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BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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  • Tertiary education
    religion
    ICC Paper: Cultural Identity Name University ICC Paper: Cultural Identity Introduction In most instances, culture is thought of as a singular phenomenon that differs across geographical barriers. It is important to acknowledge that culture exists on different levels. Considering these levels provides an opportunity to adjust to different cultural surroundings (Kupiainen, Sevänen & Stotesbury, 2014). The different levels in which culture exists are the societal or national level, identity group, functional, organizations, individual, and team. In this case, I will focus on individual level culture. Understanding and addressing culture at individual levels provides a perspective that is both contradictory and fruitful. Culture is a social phenomenon that requires group interaction for expression. After people have formed groups, at home, work, or school, they begin to create their own group culture, depending on the behaviors; they reward, expect, and reinforce (Thomas & Schwarzbaum, 2015). It is important to note that the most basic unit for the expression of cultural norms is the individual unit. Thus, a single person mirrors the norms and behaviors of the people around them. An individual adapts and strengthens the culture they find themselves in. this means that if groups serve as the nexus for a culture, individuals are the vectors of culture. An individual replicates or reinforces norms, or alters and modifies the norms. Personal Cultural Identity Section I was born in Los Angeles California, both my father and mother came to the United States from Guatemala City, which is their place of birth. My parents had two more children after me, making me the oldest of three. My father was a very religious man, Catholic was his preferred religion. As children, we were taught to communion, confess and attend mass every Sunday morning. Prayer before dinner, bedtime, and any decision were made was necessary in our house. My sisters and I weren’t really encouraged to play any sports or allowed to participate in any outdoor activities as my father believed that girls needed to be indoors and focused on chores, cooking and other things that would make us good wife’s. He was a vigorous man; we knew not to talk back, behave at others household and to listen to all adults. As a child, I saw my parents struggle financially, we at times not having a place to live, relying on friends to allow us to stay a night so that we would not have to sleep in the car. My father was absent from our home when I turned 12. As a teenager, I decided to stop attending church, as my mom did not really push us to attend. Because of my father being gone, I somehow felt the need to step up and help my mother; I began driving at the age of 13 to help my mom with taking my sisters to school. I had to grow up quickly to help make some of the responsibilities of the household as my mother spent most of her time working to provide for us. Though this is not ideal for a child to go through, I feel as this has built my identity. I view myself as a strong-minded, independent, hard worker. I don’t give up easily, I try hard to succeed in whatever it is I do because I don’t want not only to fail myself but my children(I see how this now connects to my parents.) My children are my life, my center and I would do anything for them. I am caring, friendly and love to help those in need, I feel as if I could buy a home for the world I would, I don’t like to see anyone suffering or in need. I think that at times I can be a bit controlling, not sure if this is because most of my life I was told what to do or because I am afraid of allowing someone to have control of the things that matter most. I am a firm believer of Christ, our family attends service weekly, and we pray before bedtime and every meal. We trust that God has control over our lives and we (my husband and I) have shown our children the way but also allow them to make their own decisions. I am a clean freak, sometimes it can be wrong, I know this comes from how I was raised because of the way my father was with us, I am trying to work on the understanding that sometimes is ok just to allow messes especially when you have 7 children and 4 of them being boys. Overall, I can see a lot of my background, culture and parents instilled or active in my identity. I know that it has played a big part in making me who I am today. My cultural, social, and personal beliefs, norms, and values influence the ways in which I communicate with other people. I tend to make assumptions about people based on the ways in which they talk. In most of the cases, my assumptions about people are based on stereotypes. As a dominant group in the American society, I tend to define what the incorrect or correct usage of language is because language is closely tied to my personal identity. Thus, I label a person’s use of language based on the way they talk. Furthermore, I acknowledge that aspects of communication are influenced by cultural differences and identities. Even the choices of the mediums of communication have cultural undertones. As a member of a high context culture, I rely more on electronic technology as a medium of communication. I also emphasize on the use of written messages over face-to-face or oral communication. It is also important to consider the personal bonds and informal agreements that exist in my culture. These types of bonds and agreements are more binding than formal contracts (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2018). Thus, most of the written messages are unspecified and understood using non-verbal cues, context, and between-the-line interpretations. There is an importance on the understanding and meaning of what is said or not said. There is also an importance in the silences and pauses, body language, empathy, and relationships. My culture can be viewed as a synchronic culture, which means that the flow of time is considered as a type of a circle. This means that the past, present, and future are inter-related (Samovar, Porter, McDaniel & Roy, 2015). This influences the ways in which I approach strategic thinking, deadlines, long-term planning, and the development of thought. Thus, i consider a person that arrives late for a meeting to be disrespectful instead of having bad planning. Additionally, the past is seen as a context that can help an individual understand the present and future. During communication, important relationships provide a durable bond that oscillates in time. Cultural Event The cultural event that I attended is a Jewish Shabbat in the city of Ternecula, California. This distinct culture is not my own culture since I am not Jewish. The Jewish Shabbat is a day that is set aside for rest and worship. One of the things that I observed during this event is that the participants remembered the biblical creation of the universe. The participants also looked forward to the coming of the Messianic age. The event has a religious significance and it is observed on the seventh day of the week. The event originated from the Jewish culture. During the seventh day of the week, all Jews are expected to refrain from any type of work activity. They exhibited high levels of rigor and engaged in restful activities to honor the day. The event started with the congregation of Jews some minutes before sunset on Friday evening (Gamble & Gamble, 2015). The event took place throughout the evening and night until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night. On Friday night when the participants were ushering in the event, they lit candles and recited blessings. As part of their tradition a three festive meal was eaten in the evening, afternoon and late afternoon. On the evening on Friday, the evening meal and early afternoon meal on Saturday typically begin with a blessing that is called Kiddush. The third blessing is recited over a meal of two loaves of challah. After the appearance of the three stars in the sky on Saturday evening, Shabbat was closed with the recital of a Havdalah blessing. Taxonomy It is important to note that there is a connection between the cultural event that I participated in and my own culture. The Jewish Shabbat is thought to have originated the Christian Sabbath day. During the Christian Sabbath day, we celebrate by refraining from any type of work. The difference between the Christian Sabbath and Jewish Shabbat is that in Christianity, we do not show the rigor shown by Jews. The taxonomy theory that has been selected to describe the potential effects of the observed cultural patterns and my cultural patterns is Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory. Hofstede published the six dimensions of culture theory to provide an understanding of cultural differences. The six dimensions of culture highlighted in this theory are the power distance index, masculinity versus femininity, individualism versus collectivism, uncertainty avoidance index, indulgence versus restraint, and long versus short-term orientation (Piepenburg, 2017). Based on Hofstede’s theory, it is possible to identify clear patterns of difference and similarity along the six dimensions for my culture and the Jewish culture. In the case of the power distance index, I observed that there is high power distance index in my culture compared to the Jewish culture. This index refers to the degree of inequality between people with and without power (Piepenburg, 2017). In my culture, people accept an unequal and hierarchical distribution of power. In addition, people understand their place in the power system. Conversely, in the Jewish culture, even though power is not equal shared, it is widely dispersed. The low power distance in the Jewish culture has enabled people to initiate action regardless of their position in the society. In the case of individualism versus collectivism, I observed that my culture is individualistic while the Jewish culture is collectivistic. This means that in the Jewish culture, people are loyal and they tend to belong to their group. This has led to the intense defense of the Jewish interests regardless of the opposition they face (Piepenburg, 2017). Conversely, in my culture, there are weak interpersonal connections. Additionally, people do not take responsibility for the actions and outcomes of other people. In the case of the masculinity versus femininity dimension, I observed that both my culture and the Jewish culture have a high masculinity index. As masculine societies, the roles of women and men overlap less. In both cultures, men behave assertively. Additionally, positive characteristics include attributes such as the demonstration of success and being fast and strong. The uncertainty avoidance index provided an opportunity to assess the ways in which people from the two cultures cope with anxiety (Piepenburg, 2017). The Jewish culture has a high uncertainty avoidance index. This means that people in this culture attempt to make life controllable and predictable. They also put their fate in the hands of God in instances where they find it hard to control their lives. I observed that my culture has a low uncertainty avoidance index, which means that people from my culture are more open, relaxed, and inclusive. It is important to note that the avoidance of uncertainty does not imply the avoidance of risk. In the case of long versus short-term orientation, I observed that my culture has a long-term orientation while the Jewish culture has a short-term orientation. The dimension focuses on the time horizon displayed by people in a society. As a long-term orientation culture, we tend to be modest, thrifty, and pragmatic (Piepenburg, 2017). Conversely, the short-term oriented culture places emphasis on consistency, principles, and truth, which is observed from the Jewish culture. The long-term orientation of my culture is evident from the emphasis on quick results and short-term gains. It is also reflected in our social standards and strong nationalism. The last dimension is the indulgence versus restraint dimension (Piepenburg, 2017). My culture has a high indulgence versus restraint score, which means that it encourages and allows the free gratification of the emotions and drives of people. People from my culture like having fun and enjoying life. Conversely, the Jewish culture has a low score, which means that there is a tendency to regulate the behavior and conduct of the people from this culture. It is also characterized by strict social norms.
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  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Betancourt versus Trinitas Hospital Name University Betancourt versus Trinitas Hospital I Judge (Name) would like to remind this New Jersey Court that New Jersey healthcare providers are ordered to provide healthcare and medical services in contrast to the judgement. Brevity could be the depth of wit, but seismic change is not a laughing matter. Thus, the thin appellate briefing and trial record briefings are inadequate presentations for the revolutionary outcomes the appellants seek in Betancourt v. Trinitas. The provision is New Jersey that healthcare and medical services providers must provide services despite the judgement of the service provider is justified in Jobes and Requena. There is also another example, for instance in 2007, the pharmacy statute mandated pharmacists to dispense medication despite the pharmacist’s conscience objection (Caplan, McCartney & Sisti, 2014). In my ruling, I would wish to inform the court that I will delve into the limits of self-determination. In my ruling, healthcare providers can decide to refuse to give the desired treatment in case of a true triage situation, or incase the treatment leads to a physiological futility. Healthcare providers can also refuse to give the desired treatment in case the provider can replace a surrogate requesting for a disputed treatment. This is also possible in case the provider transfers the patient. As my argument in these ruling shows, going to the issue of the limits to patient autonomy will not get this court very far. I believe that the problem is in the definition of the limits (Burkle & Benson, 2012). My argument is based on the thinking that even with the fundamental values conflict, a pure process approach is essential in the resolution of this case. However, this process needs to be fairer than the Texas-style process that is evident in Trinitas and NJHA-MSNJ-CHPNJ (Fine, 2010). The appellants in this case are seeking fundamental changes in health law jurisprudence. From the 1960s, the unmistakable and clear trend in New Jersey has focused on the patient. It has focused on the patent self-determination and autonomy. Evidence of this focus can be deduced from the Advance Directives Act, the Supreme Court’s right-to-die cases, and the doctrine of informed consent. New Jersey joined a number of states that moved from professional-based service delivery to patient-based service delivery in 1988 (Swetz, Carey & Bundrick, 2012). The state made this movement based on the knowledge that the duty of a physician moves beyond what the physician thinks or determines to be the best course or action or treatment. In the new dispensation, the duty of the physician is measured by the physician’s ability to meet the patient’s values and preferences. In this case, the appellants want the court to adopt a standard or rule that healthcare service providers must not provide medical services or treatment outside the standards of care. The appellant wants the court to establish a limit or draw a line on the issue of patient autonomy (Quill & Holloway, 2012). However, the proposed rule by the appellant is incomplete and flawed. According to the appellant, the case before this court is a case of first impression, which is not supported by judicial statute or precedent. The main issue is that the rule is tautological. In case the standard of care is the basis of care that a care provider has a duty towards service provision, the rule is circular. To have a real meaning on the issue at hand, it is important to begin by answering three questions. The first question is whether the requested treatment was outside the standard of care, how it was determined, and whether the healthcare provider was allowed to stop, how would the care provider stop? The third question is concerned with the implementation of the patient’s right. Answering the three questions will show where the appellant’s argument fell apart. The appellant wants this court to establish a limit or draw a line, but fails to show or tell the court where to draw the line. I believe that the failure of the appellant to show where to draw the line is related the level of variability in medicine. In an attempt to show the court where to draw the line, I believe that the appellant paraphrased Justice Stewart’s definition of obscenity. The appellant does not offer a substantive rule, but opts to offer a procedural rule. The court must comply with the decisions by the patient or on behalf of the patient unless the court as a single facility determines that the requested treatment is inappropriate. In my opinion, this is ad hoc, and subject to abuse and error, whether for money, race, or ethnicity. I find that the Ruben Betancourt’s dialysis treatment and care delivered to the patient was delivered within the standard of care. The trial court made this finding based on the examination of the transcripts in combination with written opinion. The trial court addressed the issue of the standard of care with the aim of determining the appropriateness of the request made on behalf of the patient. Therefore, in the case of such a factual finding, the court needs to defer. Additionally, the trial court findings are supported by substantive evidence. It is possible to deduce that the issue was about dialysis. Additionally, the plaintiff’s nephrology expert was a credible professional. Unlike the appellant’s expert, the plaintiff’s nephrology expert was more experienced, neutral, and independent. The appellant’s nephrology experts were economically dependent on the hospital and the evidence before the court shows that they were not clearly opposed. The testimony by Dr. Millman indicated that even though he would not recommend dialysis, he lacked awareness of whether he would refuse to recommend dialysis in case the patient’s family requested for dialysis. In his testimony, Dr. McCugh indicated that dialysis is not always withdrawn from PVS patients even though it is usually withdrawn. The President of the medical staff at the hospital Dr. Veirana also testified that the issue before the court was not a professional issue, but one involving personal beliefs and personal decisions. It is important or this court to know that dialysis for Ruben Betancourt was effective. In fact, dialysis worked for approximately 11 months from July 2008 to May 2009 (Pope, 2010). Additionally, the appellant concedes that the treatment given to Ruben Betancourt was successful. In case treatment was not successful, it would lead to physiological futility and legitimize grounds for unilateral refusal. In this case, the concerns of the appellant are not within the grounds of medicine. The concerns of the appellant are within the grounds of values because the appellant believes that the life of Ruben Betancourt was meaningful or worthwhile. As was the case in Causey, the issue of treatment at hand is not counter-therapeutic, but effective and the conflict is not over science, but over values. In Betancourt, it is important to question whether the issue of dialysis was contraindicated. It is vital to note that some contraindications are absolute, which means that there are rational circumstances for taking action. For instance, people with anaphylactic food allergy should not eat foods that they are allergic. However, that is not the issue with this case because dialysis was successful. Additionally, other contraindications are relative, which means that patients are at high risks of complications. However, there are potentials that the risks are outweighed by other mitigations or considerations. The patient has the right to balance the burdens and benefits. The case before this court is a case of classic paradigm in which a patient has received futile care. Ruben Betancourt could not benefit from the technology or treatment available to restore his breathing, brain, digestion, or excretion. Repeatedly in the case, the court is faced with loving family and friends who seek the best for Ruben Betancourt. Their pursuit for wellness is based on the perception that continued treatment would lead to different results for Mr. Betancourt. It is important to avoid instances where the court yields to autonomy at the expense of professional determination of futility. In the U.S, there is an obsession with autonomy and that court, or even the legislature would differ in giving the patient the autonomy they deserve (Baily, 2011). These institutions would accord the autonomy pride of place as a determinative value whenever patients clash with physicians over useless and ineffectual treatment and services. Despite repeated demonstrations that Americans want autonomy in the area of death in a healthcare setting, some stakeholders continue to think of a future for formal medical futility assessment in the resolution of difficult cases. I do not see such a future. There are steps that can be taken by courts and healthcare service providers to reduce the conflict over the people or stakeholders that seek the best for patients. One of the step involves lessening the burden and chance that patients and their families will struggle against the impossible odds and cost to their bodily integrity and dignity (Sataline, 2010). Nurse and physicians should be assessed and measured on their ability to offer hope to patients and their families. I believe that hope is a powerful tool in fighting terminal illnesses and serious diseases however, when false hope is tied to the expectations for miracles, it is converted to a belief for positive outcomes even when none is possible. I believe that miracles, especially in the healthcare frontier do happen. However, expectations for them should not be used as building blocks or basis for comforting patients and their families. Little victories and short-term goals are better foundations for giving hope to patients and their families. When medical procedures, especially critical procedures are initiated, it is important to have a discussion of when the procedure will be stopped. In most of the instances, patients and their family members opt for these procedures in the hope that they will be supported through technology and treatment regardless of the outcome. For instance, patients, their family and friends that recognize that a left ventricular assist device is usually a destination therapy and the destination is not always guaranteed. In addition, dialysis once started and possibly stopped, have a higher chance of accepting the limits of medicine than the patients that see a technological treatment started without a mention of when the treatment will stop. Physicians should have the freedom to offer the medical options available to patients. They should also feel free to outline the options that lead to the best outcomes to the patients. In battling the trend of paternalism, the notion has flourished that autonomy limits physicians from going after the view on what needs to be done in an end-of-life care setting.
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  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: "I Have A Dream..." Literature works entail the use of techniques that help the producers of different literal works that range from novels, poetry, speech, plays, and drama among others help reach their targeted audience. It conveys the messages they intend that help them achieve their goals and objectives. The writers and speakers of the different work, thus, have to use and choose words carefully that would help them engage their target audience constructively and pass the message they have with ease, and the “ I Have A Dream” speech by Rev. Martin Luther King is no exception. The goals and techniques used in the speech are used effectively that would suit with the targeted audiences. However, this paper notes how the speech by King uses balanced rhetorical appeals that evoke Ethos, Logos, and Pathos to help him convey the message with ease and realize its targeted goal. King arrangement and use of the rhetorical appeals is well organized and presented in the speech. It engages the audience right from the start of his presentation by carefully articulating and using words that help blend and convey messages that tie down the audience and his listeners. In the start or beginning of his speech, King commences by use of the Pathos that captures the emotions of his audience. He states that he is happy to join the audiences on the day at the “march of Washington” in what would go down in the history of America and the world at large as the greatest demonstration of freedom in the history of America. His words are carefully chosen that show the solidarity and togetherness that he has with his followers and participants. By king stating that he is happy it evokes emotions of the participants and audience to believe that they have gathered for a justified course and must feel equally happy and excited. He then immediately transits to the justification of their actions and uses Ethos that states how great Americans signed the Emancipation Proclamation that gives their actions credibility and justification to proceed with their plans. King, therefore, compares and uses evidence to prove to the audience that change will not come easily. His continuous use and repeat of “100 years…” to indicate the changes that have not happened and the continuous oppression and maintenance of the status quo before the emancipation evokes emotions (pathos). And, thus, gives the participants present the energy, courage and moral to help them demonstrate a shameful condition that Negros and people of color go through. King also uses figurative language to help him express his ideas in the rhetorical goal and techniques to persuade, entertain and inform his audience and listeners. For example by stating that they have come to cash a check in their nation’s capital and that the American society has defaulted. It implies and means the injustices and failure to reach the decisions earlier set to end segregation and discrimination of people. Use of such figurative language enables the audience to imagine and picture the scenarios and situation as described in the speech. It makes them concentrate getting informed and at the same time entertained further pinning down the audience to the speech and message delivered. King, furthermore, uses logic (logos) to convince his supporters and followers. He notes the benefits that would arise from their actions and repetitively uses the phrases “now is the time…” to state the benefits that would accrue to the entire nation when segregation and discrimination is halted as envisioned by the founding fathers of the nation such as solid rock of brotherhood, racial justice, and real democracy among others. King also chooses his words wisely that encourage his audience and listeners and also prepares them for real struggles such as when he states that what was happening was just the beginning of a true struggle for justice and freedom and those hoping that they would blow off steam should be prepared for a rude shock. The careful use of such harsh words would send the message to the decision makers and the entire society of the seriousness that their act had and, thus, help persuade them to embrace changes of the status quo or face the consequences that they are ready and prepared. The words evoke emotions that put the concerned stakeholders and listeners of the speech and message to imagine and picture the intensity and gravity of the contexts that would follow. It helps him achieve his goals by engaging the audience of the speech that includes decision makers in society. Logic also prevails and is used extensively in the speech. For example, he discourages the use of physical violence and encourages the use of creative ways to advance their messages. It is because physical violence would result in more dangers to the people in protests as well as fail to win the emotions of others particularly the whites that support their course. King evokes emotions when he mentions and appreciated the white brothers and sisters that supported their path and, thus, encourages the Negros and his followers not to take revenge but rather advocate for justice and peace and stay focused in their course (King 3). He links and shows the relationship that exists between the blacks and whites in society such as shared freedom and destiny. It evokes emotions particularly from the whites that heard the speech that directly and indirectly convinced them and informs them to support the course as called for in the speech. In the very speech, king answers his critiques and the civil society that asks when they will ever get satisfied, but his response is affirmative that states that with the continuous oppression and segregation of Negros by showing examples and justification that evokes ethos they will not relent. King mentions the key states and places that his primary listeners and audience came from such as Georgia, South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana among others and sends all those people to spread the message that he had of freedom and justice for all as stated in the American constitution. By mentioning the critical areas that his supporters came from, it evokes emotions and appreciation as the recognition in itself sends the message that they are appreciated and, thus, would be ready to make the request proposed in the speech including those that were not in the street at the time. His careful choice of words allowed projection of the dream and visions that he has for the people of America. Such as seeing the sons of a slave and that of a slave master happily play together, children from different races playing together freely and also many other benefits that would arise when they meet their goal gave hope to his listeners. It gave them further energy to push and struggle harder for the changes that they anticipated in American society. The use and description of all as the children of God also evokes emotions particularly from believers and Christians and other religions that help him win support from different people in the society and put pressure to the decision makers to initiate and install true changes in the society that would prove and show freedom and justice for all. In conclusion, the extensive use of rhetorical techniques and goals in the Dr. King’s speech has helped evoke emotions, show logic, and ethics in the decisions and positions he takes and the course for his purpose. It helps in persuading the concerned stakeholders to institute changes or get engaged in the course; it entertains the audiences as well as informs the audience on different ideas and concepts. It is a perfect example that other scholars can follow, and it is the reason the speech to date is considered as among the greatest that ever exist in the world. Work Cited King Jr., Martin Luther “I Have a Dream” Speech by the Rev. MARTIN Luther KING at the ‘March on Washington’ 1963.
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  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Crisis Management, Securing Critical Infrastructure during Hurricane Katrina Student’s Name University Crisis Management, Securing Critical Infrastructure during Hurricane Katrina The aftermath of hurricane Katrina stands out as one of the most notable disaster management and mitigation failures in recent US history going by the insurmountable loss of life caused as well as extreme losses to private and government entities to destructions of critical infrastructure (Boin, Hart, McConnell & Preston, 2010). Following the lessons learned from the loss, the Department of Homeland Security established the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System to an interdisciplinary system-level understanding and planning for critical infrastructure protection in subsequent disasters using critical infrastructure modelling tools. State and federal agencies admit that the devastation of Katrina was largely a result of failure on the part of the agencies to plan and put in place proactive disaster mitigation strategies, which led to unnecessary longer period of suffering among the affected population after the disaster (Miller, 2006). The failures witnessed during the Hurricane Katrina because the agencies either ignored the warning signs of the impending disaster or they made poor decisions or inadequate response efforts in the days after the disaster. The failures also emanated from a systemic failure of the systems on which the various government agencies relied to prepare and respond for similar disasters or due to a general failure of leadership at all levels (Boin, Hart, McConnell & Preston, 2010). As such, the disaster exposed an endemic failure on the part of state and federal agencies to offer a coordinated response to a catastrophic event. The devastation of the hurricane crippled various critical infrastructure including communication systems, integrated military capabilities, public safety and security apparatus, public health and medical support, mass care and public housing in addition to leaving on its trail unprecedented environmental hazards and debris (Miller, 2006). The widespread failure of critical infrastructure collapse during Katrina offers significant lessons to the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies on the need for a comprehensive and proactive operational plans to secure critical infrastructure in catastrophic times. This requires a constant assessment and rating of vulnerabilities inherent within the United States critical infrastructure, including the communication network, transport system, defense systems and healthcare facilities, all which come into play during the mitigation as well as rescue operations during disasters (Miller, 2006). Communication is one of the core critical infrastructure severely affected by the hurricane and its devastating consequences. According to Paul McHale, the Assistant Secretary for Homeland Defense, the hurricane degraded for a period of time and in some instances destroyed the affected districts communications systems completely. For instance, massive power failure during the storm led nearly 180 central office locations to halt operations or operate on generators while 100 radio commercial radio outlets went off air for the entire duration of the storm and the weeks after it ended. Apart from switching radio stations off air, the hurricane also destroyed over 2000 cell towers and significantly degraded the responder land mobile radio communications network, which made it nearly impossible for the coordinators and first responders to communicate. For instance, most emergency 911 lines either failed or were jammed by the frantic calls from the affected citizens (Miller, 2006). The most affected communication lines were in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana, where nearly three million customer phone networks were severely disrupted during the hurricane. Additionally, the few surviving communications and power stations that ran on generators soon lacked fuel because the extensive destruction of roads and bridges made it impossible to replenish fuel supplies. The widespread communication failure led the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), an integrated system that manages many other internet supported communication infrastructures (Howitt, Leonard & Giles, 2009). The communications failure in the worst hit disaster zones such as Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama had diverse and severe operational consequences, especially since modern government operations are heavy reliant on networked information technology systems. The destruction and degradation of communication networks therefore halted public services for days. For example, the New Orleans Police Department communication system went off operations for three days at the height of the hurricane, rendering the department incapable of coordinating or responding to officers in the field (Miller, 2006). By the time, the department stabilized its backup channels in the first responder areas, damage was already too devastating. Additionally, the Mississippi Guard responders encountered incapacitating difficulties in their efforts to make contact with the state or the governor’s emergency management agency for at least 48 hours after the hurricane had began. These derailed coordination and rescue efforts, leading to the massive loss of lives and destruction of property. The response to Katrina is rated the worst in United States history. It resulted in the death of nearly 2000 people and led to the loss of property costing over $100 billion. After Betsy, a category three storm that swamped parts of New Orleans and neighboring St. Bernard Parish in 1965, the state of Louisiana and US Army Corps of Engineers designed and constructed an elaborate chain of levees, floodgates, and canals to protect the Greater New Orleans from its vulnerability to flooding (Miller, 2006). However, financial constraints delayed the upgrading of the levees systems to resist the force of severe hurricanes. Besides, the effects of hurricanes in the city were underestimated due to the previous occurrence of less severe storms that at some points disappeared as the case of Hurricane Georges in 1998 and Hurricane Ivan in 2004 (Howitt et al., 2009). The hurricane experts and emergency planners noted that the hurricane activity in Atlantic was picking up and felt the inevitability of a more severe Hurricane striking and destroying New Orleans (Howitt et al., 2009). The detailed graphics depiction was provided in five-part series entitled ‘Washing Away’ indicating consequences that would bedevil the City when the storm occurs. This was regarded as the worst possible scenario natural disaster and made the top list of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). In the preparation to mitigate this perceived ‘worst scenario,’ FEMA funded an initiative ‘Hurricane Pam’ to design an elaborate plan and to conduct a scenario-based exercise to respond to a disastrous hurricane in Orleans. The participants were provided with vulnerability audit of New Orleans, formed teams and tasked to tackle on topics such as search and rescue, sheltering and temporary medical care and respond to the conditions stipulated in the scenario. The aim was to generate a bridging document between the already established state and local emergency response plan and the new federal National Response Plan. As a result, the initiative developed a draft termed Southeast Louisiana Catastrophic Hurricane Functional Plan which comprised fourteen different areas of response. During disasters response, law and order, evacuation and warning should be channeled through a proper communication system. The Emergency Assistance and Disasters Act of 1993, conferred powers and responsibility to the governor, in case of Katrina to declare a state of emergency, direct and force the evacuation of a section or entire population to the stricken or threatened areas (Schneider, 2005). The Act also allows him/her to use any private property if necessary as a means of transportation and destination in regards to evacuation. The Act also requires the establishment of the Louisiana Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness office both in the state Military and local government to spearhead implementation of operational emergency plans (Boin et al., 2010). Despite the laws within his mandate, Nagin failed to order mandatory evacuation though he allowed Superdome to be utilized as a shelter of last resort to those who did not evacuate. Furthermore, there was no clear communication and coordination between different levels of governments. Communication infrastructure is very essential in facilitating disaster mitigation as well as search and rescue operations. The breakdown in communication networks experienced during Hurricane Katrina contributed significantly to the loss of lives and the wanton destruction of property witnessed in the aftermath of the disaster. Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security should work cooperatively with all the agencies charged with the disaster planning and mitigation in securing and backing up all critical communication networks and ensure their continued usability in times of disaster.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Human Trafficking- Letter of Intent Name Institution Affiliation Date Human Trafficking- Letter of Intent The Department of Health and Human Service P.O Box 2011, Aurora, IL 60895-6070 USA Dear Sir/ Madam, Introduction I am writing to inform you my intention to submit research findings on the societal challenges of human trafficking at a global level. Human trafficking is a challenge that continues to thrive in the society in the contemporary times. With the abolishment of the slave trade in most parts of the world and the strict regulations of immigration practice and control of borders by countries, the challenge of human trafficking rose drastically in many parts of the world. Since human trafficking also entails crisscrossing local and international borders, often it is analyzed from the international crimes perspective. There is a huge exchange of money to carter for logistics, risks involved and possible benefits where people are traded and, thus, they are forced to conform to the demands of the aggressors. It is strongly condemned by human rights activists because it deprives the victims most of their rights and privileges of life (Flores, 2016). Addressing the societal challenge of human trafficking is very paramount in the present times for societies and communities. It is to reduce the possible negative effects that impact the society arising from the vice such as enhancing trafficking of drugs, increased insecurity and in particular rise to terrorist activities and related crimes in the society and deterioration of human values and human rights among others. Human trafficking in the US has continued to be complicated with the increased border patrols and regulations as a result of enhanced local security. The US has attracted many human traffic dealers because of the economic, social and political life opportunities available in the US. Countries bordering the United States have recorded the highest number of people traffickers attempt to bring to the United States. The United States and its communities, consequently, are not exempted from the threats posed by human traffic business. Problem Description Key factors that determine the variables and determinants of human trafficking are directly linked to the economic causes. By analysis of the flow in direction of the human traffic trade, key variables point to people moving from countries or regions with less economic opportunities and social life to areas that have a stable economic, social and political environment. The pull and push factors, therefore, determine the variables and determinants of the illegal human trafficking trade. Regions with high populations such as South East Asia have experienced high volumes of the trade because the majority of its population live in poverty and adverse surroundings making them more prone and vulnerable to traffickers. Global Impact The human trafficking sociological problem can be viewed and analyzed from a different sociological perspective such as the conflict perspective in the society where despite the society functioning as one unit or system, conflict arises as a result of conflicting struggles and interests at an individual and group level to attain intended goals. The conflicting parties in the society in relation to the subject of human trafficking include those people who perpetuate the trade and those against the trade that have conflicting interests. Some view the profits and benefits that result from the human trafficking trade while other view the negative consequences that societies experience as a result of the human trafficking challenge. There is conflict at the local and global level concerning the societal challenge that has further negative consequences in the society such as loss of property and life at times when such conflicting parties confront each other to protect their interests (McCallum, 2015). Research on the societal challenge, thus, would help to provide objective solutions to the challenge at both the local and global level. Global scale. The human trafficking social problem entails moving people from one country or region to other illegally without following the due and required immigration rules and regulations. It happens in most parts of the world and in particular societies that experience economic challenges such as developing countries and some developed countries such as China. It is due to the overpopulation that limits economic opportunities to the people as a result of intense competition. An international institution such as the United Nation and regional bodies like European Union have established department and teams that try to address the problem as it happens globally affecting many countries, regions, and people (Mordeson, Mallenby, Mathew, & Acharjee, 2017). Hence, a global challenge as it also conflicts with human rights goals. Compare and contrast. Human trafficking exists at both local and global level. Local human trafficking often occurs between and among people that know each other that might include friends and families where in many cases the poorer families give their people to the rich to offer their labor among other services without following the due and set rules and regulations. It happens mostly within a country borders. On the other hand, global human trafficking entails multinationals from different regions and countries that have established a well-organized syndicate that compels international bodies and countries to cooperate in addressing the challenges that entail crossing of international borders. It is fought by interagency teams operating at a global level. Globalization. Globalization has influenced the problem positively. The globalization concept has resulted in increased contact between and among people from different parts of the world with different interests in the economic, political or social aspects. It has resulted in the close corporation of multiagency teams that have made addressing the challenge at the global level much easier. Globalization, on the other hand, has also contributed to the increased human trafficking trade with liberated borders that encourage free movements of people from different regions and places. The repercussion of the human trafficking is similar at the global level. However, it also has a positive impact in the society where trafficked people, for instance, get life opportunities in their destination area often in stable economies and help their people from the source countries (Flores, 2016). Globalization, therefore, has contributed both positively and negatively to the human trafficking societal challenge. Theoretical perspectives. Conflict sociological perspective indicates the similar reason that exists contributing or resulting from the human trafficking social challenge. Human trafficking beneficiaries entail the powerful people in society that have devised ways including the use of huge resources to ensure the business thrives. The social order noted in the society that such businesses thrive is not by consensus but by the direct exertion of power in the society. There are conflicting interests that have seen the conflict escalate as the traffickers view the benefits that result from such illegal business while human rights activists view the threats and risks that trafficked people undergo, hence, bring conflict between the two parties (McCallum, 2015). The conflicting parties cannot cooperate because they have different interest. Cooperation is only exhibited by teams with same interests. The class exhibited in the society between the rich and poor as well as rich and poor countries have created the environment that makes conflict thrive in the society due to contrasting interest as asserted by Karl Marx that is a respected sociological conflict theoretical proponent. Apply perspectives. The conflict theoretical perspectives apply at the local and global level of human trafficking challenge because of the stratified society at both the local and international level. The stratification is mainly based on the economic position and, therefore, creating two parties between the rich and the poor at both levels. The interests of the two differ and, thus, results in conflicts in the society hence the similarities noted. Potential Solution Suggestion. There are numerous proposals suggested by scholars and researchers to address the human trafficking challenge in the society. They include legal solutions that entail legislations that curb illegal immigration and child labor, cooperation between and among different law enforcement agencies as well as public education campaigns among others (Mordeson et al., 2017). Personally, I prefer a multi-faceted approach that entails legal measures that put stronger punitive measures to dealers of human trafficking and enhanced multi-agency cooperation between agencies concerned to curb the social problem. Successful. The suggestion is likely to be successful because it will discourage people from engaging in the deal due to harsh punitive measures such as life imprisonment and hefty fines. Approaching the challenge using different strategies would lead to faster result and outcomes that would reduce the challenge in both the short and long-term.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Human Trafficking In Dominican Republic Name Institution Affiliation Date Human Trafficking In Dominican Republic Different regions and countries experience dynamic challenges that are caused by dissimilar conditions that either touches on the economic, political or social aspects. Human beings more often try to invent ways that they address different challenges and opportunities presented in life. It results in both positive and negative impacts in the short and long-term periods. International institutions and organizations also have tried to come up with measures that countries and regions facing dynamic challenges can adopt to change and improve on the situation. For example, they have developed millennium development goals that guide countries on the targets and goals that they need to realize at a specific given times. They intend to help address different challenges that humanity faces such as healthcare, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and conflicts among others. Therefore, conducting a ‘deep dive’ in such challenges either at a national or regional level is encouraged to produce an in-depth analysis to the variables that contribute to such situations. However, this paper presents an analysis of human trafficking challenges in the Dominican Republic with contributing factors and impacts. Part I. a. A Clear Topical Focus Human trafficking happens in many parts of the world and Dominican Republic is no exemption. However, the level of human trafficking in Dominican Republic has been rampant that has made the International Organization for Migration (IOM) rank it among the top countries that the practice has intense. Dominican Republic has not only acted as a source of human traffic but also as a transit and destination for human trafficking victims. Men, women as well as children have been trafficked for the purposes of forced labor in the country and region and also for commercial sexual exploitation (Cabezas, 2009). The high level of poverty has contributed to enhancing of the trade not only in Dominican country but also the neighboring countries such as Haiti that equally share almost the same level of poverty and economic challenges among its people. Internally, the trafficking issue continues where boys, girls and women are trafficked within the country borders for forced prostitution and domestic servitude and in worst cases, parents push their children into prostitution to help and support the families. The trade has so much developed and formed a strong network regionally and internationally where most of the trafficked Dominican women across their national borders head to south American countries such as Brazil, Argentina, Jamaica, Australia among other destinations for sexual exploitation. b. Description of Why the Issue Matters Human trafficking issue matters not only on what is happening in the Dominican Republic but also other parts of the world. The issue is a concern because of the minors involved in the trade that include young boys and girls that are introduced to prostitution and domestic servitude depriving them the opportunity to acquire the basic needs of life such as education as well as help them achieve their full potential in life. Furthermore, it is important to note the risks and challenges related to human trafficking that include diseases such as HIV/AIDS especially in situations where the trafficked people are exploited sexually and compelled to join prostitution within their countries or in other countries outside their borders. The world has a responsibility to protect children from such exploitation and abuse and the cartels involved in such acts benefit more than the people they use further worsening the situation. The rights of those trafficked are violated that goes against the international norms and statutes that guide humanity as indicated in international statutes such as that of the United Nations. People and organizations at both local and international level, thus, have to care to perform their responsibility and duty to protect the children and the most vulnerable in society as well as enhance human rights activism. c. Connection of the Issue to an SDG, Target, and Indicator. The human trafficking issue cuts across a number of sustainable development goals as indicated in the United Nations resolution. The issue touches on the goal of ending poverty, promotion of good health and wellbeing, decent work and economic growth and finally the goal touching on peace, justice and strong institutions. The SDG 5 that addresses gender equality targets to help in reducing human trafficking by empowering women in opportunities of employment and other resources that can help them get empowered so that the high poverty levels experienced among the women gender not only in Dominican Republic but also in other parts of the world can be reduced and, therefore, directly and indirectly contribute to the reduction of the problem of human trafficking. SDG 8 also encourages organizations and countries to provide decent work and economic growth opportunities for its people and, consequently, when the Dominican society and others in the world can implement such expectations it would reduce drastically the challenge of human trafficking that often happens in places with no decency but exploitation and abuse of women, children and boys and men in unhealthy conditions in the world. Finally, the human trafficking issue also touches on the SDG 16 where victims of trafficking are abused contravening human rights clauses (Obokata, 2006). In most cases they are forced to participate in the trade with threats to their lives and suppression of their freedom due to the injustices that they are subjected to in the course of the trade by the agents involved. The human traffic issue contravenes the target 8.7 in the SDG goals that responsible governments and organizations have to “take immediate actions and effective measures that eradicate forced labor, end modern day slavery and human trafficking and ensure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labor in all its forms.” d. Description of Policies or Influential Agendas That Address This Issue The concern of human trafficking has dominated government agencies debates and strategies formulated to help curb the vice. It has become a worry in the present times because of the threats related to human trafficking that has shifted the dynamism considering the present times that issues such as terrorism have increased global threats and insecurity. Most of the strategies formulated have been multifaceted where departments and organizations such as that of defense, justice, state, population services and health all have formed a team and an inclusive approach used to combat the challenge. The health care providers in most instances have been allowed to offer medication and health care services to victims of human trafficking unconditionally as they acknowledge they get exposed to many unhealthy conditions in the world (Unicef, 2017). They encourage ensuring that the victims are immunized and encouraged to take preventive medication and health actions that can reduce spread of diseases and bring health challenges as they cross borders in unhealthy and difficult conditions to and from different destinations. The health care workers have worked closely with other partners and stakeholders involved at both local and international level involved in addressing the challenge of human trafficking objectively. e. Description of Any Cultural, Political, Historical or Other Considerations That Continue To Impact the Issue and How It Is Addressed Human trafficking in Dominican Republic has been propelled by the culture developed in the area over many years that has encouraged commercial sex exploitation. The high level of poverty in the area has made efforts instituted at both the local and international level become ineffective and fail to achieve its targeted objectives. Some families, for instance, have encouraged their children to participate in prostitution as an option to help and support the families. Such cultural habits and attitudes make it difficult for the stakeholders involved to address the issue objectively. Moreover, rampant corruption and poverty has made legislative laws easily ignored and not reinforced. By addressing the issue of poverty in Dominican Republic and the entire region would play an important role in reducing the human trafficking issue as it will provide those involved with other opportunities and empower the populations that are driven into human trafficking because of poverty. Part 2: f. Description of Past and/or Present Efforts Aimed At Addressing the Issue The human trafficking menace has compelled organizations to institute measures and try to address the issue objectively. The approaches taken in the past and present is multifaceted where the country has employed a variety of strategy to help reduce the problem. The Dominican government developed a national anti-trafficking plan to help it layout strategies to use in addressing the issue. Moreover, with coordination and partnerships from the NGOs world, they both launched child awareness campaigns in the society that prevented child exploitation that include sex trafficking. The government in addition established a hot line that people with relevant information concerning human trafficking could reach the law enforcement agencies and responsible teams concerned with the subject (Department of State, 2017). Finally, the government offered training of personnel concerned with anti-trafficking tasks on the best approaches and techniques that can help them provide effective services in combating the trafficking problem. The action instituted aimed at addressing the issue has resulted in less progress. According to a UNICEF report that conducted several studies in the Dominican and Haiti Republic, child trafficking is still rampant with less progress contributed by a set of factors such as cultural, political, legal and socio-economic as well as border authority complicit with the traffickers (Unicef, 2017). The slow progress have compelled development partners in the Dominican Republic such as the United States through its embassy to institute measures and corporation with the Dominican republic that help it address the challenge objectively as it is also concerned with the problem. g. A Proposal to Address the Problem If I Have One Million to Spend. The proposal for the one million dollars to be spent in addressing the human trafficking issue in the Dominican Republic would institute several measures and approaches to help the problem objectively. First, it would support the education and advocacy approaches in the community that would empower the population with information about the dangers and risks that engaging in human trafficking pose and in particular how it abuses rights of children and human rights at large. Such programs would target to empower the masses and help them make informed decisions. Secondly, since the main driving force that leads people on the Dominican Republic is poverty related, compelling young girls and women to engage in sex trafficking at both the local and international level, I would support the economic programs that intended to empower the women to start small businesses and alternative ways to earn such as farming among others as an alternative source of income. Finally, the proposal shall also consider training of community groups that would help work with the local agencies to try and address the human trafficking problem objectively by getting skills on the detection, prevention, prosecution and protection. In conclusion, the human trafficking challenge in the Dominican Republic is a replica of what transpires in many countries and regions. All stakeholders must come together to help address the concern objectively. Cooperation between and among different stakeholders in the international system would prove relevant in addressing the concern that also pose health risks and threats. Research is encouraged to determine the possible cause for the increased and continuation of the human trafficking despite the enormous efforts instituted by stakeholders to address the concern at the local, national and global level. References Cabezas, A. L. (2009). Economies of desire: Sex and tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Philadelphia, PA: Temple Univ. Press.
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    Human Resource Organization Name of Student Name of Institution Human Resource Organization Human Resource Organization Chart iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAxIAAAHyCAMAAAE/xjjEAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1B AACxjwv8YQUAAALBUExURQAAAO3y9hscHZ7E5vX5/AYGBv7+/vX5/f39/f///4KGiarL6Rwd HnWr3P7+/vb6/eDs90NERleX17LQ6mCe1ubr8fn7/f7+/v///1qa1f7+/v7+/l+f3+jt87fT 7f7+/lmZ0l+fz/7+/n9/f1ua09jn9f7+/v///6PH53N2eUZ7p1+f1P7+/v7+/v7+/iMkJI66 4lqa1FGNwlub1Pn7/f7+/tvh5kd7qMbL0GBiZPr8/f7+/vr8/u3y95yfoyUmJ1ub1Xqu3bzW 7f7+/hAQEfv9/uXv+J2gpPP3+nd6fWWh2Obw+P7+/lub1ScoKf7+/v///83g8oGy30Z5p9Hj 85zD5vH2+1ub1FKNwv7+/rzW7v///5W+5FmZ1Vqa1fL3/Nzp9+Lt93Kp27e7wHh4eF+d1f7+ /uLo7UZ6p6jK6Vqa1WOg10d7p63N6bm9wv7+/5OXm36BhPT4+1+e1kd5qP///3es3Mrf8Vqa 1NDV23+x3ury+i8wMWqk2UZ6qVqa1Vub1TAxMqDF50Z7qQoLC8DY79PY3ejw+Vqb1Vub1Wii 2EdJS8HZ71KMv/r8/UhKTG9xdHes3Fub1Nra2kd6p+vx9+Lt963N6u71+kd7qFub1Fqa1f//
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    HRM Issue Analysis Name Institution Affiliation Date HRM Issue Analysis HRM Productivity Problem Amazon is experiencing poor productivity issue where employees do not perform to the expected standards and results. It, directly and indirectly, impacts on the organization's goals as a result of poor welfare experienced in the organization. Productivity is important for an organization as it helps it realize employee’s full potential that results in a maximum output from employees. It makes organization achieve their set goals and objectives with ease due to efficiency and high turnover rates. Productivity acts as an indicator that enables organizations forecasts success or failure in future and, hence, productivity issues can be used by an organization to institute changes and drastic actions that would help and transform an organizations performance. Productivity would impact an organization performance over time where through financial indicators such as profits and costs used and non-financial indicators such as quality of standards of produce and quantity of volumes produced can point to sustained and improved productivity or deteriorating productivity. Hence, productivity is relevant to Amazon’s overall success and performance. Recommended Solutions An immediate review of the causes of poor productivity has to be done by incorporating all stakeholders involved in a discussion to address the problem objectively. The reduced productivity experienced by Amazon results from poor welfare issues that demoralize the employees as they feel deprived of their rights and concerns that ultimately affect the production process and outcomes. Amazon has to conduct an internal analysis that would help it discover the primary cause of the reduced productivity in its employees. It would help it discover the possible causes of the problem and in this case institute drastic measures that include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation approaches to improve productivity. Both the employees and the organization would gain from the suggested plan of conducting an internal analysis and instituting motivation approaches including improved welfare status. No stakeholders that include employer (Amazon), employees or other stakeholders would lose from the suggested plan. The potential benefits of the proposed plan are that it would give more information and findings of productivity as well as other factors within the organization. It will also help formulae long-term approaches that improve on welfare and ultimately sustain productivity for Amazon. The plan will solve the productivity problem because it will allow the employees through the discussion to open up and state the main cause of demoralization that is impacting on productivity. The course material (class 10) that talks about the motivation of workers and how in particular improved welfare and work environment motivates workers to increase productivity resulting from efficiency. Class 14 course material that talks about ‘performance management’ and in precise the third step that talks about ‘performing performance appraisal and evaluation discussion’ provide evidence the plan will work. Class 2 of course materials also address possible legal implications in the differential treatment because Amazon fails to take into account the complainant’s already disadvantaged position in the two women’s case related to health. What led to the solutions is the need for discussion and dialogue by stakeholders on issues concerning the organization, and findings objective solutions to problem together as a team in an organization. Constraints to take into account include limited time to discuss the issue at length and also limited people with skills to develop welfare policies and strategies. Possible Limitations of the Study Additional information to have would touch on how to sustain productivity in the short and long term period for organizations. The sources of information might have affected the recommendations by enabling one to relate the case of Amazon experience and apply it in the course contexts on issues that touch on productivity and motivation of workers hence affects the decisions taken. The constraints likely to be encountered in implementing the changes include limited financial support from the organization and also limited time because employees have to proceed with production and work. The company owners might resist the suggestions because of the financial implications that it would involve when welfare is supported and also such discussion that involves all stakeholders might expose them and the possible wrongs that happens within the organization resulting in poor productivity. The alternatives to address the constraints include rotational discussions and analysis conducted in different departments and sections to ensure work and productivity continues. Also, address the financial cost aspects involved from an investment perception to encourage the leaders and decision makers as motivated workforce and increased productivity would benefit Amazon more than the cost involved in the processes. References Class 10. Environmental Influence on HRM. Internal environment: Organizational climate: Atmosphere’s impact on employee motivation, job performance, and productivity. Class 14. “Performance management.” Step 3. Perform performance appraisal and evaluation discussions.
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: How Smartphone’s reduces Lively Communication Communication is an essential part in life that ensures contacts and continuous flow and delivery of messages in the economic, social or political fields is done effectively resulting in positive outcomes. Technology, on the other hand, continues to impact all aspects of life that include communication wherein the contemporary times' innovation and creativity has resulted in the development of gadgets that enhance communication. A Smartphone is among the devices that improve communication that has continued to spread and dominate the world in issues of communication especially at this time that the concept of globalization has increased interactions between and among people from different parts of the world. Effective communication is reinforced by verbal and non-verbal communication aspects that ensure that messages delivered across the communication channel are rightly encoded and decoded by the senders and receivers that ensure the communication process is complete and useful. However, this paper analyzes how Smartphone reduces lively communication. Lively communication is communication described as one that entails the mix of both verbal and non- verbal communication simultaneously that enhance communication making lively contacts and messages that supplement each other in the verbal and non-verbal communication (Jin, 24). The most common non-verbal communication aspects that play a critical role in the communication process include facial expression and facial elements such as eye contacts. Besides, tonal variation, shaking and movement of different body parts such as nodding, gestures, and body posters among others. It is also broadly classified and categorized according to the senses used in referring to the communication process and messages. They include kinesics that shows the visuals clues such as body language, proxemics that notes the distance and appearance aspects in the communication process and finally the haptics that indicates the touches actions that reinforce the communication process. Smartphone communication despite having improved software’s and programs that try to enhance communication positively such as allowing video communication that presents some non- verbal communication elements such as through Skype among others audio-video supported communication, it has played a significant role in reducing lively communication. It was common at the time that Smartphone and other communication gadgets had not infiltrated and penetrated the world population as they have currently done impacting on lively communication negatively. The broad extent that Smartphone can be used for continues to limit people movement and lively communication processes wherein the contemporary time people can do shopping and order for goods using their phones at the touch of a button seated right in their living rooms (Karikoski and Soikkeli, 496). They can also engage in financial transactions using their phone as well as other critical communication impacts in the social, economic or political setups including voting that can be done online using some Smartphone’s that have software and application that support such adventurers. Smartphone’s equally support application and software that encourage and offer mobile gaming that has become addictive and time-consuming from many people that also limits lively communication, particularly for children. Active and lively play for children is essential for proper growth and health of the children according to medical and health professionals but Smartphone has limited and reduced such active sporting activities and engagement that children used to actively engage in such as playing football or basketball among other active sports that ensured that children grew up strong and healthy. Such active engagement did not only help them grow healthy and fit but also reinforced and enhanced their communication competencies where they were able to supplement messages they communicated with both verbal and non-verbal communication elements that resulted in improved and enhanced communitarian skills and competencies (Dcruz, par. 7). It makes them become active listeners and communicators that positively improve and increased their academic potential and competencies in schools. The same gaming activities in Smartphone has also impacted on adults that have limited their active movements and engagement in life that health experts notes are good and healthy for a healthful lifestyle. The ultimate results are that many have developed and increased the risks that can results in the development of heart diseases and high blood pressure and related disease directly. It results from a lack of active communication and active life because of the Smartphone potential to complete many tasks that include supporting mobile gaming platforms. It might also enhance the chance and risks of developing obesity among children and adults because of the lack of active lifestyle and communication processes. Smartphone has increased addiction in the use and application in the social media that enhances and support different social media platforms such as Facebook, whatsup, and Instagram among others. The current generation particularly youths prefer it and spend most parts of their times chatting and texting using their Smartphone’s at the expense of voice call that has a more significant impact enhancing lively communication positively. Research and studies note that the number of voice calls in many places and societies continues to drop while the use of internet through data packages provided by the telephone mobile communication players continues to increase (Iqbal, par. 2). The time that people spent concentrating on their Smartphone chatting and texting makes it difficult for them to focus on other issues going on in their environment because eye contact that is essential in communication becomes limited because of the concentration that the eyes have in the Smartphone. It, hence, makes it possible for people to communicate to others in their environments because eye contact plays an essential part in the lively communication process by noticing people or issues of interests in their environment and, thus, initiate lively communication. However, when the eyes are glued to the Smartphone’s in the communication process that Smartphone users engage in with others through chatting and texting, it only limits the hearing sense and touches sense as an alternative to initiate communication process. It can become difficult if the distance between two or more potential communicator is considerable that cannot allow for touches and gestures that can win the attention and initiate the communication process. It is the reason relationships, and friendships have broken in the present times because when people are highly concentrated in their Smartphone’s and other people that know them that can wish to initiate the communication process might think that those in the Smartphone chatting and texting have assumed them (Dcruz, par. 4). It might create conflict and misunderstanding where active communication and contacts between the people would be limited and threatened in the present and the future because of the tension and conflict that arises between and among people that know each other. Voicemail, for example, that is an essential part that initiated active and lively communication is almost extinct in most sections of the society where people hardly leave voice messages that can enhance lively communication when such messages reached the right audience. With the continuous decrease in the volume of the voice calls recorded in the society and the world at large and increased use of the internet and data and time spent in the Smartphone can enable a projection of possible future voicemail extinction in the lively communication process and channel. Smartphone also has continued to create and extend the communication gap that exists in society. Particularly between the generation gap that exists presently where the aged and senior citizens in the community have not embraced the newest technology such as the use of Smartphone’s and related software’s and social media a platform that has continued to expand the gap between the different generations in the society (Shinae Lee, et al., 192). It limits their lively communication opportunities because of the generation and technological gap that is presented in the society. It continues to restrict the lively communication options available in the society that starts right from the family setup as the basic unit of society. The case is different when compared to the past where despite the generation gap that existed, lively and active communication options continued to be used in society. A study conducted by Karikoski, Juuso and Tapio Soikkeli (2013) to note the impact of the Smartphone to the society and in lively communication pointed different aspects that range from the effects that touch on the office setting, home setups, and other settings as well as abroad. The findings of the study noted that Smartphone had impacted lively communication negatively in most incidences. The results of the study asserted that voice calls are used the least at home context where more often the voice calls duration is the longest. The study results point out the main causes why smartphones are used the least in voice calls at home. It is because they often are engaged in chatting and texting mostly in the social media platforms that had limited the active and lively communication that was normal and intense before the penetration of the Smartphone in the market as it is currently experienced. Also, previous use of telephone calls or mobile phone had noted that the home context of set up is where voice calls recorded lengthy time in conversations because of the freedom and privacy that those setups provide to those communicating. However, the study notes that it registered the last time that shows and provides evidence of the changed status quo when compared to the past (Karikoski and Soikkeli 496 ). It implies that one factor that has reduced to the long voice calls in the home setup is because of the contribution that Smartphone that has continued to pin people down through chatting and texting that do not support lively communication as noted in the real face to face talks or even voice calls that reinforced lively communication. It enabled decoding and encoding of messages with ease because it also incorporates non-verbal communication aspects such as tonal variation that can supplement the messages that the communicators pass to each other through telephone calls. The same results findings also noted that emails and SMS were used more in office contexts when using Smartphone platforms. Emails and SMs also limit the use of lively communication and. Thus, Smartphone continues to reduce lively communication in contemporary times as noted in many societies. The possible reason that SMS and emails dominate its use in the office set up is that the office set up is a professional context where business transactions dominate the communication channels, messages and approaches used. Therefore, the workers or those in the office, thus, try to limit their communication aspects particularly in the voice set up and voice calls so that they can avoid attracting attention and discussing possible private matters in the office setups. If the Smartphone were not available, the office setups would enhance lively communication either through the voice call options or through face-to-face communication that would improve lively communication. It is because the people communicating would have no option but to use the alternative approaches in the communication process that include voice call options as well as face to face communication approaches that would enhance lively communication. In “Elsewhere” and abroad context in the research study, it implied that the use of social media platform was intense and dominated the settings where users and those communicating would be pinned down in many social media platforms at the same time where some would operate and communicate in different platforms at the same time. It has in essence played and contributes significantly to killing and reducing vital communication in the communication process. The social and free contexts provide communicators with the most significant opportunity to enhance lively communication as it allows incorporation of all aspects of lively communication elements such as the proxemics that notes the distance, kinesics that notes the movements as well as the haptics that can all be applied to reinforce active communication. It is because of the freedom that communicators have unlike in the office contexts where the ethics and professional conduct might limits some elements of communication aspects particularly the non-verbal aspects such as proxemics and, therefore, Smartphone has continued to impact the lively communication negatively. The application and use of Smartphone in all the described social contexts that include at home, in the office, at free time and abroad, hence, show proof that it has changed and impacted almost in all aspects that provide the platform and privilege for communication processes in the society limiting lively communication. The worry is that the number of people in the society that continues to use and acquire Smartphone increases at an alarming rate as it has become part of the modern trend and lifestyle. Where almost many youths and adults have a piece, and the number that continues to rise further presents a possibility that can allow even worst implication to lively communication in the United States and the whole world at large (Twenge par. 9). The ability of Smartphone to allow more than one social media communication and application to run at the same time as well as the ability of the Smartphone to allow concurrent messages at the same in different social media platform has also contributed to the continuous spinning down of Smartphone users in their phones. It occupies most of their time concentrating on their Smartphone and more often alone in their rooms for a longer time limit and excludes the users from the possible potential opportunities that can allow them to enhance lively communication. Worsening the situation, more and more social media platforms continue to be innovated and introduced in the current technology development and set up. It would imply that in the future those people with Smartphone would continue to enroll in more and more of the different social media platforms that would mean that still would be limited in the opportunity that would help and enhance lively communication. IIt has more benefits and advantages in the communication process because of the lively attributes that make communication useful and exciting such as noted in the face to face communication process. Smartphone has also reduced and hinders the development of social skills that more often is developed through the use of lively communication channels and aspects (Dcruz par 6). Social skills are essential for a person, and it is skills that one learns and practices to increase perfection and competencies that can enable one socialize completely and, hence, improve his or her chances resulting from positive and competent social communication processes. The social skills also can help and determine somebody’s career paths where if one fails to develop enough social skills and improves their competencies in social skills it can result in people experiencing difficulties in developing and enhancing careers. Not only producing to social subject and topics such as sociology and psychology but also other careers as social skills have eventually proved essential particularly in building and enhancing teams in the organizations and workstation that people work. Team building is an important part and process in the current working environment, and the competencies that social skills play in team building and related skill is essential that can contribute to people developing positive careers and relationships in the work environment as well as personal and private life. Such social skills are not only relevant in the work environment, but also it is essential in the interview process where they analyze a candidates potential in the interview process by noting down the communication skills competencies that a potential candidate has. The effect is that those who spent more time in their Smartphone at hand and fail to develop such social skills might find it possibly difficult in having successful interviews and selection processes of jobs opportunities. It is not because they lack the required academic competencies but because they lack enough social skills and communication skills that would prove relevant and essential in enhancing the potential organization goals and vision. For example, if in an interview where aspects of communication and social skills prove relevant skills of the industry it might present and limit the chances of people getting such opportunities and, therefore, it would become difficult for them in life. The use of lively communication skills more often plays a vital role in revealing the communication skills of individuals that would include aspects that more often are presented in the non-verbal attributes such as seating posture, facial expression and communication aspects such as eye contacts and active listening among others. All the noted non-verbal communication aspects that play a significant role in the communication process often are displayed in lively communication that Smartphone use does not show and incorporate all or part of them (Twenge par. 4). And, therefore, the skills and social aspects that reinforce communication during interviews and related events need to be strengthened and practiced to enhance and increase the chances of a potential candidate having a successful interview process. Intimate conversations between parents and their children are said to be healthy and helpful for building trust and enhance positive relationships and communication beyond the family setup. However, most parents have not been enabled to establish such a relationship with their children because of the limited attention that they get. It is because most of their children or loved ones are likely to be engaged in social media platforms using their Smartphone and, therefore, they often leave their parents or guardians in a dilemma. More often the parents also do not want to interfere with their affairs and communication aspects when they get glued in their Smartphone (Dcruz par. 6). The impacts of the continuous neglect and closure of communication channels and opportunities result in some parents neglecting taking care of their children because they are glued to their Smartphone. It expands the gap that exists in family setups where the generation gap that exists between parents and children at times also further develops the communication gap that exists between parents and children in the family sets up. In the same contexts, children find it difficult to open up to their parents because the communication gap is already established and it keeps on enlarging and expanding. It makes it difficult for some children to open to their parents and even in situations that would be essential to share with their parents such as an incident or threat in their lives that might require their parents' intervention. Smartphone has contributed to limit lively communication even in the family setups as noted in the presented scenario above. It indicates how the gaps between parents and their children keep on expanding further reducing the possibility of engaging in lively communication that can result in the development of positive relationships in the family set up such as enhanced intimacy that occurs in the development of trust and a confident connection between family members (Shinae 192). Empathy is an essential part that enhances lively communication and trust between and among different people in the communication processes. The use of Smartphone limits the use and application of incidences that results in improved lively communication resulting from empathy. Less empathy for others might create the perception or view that others are careless when they have challenges or experience difficulties in different aspects of life that might evoke feelings and emotions. The notion or picture created that one careless or is not concerned by the experiences of those close to them might not be intentional as they might be limited in attention that might evoke lively communication including empathy due to the Smartphone continuous use as noted among the youths in the present times that has continued to create communication difficulties. Moreover, empathizing with others through the Smartphone and the social media platforms supported in the software and application in the platform has proved difficult. As it would have been done using other communication options such as face- to- face communication or voice calls that have a lively communication element making communication easy in encoding and decoding of information to ensure complete and effective communication processes. Smartphone has also made it difficult to know the true characteristics of an individual. It is because some have taken advantage of the Smartphone and its use that has pinned down users and glued them for longer times. It limits the lively communication chances and options that at times has worked to the disadvantage of the society and people close to the users (Dcruz par. 8). It makes it difficult to know and understand the true personalities of an individual that more often is glued to a Smartphone that limits lively communication. The scenario might work negatively for persons in the event the person has lousy intention and characters that might result in harmful acts such as theft or destruction of someone property. The limited lack of lively communication makes it difficult to understand and know people’s true personalities and characteristics regarding behaviors. And criminals or bad guys have taken advantage of it by limiting lively communication by engaging in their Smartphone for a more extended period and intentionally limiting chances of communication. Besides, camouflaging in the use of Smartphone only to wait for an opportunity to strike and cause damage such as through theft or any wrong action and activity that might be related to crime among others. In conclusion, Smartphone has contributed in many aspects to the limited lively communication in the society. Its continuous use in different setups such as in homes, offices and at social places has continued to limit the opportunities that lively communication can be enhanced. It also impacts on essential skills such as social skills and communication skills negatively by restricting the practice and use of such skills that are essential in establishing relationships positively. It is, thus, relevant for people using Smartphone also to try and incorporate and enhance the use of lively communication to realize benefits that come from the method of lively communication in the present times. Works Cited Dcruz, Vanessa Jacqueline. “Technology Is Killing The Art Of Face-To-Face Communication.” Connected Women Magazine, 1 March 2017, https://www.connectedwomen.co/magazine/technology-is-killing-the-art-of-face-to-face-communication/. Accessed 26 Nov 2018. Iqbal, Nosheen. “Have smartphones killed the art of conversation?.” The Guardian, 05 Aug 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/aug/05/smartphones-kill--art-of-conversation-voice-calls-whatsapp-emojis. Accessed 26 Nov 2018. Jin, Dal Y. Smartland Korea: Mobile Communication, Culture, and Society. , 2017. Print. Karikoski, Juuso, and Tapio Soikkeli. “Contextual Usage Patterns in Smartphone Communication Services.” Personal & Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 17, no. 3, Mar. 2013, pp. 491–502. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s00779-011-0503-0. Shinae Lee, et al. “Effects of Communication Style with Parents Perceived by Female College Students on Smartphone Addiction and Depression.” Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, vol. 19, no. 6, June 2018, pp. 188–196. EBSCOhost, doi:10.5762/KAIS.2018.19.6.188. Tellería, Ana Serrano. Between the Public and Private in Mobile Communication. Twenge, Jean M. “Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?.” The Atlantic, nd Sep 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/has-the-smartphone-destroyed-a-generation/534198/. Accessed 26 Nov 2018.
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    Positive Psychology Name of Student Name of Institution Positive Psychology Positive Psychology is an area of Psychology, which studies what makes life worth living (Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004, p. 603). When people fill out questionnaires about what makes life worth living, they repeatedly choose a list of character strengths, which are at the crux of making people feel they are living a good life. These four strengths are hope, optimism, future-mindedness, and future orientation (Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004, p. 604). This paper will reflect on why these character strengths best help people feel they live good lives and how to approximate having a high factor of life satisfaction. People found to self-describe as possessing the 4 character strengths were also found to be people who are in better physical health overall (Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004, p. 603). People who are in good physical health are people who generally invest more time, energy, and money into building up their physical well-being. They exercise regularly, take vitamins and nutrients, are conscious about their diets, and educate themselves about healthy lifestyle choices. It seems that feeling hopeful about one’s health drives one to take positive action toward achieving and maintaining it. Being hopeful and optimistic about something may lead to building that part of life up happily and not spearing expense or time and energy to learning about it and then to doing what is necessary to gain and maintain it. Being hopeful about something brings a person closer to taking positive action to building up the thing about which the person feels hope and this may be the reason why hope and future orientation are strongly related. If one has hope and optimism about their own future they are inclined to act about their future in ways people, in our example, act about their physical health. This also relates to zest, which was found to be one of the highest-ranking character strengths associated with life satisfaction (Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004, p. 615). A person with zest is more likely to participate and take positive action. Love is a strength associated with “ongoing life satisfaction” (Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004, p. 615). However, hope, optimism, zest, and future orientation all relate to the future. In conclusion, a feeling of hope and optimism about one’s future is at the very heart of what makes people feel most strongly satisfied with their lives. These are the character strengths most worthy of learning about and nurturing in one’s self if one wants to have a high life-satisfaction factor.
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    Homework Name Institution Q-1 Changes in fossil fuel consumption affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a significant way. The increase in fossil fuel concentrations as a result of factors such as burning fuels in motor vehicles lead to the increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For example, when the percentage of fossil fuel per year increases to +4% per year, the GT goes up by 4 percent. This implies that the rise in fossil fuel consumption leads to an Increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which in turn affects the quality of the habitable planet. This observation is consistent with statistics showing that as people and industries continue to consume fossil fuels around the world, the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide rises (University of East Anglia, 2013). For example, while average carbon dioxide levels in 1975 was about 330ppm, it is presently at 385ppm (ABC Science, 2019). Carbon dioxide emissions attributed to burning fossil fuels have reached their highest levels in history (Levin, 2013). Q2. Just like it is the case with fossil fuel concentration, an increase in deforestation results in the increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. When net deforestation rate per year goes up by +4, it leads to the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide by 4 percent. Human activities that cause deforestation such as agricultural activities should thus be discouraged to avoid the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The total world’s forest cover absorb about a quarter of human carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping to limit the quantity of gas in the atmosphere (Curley, 2018). In areas where the forests are intact, the absorption rates are higher, while the areas where the forests are fragmented the absorption rates are lower (The New York Times, 2019). Trees are useful in capturing greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide. As such, places with many trees significantly prevent the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus helping to prevent global warming (Rainforest Alliance, 2018). References
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    HIV Name Institution Affiliation Date HIV Health care plays an important role in the society. It is the reason many agree to the view that a healthy nation is indeed a wealthy nation. The dynamism of the health sector and different health challenges have attracted researchers and scholars in the sector supported by governments and the private sector. International institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) among others show the seriousness that the health sector has attracted both at the local and international institutions. However, this paper presents an analysis of HIV research and development and how different variables affect the condition such as research, treatments as well as populations health recommendations among others. Method Section The research used secondary research method that analyzed critical data from reliable sources about the subject of HIV. Internet was particularly an important part that enabled find different content and information about the subject. Use of key terms and words such as “HIV”, “HIV treatment” and “HIV Research” in peer-reviewed journals presented in-depth information that enabled the research to be done about the subject. The peer-reviewed journals and books published by higher institutions of learning provide a wide depth of references and information about the subject of interest from a different perception and philosophical points of view. They are also subject to verification and analysis by professionals and scholars before their publications are authorized as it goes through a process and must meet stated scholarly and professional conditions that include professionalism in the research process and procedures. The peer-reviewed data, thus, provided an important source that enabled the research to use quality data increasing the authenticity of the message and information presented from the research process. HIV is an abbreviation for Human Immunodeficiency virus that attacks the body immune system, which destroys the white blood cells that is the body’s natural defense against illness. The HIV condition has proved to be a puzzle to the world that has made it declared as a global disaster. It is the disease that has recorded the highest number of deaths when it deteriorates to the AIDS status mostly in the later stages of the disease. It is a unique disease as it attacks the very natural body defense mechanisms and immune system creating room for other ailments to easily affect and impact the patients negatively resulting in the highest number of deaths. It is a condition that develops slowly making it harder for people to realize they are infected and start taking medication. The condition is categorized in stages that are determined by the amount of CD4 cells also called T-helper cell to that of a normal healthy person ratio. The virus makes more copies of itself after destroying the CD4 cells that have made controlling the disease become challenging to researchers and health care providers. The symptoms include swollen glands and flu-like in the early stages but severe symptoms might appear in later stages that include frequent illness and rapid deterioration of body weight. However, the symptoms and signs often depend on the stage of infection. Some people may experience no symptom at all in the early stages until the later stages. Often, the symptoms depend on the person natural body reaction but the common symptoms in the early stages of infection include a sore throat, rash, headache, and fever. The cause of HIV is still a puzzle that researchers are tirelessly working on to find not only the cause but also the cure of the condition. It is a viral infection passed from one person to the other through the exchange of body fluids. The prognosis (outcome) of HIV is felt both directly and indirectly. It creates room for opportunistic infections to attack the human body when the HIV stage is in an advanced stage. Those infected also might be stigmatized in the society that might result in stress and depression among others. It has also increased and strained costs used by a household in the treatment of the condition that has strained families and people finances. The condition has also impacted governments and in particular ministries of health negatively by straining the limited resources used in the healthcare sectors as well as other departments in the society. It is because of the challenge that the condition has caused with no cure yet found and also the weakened body immune that makes those infected susceptible to other infectious diseases. The outcome of the condition has also impacted economies of countries and regions negatively, in particular, those areas with high prevalence such as Sub-Sahara Africa where most of the young people in their productive age are affected by the condition resulting in stunted economic production and economic activities. According to CDC (2017) data, HIV has infected over 78 million people since the disease was discovered. However, the highest number of the infected comes from sub-Saharan Africa a factor that mainly is linked to the high poverty rates. The sub-Sahara region accounts for two-thirds of the Global total of new HIV infections and over 25.6 million people living with the condition in the year 2016. The 2016 global statistics on HIV indicated that over 1 million people die of HIV-related illnesses with over 35 million people killed by the disease as of the year 2016. The percentage and proportion of adults with children infected with the disease stood at 54 percent of adults against 43 percent of children. The indicators and behavioral risk factors that might result in the condition include having unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an infected person, sharing of blood needles especially among the drug users as well as the risky child to mother contacts such as through breastfeeding, pregnancy, and childbirth. People with other sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and syphilis among others show behavioral risk factors as it is an indicator of risky acts that increase the chance of contacting the HIV condition. Research and Treatments Research continues to be done about HIV that has attracted many scholars. Hardie at al. (2017) in their research in South Africa that is among the countries with high prevalence tested the causes of faulty results on the 4th generation testing platforms in the laboratories. The researchers used experimental design where they tested specimens on Siemens and Roche automated 4th generation platforms. The findings of the study indicated that the extreme sensitivity of assays, the minute presence of HIV antibodies might cause the negative staple to test positive. It recommends the establishment of better control measures in regions with high HIV seroprevalence. iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAABAAAAAMACAIAAAA12IJaAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF7sXQV81EgXT7du1I0CLd6ixVukWDkcirscDlfkkAOKe3E5DrciH+5+FG2BHlrcoUKpu29X vpdkJdlkd7NbobSTH9fbzc48+b83kzczbyY6T548wTS8RCJRREREcnKyhvVKdHFra2sXFxce j6dCSqR4iTahhsKBxStXrqy6ErK4hqCW6OKojaPOjYkAauMlutFqKFzZbONctNYQyGIqfu/e vR49euTk5BSQ340bNzp16pSdnU2lc+bMmf79+xeQMln9xIkTJZCUFqqBIr1795ZV1NFiABAT ExMfHw/hsq2trRYSlMAqiYmJ3759c3R0dHJyUiEeUryUWRzMDUZHFmcigFy9lLk66tyUNfOy 7OoJCQkNGzasUqVKCXwoayHS169fnz59am9vX6ae4xyjFy3wLIYq5AAgNTW1gLyADusA4Pff f09LSysgcagOY4kSSEoLvUCRoUOHykZKqia8WanDfAlE/w4ODqXmAQlqgi7QZYBeoJ0yTJHi pc/icXFxyOKsc6KojWvRt5bMKrLOTYV4qHMrfZ0bl8dZ9erVS030D+4NutSoUUO14lCslHVu XKKXktk1lQ6pkpKSViq54KcSrqPGAwAYborFYtXzpiVcZ1bxQCPQC7RTJnwZV1z1nMqvaHHQ iIvFy6ziZbaNl0qLQ4gP072qO7dSqTiXNl42XR2cwc3N7VfsulXITGqk4jkOrQBcopS5utpn
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    The History of Special education Teacher in America and how it has Impacted today’s society Name Institution The History of Special Education Teacher in America and its Impact on the American Society Today Special education is the practice of educating students with identified disabilities using approaches and tools that address their individual needs and differences, in addition to providing them with the opportunity to grow and develop to their maximum potential (Winzer, 2014). This form of education is delivered in the United States free of charge though a public education system designed through a legislation called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Swanson, 2008). The state of special education in America has not always been this way. Special education in America has a long and insightful history, which continues to shape the training and role of special education teachers in the American society today. The abundance of special education programs and resources available in today’s America is not a reflection of the country’s history in providing this kind of education, especially up-to 1975 (Osgood, 2008). After the United States attained independence in 1776, little was done to promote and safeguard the interests and rights of students with disabilities (Winzer, 2014). The absence of relevant legislation on this area denied a significant number of disabled students in the United States equal educational opportunities as regular students. Historical records show that the first schools in the United States to offer disabled students with educational opportunities were created in the 1800s (Arkansas State University, 2016). Most of them were, however, private and sometimes served these students more through charity framework rather than educational basis. Even the introduction of a policy in 1852 for compulsory education for the nation’s schoolchildren did not help to offer educational opportunities to children with disabilities (Osgood, 2008). These children were denied education opportunities like other disenfranchised groups like members of certain religious faiths, rural dwellers, and children of color (King, 2017). Even though media somewhat highlighted the disenfranchisement of these groups from education system, it rarely did the same for children with disabilities. The media did not provide adequate coverage on the issue of denial of equal educational opportunities to children with disabilities in American public schools (King, 2017). The major progress towards the provision of education to children with disabilities was marked in 1933. This is the time when the first advocacy group formed to fight for quality of special education was formed by the affected parents (Osgood, 2008). By 1950s, there were numerous advocacy groups of the same nature, which led to the waves of lobbying for provision of quality special education (Swanson, 2008). They encouraged the enactment of laws that offered training for teachers who worked with children with disabilities such as the intellectually challenged students and the deaf children. Further development in this sector was witnessed in the 1960s when multiple laws on the same were passed, resulting in aspects aimed at promoting education of special education such as granting funds for their programs and facilities (King, 2017). The media was instrumental in this phase of key developments in special education in America by airing news about the lobby groups involved in advocating for new laws to enable children with disabilities with more educational opportunities to help them realize their full potential in life. The landmark shift in the history of special education was in 1975 when the Congress enacted a public law called the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) (Osgood, 2008). The primary objective of this law was to ensure that children with disabilities had equal education opportunities as regular students by guaranteeing them access to appropriate and free public education (Winzer, 2014). It also offered enhanced stated and local protection and support to these children and their families. It granted federal funding to all public schools that offered equal educational access for children with mental and or physical disabilities. The EHA was amended in 1997 to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Swanson, 2008). The amendments resulted in ensuring that children with disabilities obtained better quality of education-related services and made sure that they had complete access to the most appropriate education in conducive and less restrictive settings (Osgood, 2008). During these historic times in special education reforms in America, media played an integral role in creating awareness and educating the public about this kind of education (Osgood, 2008). It facilitated political and legal discourses leading to the enactment of these laws, as well as aiding in debunking the myths around these laws (Winters & Greene, 2007). In addition, the media provided a platform for education experts and stakeholders such as government officials to express their views through editorial opinions and press conferences about various aspects relating to the issue of special education such as how education administrators should effectively manager inclusive schools (The Conversation, 2019). The media also allowed experts to engage in debates on issues of costs relating to provision of special education in public schools, as well as the protection of the rights of students with disabilities (Arkansas State University, 2016). These debates enriched policy positions directed towards establishment of strong and effective special education in the United States. As the world continues to focus on inclusivity in all spheres of life, more so in education, I predict that the media will play a more significant role in covering special education in the future. It will give additional and more concrete information about policies relating to this matter such as costs. It will also cover news that shows whether special education is being promoted or undermined. Besides, it will bring to light the specific instances affecting special education. For example, in recent past, the media has been seen to report schools and teachers who exclude students with disabilities (Huffpost, 2019). It is my prediction that the media will be at the forefront of promoting upholding of laws and policies that ensure that every child with disability is having appropriate access to special education and related services that meet their different needs. References Arkansas State University. (2016). The history of special education in the U.S. Retrieved from https://degree.astate.edu/articles/k-12-education/the-history-of-special-education-in-the-u-s.aspx Huffpost. 2019). Special Education. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/news/topic/special-education King, L. (2017). The Status of Black History in U.S. Schools and Society. Social Education 81(1), 14-18. Osgood, R. L. (2008). The history of special education: A struggle for equality in American public schools. Westport, Conn: Praeger. Swanson, C. (2008). Special Education in America. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/media/eperc_specialeducationinamerica.pdf The Conversation. (2019). Articles on Special Education. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/global/topics/special-education-18910 Winters, M and Greene, J. (2007). Debunking a Special Education Myth. Education Next 7(2).
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    History of Rock and Roll Name Institution Affiliation History of Rock and Roll Music plays and constitutes an essential part of life due to the many benefits that arise from music. It has helped people refresh by singing to their favorites tunes. It has also employed many that include musicians that take music as a profession and work as well as record labels that work closely with musicians to ensure the music products released target and meet the intended business and music goals. Different genres of music, hence, are available that suits the various market and consumers of the diverse music in the world. It has enabled people from all parts of the world to enjoy different tunes, messages, and themes displayed in music pieces. Therefore, beyond the aesthetic value that music brings, it also forms an important part that passes different messages and themes. It enables the audience of such artistic work to reflect on the message and information in the diverse music listened. It is a form of art that talks about development in the society through the themes and messages conveyed in music. Different genre of music originated at different times and, therefore, it is essential to understand the source and origin of the diverse music and the impact that they have brought to the music industry over time. However, this paper analyzes the history of Rock and Roll and the effect that it has brought to the music world. Rock and Roll music was officially recognized in the mid-1950s but had started emergent and appreciated on late 1940s (Menand, 2015). The years of mid-1950 the Rock and Roll music genre had swept across the country enjoyed by many teenagers. They were great lovers of the music that gave them a great feeling and sensation of a new type of music that contributed to its formal recognition of the type of music. It caught everybody’s attention and the fact that it was something new and unique that had familiar elements in it made the world react to it positively calling for the proper appreciation and categorization of the music. It cuts across the entire socio-political group in a society where sub-urban youths, urban youths and country youths all responded positively to the music of Rock and Roll. It sparked the trend and faster spread and appreciation by many of rock music type. The change of status quo was inevitable and the reactions by most senior adults, religious leaders and even government at the time who mostly were conservatives described the Rock and Roll music genre as “music of the devil.” It is because of the unfamiliar territories and impact that the music genre had at the time that glued most of the teenagers and youths at the time. It is imperative to note that at the time the issue of racial segregation was standard and the migration of blacks to the North and the slavery at the time had introduced a different type of music that was associated with black community at the time described as the “rhythm and blues.” It had dominated many black parties and functions at the time. However, on the other hand, country music had been appreciated by the natives as their favorite type of music. Therefore, with the interaction of the different people resulting from slavery and slave trade history implied that a new culture was likely to be born that included music among others. Most of the music labels before the start of Rock and Roll genre of music at the time were dominated by the natives that controlled most big white Jazz bands (Bentley, 2017). The revolt that artists had to the music labels and companies implied that many of the bands disintegrated. It resulted in many small bands and small groups as well as single performers that tried to expand the new type of music. They adventured in a new territory that often blended the different type of music that existed at the time. Rock and Roll, hence, emerged from combining of country music that was the passion for many natives and rhythm and blues that was loved by many African-American at the time (Palmer, 1990). The music swept through the teenagers and youths at the time overwhelmingly probably because of the different times and experience that they had regarding racial segregation and slavery. Their views and perception of the two factors were different and, thus, they resonated well with the new type and blended of Rock and Roll music that has continued to the present world impacting the music industry positively. The term “Rhythm and blues” that described music loved by most blacks had been coined to change the initial name of “Race” that described the music. It was as a result of political changes that had started to be introduced in the society that tried to address issues of racial segregation at the time in the country. Alan Freed, disc Jockey from Cleveland, Ohio, on WJW coined the term “Rock ‘n’ Roll” that played the music from blacks as well as whites that had incorporated and blended the different genres that existed at the time that formed the Rock and Roll music (Larson, 2014). He had realized that the music loved by many people from different racial and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, by coining the term and using it in his radio shows and programs also contributed to its faster spread and appreciation. Other radio station and music labels as well emulated and started the production and support of the type of music using the name Rock and Roll. It ensured the continuation of the music to reach the magnitude that it was recorded at the time sweeping the music industry throughout the country. Other essential disc jockey and music producers that embraced the music type and played them in the radio station that hosted their programs include Dewey Phillips of Memphis, Tennessee, as well as William (“Hoss”) Allen of WLAC in Nashville, Tennessee (Menand, 2015). They played the different types of music from various people that sparked the trend and love for the music type in many suburban areas. It started and introduced the culture among the suburban youths at the time that associated them with the music type and culture that spread throughout the country. It trended among the urban and suburban youths who tried to resonate with the demands and fashion that was at the time that included subscribing to Rock and Roll music type. The youths at the time wanted something unique and special that could differentiate them and appreciate them with the new changes and developments that transpired at the time. The perception that Rock and Roll music were described as “devils music” by many white adults was because of the link and relations that many white youths had to the music as a music type that supported and enhanced rebellion and described as a soundtrack for rebellion (Menand, 2015). The rebellion spread throughout the political, economic as well as social aspects in the society where anytime and different places that the youths and teenagers gathered in protests against anything in the society they played and danced to “Rock and Roll” music. It symbolized a new generation and new ideas among the youths and teenagers and such rebellion and actions prompted condemnation from different sectors in the society, which include government, religious leaders as well as parents among others. The surprise was its faster spread across the country among the teenager and in particular white teenagers that resonated well with the messages and information in the music type. It had made many musicians that performed and played the Rock and Roll music formulate and compose their music with information that resonates with many youths and teenagers at the time. The music industry, thus, had an essential role to sanitize the negative image and picture that Rock and Roll music had attracted and created. And, therefore, they encouraged the inclusion of content in music that did not resonate and pass the message of rebellion. Also, the addition of musicians from different ages in the Rock and Roll music that tried to blend and create a positive image about Rock and Roll music to help change the negative image initially shown. The disintegration of the primary and original pioneers of Rock and Roll music such as Frankie Avalon and Fabian that dominated and led the American Bandstand among others disintegrated. It formed a chance of transition that subsequent producers of Rock and Roll music tried to capitalize on to change the status quo of Rock and Roll music as had been experienced. It continues to be experienced to date where it is more often called Rock as opposed to the previous times that it was described as Rock and Roll. The present description of Rock and Rock-type of music had realized greater music freedom where many different types of music such as gospel among other have also incorporated the Rock and Roll style to produce gospel music. And, therefore, the style has attracted music from both secular and gospel artists because of the style that continued to be resonated and linked to the youths in many societies often dominated by the white population in the society (Bentley, 2017). Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley are considered as among the first pioneers of Rock and Roll music who had previously participated actively in music but had concentrated on rhythm and blues type of music. Consequently, with the blending, it also compelled them to resonate to the new changes and produce music that excited the suburban youths and teenagers at the time that loved rock music that many described it as part of their lifestyle. It played an essential role in marketing strategies employed by the musicians as well as the producers of the music at the time because of the economic and commercial benefits that the Rock and Roll music brought at the time. Some analysts note that at the time that rock and Roll music became dominant in the years of 1950s, there was no specific music type or genre that targeted the youths (Palmer, 1990). And, thus, the Rock and Roll music filled the gap and void that existed at the time that allowed the teenagers and youths to define and brand musically. The factor contributed to the faster spread of the Rock and Roll type of music across many societies and places in the region at the time. Secondly, they also add that Rock and Roll music enabled many youths the opportunity to express themselves on issues that affected them. It made the music sold across the youths and teenagers with speed because it provided a message that resonated with their ideologies and mindsets that made the music mostly appreciated by the youths and teenagers. The other genre and categories of music that dominated at the time that includes country music, as well as Rhythm and Blues, had a limited and specific audience that mostly was aged people. Also, it was limited in number in the society made up of natives as well as the black community that was passionate about the rhythm and blues. The void that the music industry had at the time, thus, left teenagers thirsty for their own brand and music type that would resonate well with their ideologies and feelings and, therefore, the Rock and Roll music type played an essential part in addressing the musical demands that many youths and teenagers had at the time. The example given to justify the position and statement is shown in the case of Elvis that was a Rock and Roll star and singer. He became famous within a very short span of less than a year in the music industry after transiting from his previous job as track driver (Palmer, 1990). The impact that Rock and Roll music had to fans and other music platforms that include also record labels and the smaller record labels that were not known and at the time. They concentrated on Rock and Roll production such as Sun and Chess labels that brought stiff competition to the significant and pop labels that had dominated the society at the time. They sold millions of records to the world. Radio shows were also impacted where many started radio shows and programs that specialized and focused primarily on playing Rock and Roll music. Disc Jockeys also contributed to such development where they resonated and played music that resonated with the teenagers and youths at the time. It gave them an audience and platform that has continued to the present showing different talents and playing music that includes Rock and Roll. Different musicians from different ethnic groups in the US at the time transformed their music and aligned it with Rock and Rock. It helped them capture and capitalized on the economic benefits that resonated with the music at the time that the teenagers and youths had branded it as their favorite type. The reception that the teenagers gave the music showed an essential element where it noted that music cuts across cultures and different people. It was a statement that the status quo had changed and the teenagers and youths had introduced a different culture. A factor that contributed to the challenge and cause of worry that made conservative and seniors mentioned in the piece had regarding Rock and Roll music. The influence and impact of the Rock and Roll music innovation and invention as experienced in the fifties has shaped and has been used as a reference point where different pop music and cultures have developed in the present times (Larson, 2014). They try to blend different genre and types of music to come up with neutral and mixture of the blended types of music that continues to be experienced to date where people have tried to fuse different types of music that results in newer genres of music. In conclusion, Rock and Roll contribution in the music world is enormous that continues to the present times. The history of the origin of the music also presents more than music but also shows the cultural aspects and developments that transpired in the past. It resulted in newer cultures and genres of music such as Rhythm and Blues as well as Country music that blended to form Rock and Roll music. Many teenagers and youths at the time that Rock and Roll were dominant also assert that the music was part of their culture and life. It implies that music impacts and influence traverse many other aspects of life and society beyond aesthetic and entertainment aspects to include teaching and definition and branding of particular people and different times. References Bentley, B. (2017). Smithsonian Rock and Roll: The People's Pictures. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. Larson, T. (2014). History of rock and roll. Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Menand, L. (2015). “The Elvic Oracle. Did anyone invent rock and roll?” The New Yorker, 16 Nov. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/11/16/the-elvic-oracle Palmer, R. (1990). “The 50s: A Decade of Music That Changed the World.”Rolling Stone, 19 April. Retrieved from https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-features/the-50s-a-decade-of-music-that-changed-the-world-229924/
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    History of Rock and Roll Name Institution Affiliation History of Rock and Roll Music plays and constitutes an essential part of life due to the many benefits that arise from music as a whole. It has helped people refresh by singing to their favorites tunes as well as it has employed many that include musicians that take music as their professions and work as well as record labels that work closely with musicians to ensure the music products released target and meet the intended business and music goals. Different genres of music, hence, are available that suits the various market and consumers of the other kind of music in the world. It has enabled people from all parts of the world to enjoy different tunes, messages, and themes displayed in pieces. Therefore, beyond the aesthetic value that music brings, it also forms an important part that passes different messages and themes that can enable the audience of such artistic work to reflect about the message and information in the diverse music listened. It is a form of art that talks about development in the society through the themes and messages conveyed in music. Different genres and types of music originated at different times and, therefore, it is essential to understand the source and origin of the other kind of music and the impact that they have brought to the music industry over time. However, this paper analyzes the history of rock and roll and the effect that it has brought to the music world. Rock and Roll music was officially recognized in the mid-1950s but had started developing and getting appreciated on late 1940s (Menand, 2015). The years of mid-1950 the music genre had swept across the country among many teenagers that were great lovers of the music that gave them a great feeling and sensations of a new type of music that contributed to its formal recognition of the type of music. It caught everybody’s attention and the fact that it was something new and unique that had familiar elements in it made the world react to it positively calling for the proper appreciation and categorization of the music. It cuts across all the socio-political group in a society where sub-urban youths, urban youths and country boys all responded positively to the music of Rock and Roll and sparked the trend and faster spread and appreciation by many of the music type. The change of status quo was inevitable and the reactions by most senior adults, religious leaders and even government at the time who mostly were conservative described the Rock and Roll music genre as “music of the devil.” It is because of the unfamiliar territories and impact that the music genre had at the time that glued most of the teenagers and youths at the time. It is imperative to note that at the time the issue of racial segregation was standard and the migration of blacks to the North and the slavery at the time had introduced a different type of music that was associated with black community at the time described as the “rhythm and blues.” It had dominated many black parties and functions at the time. However, on the other hand, country music had been appreciated by the natives as their favorite type of music and, therefore, with the interaction of the different people resulting from slavery and slave trade history implied that a new culture was likely to be born that included music among others. Most of the music labels before the start of Rock and Roll genre of music at the time were dominated by the natives and whites that controlled most big white Jazz bands (Bentley, 2017). The revolt that artists had to the music labels and companies implied that many of the bands disintegrated. It resulted in many small bands and small groups as well as single performers that tried and expand the new type of music. They adventured in a new territory that often blended the different type of music that existed at the time. Rock and Roll, hence, emerged from combining of country music that was the passion for many natives and rhythm and blues that was loved by many African American at times (Palmer, 1990). The music swept through the teenagers and youths at the time overwhelmingly probably because of the different times and experience that they had regarding racial segregation and slavery for instance. Their views and perception of the two factors were different and, thus, they resonated well with the new type and blended of the music of Rock and Roll that has continued to the present world impacting the music industry positively. The term “Rhythm and blues” that described music loved by most blacks had been coined to change the initial name of “Race” that described the music. It was as a result of political changes that had started to be introduced in the society that tried to address issues of racial segregation at the time in the country. Alan Freed, disc Jockey from Cleveland, Ohio, on WJW coined the term “Rock ‘n’ Roll” that played the music from blacks as well as whites that had incorporated and blended the different genres that existed at the time that formed the Rock and Roll music (Larson, 2014). He had realized that the music was loved by many people from the different racial and cultural backgrounds and, therefore, by coining the term and using it in his radio shows and programs also contributed to its faster spread and appreciation. Other radio station and music labels as well emulated and started the production and support of the type of music using the name Rock and Roll that ensured the continuation of the music to reach the magnitude that it was recorded at the time sweeping the music industry throughout the country. Other essential disc jockey and music producers that embraced the music type and played them in the radio station that hosted their programs include Dewey Phillips of Memphis, Tennessee, as well as William (“Hoss”) Allen of WLAC in Nashville, Tennessee (Menand, 2015). They played the different types of music from various people that sparked the trend and love for the music type in many suburban areas that started and introduced the culture among the suburban youths at the time that associated them with the music type and culture that spread throughout the country. It trended among the urban and suburban youths who tried to resonate with the demands and fashion that was at the time that included subscribing to Rock and Roll music type. The youths at the time wanted something unique and special that could differentiate them and appreciate them with the new changes and developments that transpired at the time. The perception that Rock and Roll music were described as ‘” devils music” by many white youths was because of the link and relations that many white youths had to the music as a music type that supported and enhanced rebellion and was described as a soundtrack for rebellion (Menand, 2015). The rebellion was spread throughout the political, economic as well as social aspects in the society where any time and place that youths and teenagers gathered in protests against anything in the society they played and danced to “Rock and Roll” music. It symbolized a new generation and new ideas among the youths and teenagers and such rebellion and actions prompted condemnation from different sectors in the society that include government, religious leaders as well as parents among others. The surprise was its faster spread across the country among the teenager and in particular white teenagers that resonated well with the messages and information in the music type. It had made many musicians that performed and played the Rock and Roll music formulating and composing their music and pieces with information that resonate to many youths and teenagers at the time. The music industry, thus, had an essential role to sanitize the negative image and picture that Rock and Roll music had attracted and created. And, therefore, they encouraged the inclusion of content in music that did not resonate and pass the message of rebellion. Also, the addition of musicians from different ages in the Rock and Roll music that tried to blend and create a positive image about Rock and Roll music to help change the negative image initially shown. The disintegration of the primary and original pioneers of Rock and Roll music such as Frankie Avalon and Fabian that dominated that led the American Bandstand among others disintegrated. It formed a chance of transition that subsequent producers of Rock and Roll music tried to capitalize on to change the status quo of Rock and Roll music as had been experienced and continues to be experienced to date where it is more often called Rock as opposed to the previous times that it was described as Rock and Roll. The present description and type of music had realized greater music freedom where many different types of music such as gospel among other have also incorporated the Rock and Roll style to produce gospel music. And, therefore, the style has attracted music from both secular and gospel artists because of the style that continued to be resonated and linked to the youths in many societies often dominated by the white population in the society (Bentley, 2017). Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley are considered as among the first pioneers of Rock and Roll music who had previously participated actively in music but had concentrated on rhythm and blues type of music. Consequently, with the blending, it also compelled them to resonate to the new changes and produce music that resonated with the suburban youths and teenagers at the time that loved rock music that many describe it as part of their lifestyle. It played an essential role in marketing strategies employed by the musicians as well as the producers of the music at the time because of the economic and commercial benefits that the Rock and Roll music brought at the time. Some analysts note that at the time that rock and Roll music became dominant in the years of 1950s, there was no specific music type or genre that targeted the youths (Palmer, 1990). And, thus, the Rock and Roll music filled the gap and void that existed at the time that allowed the teenagers and youths to define and brand themselves musically a factor that contributed to the faster spread of the music type across many societies and places in the region at the time. Secondly, they also add that Rock and Roll's music enabled many youths the opportunity to express themselves on issues that affected them that made the music sell across the youths and teenagers with speed because it provided a message that resonated with their ideologies and mindsets that made the music mostly appreciated by the youths and teenagers. The other genre and categories of music that dominated at the time that includes country music, as well as Rhythm and Blues, had a limited and specific audience that mostly was aged people. Also, limited in number in the society made up of natives as well as the black community that was passionate about the rhythm and blues. The void that the music industry had at the time, thus, left teenagers thirsty for their own brand and music type that would resonate well with their ideologies and feelings and, therefore, the Rock and Roll music type played an essential part in addressing the musical demands that many youths and teenagers had at the time. The example given to justify the position and statement is shown in the case of Elvis that was Rock and Roll star an singer that become famous within a very short span of less than a year in the music industry after transiting from his previous job as track driver (Palmer, 1990). The impact that Rock and Roll music had to fans and other music platforms included also record labels and the smaller record labels that were not known and at the time. They concentrated on Rock and Roll production such as Sun and Chess labels brought stiff competition to the significant and pop labels that had dominated the society at the time. They sold millions of records to the world. Radio shows were also impacted where many started radio shows and programs that specialized and focused primarily on playing Rock and Roll music. Disc Jockeys also contributed to such development where they resonated and played music that resonated with the teenagers and youths at the time. It gave them an audience and platform that has continued to the present showing different talents and playing music that includes Rock and Roll. Different musicians from different ethnic groups in the US at the time transformed their music and aligned it with Rock and Rock. It helped them capture and capitalized on the economic benefits that resonated with the music at the time that teenagers and youths had caught and branded it as their favorite type. The reception that the teenagers gave the music showed an essential element where it noted that music cuts across cultures and different people. It was a statement that the status quo had changed and the teenagers and youths had introduced a different culture. A factor that contributed to the challenge and cause of worry that made conservative and seniors mentioned in the piece had regarding Rock and Roll music. The influence and impact of the Rock and Roll music innovation and invention as experienced in the fifties has shaped and has been used as a reference point where different pop music and cultures have developed in the present times (Larson, 2014). They try to blend different genre and types of music to come up with neutral and mixture of the blended types of music that continues to be experienced to date where people have tried to fuse different types of music that results in newer genres of music. In conclusion, Rock and Roll contribution in the music world is enormous that continues to the present times. The history of the origin of the music also presents more than music but also shows the cultural aspects and developments that transpired in the past. It resulted in newer cultures and genres of music such as Rhythm and Blues as well as country music that blended to form Rock and Roll music. Many teenagers and youths at the time that Rock and Roll were dominant also assert that the music was part of their culture and life. It implies that music impacts and influences traverse many other aspects of life and society beyond aesthetic and entertainment aspects to include teaching and definition and branding of particular people and different times. References Bentley, B. (2017). Smithsonian Rock and Roll: The People's Pictures. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. Larson, T. (2014). History of rock and roll. Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Menand, L. (2015). “The Elvic Oracle. Did anyone invent rock and roll?” The New Yorker, 16 Nov. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/11/16/the-elvic-oracle
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  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Rules, Regulations and Accountability Name of Student Name of University Rules, Regulations, and Accountability Introduction The patients’ information is one of the most sensitive data captured and stored by the healthcare organizations. As such, the healthcare organizations have the solemn obligation safeguard such data from leakages, hacking or unauthorized sharing. The possibility of unauthorized individuals and organizations gaining access to the confidential patient information has the effect of exposing the patients to undue ridicule, blackmail or unsolicited publicity. The emergence of electronic health records within healthcare settings increased the risk of unauthorized access to confidential patient data by hackers. To safeguard patient data in the electronic age, the US Congress enacted the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which compelled healthcare organizations to adopt a raft of privacy rules to protect the integrity, confidentiality and the accessibility of the patients’ information by the relevant healthcare organizations. The regulations and accountability measures place healthcare organizations under stringent observation by the regulators. HIPAA also heightens the risk of hefty litigation costs against healthcare organizations that are either unable or fail to secure the privacy and integrity of the patient’s electronic health data (ePHI). The Silver Creek Hospital should adhere to the regulations and requirements of the HIPAA by encouraging a culture of compliance amongst its employees and service providers that access the protected patients’ information. Objectives of the HIPAA Security and Privacy Rules The core objectives of the HIPAA security and privacy rules is to support and protect the availability, integrity and the confidentiality of the electronic protected health information (ePHI). The security and privacy rules under the HIPAA compels healthcare organizations such as the Silver Creek Hospital to ensure that eHPI entrusted to their custody is not lost or disclosed to unauthorized individuals. According to the HIPAA privacy and security rules, unauthorized disclosure of electronic patient data has the potential of denying the patient effective treatment once malicious individuals access and edit or delete such critical information (HIPAA, 2018). Therefore, HIPAA prefers stringent sanctions to organizations that breach the security of eHPI’s for compromising the quality of care advanced to the patient. The objective of ePHI integrity means that healthcare organizations have the responsibility of ensuring that the ePHI is used for the intended purpose by protecting the patients or volunteers from abuse by individuals who may use such information for a purpose unrelated to the during the diagnosis or research process. Moreover, the security and privacy rules of the HIPAA is to compel the healthcare organizations to install measures capable of detecting and preventing reasonably expected threats and errors resulting from criminal actions, staff error, natural disaster or system failure (HIPAA, 2018). HIPAA emphasizes the need for capacity enhancement to safeguard the integrity, confidentiality and the availability objectives of electronic health records. Therefore, the primary objective of the HIPAA security and privacy rules is to protect the confidentiality, integrity and the availability of the electronic protected patient information. Securing Protected Health Information (PHI) under HIPAA One of the ways the HIPAA safeguards the protected health information is through the de-identification method. The de-identification method entails an approach in which the identity of the patients is delinked from the health information (Murphy, 2015). This approach is employed in protecting the health information once the secondary data is used in policy assessment, comparative studies, and life science studies. This approach protects the privacy of individuals from unauthorized exposure once their health information is used in undertaking scientific studies for the overall wellbeing of the society (Murphy, 2015). De-identification protects the privacy of the patients owning the protected health information in compliance with the privacy rules under the HIPAA while ensuring that the information useful in enhancing healthcare service delivery. HIPAA also secures the protected health information using various administrative safeguards. The administrative safeguards use administrative procedures, actions and policies in managing the development, selection, implementation, and the maintenance of the security measures employed in protecting the protected health information (HIPAA, 2018). The various administrative safeguards employed include specifying access authorization, contingency plans, security occurrence procedures, and security training of the workers (HIPAA, 2018). Using administrative safeguards guarantees the security and privacy of the protected health information by enabling database administrators to implement proactive security measures and respond to security breaches effectively and promptly. The physical safeguards are essential in securing the protected health information under the HIPAA. The physical safeguards approach involves the deployment of the physical measures, procedures, and policies such as access control and media and device control to protect the health information held by the healthcare organization. The three approaches are critical under HIPAA to securing the protected health information. Impact of HIPAA Rules and Regulations on Professional Ethics Even though the HIPAA rules and regulations aim at enhancing the ethics among healthcare professionals, it poses various challenges to the healthcare workers and administrators. For instance, HIPAA privacy rules compel healthcare organizations to withhold vital information regarding a mentally ill or unconscious patient from family members before giving a consent on sharing of the protected health information with the patient (Guido, 2014). When faced with such a scenario, the healthcare professional finds themselves in an ethical dilemma of deciding whether to disclose the protected health information to the family members without the patient’s consent or withholding the information until the patient gives a consent once they regain consciousness or mental stability. Such delay in relaying the patient’s information may result in unintended consequences such as the patient’s condition deteriorating when a family member would be helpful. This is a tricky ethical challenge the professionals face in trying to observe the HIPAA rules and regulations while promoting the wellbeing of the patient. Similarly, health professionals face the challenge of determining an informed consent in disclosing the information based on the health condition a patient (Guido, 2014). Limitation of HIPAA and Ethical Issues on use of Health Data for Research and Development The HIPAA limits the use of electronic health data for research and development of evidence-based practice guidelines due to its emphasis on protecting the privacy of the individual behind the protected health information. The risk of the health information revealing the identity of the patients through disclosed codes and association poses the threat of exposing the healthcare organizations to litigation from the patients under HIPAA (Murphy, 2015). The covered entered are highly unlikely to offer the health information for life science studies that are crucial in the development of the evidence-based practices in the industry. References Guido, G. W. (2014). Legal and ethical issues in nursing. Boston: Pearson. HIPAA. (2018). HIPAA Compliance Checklist. Retrieved January 21, 2019 from https://www.hipaajournal.com/hipaa-compliance-checklist/ Murphy, S. P. (2015). Healthcare information security and privacy. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
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    religion
    Hinckley Case Paper Name Institution Affiliation Hinckley Case Paper The two pieces in chapter 8 and chapter 15 present a clear example where the topic and subject of insanity is presented in a real-life event and the perception of the scenario. Moreover, the issue from the views of different people involved that include the victim, the defendants, the judges, the professional's opinions that include psychiatrists report and testimonials as well as the public reaction towards the insane case. John W. Hinckley Jr. attempt to assassinate President Ronald Reagan as well as his initial attempts of President Jimmy Carter that proved difficult. An analysis of his behavior and character contributed greatly to the decisions arrived at by the judges that applied the insanity defense or verdict (Hinckley Jr., nd). His obsession and love story and the methods that he used and tried to win a relationship drawn from a movie that he watched over 15 times contributed to the professional's reports and analysis that indicated that Hinckley Jr. indeed suffered from a psychological problem. The impact that the case had in the short and long-term resulted in many states and federals government changing the rules and laws related to insanity. Where in some instances the rule was totally abolished while in others the burden of proof of insanity was vested to the defendants and not the government or the prosecuting team. Finally, in others changes, it resulted in advocating for the guilty verdict but mentally ill (GBMI) that was a change in the initial verdict and rule of not guilty by the reason of insanity (NGRI) (Harmening, nd). The Hinckley Jr. case as an example showed that most of the public was outraged by the decisions reached at by the jurists as well as the politicians that failed to understand the legal reasoning and interpretation in the case. According to them, they found it difficult to believe as their view was that everything was clear and evidence was enormous about the incidence. And, hence, the judges would have ruled on the contrary bearing in mind the impact that the situation had and the high profile (president) involved. The research conducted by Kachulis (2017) also notes that more often the public has a negative opinion and view about the insanity defense as many find it difficult to understand because of the thin line that exists that justifies a person to be mentally ill or not. They often view such defense and excuses as legal gaps that people that have committed serious crimes use as an escape to justice and, therefore, many have supported reforms that amend or abolish the insanity defense clauses. The legal fraternity has also found the topic an interesting subject to venture their research and in particular the legal psychology to help them better understand and comprehend the legal rulings that more often have shocked the public and legal fraternity as well. In conclusion, the insanity defense as shown in the case of Hinckley Jr. among others in the world have continued to shock many and in particular the public. Politicians, as observed in most legislative houses, have initiated reforms and amendments in laws that change the insanity defense by either eliminating it or amending clauses to enhance justice to the victims and increase the guilty verdict. Researchers have also been excited by the topic that has led to an increase in research related to insanity defense where they often try to establish a relationship between fundamentalism and defense attitudes. References Harmening ( nd). Chapter 15: Criminal Responsibility and Competency. Pgs 375-386 John W Hinckley Jr. ( nd) Chapter 8: Shooting the Stars. Pgs 91-101. Kachulis, L. (2017). Insane In The Mens Rea: Why Insanity Defense Reform Is Long Overdue. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 26(2), 357-378.
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  • Tertiary education
    religion
    Hebrew Prophets Name Institution Affiliation Date Hebrew Prophets 1. The reason it is important for interpreting the prophets and description of the relationship between suzerainty treaty and the Sinai Covenant. Agreements between two or more parties have been witnessed and continue to be witnessed not only in the past times but also in the present contexts. The Sinai covenant and the suzerainty treaty are among the few in the bible that shows pledges between the parties concerned and the possible consequences to the party concerned that might have either positive or negative consequence. The ancient Near Eastern Suzerainty treaty makes the Sinai covenant attractive and helps in the interpretation of prophets because of several reasons. First, it lays the foundation where the works or commands of the prophets could be easily understood by the Israelites. It is because God’s commands and laws that were presented through the prophets were foreign to the recipients (Israelites) at the Sinai covenant (Matthews, 2012). The Israelites had spent close to 400 years under the pagan rule and, thus, the Suzerainty treaty that was an agreement between the king and the new people that joined the king’s nation provided a similar culture that would make the Sinai covenant well understood and grasped by the Israelites. Secondly, it helped the Israelites to compare and contrast what they had experienced and witnessed when under the Suzerainty treaty and foreign land rules to those provided by the prophets and God when they arrived in the Promised Land. Third, it made them respect the prophets as a true servant of the lord and, therefore, increase the good relationship between the prophets acting as a leader and the followers. It created the hierarchy that enabled ease of administering and following of command and rules. It is because the same was replicated in the Suzerainty treaty where a “superior” king or ruler had a “lesser” king or prince in the service of a greater king that enforces the agreements among the followers. The relationship between the suzerainty treaty and the Sinai Covenant is that both had a superior being that gave the orders and command. Moreover, both had a representative that delivered the message and commands of their superior wherein the Sinai covenant it was Moses while in the suzerainty treaty were “lesser” kings or servants. Finally, both had positive and negative impacts that were subject to adherence to the agreements or not by the masses or followers. God spoke the commandments with His own voice that made the Israelites fear because he showed his mightiness by the events that occurred at the time such as mountain smoke, thunder and lightning and the sound of the trumpet. It made the Israelites plead with Moses to allow God speaks with them through him. The command, consequently, could come directly from God or through his prophet (Newsome, 1984). The same is also realized in the Ancient Near Eastern treaty where command could come directly from the king or his servant. In all cases, the highest authority and commander both prove or show their strength and mightiness that makes it easy for the followers to believe the power or strength of their masters through their agents. Lastly, both have the Preamble that set the terms of agreements, then the stipulations and finally the blessings and curses or outcomes of conformity or deviance to the laws. 2. Defense of the notion that the prophets are religious conservatives. Prophets are religious conservatives according to Israel’s ideas of the covenant. The covenant made at the Sinai among others places as noted in the book of the Law through Moses long after they had left Mt. Sinai among other prophets as observed in Hebrew prophets have formed the basis that many religious practices, rules, and regulations have developed over time. What the prophets stated coming from the Lord was command that everybody was expected to obey and since the prophets existed many years ago, they have preserved religious practices and beliefs used to the present dates. The prophets also foretold the future events and happenings that might happen according to the Lord’s will such as noted in Noah or Moses (Sinai) covenants and, as a result, people or followers shaped religious practices according to such predictions and messages about the future (Newsome, 1984). It further asserts the position that prophets are religious conservatives as through their actions, words and forecasts determined many religious practices and traditions that are practiced to the present times that have majorly formed the Christians religious culture. The impact and consequences that the words and messages of the prophets had given to the Israelites in the instance that people respected the messages have to date controlled the religious practices in the contemporary times, thus, reinforcing the position that the prophets are religious conservatives. For example, the negative consequences resulting from failure to obey the rules and laws given by the prophets such as curses and punishments have to date stuck and practiced making the ancient prophets religious conservatives as they protect and preserve religious practices and beliefs. In the event that amendments in the Christian practices and beliefs are made, as seen in the contemporary times, most are guided by the prophetic teachings and messages as noted in the covenants. It might change slightly from the practices shown by the prophets may be due to developments and changes in the present society but the idea, theme, and intention continue to replicate what was done by the prophets further conserving religious practices. Finally, the prophets as seen in the actions and words of Mosses, Nathan, Micaiah, Elisha and Elijah among others dominates most parts of the religious books that form the Laws or act as sources of religious laws that other religious writings follow in both the old and new testament books and as a result continue to preserve religious practices and thoughts to the present times. Most prophets refused to mix the ancient religious traditions and laws with the “foreign” or suzerainty rules (Matthews, 2012). It led to the punishment of the lawbreakers such as noted in the Deuteronomy 28:47.The prophets, hence, are the greatest religious conservatives. References Matthews, V. H. (2012). Social World of the Hebrew Prophets. In The Hebrew Prophets and Their Social World: An Introduction. Baker Books. Newsome, J. D. (1984). The Hebrew Prophets. Atlanta, Ga: J. Knox Press.
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  • Tertiary education
    Team Memo
    Team Memo To: The Class Members and other interested parties From: A class working team Date: 10th/05/019 Subject: Specific steps a team should take to perform highly and ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Communication Having a high performing, effective and efficient teams is the dream of every group or organization. However, achieving this is impossible without adherence to set standards and procedures. This memo provides credible information focusing on how to assure high team performance, efficiency, and effectiveness. The idea behind this memo is to create awareness on how teams can enhance efficiency, effectiveness and joyful service delivery. Background Teams are organized groups that are set to achieve specific goals. The teams are formed procedurally following the process of forming, storming and norming. The procedural concept is adopted to ensure that a team is made up of the right members with the necessary professional skills to help in the realization of the objectives. Teams are formed by like-minded people who share certain interests or who join the effort to accomplish an identified task. According to scholars, teamwork and team building are important because of the ability to foster resource consolidation and building of strong synergies. Organizations that operate teams or organizes its employees in various teams record exemplary performance. Such organizations hold positive records of accomplishment given that the teams work towards achieving all tasks. Therefore teams are beneficial since they help organizations to complete many tasks, increase revenue, improve efficiency, and effectiveness in service delivery, advance innovation and flexibility with which customer needs are satisfied. Due to the benefits, organizations should consider developing vibrant teams. The rationale for this is to enable them to enhance their competitiveness and performance in the field of operation. The leadership should lead the process of team development and ensure that it is done procedurally. The formation should be based on clear parameters such as skills and the task allocation be done in consideration of the team’s capability. Similarly, the leadership must provide necessary incentives and a favorable environment to help the teams work well. Forming a team has been noticed to be insufficient without the necessary support structures. A team can be formed but achieving its mandate may remain a puzzle or history. Not every team formed achieves its objectives based on past experiences where many have failed to deliver on their mandate. Detailed scrutiny or analysis of the failing teams reveals that they are not efficient and effective. The team members are equally not happy or motivated adequately to inspire more effort and dedication towards the task undertaken. Therefore, ones a team is formed the organization must provide requisite support incentives to help it achieve the targeted objects. The team members must also organize themselves to guarantee efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction. According to xx the team members must come together, know each other and discuss the major issues that are aligned with the underlying purpose for which it is formed. They must equally deliberate on what to do to remain efficient, effective and ensure that every member enjoys their work. This can be achieved through the application of the following steps. Steps The first step involves identification of the common purpose of the team. This is the preamble stage that remains necessary and relevant in team building. It enables the team members to know and understand why they are joining the effort and the task that lays ahead. When the purpose is clearly marked, individuals will evaluate the potentials and decide whether to contribute or excuse themselves. The aspect is vital because there are some tasks that are not in congruence with one’s philosophy. Therefore, the declaration of the purpose helps to eliminate any conflict of interest that may arise. Once this is solved, the remaining members will work effectively and freely towards ensuring that no failure is recorded. The next step in developing strong, vibrant and effective teams is to formulate specific goals and have them communicated properly. Goals are what the team members work towards achieving. When the goals are clear, the team members will know how to plan and allocate resources adequately to support their realization in apriority manner. Being specific with the goals also reduces the burden of confusion and guesswork among the team members. The goals give a clear direction on what to be done next which is motivating. Likewise, efficiency, effectiveness, and ability to enjoy in various teams is dependent on the communication system, honesty, and respect. Effective communication, honesty, and respect are important elements that promote a team’s vibrancy. The step comes after the purpose and goals are set. The rationale is that communication provides the platform for sharing information. For a team, effective communication will guarantee perfect sharing of the purpose and goals among all members. It beats logic for the purpose and goals to be set and then not shared with the people who contribute in their actualization. Proper communication enhances the relationship between team members and innovation through sharing of ideas. To achieve best results, honesty and respect should characterize the communication process. That is the information flow from the top to the bottom should not only be effective but respectful and clear.
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    HEALTH CARE
    Homework Name Institution Q-1 Changes in fossil fuel consumption affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a significant way. The increase in fossil fuel concentrations as a result of factors such as burning fuels in motor vehicles lead to the increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For example, when the percentage of fossil fuel per year increases to +4% per year, the GT goes up by 4 percent. This implies that the rise in fossil fuel consumption leads to an Increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which in turn affects the quality of the habitable planet. This observation is consistent with statistics showing that as people and industries continue to consume fossil fuels around the world, the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide rises (University of East Anglia, 2013). For example, while average carbon dioxide levels in 1975 was about 330ppm, it is presently at 385ppm (ABC Science, 2019). Carbon dioxide emissions attributed to burning fossil fuels have reached their highest levels in history (Levin, 2013). Q2. Just like it is the case with fossil fuel concentration, an increase in deforestation results in the increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. When net deforestation rate per year goes up by +4, it leads to the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide by 4 percent. Human activities that cause deforestation such as agricultural activities should thus be discouraged to avoid the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The total world’s forest cover absorb about a quarter of human carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping to limit the quantity of gas in the atmosphere (Curley, 2018). In areas where the forests are intact, the absorption rates are higher, while the areas where the forests are fragmented the absorption rates are lower (The New York Times, 2019). Trees are useful in capturing greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide. As such, places with many trees significantly prevent the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus helping to prevent global warming (Rainforest Alliance, 2018). References
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    HIV Name Institution Affiliation Date HIV Health care plays an important role in the society. It is the reason many agree to the view that a healthy nation is indeed a wealthy nation. The dynamism of the health sector and different health challenges have attracted researchers and scholars in the sector supported by governments and the private sector. International institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) among others show the seriousness that the health sector has attracted both at the local and international institutions. However, this paper presents an analysis of HIV research and development and how different variables affect the condition such as research, treatments as well as populations health recommendations among others. Method Section The research used secondary research method that analyzed critical data from reliable sources about the subject of HIV. Internet was particularly an important part that enabled find different content and information about the subject. Use of key terms and words such as “HIV”, “HIV treatment” and “HIV Research” in peer-reviewed journals presented in-depth information that enabled the research to be done about the subject. The peer-reviewed journals and books published by higher institutions of learning provide a wide depth of references and information about the subject of interest from a different perception and philosophical points of view. They are also subject to verification and analysis by professionals and scholars before their publications are authorized as it goes through a process and must meet stated scholarly and professional conditions that include professionalism in the research process and procedures. The peer-reviewed data, thus, provided an important source that enabled the research to use quality data increasing the authenticity of the message and information presented from the research process. HIV is an abbreviation for Human Immunodeficiency virus that attacks the body immune system, which destroys the white blood cells that is the body’s natural defense against illness. The HIV condition has proved to be a puzzle to the world that has made it declared as a global disaster. It is the disease that has recorded the highest number of deaths when it deteriorates to the AIDS status mostly in the later stages of the disease. It is a unique disease as it attacks the very natural body defense mechanisms and immune system creating room for other ailments to easily affect and impact the patients negatively resulting in the highest number of deaths. It is a condition that develops slowly making it harder for people to realize they are infected and start taking medication. The condition is categorized in stages that are determined by the amount of CD4 cells also called T-helper cell to that of a normal healthy person ratio. The virus makes more copies of itself after destroying the CD4 cells that have made controlling the disease become challenging to researchers and health care providers. The symptoms include swollen glands and flu-like in the early stages but severe symptoms might appear in later stages that include frequent illness and rapid deterioration of body weight. However, the symptoms and signs often depend on the stage of infection. Some people may experience no symptom at all in the early stages until the later stages. Often, the symptoms depend on the person natural body reaction but the common symptoms in the early stages of infection include a sore throat, rash, headache, and fever. The cause of HIV is still a puzzle that researchers are tirelessly working on to find not only the cause but also the cure of the condition. It is a viral infection passed from one person to the other through the exchange of body fluids. The prognosis (outcome) of HIV is felt both directly and indirectly. It creates room for opportunistic infections to attack the human body when the HIV stage is in an advanced stage. Those infected also might be stigmatized in the society that might result in stress and depression among others. It has also increased and strained costs used by a household in the treatment of the condition that has strained families and people finances. The condition has also impacted governments and in particular ministries of health negatively by straining the limited resources used in the healthcare sectors as well as other departments in the society. It is because of the challenge that the condition has caused with no cure yet found and also the weakened body immune that makes those infected susceptible to other infectious diseases. The outcome of the condition has also impacted economies of countries and regions negatively, in particular, those areas with high prevalence such as Sub-Sahara Africa where most of the young people in their productive age are affected by the condition resulting in stunted economic production and economic activities. According to CDC (2017) data, HIV has infected over 78 million people since the disease was discovered. However, the highest number of the infected comes from sub-Saharan Africa a factor that mainly is linked to the high poverty rates. The sub-Sahara region accounts for two-thirds of the Global total of new HIV infections and over 25.6 million people living with the condition in the year 2016. The 2016 global statistics on HIV indicated that over 1 million people die of HIV-related illnesses with over 35 million people killed by the disease as of the year 2016. The percentage and proportion of adults with children infected with the disease stood at 54 percent of adults against 43 percent of children. The indicators and behavioral risk factors that might result in the condition include having unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an infected person, sharing of blood needles especially among the drug users as well as the risky child to mother contacts such as through breastfeeding, pregnancy, and childbirth. People with other sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and syphilis among others show behavioral risk factors as it is an indicator of risky acts that increase the chance of contacting the HIV condition. Research and Treatments Research continues to be done about HIV that has attracted many scholars. Hardie at al. (2017) in their research in South Africa that is among the countries with high prevalence tested the causes of faulty results on the 4th generation testing platforms in the laboratories. The researchers used experimental design where they tested specimens on Siemens and Roche automated 4th generation platforms. The findings of the study indicated that the extreme sensitivity of assays, the minute presence of HIV antibodies might cause the negative staple to test positive. It recommends the establishment of better control measures in regions with high HIV seroprevalence. iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAABAAAAAMACAIAAAA12IJaAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF7sXQV81EgXT7du1I0CLd6ixVukWDkcirscDlfkkAOKe3E5DrciH+5+FG2BHlrcoUKpu29X vpdkJdlkd7NbobSTH9fbzc48+b83kzczbyY6T548wTS8RCJRREREcnKyhvVKdHFra2sXFxce j6dCSqR4iTahhsKBxStXrqy6ErK4hqCW6OKojaPOjYkAauMlutFqKFzZbONctNYQyGIqfu/e vR49euTk5BSQ340bNzp16pSdnU2lc+bMmf79+xeQMln9xIkTJZCUFqqBIr1795ZV1NFiABAT ExMfHw/hsq2trRYSlMAqiYmJ3759c3R0dHJyUiEeUryUWRzMDUZHFmcigFy9lLk66tyUNfOy 7OoJCQkNGzasUqVKCXwoayHS169fnz59am9vX6ae4xyjFy3wLIYq5AAgNTW1gLyADusA4Pff f09LSysgcagOY4kSSEoLvUCRoUOHykZKqia8WanDfAlE/w4ODqXmAQlqgi7QZYBeoJ0yTJHi pc/icXFxyOKsc6KojWvRt5bMKrLOTYV4qHMrfZ0bl8dZ9erVS030D+4NutSoUUO14lCslHVu XKKXktk1lQ6pkpKSViq54KcSrqPGAwAYborFYtXzpiVcZ1bxQCPQC7RTJnwZV1z1nMqvaHHQ iIvFy6ziZbaNl0qLQ4gP072qO7dSqTiXNl42XR2cwc3N7VfsulXITGqk4jkOrQBcopS5utpn
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    The History of Special education Teacher in America and how it has Impacted today’s society Name Institution The History of Special Education Teacher in America and its Impact on the American Society Today Special education is the practice of educating students with identified disabilities using approaches and tools that address their individual needs and differences, in addition to providing them with the opportunity to grow and develop to their maximum potential (Winzer, 2014). This form of education is delivered in the United States free of charge though a public education system designed through a legislation called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Swanson, 2008). The state of special education in America has not always been this way. Special education in America has a long and insightful history, which continues to shape the training and role of special education teachers in the American society today. The abundance of special education programs and resources available in today’s America is not a reflection of the country’s history in providing this kind of education, especially up-to 1975 (Osgood, 2008). After the United States attained independence in 1776, little was done to promote and safeguard the interests and rights of students with disabilities (Winzer, 2014). The absence of relevant legislation on this area denied a significant number of disabled students in the United States equal educational opportunities as regular students. Historical records show that the first schools in the United States to offer disabled students with educational opportunities were created in the 1800s (Arkansas State University, 2016). Most of them were, however, private and sometimes served these students more through charity framework rather than educational basis. Even the introduction of a policy in 1852 for compulsory education for the nation’s schoolchildren did not help to offer educational opportunities to children with disabilities (Osgood, 2008). These children were denied education opportunities like other disenfranchised groups like members of certain religious faiths, rural dwellers, and children of color (King, 2017). Even though media somewhat highlighted the disenfranchisement of these groups from education system, it rarely did the same for children with disabilities. The media did not provide adequate coverage on the issue of denial of equal educational opportunities to children with disabilities in American public schools (King, 2017). The major progress towards the provision of education to children with disabilities was marked in 1933. This is the time when the first advocacy group formed to fight for quality of special education was formed by the affected parents (Osgood, 2008). By 1950s, there were numerous advocacy groups of the same nature, which led to the waves of lobbying for provision of quality special education (Swanson, 2008). They encouraged the enactment of laws that offered training for teachers who worked with children with disabilities such as the intellectually challenged students and the deaf children. Further development in this sector was witnessed in the 1960s when multiple laws on the same were passed, resulting in aspects aimed at promoting education of special education such as granting funds for their programs and facilities (King, 2017). The media was instrumental in this phase of key developments in special education in America by airing news about the lobby groups involved in advocating for new laws to enable children with disabilities with more educational opportunities to help them realize their full potential in life. The landmark shift in the history of special education was in 1975 when the Congress enacted a public law called the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) (Osgood, 2008). The primary objective of this law was to ensure that children with disabilities had equal education opportunities as regular students by guaranteeing them access to appropriate and free public education (Winzer, 2014). It also offered enhanced stated and local protection and support to these children and their families. It granted federal funding to all public schools that offered equal educational access for children with mental and or physical disabilities. The EHA was amended in 1997 to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Swanson, 2008). The amendments resulted in ensuring that children with disabilities obtained better quality of education-related services and made sure that they had complete access to the most appropriate education in conducive and less restrictive settings (Osgood, 2008). During these historic times in special education reforms in America, media played an integral role in creating awareness and educating the public about this kind of education (Osgood, 2008). It facilitated political and legal discourses leading to the enactment of these laws, as well as aiding in debunking the myths around these laws (Winters & Greene, 2007). In addition, the media provided a platform for education experts and stakeholders such as government officials to express their views through editorial opinions and press conferences about various aspects relating to the issue of special education such as how education administrators should effectively manager inclusive schools (The Conversation, 2019). The media also allowed experts to engage in debates on issues of costs relating to provision of special education in public schools, as well as the protection of the rights of students with disabilities (Arkansas State University, 2016). These debates enriched policy positions directed towards establishment of strong and effective special education in the United States. As the world continues to focus on inclusivity in all spheres of life, more so in education, I predict that the media will play a more significant role in covering special education in the future. It will give additional and more concrete information about policies relating to this matter such as costs. It will also cover news that shows whether special education is being promoted or undermined. Besides, it will bring to light the specific instances affecting special education. For example, in recent past, the media has been seen to report schools and teachers who exclude students with disabilities (Huffpost, 2019). It is my prediction that the media will be at the forefront of promoting upholding of laws and policies that ensure that every child with disability is having appropriate access to special education and related services that meet their different needs. References Arkansas State University. (2016). The history of special education in the U.S. Retrieved from https://degree.astate.edu/articles/k-12-education/the-history-of-special-education-in-the-u-s.aspx Huffpost. 2019). Special Education. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/news/topic/special-education King, L. (2017). The Status of Black History in U.S. Schools and Society. Social Education 81(1), 14-18. Osgood, R. L. (2008). The history of special education: A struggle for equality in American public schools. Westport, Conn: Praeger. Swanson, C. (2008). Special Education in America. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/media/eperc_specialeducationinamerica.pdf The Conversation. (2019). Articles on Special Education. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/global/topics/special-education-18910 Winters, M and Greene, J. (2007). Debunking a Special Education Myth. Education Next 7(2).
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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