home > Tertiary education

BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
    $ 0.13
    12,670words / 1page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Nursing essay : case study
    Assessment Task 4 Every registered nurse has legal, ethical and professional responsibilities in performing his/her duties and these professional obligations are based on the standards related to providing care, as well as in collaborating with other medical practitioners in achieving patient’s optimal positive health outcomes (Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia 2006, p. 2). This paper will analyse the legal, ethical and professional responsibilities of the registered nurse on duty. The analysis will focus on the case of Mrs. Spring and will explore the three key issues identified in assessment 1, such as, failure to detect a deteriorating patient, extensive workload (communication with PACU unit), and insufficient handover. Failure to detect a deteriorating patient Brief Summary Based on the case study, RN Tracey, who was the night shift registered nurse on duty, failed to collect current information of Mrs. Spring because she was “flat out the whole night” so she had overlooked her duty care to Mrs. Spring. Due to her having too much work to do, she was unable to carry out new investigation on the condition of Mrs. Spring, and therefore, also failed to make assessments and issue reports valuable to the next shift staff. The only health information that was documented by RN Tracey during her shift was the patient’s temperature at 38.9 (which means the patient was already febrile), Pulse at 126 (Tachycardia), Respiratory Rate at 28 (Tachypnea), and Blood Pressure at 105/70, an indication that the patient was not really feeling well as she had mild fever, abnormal pulse rate, shallow, rapid breathing and quite low BP that could make her feel a little dizzy when standing up (Min. of Health 2015, p. 1; Pulsevital.com 2017, p. 1; Flenady et al. 2016, p. 1 & Haiken 2017, p. 1). Her failure to make current assessments of the patient led to her failure to detect the deteriorating condition of Mrs. Spring. If only RN Tracey performed on-time assessment of Mrs. Spring, she should have detected the patient’s alarming vital signs and have done some actions such as escalating the problem to Rapid Response call, such as Pace call, to reverse the patient’s clinical deterioration (NSW Govt. 2013, p. 10). Legal According to the 3.2.1 provision (Frequency of Observations in the Policy) Directive of NSW Ministry of Health, the frequency of observations of patients should be performed at a minimum of three times a day, with eight hours interval. When the condition of the patient worsens, the frequency of observation must be increased depending on his/her colour zones on the Standard Observation chart (NSW Govt. 2013, p. 13). Blue zone is used for new-borns and paediatric indicating that the frequency of observations should be increased and calling for an initial clinic review should be considered. Red zone indicates that a rapid response call is needed because the observations indicate patient’s warning signs of deterioration. Yellow zone indicates that the patient needs consultation with the midwife or nurse on-duty because of the early warning signs of deterioration that the patient is showing. In this case, the nurse or midwife on duty should decide if a CERS call or clinical review is needed. In the case of Mrs. Spring, it could be that she was already exhibiting a yellow zone signs but since RN Tracey had too much work to do, so the proper protocol of deciding whether to make a CERS call or a clinical review was missed, thus, endangering the life of the patient. Based on the study by Van Galen et al. (2016, p. 1), nearly half of the unexpected admissions to ICU by patients from the general ward were due to healthcare worker’s failure to monitor patients who were clinically deteriorating. This study was also consistent with previous study (Bapoje et al. 2011, p. 70) theorising that unexpected ICU transfers were not due to the patient’s underlying disease, but possibly caused by the ward’s healthcare workers suboptimal care and insufficient monitoring and assessment of the patient’s condition. The negligence that RN Tracey committed resulted to the unnoticed deterioration of health of Mrs. Spring, which can be a ground for a legal issue under the Civil law. RN Tracey’s negligence bore the four elements of negligence that constitute for a ground for a civil case, such as duty of care, dereliction of duty, direct and damage (Lynch et al. 2009, p. 133). Ethical and Professional Neglecting other patients that led to the patient’s deterioration of health is both unethical and unprofessional because this negligence could lead to serious adverse effects such as major complications or even death (Van Galen et al. 2016, p. 1). The authors add that some major complications were due to errors in nursing care and could be prevented if proper care was given. The conduct exhibited by RN Tracey could be considered as an “unsatisfactory professional conduct” of an RN as described in the NSW Government legislation under Health Practitioner Regulation National Law (NSW 2016, 139B.). Demonstrating neglect to provide duty care or judgment by the practitioner to patients can be considered below the professional standard that is expected from a registered nurse in providing care for his/her patients. Given that she was ‘flat out’ the whole shift, she still failed to use the protocol of requesting for assistance to ensure that all the patients were properly taken care of. Van Galen et al. (2016, p. 1) suggest the use of a Track and Trigger System to track the condition of the patient and alert nurses on the event that the health status of the patient reaches deteriorating levels. Extensive work load (communication with PACU unit) Brief Summary During the shift of RN Tracey, the 15-bed surgical ward was at capacity and there were only two (RN Tracey and Enrolled Nurse) who were scheduled to work on night shift. Unfortunately, in the ward, two male patients who had surgeries were distressed: one was unceasingly vomiting and the other one, a dementia patient who just had a fall on that afternoon, was restless and kept on walking to other patient’s rooms. In addition, a female patient was also very upset because her wish of not being put in a room where she had to share with male patients was not observed. Since it was not surprising to have fully-occupied ward, the hospital management had installed the proper procedure on how to address this problem by allowing the adjacent PACU unit staff to assist the surgical ward whenever needed. In fact, the RN on –duty at the PACU unit had contacted RN Tracey for five times during the night shift to provide assistance if necessary. However, RN Tracey was too occupied to pick-up the phone and just carried on the task with the Enrolled Nurse. This, however, resulted to Mrs. Spring’s deterioration of health. Though her vital signs that were documented at 0210 of 22 May 2017 showed that she had mild fever (38.9) and could be having an infection, there was no course of action provided to reverse deterioration. Legal The failure of RN Tracey to observe the protocol of requesting assistance in cases of overloaded work could be considered as a breach to work health and safety law. Based on the Health and Safety law in Queensland, a breach is committed when a person’s life is put to danger or death or illnesses result from the incidence; there was a failure to follow existing regulatory requirements, and steps were not taken to prevent the occurrence of a risky situation (Queensland Govt. 2016, p. 1). Unfortunately, all the mentioned factors were present in the acts of RN Tracey and these constituted to the worker’s breach of the WHS Act of 2011. Based on the penalties provided in the WHS Act, RN Tracey falls under the penalties due for category 2 offence, where there was failure to follow health and safety duty causing a person to be exposed to serious injury or illness or even risk of death, thus an individual worker (nurse) is penalised of up to $150,000 if proven guilty. Failure to pay the corresponding fine could lead to the issuance of a warrant of arrest and imprisonment (Queensland Govt. 2016, p. 1). Ethical and Professional The action of RN Tracey of not relaying to the RN on duty at the PACU unit her overload of work constitutes as another example of “unsatisfactory” performance of a health practitioner as provided by the definition of the word “unsatisfactory” in the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law (NSW 2016, 153A). In this case, RN Tracey should have communicated her extensive workload to the PACU unit so that proper assistance would have been given and all patients would have been attended accordingly. According to provision 2.3 of National Competency Standards for the registered nurse made by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, nurses should identify and adhere to the strategies set by the hospital that will protect and promote the rights of the individual or groups (NMBA, 2006, P. 3). In this case, RN Tracey failed to adhere to the strategies set by the hospital management on how to address issues of overloaded situations. It was both unethical and unprofessional for RN Tracey to disregard the assistance policy by the hospital especially that the PACU unit had been consistent on checking with her if she needed assistance. RN Tracey’s unreasonable judgment to not ask for assistance had resulted to her ‘unsatisfactory’ performance of duty and had put the life of Mrs. Spring in danger. Furthermore, section 28 of the WHS Act states that workers (nurses) should always comply as long as she/he is able, to the reasonable directives provided by the PCBU (in this case, the hospital) in terms of observing work health safety. Hence, applying this to the case study, RN Tracey was required by the WHS Act to provide reasonable care through the observance of the reasonable directives stated by the hospital to ensure that no one will be endangered because of her actions (NSW nurses & midwifes 2013, p. 23). Insufficient handover Brief Summary RN Tracey verbally confided to the RN assigned on day shift of 22 May that she was not able to finish her notes because she had been “flat out” the whole night shift. Furthermore, she requested to the day-shift RN that she will handover at the nurses’ station because she had to send her children to school but would return to finish her nursing notes. The morning nursing staff agreed and the handover was done in the nurse’s station. Legal The Western Australian Health Clinical Handover Policy requires that the transferring of one’s professional obligations in some or even all aspects of patient’s care be done effectively and with high quality of communication in order that all pertinent clinical information about the patient and his care is transferred (Western Australia Dept. of Health 2013, p. 2). Ineffective handover could lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, incorrect treatment, increased length of hospital stay, adverse events, unnecessary tests and treatments, malpractice claims, patient’s claims and increased expenditures (Govt. of Western Australia Dept. of Health 2013, p. 2). The handover policy states that all patients requiring clinical handover should be given; and this is done with the involvement of the patient and/or carer, normally at the bedside, with the presence of the carer or the patient (Western Australia Dept. of Health 2013, p. 4). The purpose of the handover in the presence of the patient/carer is to ensure explicit transfer of responsibilities and accountabilities and clarifications about patient risks and emergencies. The handover should be supported with proper documentation, including the proper and current clinical notes, test results and other documentation (Western Australia Dept. of Health 2013, p. 5). In Australia, bedside handover with patient participation is recommended to prevent communicating inaccurate, incomplete and misleading information (Whitty, Spinks & Tobiano 2017, p. 742). Ethical and Professional The handover that RN Tracey performed at the nurse’s station is both unethical and unprofessional and signify that both RN Tracey and the day-shift nurses lacked professional knowledge on how to perform a safe and accountable nursing practice. Aside from the fact that RN Tracey performed the handover even with incomplete notes, she also risked the patient safety by not providing the next-shift nurses the current assessments of Mrs. Spring, an action that could lead to treatment errors, repetitive tests and other clinical malpractices (Govt. of Western Australia Dept. of Health 2013, p. 2). The act of RN Tracey was also unethical when she initiated improper practice of handover, to the point of convincing the day-shift RNs to participate in performing the inappropriate handover. It was also unprofessional because both RN Tracey and the other day-shift nurses allowed the possibility of the occurrence of human errors in the treatment of Mrs. Spring and had put the safety of the patient at risk (The Joint Commission 2007, p. 1). To prevent erroneous communication and include Mrs. Spring’s active participation, bedside participation should have been done so they could also check on Mrs. Spring’s on-time condition and minimised patient’s damages.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Art and Material Culture of Early Imperial China 202 BC
    The rediscovery of the ruins of the Wu Family Shrine was important in the study of the art and material culture of Early Imperial China. The remnants were rediscovered by Huang Yi, a Shandong official and amateur archaeologist in 1786 and since then, the rediscovered stones have become a subject of art-historical debate and scholarly research1. The Wu Family Shrine which was excavated in Jaixiang in the Shandong Providence of China had stone architecture. The shrine was small and located at the foot of a tomb-mound. Moreover, it was decorated in the front with two stone que pillars, a stone tablet and two stone lions; a manifestation that the family cemetery was structured during the Han dynasty2. It was during the Han dynasty that the structures of tombs were changed – from a simple tomb surrounding the coffin with a frame to a more elaborate style that looked like an underground house similar to the house of the dead person when he was still alive. Due to the belief that life continues after death because of the descendants’ filial rites, a passage linking up to the ground was built in the underground house to serve as the spirits’ pathway to the outside world. Also, the Wu family shrine had pictorial carvings which were believed to have been engraved during the Han dynasty because they followed the outlines of Han historiography3. The carved decorations were repeated from shrine to shrine and two of the motifs used were omens and fusang tree. This paper will explore the two motifs used (omens and fusang). Moreover, it will discuss what these motifs tell in connection with the ideology of the Han dynasty before finally concluding. ________________ 1Cary Liu, ‘Reconfiguring the ‘Wu family shrines’: a typological study’, Recovering China: Past: Art, archeology and architecture of the ‘Wu family shrine’, (The University Art Museum, 2005), p. 1. 2Ibid. 3Uno Mizuki, ‘Rethinking ‘filial piety’ through a reinterpretation of the ‘fusang’ tomb motif’, The 3rd Beseto conference of philosophy, session 6. Omens The rediscovered ruins of the Wu Family Shrine contained reliefs depicting everyday life scenes, an indicator that the family was a follower of Confucius teachings, the official imperial philosophy during the Han dynasty4. A relief is a sculptural technique that shows the impression of a raised sculpted material above the background plane5. One relief dated 151 CD shows subjects paying respect to the emperor at his imperial residence. The relief has four horizontal divisions and in its uppermost level (the roof of the building) has carvings of a phoenix and other figures. The appearance of a phoenix, precious objects like gold and jade, unicorns, white deer and red crows signify omens or good message from Heaven to man6. Moreover, the motif of omens was used by Wu Liang to symbolize Heaven as his clear manifestations of the will of Heavens. This motif of omens as Heaven’s will was extended to his political principles and was made clear in his inscriptions as follows: “The jade horse appears when a ruler is pure and incorrupt and honors the worthy”; and “the red-mane white horse appears when a ruler employs virtuous and good officials”7. _________________ 4M. Stokstad, Art history, vol. 1 (New York: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1995), p. 405. 5’Relief’, Merriam-Webster Dictionary 6Tizina Lippiello, Auspicious omens and miracles in ancient China (University of Venice, 1995), p. 1. 7Wu Hung, The Wu Liang Shrine: the ideology of early Chinese pictorial art (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1989), p. 223. The phoenix in the relief which was depicted on the roof signifies eternal life. The Chinese believes that the phoenix’s elegant and long tail, prominent chest and short, curved beak suggest immortality8. Based on some ancient Chinese texts, the phoenix is linked to a good emperor who has received from Heaven his mandate to rule. The presence of a phoenix gives a notion that the emperor is a just ruler with good virtues. Moreover, Powers (1991) adds that the phoenix also represents Confucius; henceforth, the Han rulers are also just rulers because their authority is based on the principles of Confucius9. The relief dated 151 CE emphasizes the order and structure synonymous to the harmonious society founded on Confucian philosophy. Each of the four horizontal divisions emphasizes the building’s order and structure: the lowest level symbolizes the entrance where visitors arrive, the second represents the receiving section of the emperor (where the men gather), the third level is the section where the women connected to the emperor and his visitors gather and the top level or the roof of the building is where the phoenix and other figure carvings appear. The order and structure indicated in the relief is in line with the order and structure that Confucius emphasizes as the basis in defining a perfect society. The divisions between women and men represent wifely devotion and social order as illustrated in Confucius teachings that each person has to attend to his own proper place in the society. It also indicates the respect of the people to their ruler who possesses good virtues and proper authority from Heaven as epitomized by the omen (phoenix at the roof)10. _________________________
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Argument Essay: Human Cloning
    Argument Essay – Human Cloning Human cloning is defined as genderless reproduction of a genetically alike human (Lederberg 519). Human cloning is very controversial because of ethical, medical and psychological concerns. The likelihood of performing human cloning arouse after the successful cloning of “Dolly”. However, upon Dolly’s death (CNN), more ethical and scientific implications were articulated. Regarding the pros and cons on the issue of human cloning, human cloning should be banned because it is unethical, medically risky and psychologically harmful. First and foremost, it is unethical because human cloning is unnatural and if humans are cloned, ‘experts’ will be playing God which some religions consider as an act of interference in God’s creation (Human Genetics Alert 4) and can be regarded as blasphemous. It is also unethical as it threatens the individuality of humans, making use of the genetic composition of an already existing person (Willson 1). In addition, it is unethical because human cloning does not conform to the biological kinship patterns and the traditional relationships between social and biological parenthood (Human Genetics Alert 5). For illustration, a man parenting his clone is like parenting a genetic twin. In this case, the cloned human is not a son or a sister of the original human, but his or her genetic twin. Leon Kass, an American bioethicist calls the human clone the “ultimate single parent child” (Kass 17-26). Human cloning is not only unethical but also medically risky. Human cloning is medically risky because based on the cloning performed in animals, cloned animals have fatal issues in their genes. A study reveals that 24% of cloned calves did not survive more than three months from birth and 2% of these cases were due to long-term sickness (Yount 3). Moreover, since the cloned animal is the same age as the original, the original genes come from a 24-year-old, the cloned animal is also 24 years old at birth. For example, Dolly was cloned from a 7-year old sheep. Dolly died six years later and experts taking care of her reported that Dolly suffered from debilitating arthritis and lung cancer (Genomics energy). Also, according to Ian Wilmut, a co-creator of Dolly, almost 98% of cloning attempts failed, and those who survived have gene problems or genetic abnormalities such as problems in lungs, blood vessels, diabetes, malfunctioning immune systems, and defective hearts. Human cloning is also psychologically harmful because it produces anxiety and psychological harm in the cloned twin (Brock 600). Eventually, the later twin may find himself pressured to reach the abilities and accomplishment of the first twin. Or if a person clones his wife as a replacement, it would create serious psychological problems, taking care of a cloned child to become his wife. Furthermore, the issues of incest may psychologically arise as the person may somehow think that the cloned person that he is sleeping with is the same child that he took care of and cloned to become the replacement of his wife. Opposing views claim that the issue of ‘playing God’ is not a strong argument because there are natural forces that destroy a person, such as diseases and nature and every time a person takes medications and vitamins or consult a doctor for a medical procedure, that person is not allowing nature to take its course. To them, life-saving surgery such as inserting a pacemaker or the administration of the death penalty to a criminal are also acts of ‘playing God’ (Bainbridge). However, it should also be taken into consideration that the previously mentioned ‘acts of playing God’ are not at all ‘acts solely performed by God’ (Human Genetics Alert 4) but measures to cure or to remedy the medical problems of the person. Curing a sick person is not at all an act of ‘playing God’ because it is different from ‘creating’ a person, which is “God’s job and His alone” (Bainbridge). Another opposing view is human cloning as the answer to the need of childless couples who cannot produce their own sperm and egg cells. However, human cloning is not the only answer as the problem can also be solved by other modern medical procedures, such as vitro fertilization or other assisted reproductive technology. The success of Dolly’s cloning has aroused the curiosity of scientists and stirred the idea of performing the cloning procedure on humans. However, that success has also revealed the different issues that go with human cloning such as low success rate, health risks, and psychological arguments. Based on the discussion above, human cloning should be banned because it is unethical, medically risky and psychologically harmful. As Brock puts it, ‘it would be better to have a different person born under natural process than a cloned twin with psychological burdens’ (600). Works Cited Bainbridge, William Sims. ‘Religious opposition to cloning.’ Journal of evolution and Technology. Vol. 13. 2003. Print. Brock, Dan. ‘Cloning human beings: an assessment of the ethical issues pro and con.’ Contemporary issues in bioethics. 6th ed. Wadsworth. 2003. P. 600. Print.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Angioplasty Medication
    Angioplasty Medication (pharmacology) Coronary artery angioplasty is the most recommended intervention in the management of coronary artery disease because it repairs the blood flow in the narrowed arteries in the heart due to plaque. The procedure involves the threading of a thin tube with a tiny balloon at the end point in the blood vessel with blockage and when in placed, the balloon is inflated, causing the plaques to be pushed outward of the artery, thus, widening the artery and enabling the better flow of blood. Doctors recommend angioplasty to help reduce the chest pain that patients experience due to decreased flow of blood to the heart. Angioplasty also lessens the damage brought by a heart attack to the heart muscle of the patient (Medline 2017, p. 1). Angioplasty is performed using stents – either through the use of bare-metal stents (BMS) or through drug-eluding stents (DES). There are also two types of DES, namely, paclitaxel and sirolimus eluting stents (Harper 2007, p. 253). Pharmacotherapy such as the utilisation of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are also used in angioplasty to minimise morbidity and avert complications (Medline 2017, p. 1). Anticoagulants are used to avert current or recurring thromboembolic obstruction in the circulation. Some of the known anticoagulants are heparin, argatroban and bivalirudin (anglomax) (Stouffer 2016, p. 1). Heparin is the traditional add-on medical therapy in coronary angioplasty and has been effective in reducing complications after the process. Heparin works by enhancing the activity of antithrombin III and inhibits the transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin. It does not actively cause disintegration but can prevent additional thrombogenesis. Heparin has the capability to prevent revert of a clot post impulsive fibrinolysis (Stouffer 2016, p. 5). Argatroban is a discerning thrombin inhibitor that prevents the development of thrombin by stopping the collection of thrombin-induced platelet (Stouffer 2016, p. 5). Bivalirudin is also an example of an anticoagulant drug that prevents thrombin-interceded split of fibrinogen to fibrin. Bivalirudin is used with aspirin (300 – 325 mg per day) (Stouffer 2016, p. 5). Antiplatelet therapy is normally prescribed to patients who have had a stent to prevent thrombosis around the stent which could block the flow of blood or sometimes, the blood breaking free causing a blockage in other parts of the body, thus, resulting to a stroke, heart attack or death (secondscount.org 2014, p. 1). It is currently required that patients who have had bare metal stent take aspirin and an antiplatelet drug such as Brilinta, Effient or Plavix for a month after the stent procedure. For those who have had drug-eluting stents, they are highly encouraged to take aspirin plus an antiplatelet medicine for a minimum of one year after the implantation of stent. Having aspirin plus an antiplatelet medicine such as Brilinta, effient or Plavix is considered an example of dual antiplatelet therapy (secondscount.org 2014, p. 1). Cangrelor (kengreal) is also an antiplatelet drug, fast-acting and quickly inhibits intravenous platelet. The drug is used in addition to PCI in reducing the risk of periprocedural MI, stent thrombosis and recurrent coronary revascularisation in patients who are not provided with glycoprotein llb/lla inhibitor (Stouffer 2016, p. 6). Clopidogrel (Plavix) helps inhibit P2Y12 receptor in platelets and averts ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-facilitated stimulation of GPllb/llla complex, resulting to the prevention of the accumulation of platelet. Clopidogrel is prescribed to thwart stenosis of coronary stents and possible vascular diseases such as ischemic stroke and secondary myocardial infarction. The drug’s anti-platelet effect is permanent, thus, decreasing platelet aggregation at around 40 to 60% when recommended dosage is followed. However, similar to aspirin, clopidogrel can also cause dyspepsia, abdominal pain, rashes and diarrhoea. Its severe adverse effects are thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and bleeding (Lehne 2013, p. 652). Prasugrel (effient) is a platelet inhibitor that is taken orally and is intended to reduce the occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular in patients with ACS that is managed through percutaneous coronary intervention (Stouffer 2016, p. 6). Ticagrelor (brillinta) is also an oral platelet inhibitor that is intended to minimise the occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular to patients with acute coronary syndrome. It also minimises the risk of getting stent thrombosis in patients who were treated with PCI (Stouffer 2016, p. 6). Aspirin is not only taken for its anticoagulant effect which involves platelet function, but the drug is also used for its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, it is used as an additional medical therapy in patients having coronary angioplasty in order to reduce risks for post-procedure complications (Stouffer 2016, p. 6). Aspirin is more effective than other salicylic acid products in inhibiting both platelet aggregation and prostaglandin synthesis. Lehne 2013, p. 663 states that aspirin’s antithombotic effect suppresses the aggregation of platelet. Other benefits of aspirin includes having synergistic effects with fibrinolytic drugs, hence, a valuable factor in decreasing rates of mortality of patients who have had angioplasty. To take advantage of the medical effects of aspirin, the therapy should start immediately after the presentation of signs and symptoms and should be continued whenever necessary. The recommended initial dose of 162 to 325 mg/day should be chewed to gain fast absorption through the buccal mucosa whilst prolonged therapy is recommended at 81 to 162 mg/day to reduce the risks of reinfarction, stroke and even death (Lehne 2013, p. 663). According to Stouffer (2016, p. 6), if aspirin is administered early in patients with MI, it could decrease their risks to cardiac mortality in its first month. Studies show that a daily dose of aspirin (30mg) for a week reduces the formation of thrombin in healthy patients whilst higher doses of 75mg and 300 mg have similar effects as what a single dose of 500mg could do in decreasing concentrations of thrombin markers after a period of aspirin therapy in patients susceptible to coronary artery ailment (Healio 2007, p. 1). In patients with microvascular injury, a low dose of 75 mg aspirin for seven days slowed down prothrombin consumption by 29%, prothrombinase formation by 29% and thrombin formation by 27.2%. The drug also has the capacity to slow down the activation of FXIII by thrombin and reduces the concentrated rate of FXIII cleavage (Healio 2007, p. 1)
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Korean Reunification Annotated Bibliography
    Annotated Bibliography Auerbach, Alan, Chun, Young Jun & Yoo, Ilho. “The fiscal burden of Korean reunification: a generational accounting approach”. 2004. 1 – 32. Print. The article discusses the fiscal burden of Korean reunification to the current and future generations of South Koreans. Moreover, the authors compared the fiscal impacts of the Korean reunification against the German reunification. Based on the study, the authors suggest that an early reunification will require a bigger fiscal burden for both present and future generations of South Koreans because of the wide gap in productivity and population of North and South Korea. This particular article is useful to my research as it gives information on how deviance may arise among the South Koreans regarding the reunification. Moreover, the article compares and contrasts the possible Korean reunification against the Germany reunification. This source differs from other available sources in the research because it presents accounting calculations and mathematical equations in showing the fiscal impacts. Berg, Stefan, Winter, Steffen & Wassermann, Andreas. “Germany’s eastern burden: the price of a failed reunification”. Spiegel Online. 05 Sept. 2005. Web. 22 Jul 2013 <www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/germany>. This source relates how the former East Germany has become a key liability to the reunified Germany, estimated to be costing the German economy of around €100 billion yearly. Although the Eastern Bloc has a rich economy, it still did not match West Germany’s economic growth. Moreover, the migration to the West by the young educated Eastern people weakened the state’s economy. Although the administrative and political reforms made in the Eastern bloc proved to be successful, it still lacks a sufficient economic base. To date, it still depends on government subsidies totaling to around €70 - €80 annually to survive. And worse, the economic aid given to the East is increasingly pulling down the economic cycle in the West. This particular source is helpful to my research because it contains information regarding possible challenges after the reunification. What has happened to the reunification of Germany could also happen in Korea because of the wide gap economic-wise of the North and South. Choi, Jinwook, US-China relations and Korea Unification. Korea Institute for National Unification. 2011. 1 – 267. Print. The source discusses the current economic hardship that North Korea is experiencing and its inability to provide food to its people resulting to its move to strengthen its relationship with China so as to secure new military equipment and economic aid. It also describes the possibility of a South Korean-led reunification because a united Korea would mean a strong middle power, a gateway that connects the Pacific Ocean and Eurasia and a good image as a contributor of peace and integration in the region. However, US and China may not be in favor of the reunification in the short-term period and would rather choose a status quo to serve their respective interests in dealing with both North Korea and South Korea. Coghlan, David. Prospects from Korean reunification. Strategic Studies Institute. 2008. 1 – 29. Print. The source outlines the different possibilities regarding the North and South Korea reunification and the likelihood of unified Korea’s possible alliances after the reunification. It details the underlying assumptions and forecasts of how and when it will transpire. It also presents scenarios of the different opportunities and challenges that the reunification will present to South Korea. The particular source is very helpful because it outlines the pros and cons between the short-term and long-term realization of the reunification. The analysis of the author changes my perception about China and Japan and how their relationship with Korea will be affected in case Korea favors China over the US. This source is very informative and will certainly guide me in shaping my arguments regarding Korean reunification. Gromling, Michael. Reunification, restructuring, recessions and reforms – the German economy over the last two decades. Sandering 2. 2008. 1 – 38. Print. This source tells about how Germany was able to recover successfully after the reunification of East and West Germany. It details the reunification process, the restricting, recessions and the reforms made to uplift its economy over the last two decades. It discusses how the reunified country was able to perform an extraordinary economic upturn from its economic stagnation. This source is very helpful in determining the reunification model that Germany used and analyzing whether this model can be duplicated in Korea. This is valuable for my research as I will be able to compare and contrast the characteristics of the two countries. Moreover, this source can be useful in shaping my arguments for the research. This particular source has changed my perceptions about Germany and its people.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Korean Reunification
    Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Korean Unification The successful reunifications of Germany, Vietnam and Yemen have fueled talks over Korean reunification; however, aside from the very high cost of reunification, the other concern is finding an ideal reunification model and reunification condition that would be most beneficial to Korea. To date, Korea is the only divided nation in the world that has not reunited yet. It is the dream of Koreans to reunite with their long lost brothers from both states but different factors have been blocking the way and economic cost is one big aspect of a complicated process that South Koreans must seriously consider. This somehow is the reason for the increasing ambivalence on the part of the South Koreans particularly that the economic divide is caused by the wide gap in economic development and wealth of the two states. North Korea’s economy is in bad shape causing the legalization of some criminal activities such as drug trafficking, dollar counterfeiting and smuggling as a form of “criminal sovereignty” to support its military, the senior officers of the armed forces, Kim Jong-il’s lifestyle and safeguard the state from international interventions. But the lure of the multitude of international opportunities is still in the offing and the superpowers are also working on their strategies to benefit from the situation. This paper will explore the different possibilities of Korean reunification and identify the different models of reunification that Korea may study. Moreover, the paper will be working on the thesis, “The reunification of Korea will be beneficial to both North Korea and South Korea because it will make the unified Korea a stronger country, however, the high cost of reunification will dictate whether Korea will ally with the US or China to maximize potentials.” Importance of Reunification of Korea Korea is a country known to value strong obedience to family ties and deep sense of national unity. Despite the long-standing hostility and strain between the South and the North, the people of Korea still dreams of reuniting with their long-lost brothers. Many attempts have been made in the past but proved to be unsuccessful. However, in 1972, the two cities of Korea – Seoul and Pyongyang – theoretically agreed that they would have the reunification peacefully and without the intervention of foreign forces (Coughlan, p. 1). This agreement was followed by several attempts and predictions but they all faded. Although the assumption remains, the question of when this event will occur still hangs in the air. One important aspect of the reunification is the merging of population of the North and South that would total to 80 million. Moreover, a united Korea could be a strong middle power that could function as a major gateway connecting the Pacific Ocean and Eurasia. Also, the reunification could be a great chance for the South Koreans to help its Northern brothers through economic development and economic aid for their basic necessities (Choi, p. 21). The reunification of Korea will make the country a powerful inter-cultural bridge between China and Japan. It will also improve and relax the relationships across the Taiwan Strait (Pfenning, p. 120). Military-wise, the Korean unification would secure South Korea from security threats and resolve the threats of North Korea’s long-range missiles and nuclear power. Moreover, it would also be a boon not only for the Korean peninsula but also to Northeast Asia and other countries in the whole world. The reunification will surely eliminate North Korean conflicts and strengthen Korea’s image as a contributor to peace (21). On the economic aspect, Korean reunification will create a strong synergistic effect because of the merging of South Korea’s technology and capital and North Korea’s labor and mineral resources. With the unification, South Korea will have the option to reduce the defense budget, eliminate the costs of division and the chance to open new markets to China and the accessibility to the natural gas and oil of Russian Far East. In addition, it will give way to the healing of the longstanding conflicts and aggression between the two states, resulting to the improvement of the country’s self-esteem and innate power (22). How reunification will be realized? After the successful reunification of Germany, talks surfaced regarding the possibilities of the reunification of Korea. However, “how” the reunification will be realized became an issue and four possible scenarios were suggested, namely, system collapse of North Korea, gradual change, indefinite status quo of the two states and war (Coughlan, p. 3). Gradual The gradual scenario would require various negotiations between South Korea and North Korea, requiring Pyongyang to carry-out a Chinese model of economic development in an effort to stop its shrinking economy. Then the economic cooperation of the two states will gradually increase while the measures for military confidence-building will be put in place to decrease the size and cost of the force structures (4). Afterwards, the relationship will be allowed to progress thru a commonwealth-type arrangement leading to a complete federation (4). However, this scenario towards reunification is assumed to be most likely opposed by North Korea as it would require the elimination of its military-first policy and Juche. System Collapse
    $ 0.13
    15,555words / 11page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Analytic Reflection : The flat world and education
    Analytic Refection Paper The Flat World & Education (Chapters 4 & 5) Darling-Hammond (2010) focuses on inequitable funding and the connection between funding and quality in Chapter 4. Her views that the structures for awarding financial support to schools are inequitable seems valid because based on the results of the National Report Card (2012), out of the overall states of the USA, only six states have achieved the status of relatively well in terms of the fairness measures (funding level, funding distribution, effort and coverage). These states are Massachusetts, Iowa, Vermont, New Jersey, Kansas and New Mexico. Moreover, the data from the National Report Card also showed that many states perform below par on the most significant indicators such as funding distribution and state effort. On the other hand, the highest funded states are those belonging to the northeastern part and the lowest funded are predominantly from the South. Incidentally, it was reported that the poorest states in the USA are almost entirely found in the South, except for the New Mexico (Sauter 2013). Hence, this information proves that those poor states that are in dire need for bigger funds are allocated the lowest funds instead. Moreover, it is assumed that a funding system is considered “fair” if it is progressive, meaning, the funding increases in accordance to the level of concentrated student poverty. However, as Darling-Hammond (2010) points it out, the funding system is inequitable because based on the National Report Card 2nd edition (2012), out of the 50 states, there are only 17 states who have received progressive funding and six states have regressive funding which include Alabama, North Carolina, Texas, Colorado and Michigan. And while there are states such as Kansas, Delaware, Maryland and Louisiana who have improved by one letter grade, other states such as North Carolina, Texas, Minnesota, North Dakota and Montana have regressed one letter grade. Darling-Hammond (2010) emphasizes that equitable funding would yield equitable results so low-achieving schools should not be deprived of well-experienced educators, educational tools, educational environment and educational funds that would strengthen and improve their academic accomplishments. Allocating lesser funds to low-income states would only exacerbate the quality of their education which could result to more educational costs accumulated over time due to disciplinary actions, retention, dropout rates and remediation. The case of Massachusetts is a classic example of how equitable funding spells the difference of educational outcomes. As stated by Darling-Hammond (2010), when Massachusetts made equitable funding to underfunded schools, the improvement in their educational outcomes was apparent but after a series of tax cuts and funding was reduced, all the gained achievements also eroded. In chapter 5, Darling-Hammond (2010) further emphasizes how proper utilization of resources could result to positive student achievement. Effective utilization of resources is very essential in the successful educational outcomes of states because wrong investment leads to devastation and debilitation of the educational system to mentor children and increase students’ persistence to graduation. The case of Connecticut and North Carolina represent the result of resources properly utilized while the case of California exemplifies neglect and mismanagement of resources. Investments made for the improvement of teacher quality, early-learning experiences and the development of quality standard proved to be the keys to the reduction of achievement gaps and improvement of achievements in the states of Connecticut and North Carolina. Whereas, the focus made by California in reducing property taxes has destroyed investments for education and therefore proved devastating for the state’s education system. When funds go to the improvement of quality teacher preparation and in the development of teaching and learning standards, eventually, skills appropriation, application of knowledge and comprehension will grow, resulting to the motivation of students to aspire more and finish their studies. Funding distribution refers to the state’s allocation of funds to schools based on their concentration of poverty. In this area, both Connecticut’s and California’s levels are C but when it comes to Effort level, Connecticut’s grade is B while California’s is F (National Report Card 2012). This shows that while both states have the same degree of funding distribution, the effort made by Connecticut in spending on education relative to the state’s fiscal capacity is higher than California’s efforts. Darling-Hammond (2010) asserts that California’s poor rating was the result of its poor funding structures, unreasonable expectations, inadequate teacher preparation and stagnant curricula. Hence, effective utilization of resources is very essential in the successful educational outcomes of states. References: Darling-Hammond, 2010, The flat world and education: how America’s commitment to equity will determine our future, Teachers College Press, New York. National Report Card, 2012. Sauter, M, 2013, “Report: riches states in the US”, Detroit Free Press.
    $ 0.04
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Situated learning versus networked learning approach: analysis
    Q. Analyse and debate the respective benefits and limitations of a situated learning versus networked learning approach. What learning communities result from these approaches and what is the role of the professional educator within these communities? Introduction Skills and knowledge are not all learned from school; some have to be learnt from doing things outside of the school environment whilst others can be learned by interacting with others who share the same interest, are already skilled or have been doing the task repeatedly, through the use of technology. Situated learning and networked learning are two learning approaches that can provide the skills and knowledge that the traditional classroom setting cannot realistically provide. Whilst situated learning can provide the student the professional skills by actually working and learning in a community of practice, networked learning provides the much-needed connection to people who are distant but have the expertise and means to support the student’s further learning. This paper will investigate the two learning approaches and critically analyse their respective advantages and limitations. Further, it will identify what community learnings result from these learning approaches and determine the role of the professional educator in these learning communities before finally concluding. What is situated learning? Situated learning is the model of learning that involves the learning in a community of practice; the learning is acquired in the same environment where it is applied. Hence, the learning activity takes places in kitchens, gardens, workshops, or office environments (Lave & Wenger, 1991). In other words, it is what we now know as ‘on-the-job’ training. According to Lave and Wenger (1991), learning should not be limited to the simple transmission of theories and decontextualized knowledge from one person to another but should also involve a social process where knowledge is collaborated and the learning takes place in a specific setting within a social environment. Lave (1996) adds that one benefit of pursuing learning in a social environment is because it does not label persons based on the divisions of social inequality but considers learning as collective instead of individual. Gee (2008) adds that in situated learning, knowledge and learning are not only depictions in the head but have a relationship to an environment in which the person interacts, thinks, acts and feels. This means that the person can take advantage of what the affordances in the environment can afford him in transforming an action. For example, a comb can afford some actions if used properly. However, this affordance that the comb can provide cannot be transformed into action if the person has no capacity to use the comb in the right way to transform the comb’s affordances into action. In this instance, thinking and learning are situated because its relevance can only be understood based on the relationship between the person and the specific environment. Furthermore, Gee (2008) states that the use of video games afford the learners to develop their communication and social skills, and their abilities to cognizance because they are allowed to solve problems to run their ‘cities’ well. Hung (2002) says that when learning involves problem solving, learners are given the opportunity to think of real life situations and find answers to existing problems. They interact with those in the community who are more knowledgeable than they are to learn from them first hand. Benefits and limitations of situated learning Situated learning has benefits and limitations and some of the benefits include: the vocational skills of students are enhanced in actual industries and enterprises settings, the increasing need for specialisation of vocational activity are met through situated learning, students are given the opportunity to experience actual skill development processes and career progression and the construction of knowledge is facilitated by cultural and social circumstances where knowledge is acquired (Lave, 1990; Rogoff, 1990; & Billett, 1995). Furthermore, learning through community participation encourages students to be more attentive, initiative, watchful and helpful (Rogoff, 2012). However, situated learning also faces the possibility of limitations such as the student may be acquiring inappropriate knowledge; may not be getting access to authentic activities; experts may be reluctant in collaborating/teaching students; absence of expertise and use of unreliable instructional media (Billett, 1995). If the situated learning experience is authentic and the learner is properly guided by expert workers, then participation in work tasks by the learner will offer him opportunities to acquire first-hand knowledge or solutions to vocational tasks. Overtime, this continuous activity will result to a range of goal-securing procedures (Billett, 1995). Hodges (1998) claims that community practice may also result to identity formation, participation, non-participation and dis-identification as it sometimes promotes “structures of privilege that deny difference and diversity” (Lave & Wenger, 1991a). The problem arise when one of the participants is somewhat different and his difference results to his inability to identify with the community causing de-identification and obscured non-participation because the person feels displaced. Due to the identificatory collision, the learner is unable to build relationship with the environment, thus limiting his opportunity to learn from situated environment (Hodges, 1998). What is networked learning? Networked learning involves the optimal use of technology in creating and maintaining connections with people, communicating, gathering information and supporting each other’s learning (Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Jones & Lindstrom, 2009). The keyword in networked learning is making ‘connections’. Networked learning offers lesser costs as it can connect individuals from different parts of the world through the use of technology such as computers and internet. With the advent of the social media and concepts of open source, networked learning is easier to achieve. Students from different parts of the world can connect and chat through Globally Networked Learning Environments (GNLE), which was specifically designed to enable collaboration and dialogue among students all over the world (Starke-Meyerring, D. et al., 2007). The development of the internet has further promoted networked learning because the internet became a major tool in the access of information and communication irrespective of distance. Even in situated learning, networked learning within a specific range of settings within communities of practice is used (Lave & Wenger 1991a). As mentioned earlier, Gee (2008) recommends the use of video games within a specific range of setting, say inside a playroom, to develop communication and social skills among learners whilst they are trying to figure-out what improvement or things to do to better their ‘cities’ and prevent them from getting ruined. The dialogue and interaction between learners whilst connected to the internet allow them to solve individual problems or those of others. Goodyear (2001) adds that the interactions between learners in networked learning environments can be done via voice, text, graphics, shared workspaces, video or combinations of these. Further, the interaction or communication can be asynchronous, synchronous or both. The interaction can be synchronous in internet chat, live video conferences and shared workspace. However, the interaction is asynchronous in emails and video mails (Goodyear, 2001). Benefits and limitations of networked learning Some of the benefits of networked learning are it provides interactive but flexible learning, promotes active engagement, provides recorded or text files, provides opportunities for group working, ease of access to global resources, social interaction and the possibilities of changing relationships in learning (Goodyear, 2001). However, there are also limitations in networked learning, such as lack of expressive richness, no immediacy in asynchronous communication, requires technical access and competence and need for shared goals to sustain activity (Goodyear, 2001). Since networked learning is done using technology, it enables the recording of what transpires during the interaction or communication and could be retrieved for review, reflection or further study in some other time. Even if some files are deleted, there are still technologies that can retrieve the file, making it possible to have permanent recorded files. Further, since the approach of learning is interactive, interaction with peers, tutors and other learners is high and very flexible in terms of time and place because the learners can interact without requiring co-presence in one place and time. In addition, networked learning also provides opportunities for working students or those who are travelling from time to time to engage in a group activity as long as he has the technology to connect to his group mates. The use of emails or chats could be a form of a social interaction and is not limited to assignments and workgroup projects only. Unlike in situated learning in a community environment where the teacher always takes the forefront, in networked learning, democratisation of learning relationships is promoted, meaning, the teacher may take the role of a guide on the side whilst the learners are interacting with other learners or those others who share the same interest as theirs (Goodyear, 2001). However, networked learning is limited in terms of expressing lively verbal exchange as emotions are only expressed through words and emoticons unlike in situated learning in a community setting environment where a joke is easily appreciated through smiles, laughter, or happy nods. Further, networked learning is limited in providing quick response to a query (in terms of asynchronous form like emails), especially if the receiver of the message is offline when the email was sent. There are instances in learning that a quick reply to a query is really needed and this is better achieved in situated learning than in networked learning, except of course, if the networked learning is done through live chats or live video conferences. Furthermore, networked learning requires technical access and competence to maximise its benefits unlike in situated learning in a community environment where the learning can be achieved even by mere observing or listening to a knowledgeable group mate. Also, Bouchard (2011) points that there are inherent features in current information-sharing technologies that limit learning, such as, the lack of learner interaction in videos or the lack in spontaneity in weblogs. Furthermore, with the increasing bits of unfiltered information resulting from the interconnectedness of networked learning, the quality of learning may be put at risk. The unlimited quantity of unverified sources of information may require new definition of what should be read and what should be read and learned. Lastly, networked learning needs shared goals to sustain activity and often, participants in learning activities on networked learning are not always available for comments or opinions unless they are really interested in the learning activity. Unlike in situated learning where learners are taught on how to use their time on a regular basis, networked learning’s flexible use of time contributes to non-participation of some learners (Goodyear, 2001). What learning communities result from situated learning? One of the learning communities that result from situated learning is the Mayan community in the highlands of Guatemala where Barbara Rogoff (2012) noticed how children learned skills by not being taught but by observing and learning from doing or intent community participation. The children were alert and ardently aware of what was happening around them because they participated in whatever task they saw others were doing; they were pitching in, always ready to help out and collaborate voluntarily. And based on what the author saw in the Mayan community results to the creation of a public school in the community where parents and children collaborate in developing learning situations for the children and adult learners as well. In this community environment, the children and the adults developed the curriculum together, and they were both aware of the reasons as to why they were studying what they were studying. They studied their topics by playing roles that would describe what they were studying. For example, in studying probability, the children played games ala “Las Vegas” to show that probability is like a game of chance – you will either win or lose. Another learning community that results from situated learning is the Vai and Gola tailors’ apprenticeship in Liberia, West Africa (Lave, 1996). In this apprentice, the author, Jean Lave (1996) came to realise that the informal practices in apprenticeships are effective in learning because when people are exposed to a daily routine for a period of time, they get to learn many complex lessons all at once, such as, they learn the relations between social identities in the society through the types of dresses that they wear; they learn how to make a life; how to make clothes properly; how to become master tailors; how to make a decent living out of their incomes; and how becoming a master of their trade will afford them due respect (Lave, 1996). What learning communities result from networked learning? The popularity of technology and social networking has also affected the way students, as well as teachers, are learning. Based on the networked learning concept, educators are using Twitter in increasing their opportunities for professional learning. According to Trust (2012) teachers experience greater fulfilment when getting professional improvement from community learning and networking rather than through the traditional way of learning such as seminars. A study by Ross (2013) showed that 90% of teachers are frequently using Twitter to connect, collaborate, and engage in professional development and network. Trust (2012) adds that teachers who use social media in building a professional learning network have not experienced detracted time problems for classroom preparation and instruction due to online conversations with other teachers from other parts of the world. The networked learning enabled them to discuss lesson plans, collaborate, receive feedback on new ideas and help in solving problems. Trust (2012) adds that the synchronous and asynchronous learning from networked concept provide teachers the opportunity to modify the traditional ideas of professional development and create a professional hub that is not restricted by time and boundaries. Further, to bridge the gap between what preservice teachers know and what they will experience in actual school work, networked learning through online communities and social networking sites was created. The National Education Technology Plan encourages the pre-service teachers and the in-service teachers to use connectivity to communicate their awkward teaching moments that are difficult to talk over in local settings; to address the feeling of being isolated; to experience camaraderie and to explore new ideas regarding teaching strategies and teaching resources (Collias 2014). The role of the professional educator within situated learning
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    An Introduction to Multiple Sclerosis
    An introduction to Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a long-lasting disease that affects the central nervous system such as the spinal cord, optic nerves and the brain. It is also described as the scar tissue in many areas. The nerve fibers in the central nervous system are wrapped by a myelin sheath which also acts as the nerve fibers’ protection. When a person has Multiple Sclerosis, the myelin sheath that surrounds his nerve fibers disappears, leaving scars or sclerosis in multiple areas. The areas that do not have myelin form lesions or plaques and as the plaques get worse, the nerve fibers break resulting to the disruption of the electrical impulses from the brain flowing smoothly to its targeted nerve in the other parts of the body. Lack of myelin could lead to the failure of the nerve fibers to transport messages from and to the brain. (Nordquist 2017). What are the symptoms? The symptoms of MS vary, depending on the severity of the case. For severe cases of MS, there could be vision loss and paralysis, while in minor cases, numbness in the limbs are experienced. Common symptoms include visual disturbances, difficulties with coordination and balance, muscle weakness, thinking and memory problems and numbness and tingling like “pins and needles”. Other symptoms are: itching, headache, breathing or respiratory problems, speech disorders, seizures, swallowing problems and hearing loss. Patients also experience fatigue, a type of fatigue that fluctuates with exercise and heat but is lessened with a short rest period. What are the infectious agents, what is its life cycle, how does it reproduce/mutate? OR What branch of the immune system causes this disease, what are the prevalent risk factors/cause of inappropriate immune system activation? Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease where the central nervous system is attacked by the body’s immune system. The person’s own immune system attacks and eventually damages cells and structures in the central nervous systems such as the nerve fibers, oligodendrocytes and myelin (NMSS, 2017). However, Epstein-Barr virus infection acquired in childhood is also associated to the developing of multiple sclerosis (Krone et al, 2008). The T cells come through blood brain barrier. T cells in the central nervous system releases cytokines that cause degradation of the blood brain barrier. When the BBB becomes more permeable, more immune cells can enter. The more T cells come in, more cytokines release causing to recruit more other immune cells. One is B cell which attacks myelin sheath using antibody, which causes further degradation. Macrophage also comes in, physically degrading the myelin. However, oligodendrites has a way of healing back the scarred myelin sheath but eventually immune cells overcome the healing process, leading to relapse and remitting. The T cells, in some ways, become sensitized to proteins in the central nervous system. When the T cells activate, they enter the central nervous system through the blood vessels and create harmful inflammation. When these T cells are in the central nervous system, they do not only damage myelin but also the axons or the nerve fibers and attract more damaging immune cells to the location of the inflammation. Though there are no known causes of the activation of T cells in the body of a person with multiple sclerosis, it is assumed that both environmental factors (infections) and genetics are major contributors. What populations are infected or most likely to be infected? Mostly likely to be infected are the young adults, between ages 20 to 40 and those people living farther from equator where they get less sunlight. The genetic factor also has a role. Females are more likely to get MS, ratio being 2:1 and mutation in genes encoding for HLA-DR2, which is a specific type of immune molecule that bind to foreign molecule (NMSS, 2017).
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    American History: What is Louisiana Purchase?
    American History (What is Louisiana Purchase) The Louisiana Purchase refers to the purchase made by the United States to the Louisiana territory comprising of about 828,000 square miles land owned by France. The acquisition transpired in 1803, involving a total amount of $15,000,000 USD (around sixty-eight million francs), costing around four cents per acre. Part of the payment includes the cancellation of debts of France amounting to $3,750,000 USD (eighteen million francs) (Adams 2011). The purchase paved the way to the creation of 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces such as Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, Oklahoma, big portions of North Dakota and South Dakota, the area of Minnesota (west of the Mississippi river), the areas of Montana, Colorado and Wyoming, the northeastern part of New Mexico, northern section of Texas and Louisiana (west of Mississippi river). It also included portions of land that form the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada. The Louisiana Purchase transpired during the leadership of then US President Thomas Jefferson and considered as US’ largest territorial gain throughout the US history because it doubled the size of the US. The growth was westward, giving access to rich forests, Rocky Mountains and huge plains that can provide the essential resources to prosper the nation (Kennedy, Cohen & Bailey 2008). Historical issues back then It was not really the intention of then US President Thomas Jefferson to buy the whole Louisiana Territory at that time and was only eyeing for the Port of New Orleans so the US can control the gateway to the Mississippi River, which was then, the chief street of commerce in the American West. However, Napoleon Bonaparte, the ruler of France at that time, needed funds for his fight against the British so he instructed his envoys to Paris to transact not just New Orleans but the whole of the Louisiana Territory since he was more focused in fighting the British than establishing a North American empire. The American emissaries headed by then Secretary of State, James Monroe and then US ambassador in Paris, Robert Livingston, readily accepted the deal even without any direction from President Jefferson because of time limitations (will take two months to communicate) and signed-up the treaty on 30 April 1803 (US History 2015). The negotiators also signed a two “conventions”, detailing how the purchased amount of fifteen million dollars will be paid. The first convention specified that the US will pay $11,250,000 (roughly sixty million francs) in stock with 6% interest rate and not convertible for 15 years. The second convention details the assumption of US on the claims of American citizens against the French navy regarding France’s seizure of goods and property from American ships at sea, amounting to $3,750,000, also with 6% interest, and the payments to start after sixty days from exchange of ratifications (De Cesar & Page 2003). Although the Louisiana Purchase was done quickly among top American and French diplomats, it took more than a year to work on the Congress’ approval of the treaty, the funding of the purchase and the transfer of documents to complete the purchase. Historically, France had relinquished Louisiana to Spain through the Treaty of Foutainebleau in 1762, however, it was taken back by France in 1800 by virtue of the terms of the Treaty of San Ildefonso and in 1801, through the Convention of Aranjuez (De Cesar & Page 2003). But because France was at war during that time to England, so the retrocession was kept secret. Napoleon was worried that if England would know that Louisiana’s jurisdiction was returned to France then it would attack Louisiana and take possession of the land which was very conducive for selling and transporting goods, as a territory settlement and in providing raw materials for the sugar islands. The sale also faced some challenges, both on the part of France and the United States. On the part of France, Spain objected to the sale arguing that France did not have clear title over the property and had promised not to sell the property to a third party. But France, through its Secretary of State James Madison was able to produce a letter from Spain’s foreign minister stating that as a result of the retrocession, the US can buy anything from France. For the US’ side, President Jefferson was bothered by the constitutionality of the acquisition because the US Constitution did not specifically grant the national government the power to acquire more territory. To do this, the Constitution has to be amended but Napoleon was such in a hurry that he would rather void the treaty than to wait for the amendment of the US Constitution. Thus, Jefferson dropped the idea of a constitutional amendment and pushed for ratification to meet the October 30 deadline. And through a vote of twenty-four against seven in the Senate, the treaty was ratified (De Cesar & Page 2003). Cause and effects The Louisiana Purchase made under the leadership of then US President Thomas Jefferson has transformed the United States from a minor to a major world power. The purchase price was cheap (fifteen million dollars), costing America around 4 cents per acre only. The acquisition of the new territory has forever changed the way America is seen by the world. The upstarting nation has acquired a land that is larger than Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, Holland and the combined British Isles, almost doubling US (US History 2015). Jerry Knudson, historian, even claimed that the purchase caused the flexible and cheerful spirits of Americans to soar to greater heights. Further, the acquisition of the property has strengthened the young nation as a whole because it brought immense wealth from Louisiana’s rich natural resources such as huge forests and lands for cropping and farming, richness in minerals like silver, gold and other ores and the opportunities it provides for families and individuals to settle and create a living. The fertility of the land and climate brought abundance and prosperity to Americans. Further, the Louisiana Purchase was not only an economic victory of the US but also a political victory as it prevented a possible conflict with France. In the 1800s, when the Louisiana Territory was under the control of Spain, Americans were provided the right to passage on the Mississippi River and were also favored to settle in the territory. But this privilege was revoked in 1802, almost the same time when the Americans became aware of the secret negotiation between Spain and France regarding the return of the Louisiana Territory to France. And since France was known for engaging in conflicts for land, President Jefferson became alarmed of the possible threat on their western border. So when the US emissaries were offered the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, they grabbed the opportunity, not only for economic sake but also to prevent potential conflict with France (Encyclopedia.com 2003). Circumstances of the Louisiana Territory prior the purchase Prior to the Louisiana Purchase, the Louisiana territory was a prime land conducive for settlement and has the Mississippi River which served as the main channel used in trading goods and navigation of produce among the bordering states. It also held huge deposits of minerals and its vast fertile lands promise abundance of food supply. France had the control of the territory but due to the settlement for the Seven Years’ War (war between France/Indian and British) France had to turn over the control of the territory to Spain as payment of Spain’s assistance to France during the war. And this happened through the 1763 Treaty of Paris. During Spain’s control of the Louisiana Territory, Spain allowed the Americans to use the Mississippi River for their shipment of goods and even advised them to consider resettlement in the Louisiana territory. Though President Jefferson did not accept the offer publicly, he was silently hoping that his frontier-seeking people consider the offer of Spain because increasing the American presence in the territory may avert possible conflict or war (Encyclopedia.com 2003). But like what President Jefferson had expected, Spain revoked the privilege provided to the Americans and prohibited the shipping of goods through New Orleans. Spain no longer honored the Pinkney’s Treaty where American merchants were given the right to deposit in New Orleans, where they can utilize the port in storing their products for export such as lard, flour, bacon, cider, cheese, tobacco, feathers and cheese; and their right to navigate the whole of Mississippi in trading to the western territories (Meinig 1993). It was also this time when the Americans knew about the Treaty of San Ildefonso signed between Spain and France, where the control and ownership of the Louisiana Territory was returned to France in exchange of providing a place of nobleness for a minor Spanish royal. It was reported that the Treaty of San Ildefonso happened because Spain’s Charles IV wanted Etruria, a small kingdom in Northern Italy, for his daughter, Louisetta. So in effect, he had exchanged the vast Louisiana territory which they considered as unworthy (Harris, 2003). With the Louisiana Territory back to the French people, Jefferson feared that the US may experience potential threat considering France’s history of engaging in aggressions to acquire land. Further, in 1802, America was already contemplating to take New Orleans by force due to the refusal of Spain to US’ access of the Mississippi River. President Jefferson knew that while Spain was responsible for the actual fiasco, it was France who caused it. Thus to prevent a potential armed revolution, President Jefferson sent his emissaries to purchase New Orleans for $2 million. But Napoleon Bonaparte instructed his envoys to offer the whole Louisiana Territory instead (De Cesar & Page, 2003). Why Napoleon Bonaparte chose to depart with Louisiana Territory? The importance played by the Mississippi River in commercial trading among states was the main reason why America was so interested in buying New Orleans which served as the mouth of the river and vital port city. And Napoleon Bonaparte was aware of this so he took back the territory from Spain in 1800 to magnify his presence in the region. However, Bonaparte’s plan of building a North American French empire was thwarted because of the uprising of the slaves in the French Caribbean sugar colony of Saint-Domingue. The slaves which were headed by Toussaint Louverture defeated the French army, precipitating Napoleon Bonaparte to abandon the idea of building a North American French empire. That lost in the battle in Saint-Domingue (now known as Haiti) got much of the resources and led to the cutting off of connections to the ports of the southern coast of North America. The other reasons why Napoleon Bonaparte decided to sell the whole Louisiana territory instead of just a portion of it (New Orleans) were: he received reports from his French officials assigned in the United States that the Americans’ population was increasing rapidly and France might have difficulty in holding back the western frontier. Further, maintaining the Louisiana territory would need a strong and powerful navy because it was far from France and separated by the Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, Bonaparte felt that it was more feasible to conquer England and thus, he had to consolidate his resources and would need more funds to sustain a victorious war (Harriss, 2003). Because of the negative turn of events, Bonaparte felt that maintaining the Louisiana territory was no longer practical because he could eventually lose it through invasion due to insufficient forces to protect it. So if he cannot hold Louisiana, then he would not want British to have it. He knew that the property had no exact defined boundaries or extent of ownership and the western part of Louisiana territory was even declared terra incognita. He believed that the vagueness in the boundaries description could lead to more liberties of either party to claim ownership. He hoped that Spain and the US would have potential boundary disputes over the Louisiana territory and it would work to his advantage. So he opted to sell the entire Louisiana territory. Oppositions and Constitutionality Though Louisiana Purchase was known to be one of the greatest land deals in history and one of the greatest achievements of then US President Thomas Jefferson, there were still issues faced by President Jefferson, including the constitutionality of the purchase. Due to the vastness of the Louisiana territory that many pondered how the United States could protect this huge increase to its land possessions. Other countries, specifically the British, were alarmed on the effect of the Louisiana Purchase to the balance of power in the United States. It was undeniable that the addition nearly equals the existing size of America. On the part of President Jefferson and Secretary of State Monroe, they were worried about the implications on how they carried out the acquisition, specifically that President Jefferson was known for his strict interpretation of the constitution. Thus, he was called a hypocrite by his critics. The Federalist strongly opposed the purchase claiming that nowhere in the Constitution can be found the provision permitting the federal government to buy new land. The Federalist also favored close relations of the US with Great Britain over better relations with Napoleon Bonaparte, insisting that the US had funded huge amount of money just to proclaim war on Spain (Fleming, 2003). Although Jefferson was concerned of his inconsistency, he eventually found refuge to the Constitution’s treaty-making provisions which provided him room to act. Further, though the huge expansion also contradicted President Jefferson’s commitment to decrease the national debt as soon as possible, most of the Senators understood his position and agreed to his intention (US History, 2015). The Louisiana Purchase also showed the leadership ability of President Jefferson in making practical political decisions that would benefit his country even if it would mean contradicting his own personal principles. His action was bold but the gains were too significant for the US’ progress and leadership. On the part of the Federalists, their concerns emanated from their fear that the new citizens of the west would threaten the political power of the states belonging to the Atlantic seaboard, eventually resulting to a clash between the farmers from the west and the bankers and merchants of New England. There were also concerns that the slave-holding states formed from the new area would form divisions among those from the north and the south. There were also apprehensions on whether to grant citizenship to the “foreigners’ (the Spanish, the black people residing in New Orleans and the French) because they were presumed to be unfamiliar with democracy should be turned into US citizens (Nuget, 2009). Spain also protested, claiming that France made a promise in a note not to depart with Louisiana to a third party; and France had not yet completely fulfilled its obligation as stipulated in the Treaty of San Ildefonso that the King of Etruria be recognized by all of the European powers. However, France responded to the protests and claimed that the objections of Spain were baseless because they did not promise not to separate with Louisiana and that promise was not also indicated in the Treaty of San Ildefonso so the claim had no legal force. France also argued that Spain still had ordered the transfer of Louisiana back to France in October 1802 even though they knew for months that the British government had not acknowledged the King of Etruria in the Treaty of Amiens (Gayare, 1867). Problem with Boundaries
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Aging theory
    Introduction Aging is inevitable. As long as a person lives, he/she cannot avoid growing older and experience aging. However, as a person ages, age-related deterioration happens leading to his decreased quality of life. This causes almost everyone to aspire to age well to be able to enjoy life and play with kids even if with the aid of a cane. There are many suggested theories or hypotheses made out of studies on how people age but those theories mostly talked about the biological aspects of aging and not really on the identification of factors that somehow affect aging (AFAR, 2011). Erik Erikson’s concept suggests that slowing down aging could be done through the psychosocial development approach where the psychosocial changes in the older adults’ behaviors and ability to function are observed. Though aging is unavoidable, there are certain practices that stimulate better health even if the person grows older. Erikson adds that the late adults (aged 65 and above) who tend to maintain their ego integrity and achieve sense of wholeness are able to avoid despair that contributes to aging (McLeod, 2013). Psychosocial theories of aging are defined as the efforts exerted on the psychological and social aspects of life in order to achieve successful aging or ageing well (Kowalczyk, 2016). To better understand the transition of aging and how to achieve successful aging, three major theories of psychosocial aging will be discussed, namely, continuity theory, activity theory and disengagement theory. The 3 psychosocial theories (continuity, activity and disengagement) differ from one another but they are similar in suggesting that the decrease in a person’s normal activities is because of the effects of old age on his physical and social wellbeing. Continuity theory Continuity theory was developed by Atchley which is based on the idea that as an elderly adult adjusts to the changes brought by aging; he will try to count on his current resources and coping strategies in his effort to deal with aging (Wadensten, 2006). This means that his future decisions and behaviors will be the same as how he conducted his behaviors and made decisions in the past. His past decisions, behaviors and experiences will be the foundation of his present and future decisions, behaviors and reactions. The continuity of self is revealed in two areas: external and internal (Atchley 1980 in Wadensten, 2006). Internal continuity happens when a person still preserves some aspects of his old self in satisfying and projecting his new self. This means that some aspects of the person’s personality and basic behaviors will remain unchanged even if he reaches old age. For example, if a person loved to sing while taking a bath in his younger days, he will continue to do the same even in his old age, though the quality of his voice may change as he gets older. On the other hand, external continuity manifests on how a person maintains his social relationships, environments and roles. If he used to hang-out with family during holidays and week-ends, he will continue to do so even if he ages because he would want to maintain his pleasant relationships with his family and will love to continue taking the role of a loving family man. This also goes true to players or athletes who actively compete during their younger years and then change to becoming volunteer consultants or coaches when they grow older. Their love for the sport or whatever profession they had encourages them to still connect to the profession or sport and continue their passion even if they will be engaging in a new position. However, in a study made by Cuskelly & O’Brien (2013), they found out that those who are making the change from active players into volunteer coaches when they became older adults needed more nurturing from the organizations to make the continuity transition for long term. Supporting relationships by providing involvement in a familiar activity somehow acknowledges the person’s worth and know-how, resulting to the older adult’s better adjustment to the changes that he is going through because of old age. Continuity theory shows that successful aging can be achieved depending on the person’s ability to maintain, preserve and continue his previous usual self in adapting to old age (Atchley 1989 in Wadensten, 2006). Further, this theory suggests that it is possible to adjust to new roles in old age as long as these new roles are based on his previous life patterns. If a person used to find happiness in caring for her plants, then she can be happy staying in a room that is overlooking a garden or a patio with plants during her old age or when she becomes immobile due to age or sickness. Continuity theory is important for those people who want to continue to enjoy what he has been enjoying in his life. Contented aging for him would be living in the same environment, companions and resources that he has been familiar with. Activity theory Activity theory emphasizes the importance of activities or involvement of people in various roles and tasks even in their older years. It is assumed that believers of this theory find happiness in being active participants in the world around them and view successful aging as when they are able to maintain their social roles and obligations despite their growing age. Activity theory is first mentioned by Havighurst as among the developmental tasks in a person’s life (Havighurst 1953 in Wadensten, 2006). It affirms that as people lose some activities because of aging, they should replace it with new activities, roles and interests to remain active and be able to deny aging as a factor in changing a person’s personality (Havighurst 1963 in Wadensten, 2006). According to Schulz (2006), the process of aging is delayed and the quality of life is improved when old people keep their social activeness. Activity theory is the opposite of the other psychosocial theory, disengagement theory, and reveals the positive relationships between life satisfaction and activities involved with. Hence, it is assumed that if older people lose former roles as they age, they should replace it with other roles and activities in order to achieve successful aging. For example, if a person used to be a beauty queen in her younger years, she should still involve herself in beauty pageants in her older age; no longer as a contestant but as a consultant or an organizer in search for possible beauty queens. Her past experiences and interests find a new role in searching for fresh beauties and sharing with them tips on how to win the pageants or contests. Activity theory promotes the importance of being active and involved in maintaining personal relationships and activities despite their age, which in a way, leads to successful aging. However, some critics find this theory as negligent of the facts associated with health and economics of the older people, which play an important role in their inability to participate in social activities (Schulz, 2006). Havighurst (1953 in Wadensten, 2006) states that the concept of the activity theory is founded on three (3) assumptions such as, (1) being active is better than being inactive; (2) being happy is better than being unhappy; and (3) one becomes the best judge of his success in attaining happiness and activity when he becomes older. The theory further stresses that the older person should continue doing his/her middle age activities and roles to have a satisfying aging because they are more likely to effortlessly adjust to aging when they remain socially active. As much as possible, the older persons should treat their age as ‘numbers’ only so their aging will not get in the way in their performance of their social activities. This can be easily achieved if the society applies the same standards to every grown-up regardless of their age or age groups, so the activities of the older individuals will not be lessened through time. Wadensten (2006) adds that the best nursing intervention to older adults is to make them active and encourage them to aspire for wider range of social interaction. This is probably one of the reasons why those older adults who continue to form organizations, such as senior dancers groups or any exercising groups, tend to be more healthy, younger looking and physically active. Becoming a member of any community or associations provide the seniors the feeling of being an ‘authority’ because of their learned wisdom which they can pass-on to the younger members. These associations and activities also serve as a form of confirmation of the older citizens’ worth and value to the society. Disengagement theory Disengagement theory is significantly different with continuity theory and activity theory because its perspective suggests that older adults or the aged persons should reduce or withdraw their participation from the activities of society. This theory was developed by William Henry and Elaine Cumming in 1961 and was published in their book Growing Old (Lynott & Lynott, 2016). In their book, Cumming and Henry state that everyone dies and his/her abilities and skills will most likely weaken over time so it is better to disengage from his/her social circle. This is because older people are already old and weak so they will not be able to keep-up with the activities that younger people do. Also, they state that people’s lives change consistently, which causes deterioration of a person’s skills and knowledge. In other words, younger people have the advantages and the older people have to retire before they lose their skills and they demonstrate lack of competency. This is one of the reasons why there is what we call as retirement age; workers are advised to disengage from work because they have already reached the age of withdrawal and they cannot do their work appropriately and efficiently. In this book, they stated that important role of men is different from women. Men are centered on work while women are in their family and marriage. When they reached old age, they can assume different roles suggested by the disengaged state. In this case, they can take more passive role and pass down the bigger responsibilities to younger members of the family and society. The act of disengagement is mutual because the society understands the situation of the older adults and their reduced strength and vitality so it accepts their withdrawal and disengagement. This is basically based on the idea that the elderly people will soon die so the society should get used to doing things or accomplishing things without them. This fact is also accepted by the elderlies so they voluntarily disengage or refuse to participate in social activities because of the feeling and belief that they are already old and will die soon. Cumming and Henry developed their hypotheses of growing old or how the process of disengagement happens (Knapp & Knapp, 2009). According to them, the elderly assumes the belief that his old age and weak body will prevent him from doing what younger people do so he just withdraws from associating with his civic group. Then the older adults find more freedom from being free from restrictions and standards imposed by the society so they just continue to disengage. This is also because the elderlies realize that their health and strength have reduced because of old age and being disengaged give them the opportunity not to hear others’ comments about their aging and the changes in their physical looks, strength, flexibility and vitality. The theorists also thought that the different roles played by men and women in the societies of America make them disengage differently: women are more socioemotional while men prefer not to show too much emotion because of their image of being emotionally tough. But just the same, they still withdraw from their social circles over time. Cumming and Henry also believe that complete disengagement is achieved when both the aged person and the society accept and are ready for separation. The main concepts of disengagement are: the willingness of the person to disengage due to his loss of ego energy and his awareness of his subsequent death; and the permission that the societies grants the aged person to disengage because of the requirement in the occupational system and human’s nature of life. If all these factors are acknowledged by parties (aged person and the society) then lesser participation and/or withdrawal happens (Boundless, 2016). Conclusion Aging is not only about increasing age but it is also about decreasing strength and flexibility, developing wrinkles, and becoming high-risk to heart disease, stroke, diabetes and other debilitating diseases. These factors contribute to the big change in the person’s outlook in social participations. Though people acknowledge that everyone will soon grow old, there are some practices that encourage better health even if a person reaches old age. One of these is through the psychosocial approach where the psychosocial changes in the older adults’ behaviors and ability to function are considered. The three major psychosocial theories are activity theory, continuity theory and disengagement theory. Both activity and continuity theories promote the continuous participation and involvement of the aged person to social activities to increase their physical activities and sustain their mental and physical wellness. However, disengagement theory opposes the two previously mentioned theories and claim that older adults should disengage or withdraw from taking new social roles or continuing previous roles on the belief that he is already old and sooner or later will die so the society should get used in moving on without them. The 3 psychosocial theories (continuity, activity and disengagement) differ from one another but they are similar in suggesting that the decrease in a person’s normal activities is because of the effects of old age on his physical strength. The poorer the health of the older adult, the lesser social activity he/she will be able to get involved with because of the natural limitations of his physical body.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Adolescence
    Being an Adolescent Introduction Adolescence is the stage of growing up and moving from childhood into the maturity phase of adulthood. This study will discuss the predictable and unpredictable elements of adolescent transition, including its impact on relationships and concepts of self. It will also explore the understanding of adolescent transition from the point of view of Hall (1904) vis-à-vis the modern psychologists and explain the relevance of this information to nursing or midwifery practice. Body The Latin word for adolescence is “adolescere”, meaning, growing into adulthood (Adler, 1982). It is the second stage of a person’s life span, usually from ages 10 to 18. Those in the early adolescence age (between 10 to 13 years) experience most of the predictable physical changes such as growth spurt and the development of their sex organs. These physical changes are obvious and sometimes pose as a source of anxiety of the adolescent who is experiencing the transformation. Internally, adolescents at this stage also undergo huge surge of electrical and physiological development as the number of brain cells double in a span of a year and neural networks are reorganized, with a subsequent effect on the child’s physical, mental and emotional ability. Puberty marks the biological transition of adolescence, the period where a person becomes able for sexual reproduction (UNICEF, 2011). Moreover, it is expected that during this period that adolescents become interested in the changes in their bodies, their thinking become idealistic and theoretical and they usually display their rebelling attitude in their hairstyles, fascination to rock music and rock stars and their dress styles (Whitmire, 2000). The late adolescence period (between ages 14 to 18) marks the predictable element of the development of the brain’s capacity for reflective and analytical thoughts. At the outset, adolescents tend to give importance to the opinions of his peers but it eventually diminishes when the adolescent develops self-confidence and intelligibility. Although the trait of adolescents as risk-takers is a predictable element, their reaction on how they deal with the risks is unpredictable. Hartzell (1984) describes the adolescent transition as both “orderly and serene” or “turbulent and unpredictable” because of the adolescents’ trait of being risk-takers yet their decisions are unpredictable and usually depend on how they deal with peer pressures and their individual experiments. Late adolescent period is considered as time of opportunity, promise and idealism (UNICEF, 2011), which is another predictable element of adolescence, yet how adolescents take this opportunity is unpredictable. There are adolescents who take this opportunity to further education or make their way to build careers, but there are those who are severely affected by the unpredictable stress that they went through resulting to behavioral effects in their adulthood (Chaby et al, 2013). Adolescence has impacts on relationships and concepts of self for persons experiencing the transition. During this phase of a person’s life, changes in the way the adolescent interacts with his friends, family and peers are noticeable. Some of the noticeable changes are their search for identity, pursuance of independence, seeking for more responsibility, eyeing for new experiences, developing own set of values and morals, tend to be influenced more by friends, develop romantic relationships and communicate more through technology such as the internet, social media and mobile phones (Casey, 2008). Adolescents have the inclination to believe the opinions of their peers more than their relatives and start to reject the idea of being always accompanied by parents or relatives. At this stage, they start seeking for independence and become interested in building relationships with the opposite sex. However, they are also faced with the challenge of defining what type of relationship they would want to enter – a friendly relationship or a romantic one? Since this is also the time that they start to feel sexual desires, adolescents who are confused with their sexual preferences are faced with more difficult challenge of identifying what sex they are really attracted to. This is a critical phase of the adolescent’s life but individuals who are in the adolescence stage tend to listen more to their peers’ opinions and reactions rather than their parents’. This happens because of the developed loyalty and commitment between adolescent friends who share secrets because of the feeling that they better understand each other and feel and think the same (Furman & Wehner, 1997). Furthermore, the authors add that at this stage, adolescents are more concerned on image-building, such as determining who really they are, how should they interact with someone, how attractive they are, and how it will look to their peers group rather than being concerned with satisfying their affiliative or sexual needs. The adolescents’ continued quest for independence is a natural element in their development because of the issue of “what is right”. Hence, during this stage, many adolescents find that their parents are not always right, resulting to repeatedly challenging parent’s authority to decide for them. As the adolescent develops his own set of morals and values, they also learn that they should be responsible for their own decisions, actions and consequences. However, not all become responsible for their actions and some resulted to unexpected negative life events such as unexpected pregnancy, drug addiction, STD or vehicular accidents that affect their future (Jenkins, 2007). One seminal researcher from the past is G. Stanley Hall, whose work entitled Adolescence is still read by many psychologists and future psychologists. Although Hall’s Adolescence contains some bizarre presumptions such as “masturbation by male adolescents could lead to “neurasthenia… optical cramps…many digestive perversions…gray hair, and especially baldness…” (Hall, 1904, vol. 1, p. 444), yet it also contain information that modern psychologists like Arnett (2006) agree, such as the prevalence of depressed moods of adolescents, increased orientation towards peers, and biological development during puberty. They also both agree that the causes of the depressed moods of adolescents then and now are the feeling of being disliked by friends and the fancy of hopeless love. Moreover, they both believe that there is a marked growth in crime at the age of twelve to fourteen or the teen-age years, with the peak at age 18. Knowing the information regarding adolescence is so important in the practice of nursing or midwifery because statistics show that in every 5 people in the world, 1 is adolescent with the age ranging from 10 to 19; and 85% of them reside in developing countries. Moreover, adolescence is regarded as a time of relative health and there are various adolescent health issues that need to be addressed. Meeting adolescents’ health needs require planned educational experiences and incorporating adolescent health and development into the nursing and midwifery curricula will provide the background and information on how to properly address their health issues (Keeney et al, 2004). Conclusion Then and now, psychologists agree that adolescence marks the start of noticeable changes in the child’s body, mind and emotions. Adolescents of today mature earlier than those of their contemporaries in the past (between ages 14 – 24) because technology are more advanced yet the manifestations of the changes that occur during adolescence is still the same. This proves that the changes are predictable and the only unpredictable is how they react to the transition.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    5 topics about Australia (Aborigines)
    5 Topics The Apology (topic 2) In Kevin Rudd’s speech, he apologized for the Stolen Generations, the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descendants who were forcibly separated from their families by church missions and Australian government agencies by virtue of the parliamentary acts which were supposedly for child protection (Marten 2002; Howson, 2001). Two of the policies of the past that Rudd was referring to were the Aborigines Protection Act of 1909 and the policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents as a way of child protection. The Aborigines Protection Act of 1909 provides the Aborigines Protection Board legal authority to take away Aboriginal children from their families and brought to homes established by the Board to be ‘civilised’. Eventually, these children became farm workers, servants or guides (NSW Educ. & Committee 2013). On the other hand, the policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents as a way of child protection stemmed from the observation of some government policy makers that the increasing mixed-descent children were abandoned at early ages and needed some protection from the state. However, according to Howson (2001b), there are documents indicating that the policy emanated from the idea that the removal would lead to the population decline of the Aborigines and possibly extinction; and the crossbreeds will eventually become white and thus, totally eliminating ‘coloured’ (Noville 1930). These policies have affected the lives of the Aboriginal people and Torres-Strait Islanders because they suffered from separation anxieties and negative psychological and social impacts of being different and growing-up with too many questions in minds left unanswered. The commitments made in the apology are convincing, however, it may also sound as better said than done as we can only compare before and after statistics to know if the commitments were met. Though it is quite hard to say that the apology is enough, it is fairly a good start of moving forward. References Houson, P. (2001a). ‘Legal notes: the stolen generations true believers take on step back’. National Observer, no. 49. Houson, P. (2001b). ‘Academia’s sorry obsession: Manne et al. would help aborigines more by Looking at the present, not the past’. The Age. Marten, J.A. (2002). Children and war. New York: NYU Press. Noville, A. O. (1930). ‘Coloured Folk’. The West Australian. Perth: National Library of Australia NSW Education and Committee (2013). ‘Teaching resources’. Retrieved from www.racismnoworg.com.au.
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE

Tertiary education Topics

Other Tertiary education Essays

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
    $ 0.13
    12,670words / 1page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
    $ 0.13
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE
  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
    $ 0.09
    0words / 0page
    READ MORE