be done to provide more information about the relationship that exists between childhood trauma and the different mental disorders that exist that have shown strong correlation about the subject. Many researchers and scholars support the position as the subject of Neuropsychology has provided a stronger link and relationship that exists linking the functioning of the brain to different behaviors exhibited by children and adults such as emotion and cognitive. Rubyet al., (2017) presented a similar question and study as that posted by Li et al. (2017). Both try to establish a relationship that exists between early childhood trauma and the mental disorder of schizophrenia. Ruby et al. (2017) attempted to determine if features of schizophrenia are influenced by early trauma in exposure as a child in the early lives of the patients interviewed and studies. The study used samples from 28 patients that participated in the study where patients treated with treated schizophrenia mental disorder that shows current stress, as well as those that were traumatized in their childhood years, also had connections with salivary cortiso, cognition and brain volumes symptoms. The results indicated a stronger association between the two variables under study where a stronger relationship was detected and posted. Traumatized patients when they were children showed more positive results connecting the two variables that showed dysthymia symptoms. Ruby et al. (2017) study also introduced a different aspect of gender in the study that showed slightly different results of how traumatized people in early life relate and link to the present mental disorders and challenges such as schizophrenia. The authors concluded their work by showing and asserting the earlier findings of the mentioned pieces of Schroeder et al. (2016), Li et al. (2017) and Larsson et al. (2013) that showed that early trauma had a strong relationship with mental disorders not only exhibited in schizophrenia cases but also other mental disorders. Their work also briefly touched on the possible treatment alternative that can be used such as increased dopamine activity for the treatment-refractory positive symptom. It is an exceptional piece that has shown the relationship that exists between the variables noted in the paper and the hypothesis stated. Quidé et al. (2017) analyzed the impact that childhood trauma had on the brain functions that used the Theory-of-Mind (ToM) and mentalizing skill. They bring an essential issue that shows the discrepancies that the study posted that include lack of clarity in establishing the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia that remains unclear. The findings showed a positive association between trauma exposure and activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and a negative association with activation of the anterior section of the TPJ. They ascertain that it is true that a relationship exists between early trauma exposures and mentally disordered that indicated and suggested that childhood trauma exposure may, at least partially, contribute to functional alterations of brain regions essential for useful mental state inference in schizophrenia. It is imperative to note that the different research pieces presented in work incorporated professionalism in conducting the research an aspects that has contributed to the publication of high-quality research papers and research product. It is, thus, essential that all the studies have undertaken not only related to the subject of Neuropsychology and related options as noted in the discussion and reviews but also all other research event and process that include other disciplines. The research to be conducted need to emulate those indicated such as done by Quidé et al. (2017) and Schroeder et al., (2016) among others that state the variables discussed and presented in work to show a relationship that exists between the mentioned variables. Early exposure to trauma for children as well as adults has been demonstrated that it can post any negative impacts related to the health of those affected in the short and long-term. Therefore, statements presented in the noted literature need to taken seriously and possibly enhance and support further studies about the subject and topic related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders among others disorders. The discussed research and findings that link mental disorders to earlier childhood traumas show a strong relationship about the subject. As a result, reinforces the need that the stakeholders involved in the issue must address and prevent the worst adverse effects as mentioned in the different pieces discussed that impact the emotion, cognitive, and behavior as well as the proper functioning of the brain. It is essential to establish a genuine relationship that exists between early trauma that most people encounter when they are children and mental disorder of Schizophrenia among others. It is imperative also to note the suggestions presented by some other researchers in the subject that recommend that indeed further studies and research needs to be conducted so that more information about the relationship that exists between the two can be established to help better address the subject positively and objectively. The subject of Neuropsychology, therefore, provides more options and concepts that more studies can be developed so that prompt actions and decision can be taken about the issue. It is also imperative to note the efforts that stakeholders involved in upbringing children need to know and make the correct steps so that they can caution their children from possible problems that might arise when they get traumatized. The government, therefore, has the responsibility to enhance measures that protect children to eliminate or reduce the chance that they might cause developmental disorder in the future because the research has established a stronger relationship that exists between early trauma and mental disorders such as Schizophrenia among others. It is also crucial to note that brain is equality affected by such adverse exposures and, therefore, it might affect the cognitive, behaviors and emotion of children that might impact them negatively in their educational goals and objectives. Further research is, hence, encouraged by the different stakeholders concerned about the subject. References Larsson, S., Andreassen,O.A., Aas, M., Røssberg,J.I., Mork, E., Steen, N.E., Barrett, E.A., Lagerberg,T.V., Peleikis,D., Agartz,I., Melle,I.,& Lorentzen,S. High prevalence of childhood trauma in patients with schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorder, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54( 2013), 123-127. Li, X., Bo, Q., Zhang, G., Zheng, W., Wang, Z.,Li, A., Wang, Q., Liu, J., Tang, Y. & Wang, C. (2017). Effect of childhood trauma on cognitive functions in a sample of Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 76(2017), 147-152. Quidé,Y., Ong, X. H., Mohnke,S., Schnell,K., Walter,H., Carr,V.J. & Green,M.J. Childhood trauma-related alterations in brain function during a Theory-of-Mind task in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 189, (2017), 162– 168. Ruby, E., Rothman, K., Corcoran,C., Goetz,R.R. & Malaspina, D. (2017). Influence of early trauma on features of schizophrenia. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 11 (2017), 322–333. Schroeder, K., Langeland, W., Fisher, H., Huber, C.G. & Schäfer, I. (2016). Dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: What is the role of different types of childhood adversity?. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 68 (2016),201-208
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Positive Psychology: Literature Review Name Institution Positive Psychology: Signature Strengths and Virtues: Literature Review Signature Strengths and Virtues as measured by the Values In Action Institute (VIA) is considered as one of the best and most prominent tools in psychological assessment. It is particularly integral in identifying a person’s profile of strengths of character. This tool measures an individual’s strengths and puts them in order. VIA indicates that it is the top five from the measures that are deemed as a person’s “Signature Strengths” (Littman-Ovadia and Steger, 2010). One of the ways that a person can use VIA Scored Top 5 Character Strengths is in Giving. A person can draw upon that set of strengths to revitalize themselves when they are giving. This notion is premised on the understanding that when an individual is not using their Character Strengths they would be unable of giving themselves since not giving from one’s personal strengths can quickly be depleting and overwhelming (Ruch and Proyer, 2015). There are group of people who are naturally considered as “Givers.” They include people in roles such as those done by Adult Children caring for their elderly parents, Moms, Volunteers, Ministry Leaders, Teachers, and Nurses. When people in such roles do not give or help others from their top strengths they end up giving less, stop giving, experience quick burn-out, and change careers or leave their jobs (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). People in roles such as volunteerism, nursing, and teaching tend to do it because of their inherent inclination to helping others rather than due to motivations such as salaries as it is the case with other roles that do not entail giving or significant level of helping (Thoits and Hewitt, 2001). Those in such professions who are seriously trying to help others and are using their strengths in a deliberate way are able to achieve better outcomes and results than those who ae not. According to Ruch and Proyer (2015), Top 5 Character Strengths revitalizes a person when they are giving themselves. Studies show that these strengths make these people to have enhanced love of learning as a means to improve their giving capabilities (George and Brief, 1992). They will have a desire to master new skills and ways of doing things relating to their roles. They are more likely to have positive feelings when acquiring new skills (Isen et al, 1978). As a consequence, they are able to persist even when faced with setbacks while helping others. They are not only able to surmount challenges that come their way but they will also not be affected by negative feedback (Sonnentag and Grant, 2012). Studies have also established that one can use their top character strengths relating to the love of learning bring several benefits (Littman-Ovadia and Steger, 2010). It leads individuals to develop deeper knowledge, thus achieving enhanced efficacy and competency while providing help. It also aids in supporting positive experiences that are then make an individual predisposed to physical and mental well-being when discharging their roles (Wood, Linley, Matlby, Kashdan & Hurling, 2011). Besides, it enables an individual to view new setbacks as growth and learning opportunities resulting in greater perseverance needed to be effective and efficient in giving (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Ruch and Proyer (2015) explain that using one’s VIA Scored Top 5 Character Strengths can be useful in giving and revitalizes an individual when helping others. They help in improving one’s judgment where they are able to look at things from all critical angles. While giving may appear like a normal endeavor, it often requires a significant level of judgment (Isen et al, 1978). It calls for critical thinking where an individual has to weigh all evidence in a fair manner and to examine the evidence from different sides. Many giving contexts require that the person involved be open-minded and to take perspective (Sonnentag and Grant, 2012). Individuals utilizing their top 5 character strengths tend to feel strongly about specific courses of action thereby making their GIVING to be more considerate and deliberate. Studies reveal that tapping into the top 5 character strengths brings a number of benefits associated with enhanced judgment (Ruch and Proyer, 2015). It makes people in roles like nursing and teaching to see things from more than a single perspective, especially in times of transition and change. Even though “helping” professions are largely deemed as being traditional in nature, they undergo changes that will require their professionals to be more judicious in order to overcome barriers that are experienced during changes and to achieve better outcomes (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). It helps to reduce biased thinking thus contributing to accurate decision-making (Littman-Ovadia and Steger, 2010). “Helping” professions mostly require enormous resources which are often not forthcoming. As such the professionals have to deal with resource constraints and to find ways to overcome them so as to achieve their goals (George and Brief, 1992). It is for this reason that it is necessary for them to use their VIA Scored Top Characters Strengths in giving and to aid them to draw upon the set of strengths which can revitalize them when they are giving themselves (Ruch and Proyer, 2015). These strengths ensures that they are careful regarding their choices and to avoid taking unnecessary risks. Most of the top character strengths are temperance strengths that protect individuals from excesses, thereby making them deliberate and far-sighted (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). Professionals drawing from these strengths innately possess self-management abilities that ensures that they help others in the long-term by taking into account consequences of their actions (Wood et al, 2011). Individuals using the top character strengths associated with temperance become revitalized when giving themselves as they are able to avoid life mishaps, in addition to enjoying sustained productivity, interpersonal warmth, and cooperativeness (Sonnentag and Grant, 2012). Niemiec (2013) observes that for “helping” professions to realize their objectives of helping others, they need to tap into the power of creativity. Using one’s VIA Scored Top Character Strengths in Giving has been found to be integral in inspiring creativity and revitalizing them when they are giving themselves. These strengths are instrumental in the generation of creative solutions to various problems that “helping” professionals have to contend with while giving themselves (Weinstein and Ryan, 2010). They help individuals to sharpen their practical intelligence, particularly when exploring the causes and effects of life events around their professions (Wood et al, 2011). These strengths also provide individuals with the ability of using divergent and holistic thinking needed not just to generate ideas but also to implement them with the aim of achieving better outcomes. Besides, these strengths revitalize “helping” professionals when they are giving themselves by relieving pressure off them and to drive their interests in giving activities (Ruch and Proyer, 2015). Not using one’s character strengths makes giving or helping others to be depleting and overwhelming. It results to adverse effects, including making an individual to stop giving, giving less, or to experience burn-out quickly, and change careers or leave the job. Studies show that not using character strengths are reflected in a giver’s lack of interest to wholesomely pursue their giving/helping activities (Littman-Ovadia and Steger, 2010). In professions like teaching, the helper may not strive to know more about their students, and as a result, being unable to improve the learning outcomes. Similarly, givers like nurses who are not using their character strengths may experience burn-out, which will affect the patient care outcomes (Sonnentag and Grant, 2012). Moreover, it has been found out that not using one’s character strengths may lead givers to be less rational and not to engage in critical thinking while performing their roles (Isen et al, 1978). Their critical thinking may become impaired, in addition to them experiencing excessive fatigue. These forms of effects of not using character strengths have been associated with negative results in “helping” professions (Sonnentag and Grant, 2012). Some of these effects include medical errors among health providers and strained relationships in organizations led by givers (George and Brief, 1992). Moreover, not using character strengths has been found to impede creativity and innovation in “helping” professions (Littman-Ovadia and Steger, 2010). When givers such as volunteers and teachers fail to tap into their character strengths, they become unable to harness their creative power and capabilities towards solving problems that they face in the course of their duties, in addition to failing to come up with new ways of doing things (Thoits and Hewitt, 2001). Therefore, they might find themselves stuck in old ways of doing things that undermine their efficacy, productivity and performance.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Name Professor Course Date Legal Scenarios #2 Advice This case involves a student that came to my home to discuss a situation from school. The student informed me that a gang from the school was bullying him and he could not tell anyone or he would be attacked. The student also showed me the bruises he suffered from the bullying. The question is what I would do. In this case, I would act as the student’s advocate and mentor. I would also maintain the student’s confidentiality by not informing the bullies who had informed me about their behavior. There is a potential violation of the Mississippi Law Statutes, especially Standard 4 of the Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct (Mississippi Department of Education 24). The standard requires an educator to fulfill the roles of an advocate and mentor for students. Through mentorship, I would help the student overcome the fear of being bullied while advocating for his rights to an enabling school environment by addressing his plight with the school administration. As a dependable and responsible person, I will tell the bullies that I know about their behavior, which led to the physical harm of one of the students. I would ask them to stop their bulling behaviors or end up at the school disciplinary committee. Next, I would tell the student that the school and education board has strict rules and policies on bulling. Thus, they risk suspension or even expulsion is they do not reform their bullying behavior. #3 Alcohol This case presents an instance in which the school has sponsored an overnight field trip with students. One of the chaperones brings a cooler of beer and wine to share after the students go to bed. In this instance, I face a dilemma because I am not sure whether I am responsible for the kids after they have gone to sleep. Furthermore, I would like a glass of wine or bottle of beer. The question is whether I should have a drink. This case presents a potential violation of the Mississippi Law Statues. The fact that one of the parties in the trip has beer violates the Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct’s Standard 6 on Alcohol, Drug, and Tobacco Use or Possession (Mississippi Department of Education 26). According to this standard, an educator should refrain from alcohol and tobacco use during professional practice. The standard also states that an unethical conduct includes being at a school-related activity or school premises while documented as being under the influence of, consuming, or possessing alcoholic beverages. As a responsible and dependable professional that is concerned about the students, I would say to the chaperone that alcohol is not allowed in school-related activities. I would also tell the chaperone that alcohol has the potential to impair our judgement, which could put the students at risk.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Name Professor Course Date Legal Scenarios #2 Advice This case involves a student that came to my home to discuss a situation from school. The student informed me that a gang from the school was bullying him and he could not tell anyone or he would be attacked. The student also showed me the bruises he suffered from the bullying. The question is what I would do. In this case, I would act as the student’s advocate and mentor. I would also maintain the student’s confidentiality by not informing the bullies who had informed me about their behavior. There is a potential violation of the Mississippi Law Statutes, especially Standard 4 of the Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct (Mississippi Department of Education 24). The standard requires an educator to fulfill the roles of an advocate and mentor for students. Through mentorship, I would help the student overcome the fear of being bullied while advocating for his rights to an enabling school environment by addressing his plight with the school administration. As a dependable and responsible person, I will tell the bullies that I know about their behavior, which led to the physical harm of one of the students. I would ask them to stop their bulling behaviors or end up at the school disciplinary committee. Next, I would tell the student that the school and education board has strict rules and policies on bulling. Thus, they risk suspension or even expulsion is they do not reform their bullying behavior. #3 Alcohol This case presents an instance in which the school has sponsored an overnight field trip with students. One of the chaperones brings a cooler of beer and wine to share after the students go to bed. In this instance, I face a dilemma because I am not sure whether I am responsible for the kids after they have gone to sleep. Furthermore, I would like a glass of wine or bottle of beer. The question is whether I should have a drink. This case presents a potential violation of the Mississippi Law Statues. The fact that one of the parties in the trip has beer violates the Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct’s Standard 6 on Alcohol, Drug, and Tobacco Use or Possession (Mississippi Department of Education 26). According to this standard, an educator should refrain from alcohol and tobacco use during professional practice. The standard also states that an unethical conduct includes being at a school-related activity or school premises while documented as being under the influence of, consuming, or possessing alcoholic beverages. As a responsible and dependable professional that is concerned about the students, I would say to the chaperone that alcohol is not allowed in school-related activities. I would also tell the chaperone that alcohol has the potential to impair our judgement, which could put the students at risk. What I would say next is that the chaperone is responsible for his actions and I would not wish to participate in the unethical conduct of consuming and possessing alcohol while on a school-sponsored trip. #4 Rights This instance involves an openly gay student. However, this conflicts with my religious beliefs and it makes me uncomfortable. The student comes to me crying and wanting to talk to me because of the problems she is experiencing fitting in. The question for this instance is what I do. In this case, I will maintain a professional relationship with the student and try to overcome my biases and prejudices about her sexuality. Disregarding the student’s plight puts me at risk of violating Standard 4 of the Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct, which focuses on the educator-student relationship (Mississippi Department of Education 24). According to the standard, an educator must fulfill their role as an advocate and mentor for students in a professional relationship. I would tell the student that even though I should mentor her and advocate for her rights, I am not the right person to help her deal with her social problem. However, I will link up the student with another teacher or counselor who is in a better position to help her. What I would say next is that I am uncomfortable talking with her about her sexuality or handling the issue. Therefore, for her to receive the best support and assistance, it is best if she consulted the school counselor. #5 Internet Pornography This incident involves a faculty member that sends an e-mail to me through the school e-mail server. The e-mail contains funny, but pornographic cartoons. In this instance, what do I do? This instance is covered by Standard 7 on public funds and property of the Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct (Mississippi Department of Education 26). This standard requires that an educator should not knowingly misappropriate, use, or divert personnel, funds, or equipment committed to their charge for personal advantage or gain. By sending me the e-mail through the school e-mail server, the faculty member is violating Standard 7 through the use and diverting of the school server for personal advantage and gain. I would warn the faculty member to stop sending me e-mails through the school server. I would inform the faculty member that by sending me the e-mail through the school server implies that he is knowingly misappropriating and using school equipment and property for his personal gain. I would also inform the faculty member that the continual use of the school server without the approval of a governing or education body puts me at the risk of being sued for the misuse of school property. Next, I would tell the faculty member to remove me as a recipient of the e-mails sent through the school server. I would also inform him that if he does not desist, I would report him to the education and school board. #8 Due Process In this case, I attended a football game at the school and sat beside students with a bad reputation. When leaving the game, I noticed that my wallet was missing. I am sure that I had the wallet when I sat down at the venue. I am also sure that the students took my wallet and left the game early. In this case, what do I do? I would ensure that I followed the due process when handling the case. By confronting the students, I would be violating the Mississippi Code on due process (Mississippi Department of Education 28). The code state that it is unlawful for a person to threaten, intimidate, or coerce a person enrolled in the school with the right of the person to attend school or cause the person not to attend school. I would approach the students and inform them that during the game, I sat next to them, but as I was leaving, I noticed that my wallet was missing. I would ask them whether they might have seen it or whether they might have taken the wallet. I would also inform them that I intend to report the matter to the school security and school administration whereby they would be treated as the prime suspects. As a responsible and dependable professional, I would ask the students to return the wallet and I would drop the case. In case, the students do not accept my offer; I would tell them that my only interest is to recover my wallet, hence the decision to report the case with the school security and school authority. Works Cited Mississippi Department of Education. Mississippi Educator Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct. 2011, 22-29.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Learning Opportunity #2 Title: The Impact of Capital Investments on the Economy: Capital Goods, Capital Stock, and Human Capital. The economy is an integral part of the society that directly and indirectly affects the political as well as the social aspects of life in the society. Analysis of the economy at both micro and macro levels and noting the economic variables such as savings, investments, capital, employment, interest rates that mostly fall in the macroeconomic part as well as the micro-economics branch that notes how the variables of demand and supply interplay and relationship have proved a valuable exercise. It has helped institutions and organization in the businesses, as well as other aspects of society, understand the economic concepts and terms better helping them make informed decisions about the subject at large. It results in better and informed formulation of economic policies at the local and international level as well as the approaches that people can use to enhance them realizing the economic goals and objectives in the short and long-term (Boyes and Melvin, 12). Investment, in particular, is an important part and process in the economy that impacts the economy as a whole directly and indirectly in the short and long-term. Investment defined as the purchase of financial assets that provides benefits to individual and society as a whole such as generation of income. Capital termed as the tangible factors of production and facilities plays a fundamental part of the economic output. Other elements of the economic production such as land, labor, and entrepreneurship equally play an essential role in the economic production that attracts equal interest among scholars and professionals concerned with the economy and its production as a whole. However, this inquiry seeks to establish that through investing savings in capital goods, human capital as well as capital stock, it results in positive economic growth and benefits realized in the short and long-term outcomes in economic growth and development. Thesis: The impacts of capital investment that include human capital, capital goods and capital stock contribute positively to economic growth in the short and long-term leading to other economic benefits in the society. Opening sentence This inquiry seeks to establish that through investing savings in capital goods, human capital, as well as capital stock results in positive economic growth and economic benefits, realized in the short and long-term outcomes in economic growth and development. Three parts 1. How Capital Goods Contribute To Economic Growth and Development Capital goods defined as the tangible assets that an individual or business organization uses to produce the services required in the society at a price or goods consumed by the masses. It is also described as an input that businesses use to produce consumer goods and services as well as other goods used by other businesses. Capital goods include tangible assets, for instance, buildings, vehicles, machinery, tools and equipment that a business organization uses to produce goods and services. Economic growth defined as an increase in market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time, that is, an increase in real Growth Domestic Product (GDP). Buildings, for instance, as capital goods such as malls and shops, for example, encourage investors to start businesses and at the same time bring income to the landlords and partners in the buildings. The buildings such as noted in the above example, hence, stimulates and motivates other engagements in economic activity such as starting of business among others. Businesses play a critical role in the economy such as the creation of employment that in turn helps people get a source of income and opportunities to save as well as profits for the businesses. It also creates an opportunity that the government collects tax and revenue that in turn helps it to run its affairs and businesses such as provisions of services to the people. It includes the development of infrastructure, health care services as well as education programs among other services rendered by the government. The capital goods used by other business to enhance their production activity such as machinery and tools, for example, also contribute positively to economic growth and development. Machinery, for example, that relates closely to the concept of technology in economic production also results in more production engagements and output over time. It not only encourages and motivates business people and entrepreneurs to starts businesses but also increases the output and production that the business makes (Herrerias and Orts, 789). Capital goods more often incorporate the concept of technology where the way and means of production changes resulting in a technology that reduces input costs such as labor and time wastage. Capital goods have encouraged research and development where technology is incorporated into the production of capital goods that would enhance economic growth by improving efficiency and output in economic activities. For example, machinery that uses less power or energy and results in more production would be preferred by the consumers because of the related advantages that such product would offer that include reduced costs of production as well as an increase output and production. The economic benefits and increases because the time used would be less, and the production output would be more resulting in profits that encourage investors and businesses to put up more of the noted products. The cost of production is an important factor in economic activity. It determines the profits that a business makes as well as costs incurred and involved in the production process. Reduced costs of production would imply that more profits and revenue made by the businesses as well as higher taxes and revenues for the government that would mean better services for the people and economic growth. It would also encourage more investors in a place or region that has low costs of production that capital goods play an important role. And, hence, the economy realizes the benefits that come with the influx of investors in an area such as competition that results in lowered costs and products for consumers as well as the creation of employment and jobs for the people. Capital goods also encourage quality products due to the efficiency that results from capital goods and, therefore, it increases the competitiveness of the products and services delivered in the market. It results in more transactions and opportunities for the products and services beyond the local borders to include the international business and economy in particular at this time that the concept of globalization has dominated the world resulting in more and increased opportunities for investors and business people. The expenditure made on the purchase of capital goods also impacts the economy positively. It increases the capital stock that would imply that more production goods exist within a region or country that would ultimately result in more production and output over a given time. The benefit that results from such a move is increased employment opportunities in the economy that signals positive economic growth and production. Capital goods result in higher quality consumer goods that attract superior prices in the market and higher consumer base leading to profits and revenues for the business people and the government. With higher profits, businesses can expand and grow as well through investing in more capital that would enhance and increase the economic growth because of increased profits that entire society benefits wholly. Capital goods also encourage innovation that has in turn increased efficiency in production leading to economic growth and development (Rae-Lee, 14). Innovation has resulted in dynamism regarding the capital products offered and, therefore, it has encouraged economic engagements and production as investors have different tastes and preferences and, as a result, the dynamism and broad options available in the capital goods encourage many people to participate actively in economic production and related activities. The economy in the end benefits and experiences growth as many goods and services are produced that means more people get engaged actively in economic production such as through jobs and employment created and the profits that they generate. The government also get revenue through taxation from the process that enables it to provide services to the citizens that include the provision of more capital such as infrastructure. For example, roads that enhances easy movements of people and goods from one place to the other resulting in more economic activities that create economic growth and development. Capital goods, hence, contributes positively to economic growth and development by creating employment, motivating and encouraging investors and entrepreneurs to start businesses. Also, it increases innovation, providing revenue to the government through taxation processes and the creation of more capital goods resulting in more capital stock. The increased capital stock leads to increased output and production as well as increased efficiency and quality of products and services presented in the market. All the above factors result in a synergy that leads to economic growth and development realized in the short and long-term results from capital goods. 2. How Capital Stocks Affects and Contribute To Economic Growth and Development Capital stock entails the number of capital goods in an economy. Economies that have a higher number of capital stocks and those that work towards increasing the number of stocks show faster economic growth as many people get engaged in economic activities as well as increase the economic productivity and output over time. Scholars and economists encourage an increase in capital stock and record an inventory of the capital stock. The capital stock should increase in different sectors of the economy to enhance diversity in production and impact positively on the different sectors of the economy that include the agricultural sectors, transport sector, and manufacturing sectors among others. It is also encouraged by economic scholars to increase the number of capital stock in the sectors in the economy that results in high returns and output in the economic development and progress. The increase should rise quantitatively across all the sectors of the economy. However, increasing stock in areas that have high returns would imply faster economic growth and development as high levels of production and output would be realized over a given time and results in efficiency because of the maximization of opportunities available in the economy (Faggian et al., 1004). More economic benefits would result when capital stock is increased such as employment and jobs creation as well as increased production and output that in turn also contribute positively to economic growth through economic related activities and profits such as expanded markets and increased purchasing power among the public. The government, as well as people that have to say in the economy or region, should encourage incentives that can result in increased capital stock. Such as reduced taxes and subsidized capital goods to encourage investors to increase the number of capital stock and, hence, allow the economy benefit from the resulted benefits in a high number of capital stocks such as rapid economic growth and development due to massive production and output over a given short period. Economists encourage an analysis of capital stock through research as well as the production and output of the capital stock in each sector of the economy to allow strategic distribution and employment of capital stock in the different sectors of the economy. It results in high output and production that directly increases economic growth and development. The increase in capital stock, thus, should be done strategically to enable faster and effective economic production to realize the benefits in the short and long-term that leads to economic growth and development. Reduced or limited capital stock also results in stunted or low economic productivity that limits the realization of full potential in the economic activities of a region or place over time. An economy that does not intend to increase its capital stocks has high chance that it will not realize the same economic benefits as one that intends to increase its capital stock and, therefore, the two economies would experience different economic growth regarding level. An increase of capital stock enhances the realization of the full economic potential of an economy and related benefits such as increased output and production that contributes positively and directly to economic growth and development. A thorough analysis and review of an economy help to determine the economic areas positively that an increase in capital stock is required and also the level of increase required in that particular area to enhance the chances of that economy realizing its full potential in the short and long- term. A capital stock that is concerned with the volume and quantity of capital goods available in an economy, thus, directly and indirectly, contributes to the economic growth and development by either reducing or limiting economic growth and also determines the efficiency of economic output and production with time. 3. How Human Capital Contribute To Economic Growth and Development. Labor is an important part and parcel of the production process. Capital goods, as well as the capital stock, will not help an economy grow and realize its full potential when human capital is not incorporated in the production process. Human capital defined as a measure of competencies, skills and other attributes that individual or group acquire during their life utilized in the production of goods, services or ideas that impact on the economy. The acquisition of skills, knowledge, and abilities of individual workers is an important process that contributes positively to economic growth and development. Human capital goes beyond creativity and innovation that play an essential role in the economic production process to include effective utilization of the capital goods and capital stock to results in economic growth and production (Yi, Jeong, and Hong, 24). After investors have acquired capital good and increased capital stock, they require a skilled workforce to use the capital goods purchased economically and productively to ensure that desired economic output and production is realized effectively. They, therefore, resort to giving people the job opportunities available that have skills and competencies required to turn the capital stocks and capital goods into the production of products and services. Human capital applies mostly to skilled labor production where the employees or workers need to have a certain level of skills and competencies to convert capital goods into positive economic output and activities. For instance, an investor in the airline industry would require skilled and competent pilots to enhance the production of air services and transport in the economy. The economic activity, thus, would need human capital to turn the capital stocks and capital goods into positive economic production that would lead to economic growth and development. An economy that has an increased human capital results in more productive activities and therefore faster economic growth and development as opposed to one that has low human capital. It is, thus, essential for economies to train their workforce in skills and competencies that would make them productively active and competent to serve and sell their skills even beyond the local economies and also compete internationally. A qualified and skilled workforce would also enhance faster and effective utilization of capital goods and effective deployment of capital stock in areas that would result in high economic efficiency and economic production (Greiner, 372). Human capital also avoids or reduces economic waste and production by ensuring that economic production continues sustainably leading to faster economic growth and development. When the acquired capital stock and capital goods cannot be used effectively in economic output as a result of lack of skilled and competent workforce, it would result in losses that would reduce the economic growth of an economy or area. Innovation and creativity from the human capital have resulted in highly skilled and creative workers that some have opted for self-employment and consultancy that produce in more economic output and high income for such category of human capital. The innovation and creativity have also led to inventions of machines with high economic output and production that has made some rendered unskilled workforce and manual workforce economically unproductive leading to structural unemployment. Human capital has also encouraged economic growth and development in areas that have fewer raw materials for production purposes. They add high skills and innovation increasing value to the products and services they offer resulting in more output and economic production (Faggian et al., 1000). The present economic demands have traversed local borders to include regional and international boundaries due to the globalization concept. The human capital flight that has increased in the current times where people with skills and competencies highly demanded in some parts of the world have been compelled to move and explore on their potential fully. It has increased economic production and growth in such areas, but at times it has also led to slower economic growth and development and in particular in developing countries where skilled workers have moved from low economic areas to high economic areas resulting in loss of best human capital. The best human capital can be lost resulting in slower economic growth and development. Human capital in an economy can be increased by some options and strategies available such as enhanced specialization and division of labor concerning production, quality and comprehensive education in the society. Also, vocational training, increased competitiveness in an economy as well as the provision of a climate in which creativity and innovation are supported in the educational approaches used. Conclusion This inquiry has sought to ascertain that through investing in capital, particularly in capital goods, human capital as well as capital stock from the savings made by players in the economy, it provides a synergy concerning output that leads to positive economic growth and development. Capital goods stimulate economic production, encourage research and development, and encourage investors and entrepreneurs to start businesses and help governments to collect tax and revenues. Moreover, it promotes innovation and also results in high-quality goods among other benefits that result in positive economic growth. The capital stock also contributes positively to economic growth and production when the volume of the capital stock is increased. It also encourages diversity in production, enhances the realization of full economic potential and innovation and creativity in the different sectors of the economy that in turn results in high economic production and output leading to economic growth and development. However, when capital stock is limited, it also results in stunted economic growth and development as well as low economic productivity. Finally, human capital also, directly and indirectly, contributes to economic growth and development. It develops creativity and innovation in the production process, increased human capital results in more productive activities, enhance faster and effective utilization of capital goods and reduces economic waste and production. It encourages economic growth and development in areas that have fewer raw materials and also contributes to the concept of human capital flight that might have adverse economic effects when people lose their best human capital to developing economies. Capital investments in the economy, thus, directly and indirectly, contribute to economic growth and development. Works Cited Boyes, William and Michael Melvin. Fundamentals of Economics. Cengage Learning, 2011. Internet resource. Faggian, Alessandra, et al. “Creating an Environment for Economic Growth: Creativity, Entrepreneurship or Human Capital?” International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, vol. 41, no. 6, Nov. 2017, pp. 997–1009. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12555. Greiner, Alfred. “Human Capital Formation and Public Debt: Growth and Welfare Effects of Three Different Deficit Policies.” Journal of Economic Policy Reform, vol. 19, no. 4, Dec. 2016, pp. 369–385. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17487870.2015.1128834. Herrerias, M. J., and Vicente Orts. “Capital Goods Imports and Long-Run Growth: Is the Chinese Experience Relevant to Developing Countries?” Journal of Policy Modeling, vol. 35, no. 5, Sept. 2013, pp. 781–797. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2013.02.006 Rae-Lee, Kong. The Source of Capital Goods Innovation: The Role of User Firms in Japan and Korea. Routledge, 2014.Print Yi, Chu-ho, Hyeok Jeong, and Seong-Chang Hong. Human Capital and Development: Lessons and Insights from Korea's Transformation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018. Internet resource.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: The Impact of Capital Investments on the Economy: Capital Goods, Capital Stock and Human Capital. The economy is an integral part of the society that directly and indirectly affects the political as well as the social aspects of life in the society. Analysis of the economy at both micro and macro levels and noting the economic variables such as savings, investments, capital, employment, interest rates that mostly fall in the macroeconomic part as well as the micro-economics branch that notes how the variables of demand and supply interplay and relationship have proved a valuable exercise. It has helped institutions and organization in the businesses, as well as other aspects of society, understand the economic concepts and terms better helping them make informed decisions about the subject at large. It results in better and informed formulation of economic policies at the local and international level as well as the approaches that people can use to enhance them realizing the economic goals and objectives in the short and long-term (Boyes and Melvin, 12). Investment, in particular, is an important part and process in the economy that impacts the economy as a whole directly and indirectly in the short and long-term. Investment defined as the purchase of financial assets that provides benefits to individual and society as a whole such as generation of income. Capital termed as the tangible factors of production and facilities plays a fundamental part of the economic output. Other elements of the economic production such as land, labor, and entrepreneurship equally play an essential role in the economic production that attracts equal interest among scholars and professionals concerned with the economy and its production as a whole. However, this inquiry seeks to establish that through investing savings in capital goods, human capital as well as capital stock, it results in positive economic growth and benefits realized in the short and long-term outcomes in economic growth and development. 1. How Capital Goods Contribute To Economic Growth and Development Capital goods defined as the tangible assets that an individual or business organization uses to produce the services required in the society at a price or goods consumed by the masses. It is also described as an input that businesses use to produce consumer goods and services as well as other goods used by other businesses. Capital goods include tangible assets, for instance, buildings, vehicles, machinery, tools and equipment that a business organization uses to produce goods and services. Economic growth defined as an increase in market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time, that is, an increase in real Growth Domestic Product (GDP). Buildings, for instance, as capital goods such as malls and shops, for example, encourage investors to start businesses and at the same time bring income to the landlords and partners in the buildings. The buildings such as noted in the above example, hence, stimulates and motivates other engagements in economic activity such as starting of business among others. Businesses play a critical role in the economy such as the creation of employment that in turn helps people get a source of income and opportunities to save as well as profits for the businesses. It also creates an opportunity that the government collects tax and revenue that in turn helps it to run its affairs and businesses such as provisions of services to the people. It includes the development of infrastructure, health care services as well as education programs among other services rendered by the government. The capital goods used by other business to enhance their production activity such as machinery and tools, for example, also contribute positively to economic growth and development. Machinery, for example, that relates closely to the concept of technology in economic production also results in more production engagements and output over time. It not only encourages and motivates business people and entrepreneurs to starts businesses but also increases the output and production that the business makes (Herrerias and Orts, 789). Capital goods more often incorporate the concept of technology where the way and means of production changes resulting in a technology that reduces input costs such as labor and time wastage. Capital goods have encouraged research and development where technology is incorporated into the production of capital goods that would enhance economic growth by improving efficiency and output in economic activities. For example, machinery that uses less power or energy and results in more production would be preferred by the consumers because of the related advantages that such product would offer that include reduced costs of production as well as an increase output and production. The economic benefits and increases because the time used would be less, and the production output would be more resulting in profits that encourage investors and businesses to put up more of the noted products. The cost of production is an important factor in economic activity. It determines the profits that a business makes as well as costs incurred and involved in the production process. Reduced costs of production would imply that more profits and revenue made by the businesses as well as higher taxes and revenues for the government that would mean better services for the people and economic growth. It would also encourage more investors in a place or region that has low costs of production that capital goods play an important role. And, hence, the economy realizes the benefits that come with the influx of investors in an area such as competition that results in lowered costs and products for consumers as well as the creation of employment and jobs for the people. Capital goods also encourage quality products due to the efficiency that results from capital goods and, therefore, it increases the competitiveness of the products and services delivered in the market. It results in more transactions and opportunities for the products and services beyond the local borders to include the international business and economy in particular at this time that the concept of globalization has dominated the world resulting in more and increased opportunities for investors and business people. The expenditure made on the purchase of capital goods also impacts the economy positively. It increases the capital stock that would imply that more production goods exist within a region or country that would ultimately result in more production and output over a given time. The benefit that results from such a move is increased employment opportunities in the economy that signals positive economic growth and production. Capital goods result in higher quality consumer goods that attract superior prices in the market and higher consumer base leading to profits and revenues for the business people and the government. With higher profits, businesses can expand and grow as well through investing in more capital that would enhance and increase the economic growth because of increased profits that entire society benefits wholly. Capital goods also encourage innovation that has in turn increased efficiency in production leading to economic growth and development (Rae-Lee, 14). Innovation has resulted in dynamism regarding the capital products offered and, therefore, it has encouraged economic engagements and production as investors have different tastes and preferences and, as a result, the dynamism and broad options available in the capital goods encourage many people to participate actively in economic production and related activities. The economy in the end benefits and experiences growth as many goods and services are produced that means more people get engaged actively in economic production such as through jobs and employment created and the profits that they generate. The government also get revenue through taxation from the process that enables it to provide services to the citizens that include the provision of more capital such as infrastructure. For example, roads that enhances easy movements of people and goods from one place to the other resulting in more economic activities that create economic growth and development. Capital goods, hence, contributes positively to economic growth and development by creating employment, motivating and encouraging investors and entrepreneurs to start businesses. Also, it increases innovation, providing revenue to the government through taxation processes and the creation of more capital goods resulting in more capital stock. The increased capital stock leads to increased output and production as well as increased efficiency and quality of products and services presented in the market. All the above factors result in a synergy that leads to economic growth and development realized in the short and long-term results from capital goods. 2. How Capital Stocks Affects and Contribute To Economic Growth and Development Capital stock entails the number of capital goods in an economy. Economies that have a higher number of capital stocks and those that work towards increasing the number of stocks show faster economic growth as many people get engaged in economic activities as well as increase the economic productivity and output over time. Scholars and economists encourage an increase in capital stock and record an inventory of the capital stock. The capital stock should increase in different sectors of the economy to enhance diversity in production and impact positively on the different sectors of the economy that include the agricultural sectors, transport sector, and manufacturing sectors among others. It is also encouraged by economic scholars to increase the number of capital stock in the sectors in the economy that results in high returns and output in the economic development and progress. The increase should rise quantitatively across all the sectors of the economy. However, increasing stock in areas that have high returns would imply faster economic growth and development as high levels of production and output would be realized over a given time and results in efficiency because of the maximization of opportunities available in the economy (Faggian et al., 1004). More economic benefits would result when capital stock is increased such as employment and jobs creation as well as increased production and output that in turn also contribute positively to economic growth through economic related activities and profits such as expanded markets and increased purchasing power among the public. The government, as well as people that have to say in the economy or region, should encourage incentives that can result in increased capital stock. Such as reduced taxes and subsidized capital goods to encourage investors to increase the number of capital stock and, hence, allow the economy benefit from the resulted benefits in a high number of capital stocks such as rapid economic growth and development due to massive production and output over a given short period. Economists encourage an analysis of capital stock through research as well as the production and output of the capital stock in each sector of the economy to allow strategic distribution and employment of capital stock in the different sectors of the economy. It results in high output and production that directly increases economic growth and development. The increase in capital stock, thus, should be done strategically to enable faster and effective economic production to realize the benefits in the short and long-term that leads to economic growth and development. Reduced or limited capital stock also results in stunted or low economic productivity that limits the realization of full potential in the economic activities of a region or place over time. An economy that does not intend to increase its capital stocks has high chance that it will not realize the same economic benefits as one that intends to increase its capital stock and, therefore, the two economies would experience different economic growth regarding level. An increase of capital stock enhances the realization of the full economic potential of an economy and related benefits such as increased output and production that contributes positively and directly to economic growth and development. A thorough analysis and review of an economy help to determine the economic areas positively that an increase in capital stock is required and also the level of increase required in that particular area to enhance the chances of that economy realizing its full potential in the short and long- term. A capital stock that is concerned with the volume and quantity of capital goods available in an economy, thus, directly and indirectly, contributes to the economic growth and development by either reducing or limiting economic growth and also determines the efficiency of economic output and production with time. 3. How Human Capital Contribute To Economic Growth and Development. Labor is an important part and parcel of the production process. Capital goods, as well as the capital stock, will not help an economy grow and realize its full potential when human capital is not incorporated in the production process. Human capital defined as a measure of competencies, skills and other attributes that individual or group acquire during their life utilized in the production of goods, services or ideas that impact on the economy. The acquisition of skills, knowledge, and abilities of individual workers is an important process that contributes positively to economic growth and development. Human capital goes beyond creativity and innovation that play an essential role in the economic production process to include effective utilization of the capital goods and capital stock to results in economic growth and production (Yi, Jeong, and Hong, 24). After investors have acquired capital good and increased capital stock, they require a skilled workforce to use the capital goods purchased economically and productively to ensure that desired economic output and production is realized effectively. They, therefore, resort to giving people the job opportunities available that have skills and competencies required to turn the capital stocks and capital goods into the production of products and services. Human capital applies mostly to skilled labor production where the employees or workers need to have a certain level of skills and competencies to convert capital goods into positive economic output and activities. For instance, an investor in the airline industry would require skilled and competent pilots to enhance the production of air services and transport in the economy. The economic activity, thus, would need human capital to turn the capital stocks and capital goods into positive economic production that would lead to economic growth and development. An economy that has an increased human capital results in more productive activities and therefore faster economic growth and development as opposed to one that has low human capital. It is, thus, essential for economies to train their workforce in skills and competencies that would make them productively active and competent to serve and sell their skills even beyond the local economies and also compete internationally. A qualified and skilled workforce would also enhance faster and effective utilization of capital goods and effective deployment of capital stock in areas that would result in high economic efficiency and economic production (Greiner, 372). Human capital also avoids or reduces economic waste and production by ensuring that economic production continues sustainably leading to faster economic growth and development. When the acquired capital stock and capital goods cannot be used effectively in economic output as a result of lack of skilled and competent workforce, it would result in losses that would reduce the economic growth of an economy or area. Innovation and creativity from the human capital have resulted in highly skilled and creative workers that some have opted for self-employment and consultancy that produce in more economic output and high income for such category of human capital. The innovation and creativity have also led to inventions of machines with high economic output and production that has made some rendered unskilled workforce and manual workforce economically unproductive leading to structural unemployment. Human capital has also encouraged economic growth and development in areas that have fewer raw materials for production purposes. They add high skills and innovation increasing value to the products and services they offer resulting in more output and economic production (Faggian et al., 1000). The present economic demands have traversed local borders to include regional and international boundaries due to the globalization concept. The human capital flight that has increased in the current times where people with skills and competencies highly demanded in some parts of the world have been compelled to move and explore on their potential fully. It has increased economic production and growth in such areas, but at times it has also led to slower economic growth and development and in particular in developing countries where skilled workers have moved from low economic areas to high economic areas resulting in loss of best human capital. The best human capital can be lost resulting in slower economic growth and development. Human capital in an economy can be increased by some options and strategies available such as enhanced specialization and division of labor concerning production, quality and comprehensive education in the society. Also, vocational training, increased competitiveness in an economy as well as the provision of a climate in which creativity and innovation are supported in the educational approaches used. This inquiry has sought to ascertain that through investing in capital, particularly in capital goods, human capital as well as capital stock from the savings made by players in the economy, it provides a synergy concerning output that leads to positive economic growth and development. Capital goods stimulate economic production, encourage research and development, and encourage investors and entrepreneurs to start businesses and help governments to collect tax and revenues. Moreover, it promotes innovation and also results in high-quality goods among other benefits that result in positive economic growth. The capital stock also contributes positively to economic growth and production when the volume of the capital stock is increased. It also encourages diversity in production, enhances the realization of full economic potential and innovation and creativity in the different sectors of the economy that in turn results in high economic production and output leading to economic growth and development. However, when capital stock is limited, it also results in stunted economic growth and development as well as low economic productivity. Finally, human capital also, directly and indirectly, contributes to economic growth and development. It develops creativity and innovation in the production process, increased human capital results in more productive activities, enhance faster and effective utilization of capital goods and reduces economic waste and production. It encourages economic growth and development in areas that have fewer raw materials and also contributes to the concept of human capital flight that might have adverse economic effects when people lose their best human capital to developing economies. Capital investments in the economy, thus, directly and indirectly, contribute to economic growth and development. Works Cited Boyes, William and Michael Melvin. Fundamentals of Economics. Cengage Learning, 2011. Internet resource. Faggian, Alessandra, et al. “Creating an Environment for Economic Growth: Creativity, Entrepreneurship or Human Capital?” International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, vol. 41, no. 6, Nov. 2017, pp. 997–1009. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12555. Greiner, Alfred. “Human Capital Formation and Public Debt: Growth and Welfare Effects of Three Different Deficit Policies.” Journal of Economic Policy Reform, vol. 19, no. 4, Dec. 2016, pp. 369–385. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17487870.2015.1128834. Herrerias, M. J., and Vicente Orts. “Capital Goods Imports and Long-Run Growth: Is the Chinese Experience Relevant to Developing Countries?” Journal of Policy Modeling, vol. 35, no. 5, Sept. 2013, pp. 781–797. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2013.02.006 Rae-Lee, Kong. The Source of Capital Goods Innovation: The Role of User Firms in Japan and Korea. Routledge, 2014.Print Yi, Chu-ho, Hyeok Jeong, and Seong-Chang Hong. Human Capital and Development: Lessons and Insights from Korea's Transformation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018. Internet resource.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses and Leadership Traits Name of Student Name of Institution Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses and Leadership Traits Q1. Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses As a leader of an organization or department, it is important to identify the strengths of the team members to leverage on them to help in contributing to attainment of organizational goals. It is also essential to identify their weaknesses to find ways of addressing them thus minimizing their adverse impact on organizational performance (Sadler, 2013). There are several ways to identify their strengths and weaknesses, including performing employee assessments, listening and watching them objectively, and examining their social profiles among others (Byrne, 2014). Performing employee assessments helps to identify the strong and weak abilities and skills of employees such as flexibility, interpersonal skills, hard work ethic, ambition, industry-specific knowledge and skills, and persuasiveness among others. Listening and watching them objectively is critical in discovering their true potential and look beyond their appearances to find out their underlying strengths and weaknesses (Armstrong & Industrial Society, 2012). Examining their social profiles provides insights into their dislikes and likes, interests, and behaviors thereby aiding in understanding their strengths and weaknesses (Byrne, 2014). Q2. Leadership Traits The leadership style adopted by a leader and his team are integral in determining their performance and ability to meet set goals and objectives (Gill, 2011). The various traits that depict a strong leader include positive attitude, collaboration and cooperation, commitment and passion, integrity, innovation and creativity, and strong communication and interpersonal skills (Roe, 2017). The traits depicting a less effective leader include poor integrity, little or unclear vision for the future, poor interpersonal and communication skills, lack of adaptability, and lack of accountability (Northouse, 2013). The traits that I do recognize in my own leadership style include excellent communication and interpersonal skills, strong integrity, teamwork and collaboration, and creativity and innovation. The good leadership traits notwithstanding, there are traits that I need to develop further including adaptability and positive attitude. Enhancing these traits will make me a better leader as it will help to address some of my leadership weaknesses.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Leadership Profile Name of Student Name of University Q-1 Leadership Profile In order for one to lead, they need a personal philosophy of leadership as it empowers one to have a basis upon which their leadership values are anchored upon (Lexa, 2016). It helps a leader to not only operate from a position of own strength but also boosts their performance in terms of motivating, inspiring and bringing out the best in his team (Jooste, 2013). It is against this understanding that I begin to develop a personal philosophy of leadership to guide me in my current and future careers in health care and public health. My philosophy is premised on transformational leadership theory which I believe significantly aligns with my thoughts on leadership. This theory calls for a kind of leadership approach that results in continuous positive change in social systems and in followers (Ledlow & Stephens, 2018). My personal philosophy on leadership takes into consideration my strength as a visionary leader and my weakness of being impatient with poor results. Based on this knowledge, I seek to be a transformational leader of pursuing excellence in health care settings without losing patience or consistency. I will strive to maintain a great focus on motivating my team to deliver quality health care and patient outcomes. I will hold my team members and myself accountable for their performance to make sure that there is no additional burden from lack of teamwork. Q-2: Diversity and Inclusion Diversity is increasingly becoming a major issue in health care not just at the global level but also at the regional, national, and local levels. This trend is attributed to a number of factors including immigration and multiculturalism among others (Martin et al, 2015). Therefore, health care systems, organizations, and professionals need to focus on offering their services to address the diversity of their patient populations. One of the major issues relate to the health care access for diverse populations (Rose, 2017). This diversity issue may affect how people of diverse race, age, socio-economic status, gender, and ethnicity obtain health care within a health care setting. This situation may be because of inadequate resources and lack of cultural awareness among others. Effective health care leadership skills are necessary to address such a situation (Martin et al, 2015). For example, it is important for a health care leader to have resource mobilization skills to help in enhancing care access for diverse patient population. They also need skills in community health needs assessments, cultural competence, and coordination skills with government and non-governmental agencies to enhance access among other skills.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Leadership Models Name of Student Name of Institution Abstract Nurses or other healthcare professionals often find themselves in positions of leadership, where they are expected to offer direction and guidance and colleagues to ensure efficient and effective delivery of quality care. As a nurse or healthcare leader, one has to apply various leadership models to realize the optimum input from their subordinates and ensure desireb healthcare outcomes for patients. This requires one to undertake a personal leadership assessment, based on their varied personalities and strengths to identify the leadership approaches that best suit them. In addition, nurse/healthcare leaders should exercise flexibility to exercise leadership approaches that suit the various scenarios. This paper discusses transformational leadership model in comparison with the servant leadership, transactional and laisses-fare leadership approaches, based on my personal leadership assessment to establish the model the best applies to me. The paper will also look at the concept of organization change and transformational leadership. Leadership Models in Healthcare Part 1 Leadership is an essential element in the nursing career due to the role it plays in enabling one to guide an assigned workforce and allocate the available resources within a healthcare establishment efficiently. The leadership models and traits manifest differently depending on the personal preferences and traits of the leader and on the circumstances that the leader faces. They may also differ depending on organizational culture and the unique features of various industries. From an assessment of my personal leadership traits, I realized that my personal leadership model is more inclined towards the transformational leadership style. The analysis indicates that the personal leadership I possess is 77 points out of 80 points of the transformational leadership. The four elements that indicate that the personal leadership is the transformational leadership are idealized influence at 19 points, inspirational motivation at 19 points, intellectual stimulation at 19 points, and individual consideration at 20 points. The transformational leadership style will be instrumental in my future career as a doctorate nurse. I will apply transformational leadership model to encourage participatory approach to delivering quality care amongst my colleagues and subordinates as well as the line managers. As a transformational leader, I will promote a culture where personnel share in ideas and jointly deliberate on solutions applicable in resolving emerging challenges (Smith, 2011). This approach will be crucial in influencing and motivating the employees of the healthcare organization positively towards engaging in activities and ideas that have potential of enhancing service delivery and the growth of the organization. A transformational approach to leadership will also enable me to create a culture of creativity and innovation amongst the subordinates by always empowering them to explore new ideas (Humphries, 2005). The other leadership model that will work ion complementarity with my transformational leadership style is the servant leadership model. Like a transformational leader, a servant leader is more open to sharing the power, developing the employees, and attending to the welfare of the subordinates promptly (Smith, 2011). Moreover, the participatory and inclusivity approaches advocated for under transformational leadership means that the leader is interested in serving the people to grow and realize the organization’s objectives over personal interests (Humphries, 2005). Transformational leaders are servant leaders because they focus on leading by example and motivating the subordinates to realize their optimum potential, which translates a collective organizational success. Other leadership styles possessed by leaders of modern organizational leaders are transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles (Humphries, 2005). The transactional leadership style entails a leadership approach that emphasizes rewarding the employees for performing adequately or exceptionally with the intention of motivating the workforce to improve their performance in the future (George, 2005). Moreover, the transactional leadership style pays little attention to the team members or changes on the working methods provided the performance goals are been realized. It is a “the end justifies the means” approach to leadership. As such, a transactional leader intervenes only if something goes wrong or the organization fails to realize it envisioned targets. A transactional leader unlike a servant leader takes a passive leading role, letting the subordinates to be guided by strict performance targets. The laissez-faire leadership style also, is characterized by the approach of letting the team members to carry out their roles and resolve emerging problems or challenges with minimal control and guidance from the organizational leader. The laissez-faire leadership model differs significantly from transformational or servant leadership approaches because the leader exercises a free hand in managing employees as opposed to the exemplary or service (George, 2005). The transactional or laissez-fare approaches are not effective in a healthcare setting because a nurse leader for instance needs to be hands-on by participating fully in activities aimed at delivering quality care to the patients. At times, the nurse leader is the more experienced or better skilled professional relied on by the subordinates to provide guidance on best-practice approaches to delivering quality care. Implementing the transformational leadership model requires the adoption of an inclusive and participatory culture amongst the employees of an organization (Yaslioglu & SelenayErden, 2018). A transformational leader should often involve their team members in exploring the requisite ideas and strategies to realize the set organizational objectives. The leader then offers the guidance and motivation to the subordinates to help them realize individual and organizational success. This core feature of transformational leadership model aligns with my personal leadership approach of encouraging and influencing my team members towards a collective organizational success. In contrast, the transactional leadership style thrives on establishing reward and punishment mechanisms to the team members to influence performance and commitment from the team (George, 2005). I share in the transactional leadership element of encouraging the team members towards improving their performance. However, it differs relatively from my personal leadership model on the aspect of using various forms of punishment influence employees’ behavior among employees or compelling the employees to realize desired results.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Leadership Management Profile Assignment Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Leadership Management Profile Assignment Functions and Skills Required of Management Key functions required of management include controlling, leading, organizing, and planning (King & Lawley, 2016). There is a broad range of skills required of management within an organization. Some of these skills include leadership skills, problem solving skills, conflict resolution skills, communication skills, analytical skills, critical thinking skills, multicultural skills, team-building skills, and direct and indirect relationship skills (King & Lawley, 2016). Other skills encompass interpersonal skills, delegation skills, conceptual skills, time management skills, and technical skills. Leadership Approaches Some scholars perceive leadership as an amorphous concept. In other words, the meaning and form of leadership is reliant on on its context. In spite of the contested and amorphous nature of leadership concept, the idea of leadership, according to O’Reilly et al. (2013) invariably involves some process or mode of relational direct finding or direct giving. Some scholars such as King and Lawley (2016), including Yukl (2009) define leadership as the process of influencing others with the aim of agreeing and understanding regarding what needs to be done, including how to do it, including the process of facilitating and promoting collective and individual effort to attain shared goals and objectives (direct-finding) ( O’Reilly, 2015). However, other scholars define leadership in terms of asymmetric influence process, whether it is via initiative, meaning-management or arousing motivation (direct giving). According to Realin (2013) is of the opinion that leadership involves seeking collaboration, and asking inquiry or questions. Scholars have proposed numerous leadership approaches that can assist leaders to deal with various situations. Some of these leadership approaches encompass transformation and transactional styles of leadership. Transformational and transactional styles allow leaders to impart positive influence on the behaviors of employees and the values they depict at work. However, toxic leadership and autocratic leadership often hinder the success of internal branding within an organization. This is due to the unwillingness of ineffective leaders to include employees in the process of adopting and implementing desired change within organizational settings. One of the leadership theories can be adopted by leaders is servant leadership theory coined by Greenleaf (1977), which is cited in Wallace (2007). As argued by Greenleaf (1977), greatest and effective leaders are servant to others. In other words, greatest leaders provide service to other people. Great leaders, according to Greenleaf (1977) emerge from individuals who are motivated and dedicated to serve and help other people. The theory of servant leadership is deeply rooted in the Bible. Jesus Christ demonstrated servant leadership by serving and assisting other people. Greenleaf (1977) is of the opinion that an individual must first be a servant before becoming a leader. The terms leader and servant are combined together to create the concept of servant leadership. Attributes of servant leadership, according to Greenleaf (1977) encompass stewardship, healing, committed to serving and caring other people, listening to other people’s concerns, persuasion, empathy and building people and community. Other characteristics closely associated with servant leadership encompass awareness, foresight, and being compassionate. The theory of servant leadership is applicable in the hospitality and tourism industry in times of crisis. Leaders in the hospitality and tourism industry are like servant to others. In other words, leaders are committed and dedicated in assisting the sick and ensuring that they are provided with safe and quality care. Additionally, they facilitate the healing of the crisis and actively involved in building people and the community at large. Weber’s theory of bureaucratic management had the aim of structuring the organization and having rules to guide the organization in the management process (iedunote, 2017). King and Lawley (2016) define bureaucracy as the official method of governance that involves defined structures and procedures to aid management control, while doing away with one on one management style. Organizations need the rational style of management in order to be orderly and avoid conflicts. Weber suggested six principles to make the bureaucratic management style efficient. The first principle is division of labor that is done appropriately. Management should differentiate between power and assigning responsibility without bias. Notably, work should be assigned constantly according to employee skills and specialization. The second principle as defined by Weber is an efficient chain of command that provides a clear connection between decision-making information and work in a top to bottom manner. Rules that are clear and consistent should be applied to everyone in the organization equally.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Law Memorandum Name Institution Affiliation Law Memorandum To: Legal Department Supervisor (Howell, LLC). From: Legal Department Intern Subject: Memo of the Lawsuits. I. Memo Introduction Howell, LLC legal company in the noted case has a legal advantage and competitive edge. It is from the analysis of the case or legal claims by Howell Company as well as the defense against the legal claims presented by the different entities. They include the competitors (Triumph) as well as the former employee (Jennifer Lawson) that has also launched counter-sues for fraudulent inducement among others legal variables noted in the case. The strengths of the Howell, LLC legal is that it is backed by evidence and documents that the accused signed. They indicate that they understood the legal terms and conditions that they engaged in the entire process from the recruitment and hiring process to the process of firing the employee. Moreover, the legal obligation that the third party in the noted case that includes the Triumph company ought to have known and legal implications that they had before making the decision of hiring an employee. The Howell Company also followed the due process of hiring including following the procedures and rules. For example, interviews process as well as the signing of the contract before commencement of the employment and the disclosure of the information that she had about the competitor’s “ever-Gold” process that was given voluntarily. The employee also initiated and signed the contract after reading them that indicated that she agreed voluntarily and willingly to the said terms and conditions that were presented before the offer was finally given to her. Furthermore, the Howell company decision of firing the employee after a week was not based on the initially signed and agreed terms and conditions before the employment offer but was based on her chronic tardiness a behavior that she had made habitual from analysis of her past employment record. The company (Howell) in fact gave her an opportunity to improve and rectify her initial challenges of reporting to work late but she failed to show any changes a situation that cost her job. Triumph Company also ought to have known that the employee was subject to a covenant and they should have inquired about the employee in her previous employment rather than assume or ignore and, hence, they are bound by its provision as it is their responsibility and mandate to make such inquiries before hiring the employee. The liability, thus, lies on their side as Howell Company had taken that initiative and ensured that the employee signed such agreements that meant that she either had the obligation to inform them or the company to make an inquiry independently. The defense on the counter-sues of Howell company for fraudulent inducement also lacks enough evidence as it was the employee who first contacted Howell company and made the first initiative and move. The information that was given to the company was voluntarily and, therefore, a strong defense has to be put up by the legal team through analysis of the weaknesses in the accusation by the concerned parties. The noted described factors make Howell Company have stronger legal claims backed by evidence and law as well as help it put up a stronger legal defense against the accusations presented by the parties involved in the lawsuits. II. Client’s Case A. Facts and Laws Employee discrimination or unlawful termination according to the Howell Company happens in dynamic and different context. Employee discrimination according to the company might happen or considered to have happened when the employee has been deprived an opportunity, for instance, in promotion to a higher rank. For example, when they have clearly and objectively met all the set terms and conditions in the process that more often than not according to the company happens through a competitive process that is verified by a team chosen by the company. Anti-discrimination policies and rules have been set by the company that discourage discriminatory acts and decision in the workplace based on gender, religious groups, political affiliation, and race or even marital status among others as noted in Robinson, (2013) piece. Employment, moreover, according to Howell Company is done purely on merit and competitiveness. It has formulated strict policies and regulations that the human resource department strictly follows in the process of recruitment and hiring of employees that eliminates all forms of employment discrimination. Unlawful termination, on the other hand, according to the company is also clearly elaborated and stated. The company has put up measures that the human resource department of the company must use and justify before they reach termination decision of any employee. They have to present evidence and facts that clearly show the employee is not capable of rectifying certain behavior that contrasts the professionalism, terms and condition of work as well as breach of contracts signed by employees. Fields and Cheeseman (2017) notes that a report has to be presented to the management that explains all the decisions reached and justification for such actions. Unlawful termination, thus, according to Howell company only happens when there is no justification and evidence against the claims or unprofessionalism that the employee or concerned subject has done. Contract issues according to the Howell Company contain or have to address all the concerns and interest of the company in the short and long-term period. The contract policies and regulations that have been well designed and formulated by the company legal team address the employee expectations’ and responsibility. It is at both senior and junior levels as well as the company suppliers among other business stakeholders that trade or transact with the company. The contract the employee's signs and initials must be well documented and presented where a copy has to be filed by the human resource and legal department in the employee's file and every employee must also have a copy of the contract. The company also notes and allows employee not satisfied with the terms and conditions in the contracts as stated not to sign if they feel uncomfortable with part of the contract or the entire contract and the company cannot compel them to sign any contract. It also notes and clearly does not allow any employee to work without contract and failure or refusal to sign a contract according to the company would imply that the employee has formally disengaged with the company. If an employee or stakeholder feels uncomfortable with contractual terms and conditions, the company allows them time to review the terms further and also discuss with their attorneys if they wish or feels so before they make a decision. The facts presented above relating to Howell contractual perspective would help in building its defense and claims in the lawsuits that the company has as noted in the cases. The operative employment and contract laws that apply to Howell’s company case include the Noncompetitive agreement, termination agreements, ownership of invention agreements as well as confidentiality agreements. The noncompetitive agreements clause in the employment and contracts notes the actions of the employee after termination of their working relationship with the company not to engage with competitors or similar business for a certain period of time (Filipp, 2017). The operative clause applies in the noted case as presented by Howell Company. Termination agreements clauses also apply where the employer has to have a reason for terminating an employee that might result from a different reason. It also covers the subject of notification, health issues and disability and employers right to termination among other statements. The ownership of inventions and agreement clauses also apply in the case where there are different issues addressed. They include the keeping of information about inventions secret as well as corporate with the employer in getting inventions among others (Brearley, 2013). Finally, the confidentiality agreement clauses also apply in the noted case where information considered relevant has to be kept secret even after the employee quits working with a particular company. B. Precedent There are cases that indicate similarities that Howell Company has experienced in terms of employment discrimination or unlawful termination. Howell Company fired Jennifer Lawson for chronic tardiness and not from a single incident of lateness. The entire week that she reported to work she reported late that prompted the decision makers to make that bold decision irrespective of the information that she presented to the company. She was supposed to present her best picture and image to her new employers but she failed miserably. She also failed to note that she was closely being investigated as a new employee where the human resource could assess and make a report about her capabilities and potential as a new employee in fulfilling her mandates. However, due to the chronic lateness, she failed to convince Howell Company that indeed she can change and be part of a team that makes work easier for others as well as the organization. For example, a similar case where an employee was fired for lateness and absenteeism happened in the Aeichele v. Jim Pattison Industries Ltd. (c.o.b. Jim Pattison Toyota), [1992] B.C.J. No. 1952 (S.C.) case. In noted case example, an employee who was a sales manager on probation in a car dealership was informed of the consequences of missing the final day sale in a three-day schedule (MacKillop & Nieuwland, 2012). The court upheld the company’s (Jim Pattison Industries Ltd) decision of firing the employee and it was justified by the courts. The case is similar and relates to the Howell’s case of firing the employee for chronic lateness and she was informed and aware of the possible consequences and impacts of reporting to late to work at her new station (Howell Company). And, therefore, the duration that she had stayed working at the company of one week was not considered and important in arriving at such decision. She was fired because of her habitual behavior of frequent lateness that fortunate enough was also noted in her past employment history from the company that she worked for. There is a possibility that the first company (Greene's Jewelry Wholesale, LLC) also considered that to be part of the reason that it restructured and eliminated her position in the company. The company categorically explained that her other performance reviews were good but only was concerned about her perpetual lateness in the company. The cases all indicate the termination agreements operative clauses as signed in most employment and contract laws. Contract disputes also are common in the workplace between and among different players and stakeholders that organizations deal with. The contract dispute that Howell Company has relates to noncompetitive agreements that the employee, as well as the rival company (Triumph), breached resulting in the legal claims and the defense against the accusations presented by the involved parties. There are cases where similar legal incidences as those noted in the Howell contractual case have happened that share or show similarities in terms of contract disputes. An example of a similar case that addresses the breach of contract and in particular covenant is that of Girtman & Assocs. v. St. Amour, 26 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2007) where the company that deals in doors and associated hardware’s sued a former employee for breaching noncompetitive agreements and covenant. The court awarded the plaintiff nominal damages even though not as had earlier been anticipated or filed by the plaintiff. It also awarded punitive damages for breach of contract (Horton, 2013). Such cases, hence, support and provide a reference point that Howell can use and support the justification and arguments presented in the court and lawsuits that it has of breach of covenant as noted in the case. The nominal and punitive damages awarded to the plaintiff were awarded because of the failure from the defender's side to act responsibly and fulfill the agreements reached and signed by Stephen St. Amour and others involved in the case. However, there exist equally similar examples of contractual disputes related to covenants that many organization have failed to win the court lawsuits filed. The main point of contention is often related to applicability in terms of the factors and people responsible for employment termination (Ghosh & Shankar, 2017). In the case where the employer or the organization mainly is responsible for employment termination, such incidences have failed to achieve desired legal targets and enforcement of the breach of agreements. For example, in the case of General Surgery, P.A. v. Suppes (Kan. Ct. App. 1998), the judge interpretation of “ceasing employment” implied that the agreement was only applicable when the employee voluntarily quits and takes actions by him or herself to end the employment relationship (Horton, 2013). However, in situations where they get fired by the employers, such agreements fail to be implemented to the later. Furthermore, the judge also argues that such noncompetition covenants are often designed to favor the employer at the expense of both parties appoint noted by Murphy (2015) work. Most show elements of biases that make the realization of justice to the involved parties become difficult. C. Facts to be Determined The facts that would help Howell Company better analyze the company position in relation to the lawsuits include the employee signed the contractual and employment agreements voluntarily. It was after reading the details contained in the agreements before initializing and signing. Also, if other companies including the competitors conduct a background check and ask potential employees to indicate any covenants or agreements they had in their past employment and relationships. Moreover, to determine if there is enough evidence that include but not limited to copies of contracts and employment agreements that were signed by the employees to help the company build a stronger case. Finally, establish facts and evidence to counter the counter-sues for fraudulent inducement presented by the accused through analysis of facts, policies and laws that Howell company as well as other legal statutes that guide employment and contractual issues present. The stated facts would help establish the legal rights and obligations of the defendants by narrowing down and pointing specifically to the clauses that the person or organization breached. It would help build a stronger case and arguments to increase the chance of positive legal outcomes as anticipated in the agreements. The facts will help eliminate ambiguities, cite the exact legal agreements breached, indicate and point to the negligence and shortcoming of the defendant’s arguments and irresponsibility (Bishara, Martin & Thomas, 2015). Moreover, provide evidence such as copies of agreements to the court to support the legal claims and defend the company (Howell). It would also quote other legal provision and laws related to the subject to help build strong arguments and statements about the lawsuit. D. Application of the Law to the Facts: The strong point and disadvantage of Howell business point of view in court are very strong that would result in a probable victory in a legal dispute. The strength of the company arguments relies on evidence and facts presented in the courts by the provision of copies of legal contracts that the company had with the employee. It would also cite specific clauses and statements the employee, as well as the Competitor, breached in the legal clause. Moreover, there are legal clauses in many employment and contractual agreements that support the positions and arguments presented by Howell legal team such as those that support noncompetition agreements and covenants, hence, the competitor cannot argue on the side of ‘not knowing’ as the rules and laws require them to take responsibility. However, if they had asked questions and concerns related to covenants before hiring the employee and the employee probably gave false information, it might change the case. However, the company (Triumph) did not take any action or measure to find out about the employee’s past backgrounds and obligations, hence, negligence or ignorance is no defend according to law. The weakness presented in the case relates to the condition that the employee was given before signing and initializing for employment offers. Part of the agreement was she was going to give out information about the competitor’s product (Ever-Gold) before getting the job. It might argue and disadvantage Howell legal team argument and presentation by noting that it was similar to compelling or forcing the employee to sign and initialize before getting the offer. Moreover, it might support the view that due to the employee’s desperation and status at the time (pregnancy) she was not mentally stable to sign such agreements that had discrepancies, hence, the status and condition of the employee by then can defend the reason and excuses she gives defending her actions. Another weakness in the accusing the competitor (Triumph) is that they might argue that the responsibility to report any covenant agreements was solely vested in the employee's shoulders and, consequently, she had the responsibility of doing so and not the company. Therefore, they cannot take any responsibilities related to noncompetition employment and contract agreements. Lastly, when the judge interprets employment termination to be determined by the employee, then the case might fail to realize its legal goals and objectives as noted in the agreements.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Law Memorandum Name Institution Affiliation Law Memorandum To: Legal Department Supervisor (Howell, LLC). From: Legal Department Intern Subject: Memo of the Lawsuits. I. Memo Introduction Howell, LLC legal company in the noted case has a legal advantage and competitive edge. It is from the analysis of the case or legal claims by Howell Company as well as the defense against the legal claims presented by the different entities. They include the competitors (Triumph) as well as the former employee (Jennifer Lawson) that has also launched counter-sues for fraudulent inducement among others legal variables noted in the case. The strengths of the Howell, LLC legal is that it is backed by evidence and documents that the accused signed. They indicate that they understood the legal terms and conditions that they engaged in the entire process from the recruitment and hiring process to the process of firing the employee. Moreover, the legal obligation that the third party in the noted case that includes the Triumph company ought to have known and legal implications that they had before making the decision of hiring an employee. The Howell Company also followed the due process of hiring including following the procedures and rules. For example, interviews process as well as the signing of the contract before commencement of the employment and the disclosure of the information that she had about the competitor’s “ever-Gold” process that was given voluntarily. The employee also initiated and signed the contract after reading them that indicated that she agreed voluntarily and willingly to the said terms and conditions that were presented before the offer was finally given to her. Furthermore, the Howell company decision of firing the employee after a week was not based on the initially signed and agreed terms and conditions before the employment offer but was based on her chronic tardiness a behavior that she had made habitual from analysis of her past employment record. The company (Howell) in fact gave her an opportunity to improve and rectify her initial challenges of reporting to work late but she failed to show any changes a situation that cost her job. Triumph Company also ought to have known that the employee was subject to a covenant and they should have inquired about the employee in her previous employment rather than assume or ignore and, hence, they are bound by its provision as it is their responsibility and mandate to make such inquiries before hiring the employee. The liability, thus, lies on their side as Howell Company had taken that initiative and ensured that the employee signed such agreements that meant that she either had the obligation to inform them or the company to make an inquiry independently. The defense on the counter-sues of Howell company for fraudulent inducement also lacks enough evidence as it was the employee who first contacted Howell company and made the first initiative and move. The information that was given to the company was voluntarily and, therefore, a strong defense has to be put up by the legal team through analysis of the weaknesses in the accusation by the concerned parties. The noted described factors make Howell Company have stronger legal claims backed by evidence and law as well as help it put up a stronger legal defense against the accusations presented by the parties involved in the lawsuits. II. Client’s Case A. Facts and Laws Employee discrimination or unlawful termination according to the Howell Company happens in dynamic and different context. Employee discrimination according to the company might happen or considered to have happened when the employee has been deprived an opportunity, for instance, in promotion to a higher rank. For example, when they have clearly and objectively met all the set terms and conditions in the process that more often than not according to the company happens through a competitive process that is verified by a team chosen by the company. Anti-discrimination policies and rules have been set by the company that discourage discriminatory acts and decision in the workplace based on gender, religious groups, political affiliation, and race or even marital status among others as noted in Robinson, (2013) piece . Employment, moreover, according to Howell Company is done purely on merit and competitiveness. It has formulated strict policies and regulations that the human resource department strictly follows in the process of recruitment and hiring of employees that eliminates all forms of employment discrimination. Unlawful termination, on the other hand, according to the company is also clearly elaborated and stated. The company has put up measures that the human resource department of the company must use and justify before they reach termination decision of any employee. They have to present evidence and facts that clearly show the employee is not capable of rectifying certain behavior that contrasts the professionalism, terms and condition of work as well as breach of contracts signed by employees. Fields and Cheeseman (2017) notes that a report has to be presented to the management that explains all the decisions reached and justification for such actions. Unlawful termination, thus, according to Howell company only happens when there is no justification and evidence against the claims or unprofessionalism that the employee or concerned subject has done. Contract issues according to the Howell Company contain or have to address all the concerns and interest of the company in the short and long-term period. The contract policies and regulations that have been well designed and formulated by the company legal team address the employee expectations’ and responsibility. It is at both senior and junior levels as well as the company suppliers among other business stakeholders that trade or transact with the company. The contract the employee's signs and initials must be well documented and presented where a copy has to be filed by the human resource and legal department in the employee's file and every employee must also have a copy of the contract. The company also notes and allows employee not satisfied with the terms and conditions in the contracts as stated not to sign if they feel uncomfortable with part of the contract or the entire contract and the company cannot compel them to sign any contract. It also notes and clearly does not allow any employee to work without contract and failure or refusal to sign a contract according to the company would imply that the employee has formally disengaged with the company. If an employee or stakeholder feels uncomfortable with contractual terms and conditions, the company allows them time to review the terms further and also discuss with their attorneys if they wish or feels so before they make a decision. The facts presented above relating to Howell contractual perspective would help in building its defense and claims in the lawsuits that the company has as noted in the cases. The operative employment and contract laws that apply to Howell’s company case include the Noncompetitive agreement, termination agreements, ownership of invention agreements as well as confidentiality agreements. The noncompetitive agreements clause in the employment and contracts notes the actions of the employee after termination of their working relationship with the company not to engage with competitors or similar business for a certain period of time (Filipp, 2017). The operative clause applies in the noted case as presented by Howell Company. Termination agreements clauses also apply where the employer has to have a reason for terminating an employee that might result from a different reason. It also covers the subject of notification, health issues and disability and employers right to termination among other statements. The ownership of inventions and agreement clauses also apply in the case where there are different issues addressed. They include the keeping of information about inventions secret as well as corporate with the employer in getting inventions among others (Brearley, 2013). Finally, the confidentiality agreement clauses also apply in the noted case where information considered relevant has to be kept secret even after the employee quits working with a particular company. B. Precedent There are cases that indicate similarities that Howell Company has experienced in terms of employment discrimination or unlawful termination. Howell Company fired Jennifer Lawson for chronic tardiness and not from a single incident of lateness. The entire week that she reported to work she reported late that prompted the decision makers to make that bold decision irrespective of the information that she presented to the company. She was supposed to present her best picture and image to her new employers but she failed miserably. She also failed to note that she was closely being investigated as a new employee where the human resource could assess and make a report about her capabilities and potential as a new employee in fulfilling her mandates. However, due to the chronic lateness, she failed to convince Howell Company that indeed she can change and be part of a team that makes work easier for others as well as the organization. For example, a similar case where an employee was fired for lateness and absenteeism happened in the Aeichele v. Jim Pattison Industries Ltd. (c.o.b. Jim Pattison Toyota), [1992] B.C.J. No. 1952 (S.C.) case. In the noted case example, an employee who was a sales manager on probation in a car dealership was informed of the consequences of missing the final day sale in a three-day schedule (MacKillop & Nieuwland, 2012). The court upheld the company’s (Jim Pattison Industries Ltd) decision of firing the employee and it was justified by the courts. The case is similar and relates to the Howell’s case of firing the employee for chronic lateness and she was informed and aware of the possible consequences and impacts of reporting to late to work at her new station (Howell Company). And, therefore, the duration that she had stayed working at the company of one week was not considered and important in arriving at such decision. She was fired because of her habitual behavior of frequent lateness that fortunate enough was also noted in her past employment history from the company that she worked for. There is a possibility that the first company (Greene's Jewelry Wholesale, LLC) also considered that to be part of the reason that it restructured and eliminated her position in the company. The company categorically explained that her other performance reviews were good but only was concerned about her perpetual lateness in the company. The cases all indicate the termination agreements operative clauses as signed in most employment and contract laws. Contract disputes also are common in the workplace between and among different players and stakeholders that organizations deal with. The contract dispute that Howell Company has relates to noncompetitive agreements that the employee, as well as the rival company (Triumph), breached resulting in the legal claims and the defense against the accusations presented by the involved parties. There are cases where similar legal incidences as those noted in the Howell contractual case have happened that share or show similarities in terms of contract disputes. An example of a similar case that addresses the breach of contract and in particular covenant is that of Girtman & Assocs. v. St. Amour, 26 (Tenn. Ct. App. 2007) where the company that deals in doors and associated hardware’s sued a former employee for breaching noncompetitive agreements and covenant. The court awarded the plaintiff nominal damages even though not as had earlier been anticipated or filed by the plaintiff. It also awarded punitive damages for breach of contract (Horton, 2013). Such cases, hence, support and provide a reference point that Howell can use and support the justification and arguments presented in the court and lawsuits that it has of breach of covenant as noted in the case. The nominal and punitive damages awarded to the plaintiff were awarded because of the failure from the defender's side to act responsibly and fulfill the agreements reached and signed by Stephen St. Amour and others involved in the case. However, there exist equally similar examples of contractual disputes related to covenants that many organization have failed to win the court lawsuits filed. The main point of contention is often related to applicability in terms of the factors and people responsible for employment termination (Ghosh & Shankar, 2017). In the case where the employer or the organization mainly is responsible for employment termination, such incidences have failed to achieve desired legal targets and enforcement of the breach of agreements. For example, in the case of General Surgery, P.A. v. Suppes (Kan. Ct. App. 1998), the judge interpretation of “ceasing employment” implied that the agreement was only applicable when the employee voluntarily quits and takes actions by him or herself to end the employment relationship (Horton, 2013). However, in situations where they get fired by the employers, such agreements fail to be implemented to the later. Furthermore, the judge also argues that such noncompetition covenants are often designed to favor the employer at the expense of both parties appoint noted by Murphy (2015) work. Most show elements of biases that make the realization of justice to the involved parties become difficult. C. Facts to be Determined The facts that would help Howell Company better analyze the company position in relation to the lawsuits include the employee signed the contractual and employment agreements voluntarily. It was after reading the details contained in the agreements before initializing and signing. Also, if other companies including the competitors conduct a background check and ask potential employees to indicate any covenants or agreements they had in their past employment and relationships. Moreover, to determine if there is enough evidence that include but not limited to copies of contracts and employment agreements that were signed by the employees to help the company build a stronger case. Finally, establish facts and evidence to counter the counter-sues for fraudulent inducement presented by the accused through analysis of facts, policies and laws that Howell company as well as other legal statutes that guide employment and contractual issues present. The stated facts would help establish the legal rights and obligations of the defendants by narrowing down and pointing specifically to the clauses that the person or organization breached. It would help build a stronger case and arguments to increase the chance of positive legal outcomes as anticipated in the agreements. The facts will help eliminate ambiguities, cite the exact legal agreements breached, indicate and point to the negligence and shortcoming of the defendant’s arguments and irresponsibility (Bishara, Martin & Thomas, 2015). Moreover, provide evidence such as copies of agreements to the court to support the legal claims and defend the company (Howell). It would also quote other legal provision and laws related to the subject to help build strong arguments and statements about the lawsuit. D. Application of the Law to the Facts: The strengths and weaknesses of Howell company arguments in court are very strong that would result in a probable victory in a legal dispute. The strength of the company arguments relies on evidence and facts presented in the courts by the provision of copies of legal contracts that the company had with the employee. It would also cite specific clauses and statements the employee, as well as the Competitor, breached in the legal clause. Moreover, there are legal clauses in many employment and contractual agreements that support the positions and arguments presented by Howell legal team such as those that support noncompetition agreements and covenants, hence, the competitor cannot argue on the side of ‘not knowing’ as the rules and laws require them to take responsibility. However, if they had asked questions and concerns related to covenants before hiring the employee and the employee probably gave false information, it might change the case. However, the company (Triumph) did not take any action or measure to find out about the employee’s past backgrounds and obligations, hence, negligence or ignorance is no defend according to law. The weakness presented in the case relates to the condition that the employee was given before signing and initializing for employment offers. Part of the agreement was she was going to give out information about the competitor’s product (Ever-Gold) before getting the job. It might argue and disadvantage Howell legal team argument and presentation by noting that it was similar to compelling or forcing the employee to sign and initialize before getting the offer. Moreover, it might support the view that due to the employee’s desperation and status at the time (pregnancy) she was not mentally stable to sign such agreements that had discrepancies, hence, the status and condition of the employee by then can defend the reason and excuses she gives defending her actions. Another weakness in the accusing the competitor (Triumph) is that they might argue that the responsibility to report any covenant agreements was solely vested in the employee's shoulders and, consequently, she had the responsibility of doing so and not the company. Therefore, they cannot take any responsibilities related to noncompetition employment and contract agreements. Lastly, when the judge interprets employment termination to be determined by the employee, then the case might fail to realize its legal goals and objectives as noted in the agreements.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Later Adulthood Summary Outline Article title The article on late adulthood that I will summarize is titled “Resilience in later adulthood and old age: Resources and potential for successful aging” by Greve Werner and Ursula Staudinger. The article argues that from the start of human development, social and physical context for support is necessary. The article focuses on the resilience of old age people in the face of social and health challenges. Summary The researchers argue that resilience in old age is an important concept in life span perspective in developmental psychopathology and human development. A resilient elderly person can go through a negative experience and return to their initial or normal level of functioning.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Later Adulthood Summary Name University Later Adulthood Summary The article on late adulthood that I will summarize is titled “Resilience in later adulthood and old age: Resources and potential for successful aging” by Greve Werner and Ursula Staudinger. The article argues that from the start of human development, social and physical context for support is necessary. Both social and physical support is basic and required by all people. However, support such as language training and social care are necessary in different degrees. In old age, individual demands vary widely. Over years, people acquire vulnerabilities or deficits, which require varying degrees of support. The article focuses on the resilience of old age people in the face of social and health challenges. According to the researcher, resilience is an important adaptation when faced with adversity. The researchers argue that resilience in old age is an important concept in life span perspective in developmental psychopathology and human development. Resilience implies that old aged people have the capability to avoid the negative outcomes of their health and social experiences. It also implies that the old aged person has decreased trajectory despite the high risk factors in their environment. A resilient elderly person can go through a negative experience and return to their initial or normal level of functioning. In their article, Greve et al. (2006) conceptualize resilience in later old age as plasticity, which is a crucial concept in the life-span approach to human development. The authors employed the life-span approach to later adulthood development. This is characterized by six propositions. The fist proposition is that human development continues throughout the lifespan. The second proposition is that life-span development is multidirectional and it can be described using the gain-loss ratio. The fourth proposition is that lifespan development in later adulthood can be explained scientifically through the inclusion of conceptualism as a paradigm. The fifth proposition is that lifespan development in later adulthood reveals plasticity. Finally, it is understood with reference to its historical embeddedness. From the article, the stability of a personality and self-increases cumulatively over a lifespan. In childhood and youth, transformation and change are not usually normal, but they are expected. Transformations and change in childhood usually triggers questions and astonishment. In adulthood and old age, change and transformation is dramatic, which requires explanation from a medical and social welfare professional. Ordinary resilience in middle and later adulthood and old age turns transformation and changes into personality stability. This implies that processes and structures of self-play a crucial role in the emergence of resilience. Notably, behaviors stabilize from repeated structures and processes observed over long periods of time. The processes of the self establishes self-perception, which vary with changes in the objective conditions within an environment. The resultant self-presentation produces subjective continuity, ensuring behavioral stability at all ages. In this case, the self provides an interface between the subjective and objective sides of a person. It also ensures stabilization of the person’s perception and behavior. The development of the self during middle and late adulthood informs the internal and external impressions of stability, which has been established through empirical research. In the case of the period of late adulthood, people experience visible changes. According to geronto-psychology, there are functional domains that dictate the deficit-oriented model of aging. The domains include primary cognitive developmental processes, motor functioning, and regressive processes of sensory.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    LAW
    Identifying and Landing a Job (How) Name Institution Affiliation Identifying and Landing a Job (How) Many agree that looking for a new job can be challenging for all people whether they have years of experience or are just college graduates beginning their new careers and job in the market. It is, hence, essential to get well prepared and increase the chance of successful adventure in the job hunt as advised by consultants, scholars, and researchers in human resource aspect. It is by incorporating strategies that give one an upper hand and connection increasing the chance and prospects of getting and landing a job. It is, therefore, relative for one to get organized and, thus, people with organizational skills are advantaged in the job hunt. It is also advisable to start early, slow and focus on the tasks and goals that one has of job search. Finally, analyze and look for stepping-stone opportunities that can help one land their dream jobs such as gaining experience working in small and middle-level employers and companies as one prepares for a dream chance and opportunity in the main job market. Connley (2018) also appreciates the reality that job hunt has continued to be challenging in the present times and, as a result, has advised and drafted measures and actions that people can use and incorporate in their job hunt to increase their chances of making it through the process. The first tips that Connley give to job seekers are to identify their skills set and apply for jobs that match their competencies and skills. She also encourages utilizing online resources as well as company resources narrowing down the search to best options. Next, she notes that saving jobs applied is best for future references and preparation for interview and customization of resume to match each job applied. Connley (2018) adds that cover letters should be unique and professionally done and encourages applicants to prepare well for interview including asking the interviewers question. Finally, she advises that applicants send a thank you letter and asks for time to think and make final and firm decisions confirming the job if they are successful as opposed to confirming on the spot. It gives them time to possibly negotiate salary as well as other essential aspects related to the job such as bonuses and welfare. As asserted by Connley (2010), job hunting is challenging but when one is well organized qualified prospects are high for them to land their dream jobs. The first step is for job seekers to get organized by noting down what their strengths and weakness are and start working towards improved skills in the job hunt. The second process is walking the talk. It involves beginning slow and gradual but still focused on the targets and goals set earlier in the organization process. Lastly, the use of stepping-stone as opportunities that would include networks and minor jobs to give one experience is encouraged as ate final process to help one successfully identify and land a job. Reference Connley, Courtney. “10 tips for landing your dream job in 2018.” CNBC. COM, 17 Jan 2018. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/17/10-job-search-tips-for-landing-your-dream-role-in-2018.html https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/17/10-job-search-tips-for-landing-your-dream-role-in-2018.html
    $ 0.09
    3,017words / 4page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Identifying and Landing a Job (How) Name Institution Affiliation Identifying and Landing a Job (How) Many agree that looking for a new job can be challenging for all people whether they have years of experience or are just college graduates beginning their new careers and job in the market. It is, hence, essential to get well prepared and increase the chance of successful adventure in the job hunt as advised by consultants, scholars, and researchers in human resource aspect. It is by incorporating strategies that give one an upper hand and connection increasing the chance and prospects of getting and landing a job. It is, therefore, relative for one to get organized and, thus, people with organizational skills are advantaged in the job hunt. It is also advisable to start early, slow and focus on the tasks and goals that one has of job search. Finally, analyze and look for stepping-stone opportunities that can help one land their dream jobs such as gaining experience working in small and middle-level employers and companies as one prepares for a dream chance and opportunity in the main job market. Connley (2018) also appreciates the reality that job hunt has continued to be challenging in the present times and, as a result, has advised and drafted measures and actions that people can use and incorporate in their job hunt to increase their chances of making it through the process. The first tips that Connley give to job seekers are to identify their skills set and apply for jobs that match their competencies and skills. She also encourages utilizing online resources as well as company resources narrowing down the search to best options. Next, she notes that saving jobs applied is best for future references and preparation for interview and customization of resume to match each job applied. Connley (2018) adds that cover letters should be unique and professionally done and encourages applicants to prepare well for interview including asking the interviewers question. Finally, she advises that applicants send a thank you letter and asks for time to think and make final and firm decisions confirming the job if they are successful as opposed to confirming on the spot. It gives them time to possibly negotiate salary as well as other essential aspects related to the job such as bonuses and welfare. As asserted by Connley (2010), job hunting is challenging but when one is well organized qualified prospects are high for them to land their dream jobs. The first step is for job seekers to get organized by noting down what their strengths and weakness are and start working towards improved skills in the job hunt. The second process is walking the talk. It involves beginning slow and gradual but still focused on the targets and goals set earlier in the organization process. Lastly, the use of stepping-stone as opportunities that would include networks and minor jobs to give one experience is encouraged as ate final process to help one successfully identify and land a job. Reference Connley, Courtney. “10 tips for landing your dream job in 2018.” CNBC. COM, 17 Jan 2018. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/17/10-job-search-tips-for-landing-your-dream-role-in-2018.html https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/17/10-job-search-tips-for-landing-your-dream-role-in-2018.html
    $ 0.09
    3,017words / 4page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Identification of Recommended Training and Enhancing or Coaching Staff Skill Sets  Name Institution Identification of Recommended Training and Enhancing or Coaching Staff Skill Sets  Q1. Identification of Recommended Training Training in workplaces are instrumental in ensuring that employees are productive and satisfied, as well as making them to remain committed towards the realization of set organizational goals and objectives (Noe, 2016). Therefore, organizations should provide training opportunities for all employees at different intervals. One of the recommended type of training to staff is instructor-led training. This kind of training takes place in classroom setting, where instructors present materials, orally and/or in writing. It is among the most effective forms of employee training, particularly for complex topics (Sahu, 2012). It also allows employees and instructors to have interactive sessions where they can obtain feedback and be directed on where to obtain further resources. This kind of training is recommended to staff at all levels, where those with superior knowledge and skills train those below them. Apart from this type of training, additional types of training that would benefit staff members include mentoring and coaching, eLearning, management-specific activities, simulation employee training, group discussions, and case studies among others (Noe, 2016). Q2. Enhancing or Coaching Staff Skill Sets  Coaching is among the most essential methods for staff training and development as it focuses on the relationship between a more experienced professional and an employee (Stone, 2011). I can consider my current ability to coach as being good. I have the ability of providing leadership in coaching where I can empower, guide and inspire the coachee. I also have adequate knowledge to train those below me in job position. Besides, I possess effective communication skills which is useful in enhancing the quality of coaching. However, I need to improve on my consistency in coaching. I have only handled one coaching session successfully. I need to engage in more to enhance y competency and consistency. Emerson & Loehr (2012) advise that some of the ways a person can improve their coaching skills is through goal-setting and seeking feedback from peers and those who have been coached before. Additional ways the learners could improve their coaching skills include asking good questions, committing to continuous learning, and taking a positive approach.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE

Tertiary education Topics

Other Tertiary education Essays

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
    $ 0.13
    12,670words / 1page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE