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BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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  • Tertiary education
    HEALTH CARE
    History of Rock and Roll Name Institution Affiliation History of Rock and Roll Music plays and constitutes an essential part of life due to the many benefits that arise from music. It has helped people refresh by singing to their favorites tunes. It has also employed many that include musicians that take music as a profession and work as well as record labels that work closely with musicians to ensure the music products released target and meet the intended business and music goals. Different genres of music, hence, are available that suits the various market and consumers of the diverse music in the world. It has enabled people from all parts of the world to enjoy different tunes, messages, and themes displayed in music pieces. Therefore, beyond the aesthetic value that music brings, it also forms an important part that passes different messages and themes. It enables the audience of such artistic work to reflect on the message and information in the diverse music listened. It is a form of art that talks about development in the society through the themes and messages conveyed in music. Different genre of music originated at different times and, therefore, it is essential to understand the source and origin of the diverse music and the impact that they have brought to the music industry over time. However, this paper analyzes the history of Rock and Roll and the effect that it has brought to the music world. Rock and Roll music was officially recognized in the mid-1950s but had started emergent and appreciated on late 1940s (Menand, 2015). The years of mid-1950 the Rock and Roll music genre had swept across the country enjoyed by many teenagers. They were great lovers of the music that gave them a great feeling and sensation of a new type of music that contributed to its formal recognition of the type of music. It caught everybody’s attention and the fact that it was something new and unique that had familiar elements in it made the world react to it positively calling for the proper appreciation and categorization of the music. It cuts across the entire socio-political group in a society where sub-urban youths, urban youths and country youths all responded positively to the music of Rock and Roll. It sparked the trend and faster spread and appreciation by many of rock music type. The change of status quo was inevitable and the reactions by most senior adults, religious leaders and even government at the time who mostly were conservatives described the Rock and Roll music genre as “music of the devil.” It is because of the unfamiliar territories and impact that the music genre had at the time that glued most of the teenagers and youths at the time. It is imperative to note that at the time the issue of racial segregation was standard and the migration of blacks to the North and the slavery at the time had introduced a different type of music that was associated with black community at the time described as the “rhythm and blues.” It had dominated many black parties and functions at the time. However, on the other hand, country music had been appreciated by the natives as their favorite type of music. Therefore, with the interaction of the different people resulting from slavery and slave trade history implied that a new culture was likely to be born that included music among others. Most of the music labels before the start of Rock and Roll genre of music at the time were dominated by the natives that controlled most big white Jazz bands (Bentley, 2017). The revolt that artists had to the music labels and companies implied that many of the bands disintegrated. It resulted in many small bands and small groups as well as single performers that tried to expand the new type of music. They adventured in a new territory that often blended the different type of music that existed at the time. Rock and Roll, hence, emerged from combining of country music that was the passion for many natives and rhythm and blues that was loved by many African-American at the time (Palmer, 1990). The music swept through the teenagers and youths at the time overwhelmingly probably because of the different times and experience that they had regarding racial segregation and slavery. Their views and perception of the two factors were different and, thus, they resonated well with the new type and blended of Rock and Roll music that has continued to the present world impacting the music industry positively. The term “Rhythm and blues” that described music loved by most blacks had been coined to change the initial name of “Race” that described the music. It was as a result of political changes that had started to be introduced in the society that tried to address issues of racial segregation at the time in the country. Alan Freed, disc Jockey from Cleveland, Ohio, on WJW coined the term “Rock ‘n’ Roll” that played the music from blacks as well as whites that had incorporated and blended the different genres that existed at the time that formed the Rock and Roll music (Larson, 2014). He had realized that the music loved by many people from different racial and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, by coining the term and using it in his radio shows and programs also contributed to its faster spread and appreciation. Other radio station and music labels as well emulated and started the production and support of the type of music using the name Rock and Roll. It ensured the continuation of the music to reach the magnitude that it was recorded at the time sweeping the music industry throughout the country. Other essential disc jockey and music producers that embraced the music type and played them in the radio station that hosted their programs include Dewey Phillips of Memphis, Tennessee, as well as William (“Hoss”) Allen of WLAC in Nashville, Tennessee (Menand, 2015). They played the different types of music from various people that sparked the trend and love for the music type in many suburban areas. It started and introduced the culture among the suburban youths at the time that associated them with the music type and culture that spread throughout the country. It trended among the urban and suburban youths who tried to resonate with the demands and fashion that was at the time that included subscribing to Rock and Roll music type. The youths at the time wanted something unique and special that could differentiate them and appreciate them with the new changes and developments that transpired at the time. The perception that Rock and Roll music were described as “devils music” by many white adults was because of the link and relations that many white youths had to the music as a music type that supported and enhanced rebellion and described as a soundtrack for rebellion (Menand, 2015). The rebellion spread throughout the political, economic as well as social aspects in the society where anytime and different places that the youths and teenagers gathered in protests against anything in the society they played and danced to “Rock and Roll” music. It symbolized a new generation and new ideas among the youths and teenagers and such rebellion and actions prompted condemnation from different sectors in the society, which include government, religious leaders as well as parents among others. The surprise was its faster spread across the country among the teenager and in particular white teenagers that resonated well with the messages and information in the music type. It had made many musicians that performed and played the Rock and Roll music formulate and compose their music with information that resonates with many youths and teenagers at the time. The music industry, thus, had an essential role to sanitize the negative image and picture that Rock and Roll music had attracted and created. And, therefore, they encouraged the inclusion of content in music that did not resonate and pass the message of rebellion. Also, the addition of musicians from different ages in the Rock and Roll music that tried to blend and create a positive image about Rock and Roll music to help change the negative image initially shown. The disintegration of the primary and original pioneers of Rock and Roll music such as Frankie Avalon and Fabian that dominated and led the American Bandstand among others disintegrated. It formed a chance of transition that subsequent producers of Rock and Roll music tried to capitalize on to change the status quo of Rock and Roll music as had been experienced. It continues to be experienced to date where it is more often called Rock as opposed to the previous times that it was described as Rock and Roll. The present description of Rock and Rock-type of music had realized greater music freedom where many different types of music such as gospel among other have also incorporated the Rock and Roll style to produce gospel music. And, therefore, the style has attracted music from both secular and gospel artists because of the style that continued to be resonated and linked to the youths in many societies often dominated by the white population in the society (Bentley, 2017). Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley are considered as among the first pioneers of Rock and Roll music who had previously participated actively in music but had concentrated on rhythm and blues type of music. Consequently, with the blending, it also compelled them to resonate to the new changes and produce music that excited the suburban youths and teenagers at the time that loved rock music that many described it as part of their lifestyle. It played an essential role in marketing strategies employed by the musicians as well as the producers of the music at the time because of the economic and commercial benefits that the Rock and Roll music brought at the time. Some analysts note that at the time that rock and Roll music became dominant in the years of 1950s, there was no specific music type or genre that targeted the youths (Palmer, 1990). And, thus, the Rock and Roll music filled the gap and void that existed at the time that allowed the teenagers and youths to define and brand musically. The factor contributed to the faster spread of the Rock and Roll type of music across many societies and places in the region at the time. Secondly, they also add that Rock and Roll music enabled many youths the opportunity to express themselves on issues that affected them. It made the music sold across the youths and teenagers with speed because it provided a message that resonated with their ideologies and mindsets that made the music mostly appreciated by the youths and teenagers. The other genre and categories of music that dominated at the time that includes country music, as well as Rhythm and Blues, had a limited and specific audience that mostly was aged people. Also, it was limited in number in the society made up of natives as well as the black community that was passionate about the rhythm and blues. The void that the music industry had at the time, thus, left teenagers thirsty for their own brand and music type that would resonate well with their ideologies and feelings and, therefore, the Rock and Roll music type played an essential part in addressing the musical demands that many youths and teenagers had at the time. The example given to justify the position and statement is shown in the case of Elvis that was a Rock and Roll star and singer. He became famous within a very short span of less than a year in the music industry after transiting from his previous job as track driver (Palmer, 1990). The impact that Rock and Roll music had to fans and other music platforms that include also record labels and the smaller record labels that were not known and at the time. They concentrated on Rock and Roll production such as Sun and Chess labels that brought stiff competition to the significant and pop labels that had dominated the society at the time. They sold millions of records to the world. Radio shows were also impacted where many started radio shows and programs that specialized and focused primarily on playing Rock and Roll music. Disc Jockeys also contributed to such development where they resonated and played music that resonated with the teenagers and youths at the time. It gave them an audience and platform that has continued to the present showing different talents and playing music that includes Rock and Roll. Different musicians from different ethnic groups in the US at the time transformed their music and aligned it with Rock and Rock. It helped them capture and capitalized on the economic benefits that resonated with the music at the time that the teenagers and youths had branded it as their favorite type. The reception that the teenagers gave the music showed an essential element where it noted that music cuts across cultures and different people. It was a statement that the status quo had changed and the teenagers and youths had introduced a different culture. A factor that contributed to the challenge and cause of worry that made conservative and seniors mentioned in the piece had regarding Rock and Roll music. The influence and impact of the Rock and Roll music innovation and invention as experienced in the fifties has shaped and has been used as a reference point where different pop music and cultures have developed in the present times (Larson, 2014). They try to blend different genre and types of music to come up with neutral and mixture of the blended types of music that continues to be experienced to date where people have tried to fuse different types of music that results in newer genres of music. In conclusion, Rock and Roll contribution in the music world is enormous that continues to the present times. The history of the origin of the music also presents more than music but also shows the cultural aspects and developments that transpired in the past. It resulted in newer cultures and genres of music such as Rhythm and Blues as well as Country music that blended to form Rock and Roll music. Many teenagers and youths at the time that Rock and Roll were dominant also assert that the music was part of their culture and life. It implies that music impacts and influence traverse many other aspects of life and society beyond aesthetic and entertainment aspects to include teaching and definition and branding of particular people and different times. References Bentley, B. (2017). Smithsonian Rock and Roll: The People's Pictures. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. Larson, T. (2014). History of rock and roll. Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Menand, L. (2015). “The Elvic Oracle. Did anyone invent rock and roll?” The New Yorker, 16 Nov. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/11/16/the-elvic-oracle Palmer, R. (1990). “The 50s: A Decade of Music That Changed the World.”Rolling Stone, 19 April. Retrieved from https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-features/the-50s-a-decade-of-music-that-changed-the-world-229924/
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    History of Rock and Roll Name Institution Affiliation History of Rock and Roll Music plays and constitutes an essential part of life due to the many benefits that arise from music as a whole. It has helped people refresh by singing to their favorites tunes as well as it has employed many that include musicians that take music as their professions and work as well as record labels that work closely with musicians to ensure the music products released target and meet the intended business and music goals. Different genres of music, hence, are available that suits the various market and consumers of the other kind of music in the world. It has enabled people from all parts of the world to enjoy different tunes, messages, and themes displayed in pieces. Therefore, beyond the aesthetic value that music brings, it also forms an important part that passes different messages and themes that can enable the audience of such artistic work to reflect about the message and information in the diverse music listened. It is a form of art that talks about development in the society through the themes and messages conveyed in music. Different genres and types of music originated at different times and, therefore, it is essential to understand the source and origin of the other kind of music and the impact that they have brought to the music industry over time. However, this paper analyzes the history of rock and roll and the effect that it has brought to the music world. Rock and Roll music was officially recognized in the mid-1950s but had started developing and getting appreciated on late 1940s (Menand, 2015). The years of mid-1950 the music genre had swept across the country among many teenagers that were great lovers of the music that gave them a great feeling and sensations of a new type of music that contributed to its formal recognition of the type of music. It caught everybody’s attention and the fact that it was something new and unique that had familiar elements in it made the world react to it positively calling for the proper appreciation and categorization of the music. It cuts across all the socio-political group in a society where sub-urban youths, urban youths and country boys all responded positively to the music of Rock and Roll and sparked the trend and faster spread and appreciation by many of the music type. The change of status quo was inevitable and the reactions by most senior adults, religious leaders and even government at the time who mostly were conservative described the Rock and Roll music genre as “music of the devil.” It is because of the unfamiliar territories and impact that the music genre had at the time that glued most of the teenagers and youths at the time. It is imperative to note that at the time the issue of racial segregation was standard and the migration of blacks to the North and the slavery at the time had introduced a different type of music that was associated with black community at the time described as the “rhythm and blues.” It had dominated many black parties and functions at the time. However, on the other hand, country music had been appreciated by the natives as their favorite type of music and, therefore, with the interaction of the different people resulting from slavery and slave trade history implied that a new culture was likely to be born that included music among others. Most of the music labels before the start of Rock and Roll genre of music at the time were dominated by the natives and whites that controlled most big white Jazz bands (Bentley, 2017). The revolt that artists had to the music labels and companies implied that many of the bands disintegrated. It resulted in many small bands and small groups as well as single performers that tried and expand the new type of music. They adventured in a new territory that often blended the different type of music that existed at the time. Rock and Roll, hence, emerged from combining of country music that was the passion for many natives and rhythm and blues that was loved by many African American at times (Palmer, 1990). The music swept through the teenagers and youths at the time overwhelmingly probably because of the different times and experience that they had regarding racial segregation and slavery for instance. Their views and perception of the two factors were different and, thus, they resonated well with the new type and blended of the music of Rock and Roll that has continued to the present world impacting the music industry positively. The term “Rhythm and blues” that described music loved by most blacks had been coined to change the initial name of “Race” that described the music. It was as a result of political changes that had started to be introduced in the society that tried to address issues of racial segregation at the time in the country. Alan Freed, disc Jockey from Cleveland, Ohio, on WJW coined the term “Rock ‘n’ Roll” that played the music from blacks as well as whites that had incorporated and blended the different genres that existed at the time that formed the Rock and Roll music (Larson, 2014). He had realized that the music was loved by many people from the different racial and cultural backgrounds and, therefore, by coining the term and using it in his radio shows and programs also contributed to its faster spread and appreciation. Other radio station and music labels as well emulated and started the production and support of the type of music using the name Rock and Roll that ensured the continuation of the music to reach the magnitude that it was recorded at the time sweeping the music industry throughout the country. Other essential disc jockey and music producers that embraced the music type and played them in the radio station that hosted their programs include Dewey Phillips of Memphis, Tennessee, as well as William (“Hoss”) Allen of WLAC in Nashville, Tennessee (Menand, 2015). They played the different types of music from various people that sparked the trend and love for the music type in many suburban areas that started and introduced the culture among the suburban youths at the time that associated them with the music type and culture that spread throughout the country. It trended among the urban and suburban youths who tried to resonate with the demands and fashion that was at the time that included subscribing to Rock and Roll music type. The youths at the time wanted something unique and special that could differentiate them and appreciate them with the new changes and developments that transpired at the time. The perception that Rock and Roll music were described as ‘” devils music” by many white youths was because of the link and relations that many white youths had to the music as a music type that supported and enhanced rebellion and was described as a soundtrack for rebellion (Menand, 2015). The rebellion was spread throughout the political, economic as well as social aspects in the society where any time and place that youths and teenagers gathered in protests against anything in the society they played and danced to “Rock and Roll” music. It symbolized a new generation and new ideas among the youths and teenagers and such rebellion and actions prompted condemnation from different sectors in the society that include government, religious leaders as well as parents among others. The surprise was its faster spread across the country among the teenager and in particular white teenagers that resonated well with the messages and information in the music type. It had made many musicians that performed and played the Rock and Roll music formulating and composing their music and pieces with information that resonate to many youths and teenagers at the time. The music industry, thus, had an essential role to sanitize the negative image and picture that Rock and Roll music had attracted and created. And, therefore, they encouraged the inclusion of content in music that did not resonate and pass the message of rebellion. Also, the addition of musicians from different ages in the Rock and Roll music that tried to blend and create a positive image about Rock and Roll music to help change the negative image initially shown. The disintegration of the primary and original pioneers of Rock and Roll music such as Frankie Avalon and Fabian that dominated that led the American Bandstand among others disintegrated. It formed a chance of transition that subsequent producers of Rock and Roll music tried to capitalize on to change the status quo of Rock and Roll music as had been experienced and continues to be experienced to date where it is more often called Rock as opposed to the previous times that it was described as Rock and Roll. The present description and type of music had realized greater music freedom where many different types of music such as gospel among other have also incorporated the Rock and Roll style to produce gospel music. And, therefore, the style has attracted music from both secular and gospel artists because of the style that continued to be resonated and linked to the youths in many societies often dominated by the white population in the society (Bentley, 2017). Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley are considered as among the first pioneers of Rock and Roll music who had previously participated actively in music but had concentrated on rhythm and blues type of music. Consequently, with the blending, it also compelled them to resonate to the new changes and produce music that resonated with the suburban youths and teenagers at the time that loved rock music that many describe it as part of their lifestyle. It played an essential role in marketing strategies employed by the musicians as well as the producers of the music at the time because of the economic and commercial benefits that the Rock and Roll music brought at the time. Some analysts note that at the time that rock and Roll music became dominant in the years of 1950s, there was no specific music type or genre that targeted the youths (Palmer, 1990). And, thus, the Rock and Roll music filled the gap and void that existed at the time that allowed the teenagers and youths to define and brand themselves musically a factor that contributed to the faster spread of the music type across many societies and places in the region at the time. Secondly, they also add that Rock and Roll's music enabled many youths the opportunity to express themselves on issues that affected them that made the music sell across the youths and teenagers with speed because it provided a message that resonated with their ideologies and mindsets that made the music mostly appreciated by the youths and teenagers. The other genre and categories of music that dominated at the time that includes country music, as well as Rhythm and Blues, had a limited and specific audience that mostly was aged people. Also, limited in number in the society made up of natives as well as the black community that was passionate about the rhythm and blues. The void that the music industry had at the time, thus, left teenagers thirsty for their own brand and music type that would resonate well with their ideologies and feelings and, therefore, the Rock and Roll music type played an essential part in addressing the musical demands that many youths and teenagers had at the time. The example given to justify the position and statement is shown in the case of Elvis that was Rock and Roll star an singer that become famous within a very short span of less than a year in the music industry after transiting from his previous job as track driver (Palmer, 1990). The impact that Rock and Roll music had to fans and other music platforms included also record labels and the smaller record labels that were not known and at the time. They concentrated on Rock and Roll production such as Sun and Chess labels brought stiff competition to the significant and pop labels that had dominated the society at the time. They sold millions of records to the world. Radio shows were also impacted where many started radio shows and programs that specialized and focused primarily on playing Rock and Roll music. Disc Jockeys also contributed to such development where they resonated and played music that resonated with the teenagers and youths at the time. It gave them an audience and platform that has continued to the present showing different talents and playing music that includes Rock and Roll. Different musicians from different ethnic groups in the US at the time transformed their music and aligned it with Rock and Rock. It helped them capture and capitalized on the economic benefits that resonated with the music at the time that teenagers and youths had caught and branded it as their favorite type. The reception that the teenagers gave the music showed an essential element where it noted that music cuts across cultures and different people. It was a statement that the status quo had changed and the teenagers and youths had introduced a different culture. A factor that contributed to the challenge and cause of worry that made conservative and seniors mentioned in the piece had regarding Rock and Roll music. The influence and impact of the Rock and Roll music innovation and invention as experienced in the fifties has shaped and has been used as a reference point where different pop music and cultures have developed in the present times (Larson, 2014). They try to blend different genre and types of music to come up with neutral and mixture of the blended types of music that continues to be experienced to date where people have tried to fuse different types of music that results in newer genres of music. In conclusion, Rock and Roll contribution in the music world is enormous that continues to the present times. The history of the origin of the music also presents more than music but also shows the cultural aspects and developments that transpired in the past. It resulted in newer cultures and genres of music such as Rhythm and Blues as well as country music that blended to form Rock and Roll music. Many teenagers and youths at the time that Rock and Roll were dominant also assert that the music was part of their culture and life. It implies that music impacts and influences traverse many other aspects of life and society beyond aesthetic and entertainment aspects to include teaching and definition and branding of particular people and different times. References Bentley, B. (2017). Smithsonian Rock and Roll: The People's Pictures. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. Larson, T. (2014). History of rock and roll. Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Menand, L. (2015). “The Elvic Oracle. Did anyone invent rock and roll?” The New Yorker, 16 Nov. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/11/16/the-elvic-oracle
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    Rules, Regulations and Accountability Name of Student Name of University Rules, Regulations, and Accountability Introduction The patients’ information is one of the most sensitive data captured and stored by the healthcare organizations. As such, the healthcare organizations have the solemn obligation safeguard such data from leakages, hacking or unauthorized sharing. The possibility of unauthorized individuals and organizations gaining access to the confidential patient information has the effect of exposing the patients to undue ridicule, blackmail or unsolicited publicity. The emergence of electronic health records within healthcare settings increased the risk of unauthorized access to confidential patient data by hackers. To safeguard patient data in the electronic age, the US Congress enacted the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which compelled healthcare organizations to adopt a raft of privacy rules to protect the integrity, confidentiality and the accessibility of the patients’ information by the relevant healthcare organizations. The regulations and accountability measures place healthcare organizations under stringent observation by the regulators. HIPAA also heightens the risk of hefty litigation costs against healthcare organizations that are either unable or fail to secure the privacy and integrity of the patient’s electronic health data (ePHI). The Silver Creek Hospital should adhere to the regulations and requirements of the HIPAA by encouraging a culture of compliance amongst its employees and service providers that access the protected patients’ information. Objectives of the HIPAA Security and Privacy Rules The core objectives of the HIPAA security and privacy rules is to support and protect the availability, integrity and the confidentiality of the electronic protected health information (ePHI). The security and privacy rules under the HIPAA compels healthcare organizations such as the Silver Creek Hospital to ensure that eHPI entrusted to their custody is not lost or disclosed to unauthorized individuals. According to the HIPAA privacy and security rules, unauthorized disclosure of electronic patient data has the potential of denying the patient effective treatment once malicious individuals access and edit or delete such critical information (HIPAA, 2018). Therefore, HIPAA prefers stringent sanctions to organizations that breach the security of eHPI’s for compromising the quality of care advanced to the patient. The objective of ePHI integrity means that healthcare organizations have the responsibility of ensuring that the ePHI is used for the intended purpose by protecting the patients or volunteers from abuse by individuals who may use such information for a purpose unrelated to the during the diagnosis or research process. Moreover, the security and privacy rules of the HIPAA is to compel the healthcare organizations to install measures capable of detecting and preventing reasonably expected threats and errors resulting from criminal actions, staff error, natural disaster or system failure (HIPAA, 2018). HIPAA emphasizes the need for capacity enhancement to safeguard the integrity, confidentiality and the availability objectives of electronic health records. Therefore, the primary objective of the HIPAA security and privacy rules is to protect the confidentiality, integrity and the availability of the electronic protected patient information. Securing Protected Health Information (PHI) under HIPAA One of the ways the HIPAA safeguards the protected health information is through the de-identification method. The de-identification method entails an approach in which the identity of the patients is delinked from the health information (Murphy, 2015). This approach is employed in protecting the health information once the secondary data is used in policy assessment, comparative studies, and life science studies. This approach protects the privacy of individuals from unauthorized exposure once their health information is used in undertaking scientific studies for the overall wellbeing of the society (Murphy, 2015). De-identification protects the privacy of the patients owning the protected health information in compliance with the privacy rules under the HIPAA while ensuring that the information useful in enhancing healthcare service delivery. HIPAA also secures the protected health information using various administrative safeguards. The administrative safeguards use administrative procedures, actions and policies in managing the development, selection, implementation, and the maintenance of the security measures employed in protecting the protected health information (HIPAA, 2018). The various administrative safeguards employed include specifying access authorization, contingency plans, security occurrence procedures, and security training of the workers (HIPAA, 2018). Using administrative safeguards guarantees the security and privacy of the protected health information by enabling database administrators to implement proactive security measures and respond to security breaches effectively and promptly. The physical safeguards are essential in securing the protected health information under the HIPAA. The physical safeguards approach involves the deployment of the physical measures, procedures, and policies such as access control and media and device control to protect the health information held by the healthcare organization. The three approaches are critical under HIPAA to securing the protected health information. Impact of HIPAA Rules and Regulations on Professional Ethics Even though the HIPAA rules and regulations aim at enhancing the ethics among healthcare professionals, it poses various challenges to the healthcare workers and administrators. For instance, HIPAA privacy rules compel healthcare organizations to withhold vital information regarding a mentally ill or unconscious patient from family members before giving a consent on sharing of the protected health information with the patient (Guido, 2014). When faced with such a scenario, the healthcare professional finds themselves in an ethical dilemma of deciding whether to disclose the protected health information to the family members without the patient’s consent or withholding the information until the patient gives a consent once they regain consciousness or mental stability. Such delay in relaying the patient’s information may result in unintended consequences such as the patient’s condition deteriorating when a family member would be helpful. This is a tricky ethical challenge the professionals face in trying to observe the HIPAA rules and regulations while promoting the wellbeing of the patient. Similarly, health professionals face the challenge of determining an informed consent in disclosing the information based on the health condition a patient (Guido, 2014). Limitation of HIPAA and Ethical Issues on use of Health Data for Research and Development The HIPAA limits the use of electronic health data for research and development of evidence-based practice guidelines due to its emphasis on protecting the privacy of the individual behind the protected health information. The risk of the health information revealing the identity of the patients through disclosed codes and association poses the threat of exposing the healthcare organizations to litigation from the patients under HIPAA (Murphy, 2015). The covered entered are highly unlikely to offer the health information for life science studies that are crucial in the development of the evidence-based practices in the industry. References Guido, G. W. (2014). Legal and ethical issues in nursing. Boston: Pearson. HIPAA. (2018). HIPAA Compliance Checklist. Retrieved January 21, 2019 from https://www.hipaajournal.com/hipaa-compliance-checklist/ Murphy, S. P. (2015). Healthcare information security and privacy. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
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    Hinckley Case Paper Name Institution Affiliation Hinckley Case Paper The two pieces in chapter 8 and chapter 15 present a clear example where the topic and subject of insanity is presented in a real-life event and the perception of the scenario. Moreover, the issue from the views of different people involved that include the victim, the defendants, the judges, the professional's opinions that include psychiatrists report and testimonials as well as the public reaction towards the insane case. John W. Hinckley Jr. attempt to assassinate President Ronald Reagan as well as his initial attempts of President Jimmy Carter that proved difficult. An analysis of his behavior and character contributed greatly to the decisions arrived at by the judges that applied the insanity defense or verdict (Hinckley Jr., nd). His obsession and love story and the methods that he used and tried to win a relationship drawn from a movie that he watched over 15 times contributed to the professional's reports and analysis that indicated that Hinckley Jr. indeed suffered from a psychological problem. The impact that the case had in the short and long-term resulted in many states and federals government changing the rules and laws related to insanity. Where in some instances the rule was totally abolished while in others the burden of proof of insanity was vested to the defendants and not the government or the prosecuting team. Finally, in others changes, it resulted in advocating for the guilty verdict but mentally ill (GBMI) that was a change in the initial verdict and rule of not guilty by the reason of insanity (NGRI) (Harmening, nd). The Hinckley Jr. case as an example showed that most of the public was outraged by the decisions reached at by the jurists as well as the politicians that failed to understand the legal reasoning and interpretation in the case. According to them, they found it difficult to believe as their view was that everything was clear and evidence was enormous about the incidence. And, hence, the judges would have ruled on the contrary bearing in mind the impact that the situation had and the high profile (president) involved. The research conducted by Kachulis (2017) also notes that more often the public has a negative opinion and view about the insanity defense as many find it difficult to understand because of the thin line that exists that justifies a person to be mentally ill or not. They often view such defense and excuses as legal gaps that people that have committed serious crimes use as an escape to justice and, therefore, many have supported reforms that amend or abolish the insanity defense clauses. The legal fraternity has also found the topic an interesting subject to venture their research and in particular the legal psychology to help them better understand and comprehend the legal rulings that more often have shocked the public and legal fraternity as well. In conclusion, the insanity defense as shown in the case of Hinckley Jr. among others in the world have continued to shock many and in particular the public. Politicians, as observed in most legislative houses, have initiated reforms and amendments in laws that change the insanity defense by either eliminating it or amending clauses to enhance justice to the victims and increase the guilty verdict. Researchers have also been excited by the topic that has led to an increase in research related to insanity defense where they often try to establish a relationship between fundamentalism and defense attitudes. References Harmening ( nd). Chapter 15: Criminal Responsibility and Competency. Pgs 375-386 John W Hinckley Jr. ( nd) Chapter 8: Shooting the Stars. Pgs 91-101. Kachulis, L. (2017). Insane In The Mens Rea: Why Insanity Defense Reform Is Long Overdue. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 26(2), 357-378.
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    The use of Financial Derivatives for Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk in International Trade A Case study of Chinese Foreign Trade Firms ABSTRACT The current study aimed at establishing the use of financial derivatives for hedging foreign exchange risks. Foreign exchange risks arise out of the fluctuations or changes in exchange rates. In order to accomplish the main objective of the study, the study employed a case analysis framework of Chinese foreign trade firms. The study selected 122 Chinese foreign trade firms through purposive sampling. Additionally, it used a quantitative research approach and questionnaires as the main data collection instruments. The results indicated that the majority of the Chinese foreign trade firms are exposed to foreign exchange risks, which explain the high usage of financial derivatives for hedging such risks. However, there are challenges towards using financial derivatives for hedging foreign exchange risks such as lack of exposure and insufficient knowledge. In this respect, the study recommends that managers should be trained and educated on the usage of financial derivatives as hedging instruments for foreign exchange risks. Key words: financial derivatives, foreign exchange risks, hedging, international trade TABLE OF CONTENTS
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    Hebrew Prophets Name Institution Affiliation Date Hebrew Prophets 1. The reason it is important for interpreting the prophets and description of the relationship between suzerainty treaty and the Sinai Covenant. Agreements between two or more parties have been witnessed and continue to be witnessed not only in the past times but also in the present contexts. The Sinai covenant and the suzerainty treaty are among the few in the bible that shows pledges between the parties concerned and the possible consequences to the party concerned that might have either positive or negative consequence. The ancient Near Eastern Suzerainty treaty makes the Sinai covenant attractive and helps in the interpretation of prophets because of several reasons. First, it lays the foundation where the works or commands of the prophets could be easily understood by the Israelites. It is because God’s commands and laws that were presented through the prophets were foreign to the recipients (Israelites) at the Sinai covenant (Matthews, 2012). The Israelites had spent close to 400 years under the pagan rule and, thus, the Suzerainty treaty that was an agreement between the king and the new people that joined the king’s nation provided a similar culture that would make the Sinai covenant well understood and grasped by the Israelites. Secondly, it helped the Israelites to compare and contrast what they had experienced and witnessed when under the Suzerainty treaty and foreign land rules to those provided by the prophets and God when they arrived in the Promised Land. Third, it made them respect the prophets as a true servant of the lord and, therefore, increase the good relationship between the prophets acting as a leader and the followers. It created the hierarchy that enabled ease of administering and following of command and rules. It is because the same was replicated in the Suzerainty treaty where a “superior” king or ruler had a “lesser” king or prince in the service of a greater king that enforces the agreements among the followers. The relationship between the suzerainty treaty and the Sinai Covenant is that both had a superior being that gave the orders and command. Moreover, both had a representative that delivered the message and commands of their superior wherein the Sinai covenant it was Moses while in the suzerainty treaty were “lesser” kings or servants. Finally, both had positive and negative impacts that were subject to adherence to the agreements or not by the masses or followers. God spoke the commandments with His own voice that made the Israelites fear because he showed his mightiness by the events that occurred at the time such as mountain smoke, thunder and lightning and the sound of the trumpet. It made the Israelites plead with Moses to allow God speaks with them through him. The command, consequently, could come directly from God or through his prophet (Newsome, 1984). The same is also realized in the Ancient Near Eastern treaty where command could come directly from the king or his servant. In all cases, the highest authority and commander both prove or show their strength and mightiness that makes it easy for the followers to believe the power or strength of their masters through their agents. Lastly, both have the Preamble that set the terms of agreements, then the stipulations and finally the blessings and curses or outcomes of conformity or deviance to the laws. 2. Defense of the notion that the prophets are religious conservatives. Prophets are religious conservatives according to Israel’s ideas of the covenant. The covenant made at the Sinai among others places as noted in the book of the Law through Moses long after they had left Mt. Sinai among other prophets as observed in Hebrew prophets have formed the basis that many religious practices, rules, and regulations have developed over time. What the prophets stated coming from the Lord was command that everybody was expected to obey and since the prophets existed many years ago, they have preserved religious practices and beliefs used to the present dates. The prophets also foretold the future events and happenings that might happen according to the Lord’s will such as noted in Noah or Moses (Sinai) covenants and, as a result, people or followers shaped religious practices according to such predictions and messages about the future (Newsome, 1984). It further asserts the position that prophets are religious conservatives as through their actions, words and forecasts determined many religious practices and traditions that are practiced to the present times that have majorly formed the Christians religious culture. The impact and consequences that the words and messages of the prophets had given to the Israelites in the instance that people respected the messages have to date controlled the religious practices in the contemporary times, thus, reinforcing the position that the prophets are religious conservatives. For example, the negative consequences resulting from failure to obey the rules and laws given by the prophets such as curses and punishments have to date stuck and practiced making the ancient prophets religious conservatives as they protect and preserve religious practices and beliefs. In the event that amendments in the Christian practices and beliefs are made, as seen in the contemporary times, most are guided by the prophetic teachings and messages as noted in the covenants. It might change slightly from the practices shown by the prophets may be due to developments and changes in the present society but the idea, theme, and intention continue to replicate what was done by the prophets further conserving religious practices. Finally, the prophets as seen in the actions and words of Mosses, Nathan, Micaiah, Elisha and Elijah among others dominates most parts of the religious books that form the Laws or act as sources of religious laws that other religious writings follow in both the old and new testament books and as a result continue to preserve religious practices and thoughts to the present times. Most prophets refused to mix the ancient religious traditions and laws with the “foreign” or suzerainty rules (Matthews, 2012). It led to the punishment of the lawbreakers such as noted in the Deuteronomy 28:47.The prophets, hence, are the greatest religious conservatives. References Matthews, V. H. (2012). Social World of the Hebrew Prophets. In The Hebrew Prophets and Their Social World: An Introduction. Baker Books. Newsome, J. D. (1984). The Hebrew Prophets. Atlanta, Ga: J. Knox Press.
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    Healthcare Policy Concern: Health Disparity as a Social Determinant of Health and Risk Name University Healthcare Policy Concern: Health Disparity as a Social Determinant of Health and Risk Introduction The selected healthcare policy concern is the apparent disregard for health disparity and inequality as a social determinant of health and risk. Health disparities refer to the differences in healthcare outcomes between the socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. Significant differences in health outcomes and disease rates between people of different ethnicity, race, and social economic status have been documented (Perloff, 2016). The complexity of health disparity is that it can be defined using data from diverse sources such as coronary health disease mortality, cancer mortality, infant mortality, end-stage renal disease, stroke mortality, and the prevalence of diabetes (Perloff, 2016). It is vital to note that certain ethnic and racial minority groups have a low life expectancy. These groups also bear disproportionate disease burden from hypertension, diabetes, low birth weight, and AIDS when compared to the white majority population. Recent data into the differences in cause-specific and all-cause mortality shows that the differences are a function of area of residence and social-economic characteristics. Overview of Health Policy As a health policy, health disparity and health inequality have a similar meaning. Health disparity refers to differences in healthcare outcomes between socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups. These differences are pronounced in groups that reveal social inequalities. According to the U.S Department of Health and Human Services, health inequalities refer to a type of health differences that is linked to environmental, economic, and social disadvantages (Perloff, 2016). These disparities affect groups that have systematically experienced obstacles in accessing healthcare because of their ethnic, racial, religious, gender, social-economic, mental health, sexual orientation, and geographic backgrounds. This definition of health disparity shows the role of social and policy disadvantage in ameliorating health disparities. Central to the definition of health disparity and its relevance in healthcare is that it stems from disadvantages, which are avoidable and unnecessary. Differences in health status stem from inequalities. Advocacy plays a crucial role in highlighting the disparities in accessing healthcare. It can affect healthcare policy by focusing policymakers on the social and economic factors that create disadvantages in diverse groups (Harrington, 2015). Advocacy also highlights the different fronts including incidence, prevalence, population of interest, mortality, health literacy, determinants of health, and access to health information. Highlighting these fronts can lead to a situation in which healthcare policy makers know the aspects to target to improve health outcomes. Advocacy is consistent with the responsibilities of an advance practice nurse because it is part of the ethics of nursing practice. It is also at the core of the profession. It is the role of a nurse to provide patients and clients with the necessary information to enable them make informed choices (Harrington, 2015). The vulnerabilities of the increasingly fragmented and complex healthcare system make it necessary for nurses to take up the advocacy role. Taking the advocacy role is consistent with the nursing responsibility of addressing individual patient needs and directly being involved in care. The Selected Healthcare Policy Concern The selected healthcare policy concern is the failure by healthcare officials and policymakers to use health disparity as a tool for the social determination of risk and health. Currently, policy on access to healthcare does not acknowledge the role of social and economic factors in limiting access to healthcare. It is vital to note that most racial, ethnic, and religious minorities does not have adequate access to healthcare (Heckler & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). As a result, these people have less than desirable health outcomes. Health disparity as a social determinant of health and risk recognizes the role of social and economic factors in limiting access to health care. There is evidence of differences in health outcomes based on social economic status, ethnicity, race, sex, geography, mental and physical wellbeing, and sexual orientation. In case of a correlation of these factors, the problem becomes exacerbated and complicated. The impacted population group is the low-income population. This is a disadvantaged group based on their social and economic status. In addition, this group is less likely to have access to education and income to meet their healthcare needs (Adler & Prather, 2015). Because of their low income, these people are poor and less educated, which means that they are less healthy than their affluent counterparts are. For instance, a study on mortality rate between 1990 and 2010 found disparities in death rates between the low and high social-economic status groups (Heckler & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). During this period, disparities because of education and income increased. A similar study in the European Union found that the mortality rate was higher and the self-assessment of health was lower for low social economic status groups. Description of the Student-Identified Solution The identified solution is the use of health disparity as a social determinant of health and risk. The acknowledgement of health disparity as a social determinant of health and risk shows the acceptance of the social and economic factors that contribute to health disparities for the low-income group. The positive outcome of this solution is that there will be increased and improved access to healthcare for the low-income groups in addition to the availability of affordable medical treatment and preventive services. The solution understands that these are significant barriers to the disadvantaged group. Changes must occur in the community to foster the implementation of health disparity as a social determinant of health and risk. The first change is the acceptance of the low-income groups to be identified and grouped as disadvantaged groups (Marmot, 2010). Some of the people in this group are reluctant to be labeled as disadvantaged group because of the stigma associated with the label (Acheson, 2014). The second change is the elimination of the stigma attached to the low income and poor groups. The community must accept these groups and willingly offer assistance to the group.
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    Healthcare Policy Concern: Health Disparity as a Social Determinant of Health and Risk Name of Student Name of University Healthcare Policy Concern: Health Disparity as a Social Determinant of Health and Risk Overview of the Healthcare Policy Concern and Solution The selected healthcare policy concern is the disregard of health disparity and inequality as a social determinant of health and risk. For a long time, healthcare policy makers have failed to acknowledge health disparity and inequality as a social determinant of health and risk. Data from diverse sources shows the prominence of health disparity and inequality in adverse health outcomes for different groups (Acheson, 2014). This is evident in data on cancer mortality, coronary health diseases mortality, end-stage renal disease, prevalence of diabetes, and stroke mortality. It is evident that there are inequalities and disparities for minority groups as they access healthcare. The student-identified solution is the acknowledgement of health disparity and inequality as a social determinant of health and risk. The solution intends to include social and economic factors as social determinants of health and risk as a healthcare policy. The objective is to ensure healthcare coverage to the minority groups who are limited in access to healthcare services and products. The outcome of this solution is an increase in access for the minority groups and improved access for these groups (Adler & Prather, 2015). This is relevant to the population and community group because it acknowledges that they cannot access basic healthcare services because of their social and economic status. This is usually the case for minority groups such as African Americans living in poor neighborhoods. Identification of Communication Techniques The selected elected official is Bernie Sanders. Senator Sanders is a popular U.S Democratic senator. He is also a long serving member of the U.S Congress and among the most influential reformers. Senator Sanders was selected because he is a minority member of the U.S Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. He has been selected because of his support for the establishment of a universal healthcare system. He has also shown support for the reformation of healthcare policies, especially policies on health justice and equity. The four communication or presentation techniques that I will use are assertiveness, verbal and non-verbal communication techniques, contextualization, and using visual presentation techniques. Verbal and non-verbal communication techniques transmit meaning using written or oral expressions (Harrington, 2015). They also transmit meaning using bodily expressions such as gestures, facial expressions, and emotions. Contextualization is important because it will ensure that I stay in the subject of discussion. I will use assertiveness as a technique to show my audience that I am knowledgeable about the issue under discussion. It will also enable me to provide feedback to my audience without criticizing their personality, situation, or behavior. Self-Evaluation of Video Presentation The one positive that I have identified with my presentation is on the content. I introduced myself well to the audience, including the selected representative. I also created a good communication platform for the exchange of ideas with the selected representative. I also researched on the healthcare policy concern and collected all the relevant information. This was followed with a comprehensive solution to the healthcare policy concern. The information that I presented to my audience is relevant to the healthcare concern and solution. The area that I need to develop is on the style of delivery. I have shortcomings in this area because I am not used to making presentations. I am not strong in making eye contacts because of my shyness. I also have a problem with voice clarity, which can be attributed to stage fright. I can improve on this area by seeking opportunities to make presentations and making presentations regularly. Conclusion The healthcare policy concern is the disregard of social and economic factors as social determinants of health and risk. The identified solution to the concern is the inclusion of health disparity and inequality in healthcare policies. A positive that can be seen from the video is my strength in developing content. An area of concern is my shortcomings in the style of delivery.
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    Healthcare Marketing Business Plan Project: On-The-Go-Chiropractic Name of Student Name of University Healthcare Marketing Business Plan Project: On-The-Go-Chiropractic Phase One: Executive Summary In 2005, the Institute for Alternative Futures made a report on chiropractic care and its future in the United States. The report provides a basis for analysis and forecasting on the future of the practice, trends, and issues. Thus, the Advanced Chiropractic Clinic based in Florida seeks to exploit the emerging opportunities in the chiropractic field by developing an application that will enable patients receive chiropractic education and care at their convenience. The organization focuses on the report together with other primary and secondary sources to identify areas of opportunity in the chiropractic field. The application will be run and operated by a newly graduated doctor. The area of focus will be the fast growing alternative healthcare field of chiropractic. Investing in the application has been motivated by the growing demand and development of online-based solutions to everyday problems. In the current modern world, there is almost an application for everything ranging from healthcare and fitness to construction, engineering, and socialization. The chiropractic subsector of healthcare service delivery approaches healthcare in a holistic manner. The field stresses on the importance of the patient’s overall wellness and health. Chiropractic acknowledges the factors that affect healthcare including rest, exercise, diet, heredity, and environmental issues (Vear, 2012). It provides a non-surgical, drugless, and natural health treatment with a focus on the inherent recuperative abilities of the body. The alternative healthcare application will provide quality and safe chiropractic services to people above 55 years. It will use trained employees and new equipment to deliver the safe and quality care. Focus will be on the individual needs of patients that come to the clinic. The application will enable patients enter their medical information and background information. Users will have the option of paying using their insurance cover or pay in cash. Thereafter, they will be able to locate a chiropractic within a 10-mile radius. The target population is people aged above 55 years old. These are the people in need of neuromuscular adjustments and manipulation. Florida has a large population of people aged above 55 years old. Most of these people need assistance to get to a clinic that offers chiropractic services. Furthermore, most of the people using chiropractic treatment experience some level of pain. It is vital to note that there are physical therapists serving the Florida region. They make home visits to provide services to the elderly people experiencing back and neck pains. Therefore, having an application that connects the patient with a chiropractor seems logical. Projected sales will increase from the expected initial of $99,000 in the first year to approximately $120,000 in the third year. Additionally, it is expected that profits will be negligible for the first year. It is expected that the business will reach a break-even point in the seventh month after starting. Projected net profit for the initial three years will be approximately $5,000 annually. These are conservative projections based on the gross margin. Furthermore, the client base is expected to increase faster than the projections. Objectives Achieve a gross revenue of approximately $120,000 in the third year. Achieve net profits above $5,000 each year in the plan.
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    Healthcare Marketing Business Plan Project: On-The-Go-Chiropractic Name of Student Name of University Healthcare Marketing Business Plan Project: On-The-Go-Chiropractic Phase One: Executive Summary In 2005, the Institute for Alternative Futures made a report on chiropractic care and its future in the United States. The report provides a basis for analysis and forecasting on the future of the practice, trends, and issues. Thus, the Advanced Chiropractic Clinic based in Florida seeks to exploit the emerging opportunities in the chiropractic field by developing an application that will enable patients receive chiropractic education and care at their convenience. The organization focuses on the report together with other primary and secondary sources to identify areas of opportunity in the chiropractic field. The application will be run and operated by a newly graduated doctor. The area of focus will be the fast growing alternative healthcare field of chiropractic. Investing in the application has been motivated by the growing demand and development of online-based solutions to everyday problems. In the current modern world, there is almost an application for everything ranging from healthcare and fitness to construction, engineering, and socialization. The chiropractic subsector of healthcare service delivery approaches healthcare in a holistic manner. The field stresses on the importance of the patient’s overall wellness and health. Chiropractic acknowledges the factors that affect healthcare including rest, exercise, diet, heredity, and environmental issues (Vear, 2012). It provides a non-surgical, drugless, and natural health treatment with a focus on the inherent recuperative abilities of the body. The alternative healthcare application will provide quality and safe chiropractic services to people above 55 years. It will use trained employees and new equipment to deliver the safe and quality care. Focus will be on the individual needs of patients that come to the clinic. The application will enable patients enter their medical information and background information. Users will have the option of paying using their insurance cover or pay in cash. Thereafter, they will be able to locate a chiropractic within a 10-mile radius. The target population is people aged above 55 years old. These are the people in need of neuromuscular adjustments and manipulation. Florida has a large population of people aged above 55 years old. Most of these people need assistance to get to a clinic that offers chiropractic services. Furthermore, most of the people using chiropractic treatment experience some level of pain. It is vital to note that there are physical therapists serving the Florida region. They make home visits to provide services to the elderly people experiencing back and neck pains. Therefore, having an application that connects the patient with a chiropractor seems logical. Projected sales will increase from the expected initial of $99,000 in the first year to approximately $120,000 in the third year. Additionally, it is expected that profits will be negligible for the first year. It is expected that the business will reach a break-even point in the seventh month after starting. Projected net profit for the initial three years will be approximately $5,000 annually. These are conservative projections based on the gross margin. Furthermore, the client base is expected to increase faster than the projections. Objectives Achieve a gross revenue of approximately $120,000 in the third year. Achieve net profits above $5,000 each year in the plan.
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    Legislation Comparison Grid and Testimony/Advocacy Statement Name University Health-related Bill Name North Carolina Medicaid Expansion Bill
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    Health Education Name Institution
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    Health Culture Name Institution Affiliation Date Health Culture Brett Walker post response Brett has presented an in-depth analysis. Walker has started first by defining the two types of care offered to mental health patients. Walker cites sources and the point of argument that such sources provide, for example, as indicated in the European website mental health and well-being. Brett presents a balanced approach and view to the subject that justifies the position taken in relation to the subject. For example, Walker presents both views that support and contrasts the position taken indicating the advantages and disadvantages that the different position taken about the subject show. For example, that community-based treatment helps people maintain their jobs and relationship among others. Walker supports the community-based treatment and services. Comments Bett should have also indicated or stated the advantages that hospital-based mental care services have that readers could be able to compare and contrast between the two and possibly make or take a stand about the subject. There might be other readers who subscribe to a different view. Cara DeVoid post response Cara DeVoid has equally presented an exceptional discussion. DeVoid first starts by justifying the position taken about the debate that neither supports one side but advocates for a balanced approach and view about the subject of mental-health patients. It is a position that I also agree with and in particular, DeVoid’s view that the approach used should be depended on the area and resources available as asserted by McWay (2014) work. It creates room for flexibility and increases the chance of addressing and solving the mental-health challenge objectively. It is because in the world, the problem is experienced everywhere and different regions and countries have different resources concerned with healthcare provision. Moreover, since positions and situations are dynamic, it creates room for adjustments and changes that target to address the concern objectively. The issue of costs is equally critical in the discussion and subject of mental-health care. DeVoid has noted it and says the costs generally are the same. Comments DeVoid's position allows for flexibility and adjustments that depends on the resources available. It is more pragmatic that can impact the mental health care positively and objectively. Reference McWay, D. C. (2014). Today's health information management: An integrated approach. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar/Cengage Learning.
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    “Health is ultimately the responsibility of the individual”: to what extent is this viewpoint correct? Table of Contents
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    Health Care Policy and Political, Social, and Cultural Environments Name Institution Affiliation Health Care Policy and Political, Social, and Cultural Environments The wellbeing sector plays an important role that ensures healthy populations and the community as a whole. Funding of health care services has attracted enormous interests from governments as well as the private sector due to the benefits that health care plays in society enhancing people to realize their social, economic as well as political goals because of healthy populations. The health care sector, thus, has attracted interest from politicians that have come up with different legislation that addresses the concerns related to health care such as financing and professionalism among the caregivers among others issue of interests such as insurance among others that affect different stakeholders differently. However, this paper analyzes Medicaid and related variables as well as the program that encourages insurance of children abbreviated as (CHIP). Program sources and laws that introduced it Medicaid legislation was introduced in the year 1965 formerly described as “Title XIX of the Social Security Act” alongside the law signed by president Lyndon B. Johnson of Medicare. The funding sources for the program according to the legislation is a joint federal-state program where the state support programs in federal governments and provision of health care through financing that targets low-income families and individuals (Yu, Lynen, Wang & Law, 2016). The alters, together with CHIP that has happened to the Medicaid agenda ever since its inauguration Numerous modifications have happened to the Medicaid plan since its beginning that touches on aspects of finance and insurance among others. The first 15 years since its inception saw Medicaid realize changes in many factors. First, in the year 1967, the program added a requirement that states activate Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) agenda for kids as well as changes that gave states options to cover up Intermediate Care Facilities for the Mentally Retarded (ICFs/MR). In the year 1972, more changes were introduced where the creation of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program was introduced that was a federally funded program that gave income support plan for inhabitants with disabilities. It restored the earlier federal-state “aged, blind and disabled” money help program. The decade of the year 1980 to 1990 also saw some changes introduced to Medicaid. In 1987, The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act was introduced that included provisions that targeted to bolster nursing facility and protection of nursing interest. The Act also introduced more test and cure of persons with psychological illness. Congress in the year 1989 also added changes to the EPSDT program that made it mandatory that states provide every one medically essential services to entitled kids. The decade of the 90s also saw more introduced modifications to the Medicaid program. In 1996, managed care changes resulted in more people accessing the benefits and enrolling in the Medicaid agenda. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act (PRWOA) introduced in the year 1996 provided a connection linking Medicaid eligibility plus the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) money support plan (Norman, 2015). Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) also replaced AFDC that introduced a fresh compulsory eligibility cluster was established for low-income families. In the year 1997, State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) was launched that enhanced funding to states to support Medicaid help to kids in low-income families or give them with a substitute wrap up of reimbursement. In 1999, upper house altered the Medicaid rule and allowed states to prolong with the provision of Medicaid reimbursement for employees with disabilities who are no longer qualified in favor of SSI. Medicaid covers the demographics of the greater part of public enclosed by Medicaid and how many citizens in the United States. The demographics show how Medicaid continues to enroll indicates that the primary beneficiaries are children, disabled or older adults. The figures that show the number of people enrolled as of August 2018 reported that 66,637,193 had enrolled for Medicaid program while 6,519,043 individuals had registered for the CHIP. The number of the two programs totaled to 73,156,236 individuals when the two data sets are joined. The specific demographic data that show each category or group involved in the program also indicated different figures. Children or youths under the age of 19 years accounted for 45.8 percent that is approximated to be 33,505,551.5 of the total population. It was followed closely by the disabled group aged 19-64 years that had 13.2 percent that is 9,656, 623.15. The old or aged group of ages 65 and older accounted for 10.8 percent that is close to 7,900,874 individuals. Institutionalized (ages 19-64) had 0.6 percent of the share, and recent mothers (age 19 and older) had 1.6 percent share. Those working full-time, year-round aged 19-64 had 7.0 percent and those working part-time or part-year had 5.0 percent. The other category accounted for 16 percent that entailed a mixture of people from different groups and classes (Haley, Kenney, Wang, Lynch & Buettgens, 2018). Evaluation of the modification that have happened to Medicaid with the beginning of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the present alterations in Medicaid based on existing laws The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act introduced many reforms that impacted on the health care service and delivery touching on all stakeholders such as insurance, training and professionalism, finance and even the options and extent of cover provided in addressing different healthcare needs. Medicaid, in particular, was also significantly impacted by the ACA that has, directly and indirectly, contributed to the increased numbers for the time ACA came into effect. For example, by March 2014, CHIP and Medicaid enrollment expanded by additional 4.8 million citizens evaluated to standard monthly staffing that led to the launch of open enrolment. The three main or broad areas that ACA brought and impacted on the Medicaid include the expansion of organizations or partners that are eligible in implementing in the different states. The change, hence, implies that new partners and players that perform the expansion programs result in more people enrolled over a given time unlike the previous time before the introduction of ACA (Wachino, Artiga & Rudowitz, 2014). Secondly, the simplified enrolment and renewal in all states brought by ACA meant that those previously eligible but not enrolled would be included in the new initiative resulting in more registration. Finally, increased outreach and enrollment brought by ACA imply there is going to be sustainable steadiness and connection of treatment in all states that means increased enrolment numbers as witnessed in the recent times (Norman, 2015). Assessment of communal and cultural alterations and their effect on mounting fresh wellbeing policies to create Medicaid and CHIP further helpful The cultural and social differences resulting from the growth of more modern guidelines to build the Medicaid program and CHIP additionally successful incorporate increased public participation in the formulation of different programs and policies relating to the subject of Medicaid. The society and in particular parents have also actively participated in the programs and in particular the CHIP program that has reduced the amount they used to spend in insurance costs enhancing savings in families (Yu, Lynen, Wang & Law, 2016). The impact of individual and group or family set up of Medicaid and CHIP about the response that they have about the program also has contributed to the creation of policies and providing data through a research process that can be used to initiate positive changes and developments in the programs to make them more effective. In conclusion, Medicaid and ACA, for example, have impacted the health care delivery and service positively in many aspects that continue to experience more changes to the present. The government, as well as the private sector, has continued to play an active role in establishing and implementing such reforms in the health care that touch on insurance, financing, and training among others that target to help the most vulnerable people in the society. References Haley, J. M., Kenney, G. M., Wang, R., Lynch, V., & Buettgens, M. (2018). Medicaid/CHIP Participation Reached 93.7 Percent Among Eligible Children In 2016. Health Affairs, 37(8), 1194–1199. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.0417 Norman, G. (2015). Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act: Overview and missed opportunities. New York: Nova Publishers Wachino, V., Artiga,S. & Rudowitz, R. (2014, May05). “How is the ACA Impacting Medicaid Enrollment?.” KFF. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/how-is-the-aca-impacting-medicaid-enrollment/ Yu, J., Lynen, R., Wang, W., & Law, A. (2016). Trends and regional variations in contraceptive use among women in the United States based on the center for Medicaid and children’s health insurance program (CHIP) services (CMCS) proposed quality measures. Contraception, 94(4), 429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2016.07.168 Yu, J., Lynen, R., Wang, W., & Law, A. (2016). Trends and regional variations in contraceptive use among women in the united states based on the center for Medicaid and children’s health insurance program (CHIP) services (CMCS) proposed quality measures. Contraception, 94(4), 429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2016.07.168
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: John Connelly is Not Guilty John Connelly is not guilty, and this jury should support the position. It is because of several issues related to the case that I will present as evidence to defend my client John Connelly that would prove beyond any reasonable doubt that Connelly did not know what he did. The teenager (John Connelly) deserves a fair chance and a just decision not only from this jury but also needs an apology from her teacher. The teacher played the primary role that led him to take or make such decision he did that resulted in the charge, which I would prove beyond any reasonable doubt that he is not guilty and was not aware what he was doing was wrong. A 16-year-old John Connelly is considered a minor still growing, developing physically as well as emotionally. Minors are protected by law, and it is the reason that states, as well as parents, play an essential role of giving teenagers like John Connelly the basic needs of life that include education, shelter, security, food as well as good healthcare among others. It shows that the state and adults close to teenagers have an essential role to offer protection to the teenagers who are also considered as minors under the law. They youngsters require guidance from adults around them as well as the state and its agencies. Teachers, in particular, play an essential role that ensures that not only the educational needs of such teenagers like John Connelly are cared for among others. It is by teaching them on different issues of life that range from social, economic as well as political interests. Teachers also mentor students in their quest for knowledge and acquisition of life skills and; therefore, the decision and actions that they make or request teenagers to do according to scholars of psychology are considered to be reasonable and right. Besides, the choices are supposed to be helpful in the life of the students, and more often students hardly question the actions and decision that teachers make or ask them to do. It is because of the trust and positive relationship expected between the two as well as the belief that parents and the state at large have put on teachers as mentors and guides of students in their quest to acquire knowledge, skills, and information that would help them in life. The same also applies in John Connelly case. Students, parents and the state equally know that teachers are professionals who are trained. The government, as well as the private sector, has put enormous resources in teacher training and professional conduct. It ensures that teacher training results in more professional behavior and respect for their professionals. Teachers hence need to take responsibility to mentor and guide the students in the right direction and lead by example. Therefore, all the stakeholders that include the students, parents and the state have put so much trust in the teachers due to the belief that they are professionals and they are expected to act and behave professionally irrespective of their ethnic background. The chargers on John Connelly of “sexting” not only his teacher but also several female students does not hold water. It is because of the source of the behavior. It came from someone trusted by John Connelly parent’s and family, and also the state and school administrators to act promptly and professionally. The teacher is expected to guide the children in the right direction and correct actions, but instead, she performs the contrary and takes advantage of the teenager and led him into temptation and behaviors that do not resonate with the ethics and social norms of the society. She, therefore, abuses the teenager by taking advantage of him. She exploits him by exposing John Connelly into actions that contradict the laws and regulations expected from students. The teacher takes advantage of Connelly who still is growing and developing and not fully able to differentiate between good acts and evil acts. John Connelly carries out the decisions as requested by his teacher. She leads him (John Connelly) in the wrong path and also puts so much pressure to John Connelly to extend such acts to his fellow students. Both are considered to be minors and not yet fully developed able to distinguish and make the right decisions on their own. This jury I am sure would agree and see the facts from this position that clearly shows how few teachers in their careers and profession have turned to be the villain that leads children in the wrong direction by acting and behaving unprofessionally. John Connelly statement that he sent the picture to the teacher, as well as his fellow students under direct pressure from the teacher is a huge statement that this jury needs to consider and weigh with the seriousness it deserves. Many psychiatrists and professionals that have studied the relationships and influence that teachers have on students would prove and state to this jury that it is exceptional and unique. Students respect teachers so much and appreciate their efforts teaching them to be better people in the future and, therefore, they would almost do anything possible and action that come from the commands and decisions that their teachers make or ask them to do. It is because the students do not want to break or distort the relationship that exists between them and teachers and, consequently, even if they do not agree with the ideas and requests presented by their teachers. They would be compelled to do such acts also when they are not comfortable with them so that they establish and maintain the respect and relationship that exists between students and teachers. It mainly applies in minor students and teenagers such as John Connelly who still do not know that there are optional channels that they can use and go against such actions and requests from their teachers. For example, if it were a college or university student, they would be empowered enough with information and decision, and they would appropriately act and report such incidences to the college or university administrative units or even the law enforcement units, and action would be taken with immediate effect. However, John Connelly case is different because he is still a minor and teenager and still is in the course of acquiring basic knowledge and learning many issues in life that would include possible action in the future when such an event happens and the best way to respond and address the scenario in future. John Connelly, therefore, is not a “complete process” in the course of acquiring knowledge, skills, and information that can help him make an informed decision and take actions that this jury perhaps would have expected him to take in the presented case. If John Connelly were in his early post-teen years, for example, 21 or 22 years, that scenario would be different from the current situation. As at that age he would be expected to act responsibly as an adult and take responsibility for his actions, but the truth that I am sure this jury would stand and agree with me is that the context is different. Where in this case the reality is that John Connelly is not guilty, but also he needs an apology from the teacher that led and introduced him to the actions that led him to the present status of facing this jury and the charges placed against him. The two teenagers that have been asked to testify against John Connelly also need to consider the origin of that act that led John Connelly to send them photos of his genitalia and understand the pressure that a teacher can put on the students. The teacher also needs to apologize to them for pressuring John Connelly to send that picture and failing to act as expected professionally from all the stakeholders that placed so much trust in them that include parents, the state as well as administrators of such educational institutions. Some might argue that John Connelly action to send the photos to a younger student, as well as his classmate, need to be punished as he was aware of his action. However, if John Connelly had sent those images to another adult, for example, his parents or a different teacher that is upright and a professional, it is expected that inquiries would have been instituted immediately and action was taken against John Connelly that would include psychiatrists tests to determine if John Connelly is healthy psychologically. But because such action was sent to other minors who are students, it shows the wrong direction that the teacher placed John Connelly not able to show him the right ways and actions expected of him in addition to the pressure that the teacher put on John Connelly prompting him to take such measures. Finally, for John Connelly and his fellow students to get justice, they need to be considered for counseling lessons and such initiatives instituted by the school and state at the expense of the two so that they can get help and guidance. It is because such actions have a long-term psychological impact on the students that might even affect them negatively in the course of learning and life in the future. Therefore, I would recommend and request this honorable jury to look beyond the justice or decisions of “guilty” or “not guilty” because I am sure beyond any reasonable doubt that they would conclude with a “not guilty” verdict against the charges against John Connelly. A repeat of the same can happen in any other part of this Nation when teachers that breach the code of conduct expected from them take advantage of the teenagers and minors. Some that the society has placed more trust on their hands to guide them properly in life issues and remain professional might not adhere to such conduct and ethics expected from them resulting in an example similar to John Connelly case. This jury, hence, in my humble request would place recommendations to the responsible agencies that include the state, teachers, parents as well as legislators so that they can come up with a review of possible breaches and gaps in the law. It would empower students to report such cases or share what they undergo with relevant authorities so that a repeat of the same does not happen that might expose and place such students in a challenging situation as noted in my client’s (John Connelly) case. Works Cited Annotation Aslan, Deniz, and Robert Edelmann. “Demographic and Offence Characteristics: A Comparison of Sex Offenders Convicted of Possessing Indecent Images of Children, Committing Contact Sex Offences or Both Offences.” Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, vol. 25, no. 2, Apr. 2014, pp. 121–134. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14789949.2014.884618. The scholarly piece presents interesting findings that note the demographics distribution of sexual offenders that were convicted either for possessing indecent images or committing actual sexual offenses or both. It is, thus, similar and presents facts related to the case that the exchange of sexual images was presented. The piece, further, analyzes the characteristics of the groups of sexual offenders relating it to other previous convictions and offenses in general. It notes that younger offenders dominated those convicted of sending sexual images via the internet as opposed to those who committed the actual act of sex offense that has an older age. The piece, for this reason, is relevant for the use in the task. Cottle, Michelle. “What Does 'Sexual Misconduct' Actually Mean?.” The Atlantic, 20 Dec 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/12/what-does-sexual-misconduct-actually-mean/548807/. Accessed 25 Nov 2018. The article by Cottle has in-depth information that asks and tries to argue many questions and positions that people have relating to sex offenses. The work notes the concern that the public has about the limitations and boundaries that exist between the three variables that more often have proved difficult to separate and point out where it applies and in which contexts. They include sexual assault, sexual harassment, and unwanted groping. The piece notes that some victims of the sexual concerns harassments have used and exaggerated such cases that have led to the subject receiving intense debates where some have tried to extort others by magnifying the acts to severe crimes, hence, exploiting others and those affected. It presents examples from public figures that argue and offer different views about the subject that currently have sexual offense related cases. The piece, hence, is essential for use in the task of case analysis. Gerwinn, Hannah, et al. “Clinical Characteristics Associated with Paedophilia and Child Sex Offending – Differentiating Sexual Preference from Offence Status.” European Psychiatry, vol. 51, June 2018, pp. 74–85. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.02.002 The journal article presents an exciting fact related to child sexual offense that introduces pedophilia that is a psychiatric disorder that makes adults get sexually attracted to children. Their study, thus, notes the relationship and distinguishes between the two groups and the offender status regarding child sex offending. The piece, hence, is essential for the task because it allows analysis and views from the profession of psychology that tends to explain the puzzle that has become difficult for many people to understand. It also notes if jurists or those involved in giving judgment in such cases consider the psychological disorder as mentioned. It is, therefore, worth and essential in the analysis of the situation. Ioannou, Maria, et al. “Male-on-Male Sexual Assault: Victim, Offender and Offence Characteristics.” Journal of Investigative Psychology & Offender Profiling, vol. 14, no. 2, June 2017, pp. 189–209. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/jip.1483. A different concept is presented by the scholars that try to adventure in an unknown path with limited information relating to the sexual offense. The male-on-male relationship has continued to happen and increase in the world especially among the LGBT group. The classification of sexual harassments and crime among this group, hence, needs to be analyzed to possibly get facts that might result in changing and amending the law to include such groups in the definition of the sexual offense acts because the society has accepted them in many parts. The authors note that the study shows that victims and offenders often are young and know each other. Price-Jones, Daniel William, and Alastair Barrowcliff. “Attitudes towards Sex Offenders Regarding Competency, Liability, Voluntariness of Offence, and Disposal: The Influence of Being Classified as Having a Learning Disability.” Psychology, Crime & Law, vol. 16, no. 3, Feb. 2010, pp. 251–263. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10683160802672613. The authors in work analyzed the stakeholders involved in the criminal justice system relating to sexual offense decision if they are influenced by the classification that exist placing different sexual offenses in the groups or level stated in the classification manual. It also explored the parental status and attitudes towards the subject a fact that is used in the case presented to show how parents and teachers among other concerned stakeholders have the role and responsibility to protect children. It notes how the sexual offense acts impact children with learning disability and classified as well as those that are suggested to have an intellectual disability but not organized. The work, for this reason, is essential in the analysis of the chosen case. Shouse Law Group Channel. “This new law changes everything for "sex offender registration" in California (SB 384).” You Tube, Uploaded by Shouse Law Group Channel, 16 Oct 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DGmn6NTBOE. The video piece in YouTube is presented by Mark Russ who is a criminal defense attorney working with Shouse Law Group found in California. He analyzes a bill introduced in the Senate that touches on sex offender registration that categorizes the offense in three tiers with tier one capturing the least offenses as noted in level 1 sex offense while tier three covers the worst cases of sex offenses. The bill intended to amend the sex offense registry by allowing offenders to petition the state and concerned parties to consider deletion of name from the register when offenders have completed a certain period and have not had a repeat case not only in sexual offense but also on other legal matters. The piece, thus, is an essential part to be used in the case as it provides the different perception that the sexual offense scenario can be viewed. It, furthermore, presents the different possible scenario that sexual offenses can happen as noted in the given case including the exchange of sexual contents to minors using the internet and other devices, hence essential to be used in the task. Stinson, Jill D, and Judith V. Becker. Treating Sex Offenders: An Evidence-Based Manual. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2013. Internet resource. The book presents different models that can be used in the rehabilitation of sex offenders to help them desist from such acts by breaking unhealthy relationship patterns, managing their emotions and impulses as well as the teaching of new skills. It can empower them from such acts by engaging positively in the activities and using their energy in healthy activities. The model covers all the groups that more often have been documented in sexual offense cases that include the mentally disabled and intellectually challenged among others. The piece, hence, would provide more detailed information relevant in use in the task as well as more details on the subject. Van Wijk, A. P. H., et al. “Relating Psychiatric Disorders, Offender and Offence Characteristics in a Sample of Adolescent Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders.” Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health, vol. 17, no. 1, Mar. 2007, pp. 15–30. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/cbm.628.
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  • Tertiary education
    Geography
    Group Curriculum Project and Presentation: Best Practices for a Trauma-Informed Group Session for Women Dealing With Trauma Name of Student Name of University Group Curriculum Project and Presentation Introduction The objective of this study is to develop best practices for a trauma-informed group session for women dealing with trauma. It is vital to acknowledge that the selected group deals with multifaceted problems and complex trauma. Traumatic experiences and responses arise when protective survival instincts of flight, fight, and freeze are unsuccessful. This leaves a person without the ability to escape or resist a traumatic event (Banks, Newman & Saleem, 2015). Symptoms of trauma include numbing, avoiding, hyperarousal, and re-experiencing. Repeated and frequent traumatic events lead to complex post-traumatic symptom disorder. It is vital to note that in most of the cases for women, traumatic events are perpetrated by people they have a close relationship. Trauma caused by domestic violence, childhood sexual abuse, or sexual exploitation requires a therapeutic approach that will help the victim recover and reintegrate into the society (Birnie, Speca & Carlson, 2010). Trauma that occurs in a domestic setting has the potential to affect a woman’s worldview, self-perception, emotional regulation, and the ability to experience healthy relations. Because of societal patterns and held beliefs, women are more likely to be victims of violence and vulnerable to sexual exploitation. This necessitates a curriculum for a program that will help women deal with trauma heal and empower themselves. Literature Review This research incorporates a literature review of the interventions of trauma and women experiences with trauma with the aim of developing a curriculum for women dealing with trauma. The literature review incorporates best practices and academic research (Boon, Steele & Van der Hart, 2011). Initial examination of peer-reviewed literature revealed that several studies have been conducted on trauma and the experiences of women with trauma. It is also important to acknowledge the existence of programs that incorporate and reflect research done on women with trauma (Cloitre & Stolbach, 2009). The literature review proves that the programs that focus on women dealing with trauma have similar themes in the recovery and healing process. These themes are building the women’s self-esteem and self-compassion, skill building, maintaining safety, and expanding their relational abilities. Significant numbers of studies have been completed on trauma and women experiences with trauma. Scholars such as Courtois and Ford (2013), Herman (2015), and Russell and Radford (1992) explored the experiences of women. These researchers completed groundbreaking work on the complications associated with healing from trauma and abuse. Feminist movements in the 1960 and 1970s highlighted the levels of abuse experienced by women domestically. Studies on the feminist movement provided the platform for studies on the interpersonal violence that lead to emotional damage and suffering. These studies revealed that women suffer from domestic abuse more than they suffer from other traumatic events (Courtois & Ford, 2013). Presently, feminist academics and researchers agree that women’s trauma from interpersonal violence is different from the trauma experienced by men specifically the trauma suffered by soldiers. Studies suggest that there is significant damage caused in case of a close relationship between the perpetrator and victim. Abuse and violence that occurs in a domestic sphere substantially changes the feelings about self, worldview, and ability to trust. Therefore, the needs of women who have experienced trauma demand intervention models that acknowledge their unique needs (East & Roll, 2015). It is also important to investigate the impact of feminist theory on therapeutic treatment models. This is possible through the examination of the work by researchers such as East and Roll (2015), Brown (2009), and Russell and Radford (2012). According to these studies, there are several therapeutic approaches for female trauma victims, especially when they are marginalized. Based on feminist perspective, psychiatric diagnosis and assessment is necessary before the implementation of an effective trauma treatment. In most of the cases, psychiatric assessment is rarely accessible for underprivileged women. Most programs require women to undergo psychiatric intervention before they can enroll into the program. Based on the inaccessibility of psychiatric assessment, it should not be a requirement for women to participate in a curriculum program. Additionally, trauma treatment should be holistic and focused on a pathological or biological understanding of trauma. Even though there is a biological response to trauma, the solution is on building the victim’s strengths and skills. Treatment should consider the victim and their strengths and vulnerabilities. According to Brown (2009), trauma resulting from emotional or physical violence should be considered as a societal issue. Support extended to such a victim should reflect societal factors that cause or facilitate abuse. The aim is to assist the woman understand their situation and experiences of trauma based on a broad context instead of their individual failures. It is important for trauma treatment to examine the themes of power, self-blame, stigma of abuse, and gender (Fallot, McHugo, Harris & Xie, 2011). This will ensure that the selected elements of a curriculum are strength-based and provide opportunities for the empowerment of women. This means that the selected group of women dealing with trauma is facilitated in an approach that does not model the patriarchal and hierarchal power structures that are prevalent in the society. It will ensure that the group is facilitates in an empowering and egalitarian manner. In this case, the facilitator is not an expert, but a partner in the healing and recovery process (Isaak, Stewart & Mota, 2015). It is vital to note that women experience trauma differently than men. Therefore, the intervention incorporated in the curriculum should be different from the intervention of men. Therapeutic intervention for women must consider the role of trauma that occurs in domestic spheres and their outcomes in societal power structures, isolation, poverty, and inequalities. According to Courtois and Ford (2013) and Herman (2015), it is vital that interventions for women dealing with trauma be sensitive to societal power structures. In a group setting, it is essential that the group structure relies on equality and non-authoritarian approaches. This means that the developed curriculum should treat women as the authorities on matters revolving around their personal experiences with trauma. Scholars such as Ford and Courtois (2013) and Herman (2015) agree that healing and recovery can be broken into three phases. It is important for the women dealing with trauma to go through the three phases sequentially. Women dealing with trauma usually experience emotional dysregulation. This leads to outbursts of extreme anger, frustration, anxiety, and depression (Ferrara, 2014). Survivors can manage or regulate the intense emotional reactions. The first phase of healing and recovery focuses on the personal safety of the group. This is a means of curtailing re-traumatization. The phase is guided by the recognition that women who experience trauma usually put themselves in unsafe situation or environments, which lead to re-traumatization. The second area of focus for women in the first phase is on emotional regulation. During the first phase, it is vital to promote acceptance, self-compassion, and build self-esteem. The second phase of healing and recovery focuses on mourning loss, undoing psychological conditioning, integrating skills, and altering perceptions and behaviors. The second phase focuses on the establishment of life stability. During this phase, it is vital to focus on the victim and giving them a platform to tell their life story. This enables them to recreate and reclaim their narrative. This may include individuals, events, and particulars of their experiences with the aim of integrating their experiences into their life. The second phase also focuses on disconnecting the victim from the emotional aspect of their experiences. During this phase, the victim continues to establish their skill through role-plays, integrating what they learn into their lives, and gaining more information (Flowers, Kabat-Zinn, Santorelli & Kornfield, 2016). It is vital to use narrative an exposure therapies in the second phase of healing and recovery. It is also important to create meaning and detach the victim from the traumatic event. The third phase is a continuation of the first and second phase. The phase focuses on the development and strengthening of a new and stronger self (Herman, 2015). This state empowers the victim and builds physiological and psychological mastery. The victim concentrates on living the new narrative developed in the earlier phases. They also strength their skills and maintain safety. During this phase, the victim is taught on how to reconnect with other people, seek friendships, and learn to trust. Groups
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  • Tertiary education
    Geography
    Re: Objective Testing Hello Everyone, As an addendum to Jill’s comprehensive summary of objective testing from the readings provided in the Toolbox #12, “Using Objective Tests to Evaluate”, it is important to note that most teachers prefer self-administered tests to standardized tests despite a majority of them lacking the requisite training in developing, administering, scoring, and interpreting tests. As a result, students record higher anxiety levels over teacher made tests than standard tests because most teacher made tests are mostly poorly constructed, are inconsistent with course material coverage, and most lack clear directions. The ability to develop, score, and administer tests is therefore an essential training aspect for educational instructors, which goes to influence a teacher’s effectiveness, quality and qualification. “Is this a trick Question” is an invaluable resource highlighting effective tips to writing test questions. The resource is a publication of the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) CRESST highlights cognitive complexity, content quality, meaningfulness, language appropriateness, transfer, and generalizability as well as fairness and reliability as the seven core criteria for ensuring the technical quality of objective tests. To implement these criteria in developing, administering, scoring, and interpreting objective tests, an instructor needs training aimed at enhancing the six levels of intellectual understanding. These include the appropriate knowledge of the relevant content areas coupled with adequate comprehension of course material, objectives and student’s level of understanding. The instructors should equally be capable of applying, synthesizing, and evaluating course content and relevant course material. By reading through this resource, we can now distinguish between the two categories of test items, namely the objective test items and the subjective test items. The subjective or essay items grant the students the opportunity to organize and present the original answers to various assessment questions. These may include: Short answer essays Problem solving quizzes Extended response essays Performance test items. The objective test items include: Multiple choice questions True-false quizzes
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  • Tertiary education
    Geography
    Re: Objective Testing Hello Everyone, As an addendum to Jill’s comprehensive summary of objective testing from the readings provided in the Toolbox #12, “Using Objective Tests to Evaluate”, it is important to note that most teachers prefer self-administered tests to standardized tests despite a majority of them lacking the requisite training in developing, administering, scoring, and interpreting tests. As a result, students record higher anxiety levels over teacher made tests than standard tests because most teacher made tests are mostly poorly constructed, are inconsistent with course material coverage, and most lack clear directions. The ability to develop, score, and administer tests is therefore an essential training aspect for educational instructors, which goes to influence a teacher’s effectiveness, quality and qualification. “Is this a trick Question” is an invaluable resource highlighting effective tips to writing test questions. The resource is a publication of the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) CRESST highlights cognitive complexity, content quality, meaningfulness, language appropriateness, transfer, and generalizability as well as fairness and reliability as the seven core criteria for ensuring the technical quality of objective tests. To implement these criteria in developing, administering, scoring, and interpreting objective tests, an instructor needs training aimed at enhancing the six levels of intellectual understanding. These include the appropriate knowledge of the relevant content areas coupled with adequate comprehension of course material, objectives and student’s level of understanding. The instructors should equally be capable of applying, synthesizing, and evaluating course content and relevant course material. By reading through this resource, we can now distinguish between the two categories of test items, namely the objective test items and the subjective test items. The subjective or essay items grant the students the opportunity to organize and present the original answers to various assessment questions. These may include: Short answer essays Problem solving quizzes Extended response essays Performance test items. The objective test items include: Multiple choice questions True-false quizzes
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  • Tertiary education
    Geography
    Grand Jury Name Institution Affiliation Grand Jury Explanation of a Grand Jury It is a group of people made up of between 12- 23 people that are selected to sit on a jury that determines whether to advance an indictment or criminal charges. The grand jury acts as an investigative body that works independently of the judge or prosecuting attorney. It pursues its investigations without interference from external influence or the jury being supervised. The grand jury has no judge present and more often lacks lawyers except for the prosecutors. How a Grand Jury Works The jury proceedings are held in private where more often criminal prosecutors present cases to the grand jury. The prosecutor explains the law to the jury and works closely with the jury to hear testimonies and gather evidence on the subject of interest. The grand jury proceedings are kept in very strict confidence. It serves to encourage a witnesses to speak freely without any fear of retaliation as well as protect the defendant’s reputation and image in the event the grand jury fails to indict (Findlaw.com, 2019). The grand jury needs a super majority of 2/3 or 3/4 to indict and not a unanimous decision from all the members. The jury, thus, forms an important test run for prosecutors in deciding to advance the cases for trial. Whether A Grand Jury Is Necessary or Not In the Criminal Justice System It is necessary in the criminal justice system because it acts as a monitoring and evaluation of cases that check for enough evidence and legal options available for enhancing trials. It saves time and allows and gives room for stakeholders involved in the trial to bring strong cases. It would save on time for judges and prosecutors as well as defendants and all those involved. The grand jury, thus, is necessary for the criminal justice system The Pros and Cons of Grand Jury Process The advantages that the grand jury brings to the criminal justice system include the general public is willing to accept the outcome or judgment because of the number of people involved in making the decisions. It also has a certain level of certainty and finally, it protects jurors as influencing a juror in any way is against the law (Ohnd.uscourts.gov (2019). The disadvantage that the grand jury has includes most jurists are not selected randomly, and it might bring in an element of bias in some incident. It also is likely to rush into hasty verdict for longer trials that might create room for unjustified outcomes. Lastly, most of the jurors do not have a legal background and, therefore, interpretation of some cases that require in-depth legal knowledge might prove challenging as more often rely on the prosecutor to elaborate on the legal aspects. Conclusion The grand jury, hence, is a necessary tool in determining criminal charges against targeted defendants due to the objectivity and professionalism that have. It tries to eliminate bias by giving a broad group of people an opportunity to listen and make a decision about cases. References Findlaw.com (2019). “How Does a Grand Jury Work?.” Retrieved from https://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-procedure/how-does-a-grand-jury-work.html Ohnd.uscourts.gov (2019). “Jury Service. Grand Jury Orientation Video.” Retrieved from https://www.ohnd.uscourts.gov/home/jury-service/grand-jury-orientation-video/
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  • Tertiary education
    Geography
    Grand Jury Name Institution Affiliation Grand Jury Explanation of a Grand Jury It is a group of people made up of between 12- 23 people that are selected to sit on a jury that determines whether to advance an indictment or criminal charges. The grand jury acts as an investigative body that works independently of the judge or prosecuting attorney. It pursues its investigations without interference from external influence or the jury being supervised. The grand jury has no judge present and more often lacks lawyers except for the prosecutors. How a Grand Jury Works The jury proceedings are held in private where more often criminal prosecutors present cases to the grand jury. The prosecutor explains the law to the jury and works closely with the jury to hear testimonies and gather evidence on the subject of interest. The grand jury proceedings are kept in very strict confidence. It serves to encourage a witnesses to speak freely without any fear of retaliation as well as protect the defendant’s reputation and image in the event the grand jury fails to indict (Findlaw.com, 2019). The grand jury needs a super majority of 2/3 or 3/4 to indict and not a unanimous decision from all the members. The jury, thus, forms an important test run for prosecutors in deciding to advance the cases for trial. Whether A Grand Jury Is Necessary or Not In the Criminal Justice System It is necessary in the criminal justice system because it acts as a monitoring and evaluation of cases that check for enough evidence and legal options available for enhancing trials. It saves time and allows and gives room for stakeholders involved in the trial to bring strong cases. It would save on time for judges and prosecutors as well as defendants and all those involved. The grand jury, thus, is necessary for the criminal justice system The Pros and Cons of Grand Jury Process The advantages that the grand jury brings to the criminal justice system include the general public is willing to accept the outcome or judgment because of the number of people involved in making the decisions. It also has a certain level of certainty and finally, it protects jurors as influencing a juror in any way is against the law (Ohnd.uscourts.gov (2019). The disadvantage that the grand jury has includes most jurists are not selected randomly, and it might bring in an element of bias in some incident. It also is likely to rush into hasty verdict for longer trials that might create room for unjustified outcomes. Lastly, most of the jurors do not have a legal background and, therefore, interpretation of some cases that require in-depth legal knowledge might prove challenging as more often rely on the prosecutor to elaborate on the legal aspects. Conclusion The grand jury, hence, is a necessary tool in determining criminal charges against targeted defendants due to the objectivity and professionalism that have. It tries to eliminate bias by giving a broad group of people an opportunity to listen and make a decision about cases. References Findlaw.com (2019). “How Does a Grand Jury Work?.” Retrieved from https://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-procedure/how-does-a-grand-jury-work.html Ohnd.uscourts.gov (2019). “Jury Service. Grand Jury Orientation Video.” Retrieved from https://www.ohnd.uscourts.gov/home/jury-service/grand-jury-orientation-video/
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Tertiary education Topics

Other Tertiary education Essays

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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