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BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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  • Tertiary education
    film
    C2. FMEA Table Steps in the Improvement Plan Process * Failure Mode Likelihood of Occurrence (1-10) Likelihood of Detection (1-10) Severity
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  • Tertiary education
    film
    Flow Name Institution Flow Flow was first described by a Hungarian Psychologist by the name of Mihaly Csikszentmihaly (Fave, 2013, p. 1). It is the Optimal Experience because it involves several parts that need to be in an optimal range for the experiencer to get into the state of mind of flow. The parts needed are enough or more than enough skill to handle the situation and have a good outcome, challenge at high enough levels for the experiencer to feel fully engaged and not feel bored by the experience, optimal and immediate feedback about the results the experiencer is getting. These ingredients bring the experiencer to a high level of focus on the experiencer (Fave, 2013, p. 2). This reflection paper will delve into a flow experience and attempt to give a personal account of an instance of flow. The description given by Csikszentmihly can refer to any activity, which has all the necessary ingredients, but it immediately brings to mind driving a high-end luxury car or supercar by a driver who not only enjoys driving a high performance car but also has adequate experience and skill to do it well, and ensure it is accident-free (Fave, 2013). Driving well and being aware of the high level of performance by seeing traffic and other cars being left behind on highways and byways not due to speeding but due to a higher set of skills and driving a better performing car put together can be an experience full of joy for the experiencer. The feeling of joy may be a way in which the average person describes the experience of flow. Another way in which a lay person may describe optimal performance may be being “one with the car” or being “one with the road” which is another way to describe being absorbed by the experience or having a high level of focus or concentration. Being one “in the flow” is than describing being engaged fully in performing the necessary tasks. References Fave, A.D. (2013). Past, Present, and Future of Flow. Oxford Handbooks Online, Aug 2013 DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199557257.013.0005
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  • Tertiary education
    film
    First Assignment: Questionnaire Design and Analysis of Survey Data Name of Student Name of University First Assignment: Questionnaire Design and Analysis of Survey Data Research Question The research question is what is the impact of gender role in the categorization of work and duties in a society? The independent variable is gender role while the dependent variable is the categorization of work or duties. The research question has been developed keeping in mind that the defined genders in a society are male or female. Work in a society is assigned to a person based on the physically supported capabilities of a person. I choose this question because it may provide insights into the factors that play a role during the allocation of duties. The first hypothesis based on the social role theory, I expect females to associate with the communal attributes of gender stereotypes than their male counterparts (Deaux & Miller, 2014). This means that they have a better collective performance in congruent feminine tasks. The second hypothesis is that males are likely to activate their agentic attributes and achieve poor collective performance in congruent masculine tasks. The third hypothesis is based on the trans-active memory theory. Thus, trans-active memory will be a mediator of the capability to complete a task. This means that females on a congruent feminine task will be task oriented while males will be more self-focused, which means that their attention shift might affect their performance in a chore. Justification of the Research Question Previous studies have suggested psychological factors act as important processes that enable males or females to complete a task using their skill, knowledge, and effort. The physicality and endurance of males or females play an important role as facilitators that improve effectiveness and performance. Empirical evidence also shows that differences in interpersonal behavior and task content affect the ways in which a male or female may complete a task. In this study, the research question examines the effect of gender role on task content and effectiveness in performance. The social role theory provides clear insights into the impact of task content and gender role (Dovidio, Brown, Heitman, Ellyson & Keating, 2012). In this case, women and men will behave in ways that are consistent with the expected social roles. The main difference, which is also a crucial factor in the categorization of work as feminine or masculine is that gender differences pertain to agentic or communal attributes. Therefore, females rely on communal attributes to complete domestic chores while males rely on agentic attributes to complete physical or hard work. Description of the Variables The two variables used to answer the research question are the categorization of work or duties and gender role. The two variables were selected based on the recognition that in most social and organizational setting, work is assigned based on assigned gender roles. The corresponding questions were asked through an online survey. Respondents logged into a website called Survey Monkey and answered the corresponding research questions. The response options available were whether to agree or disagree with the statement posed in the research question. It is vital to note that the questions were not answered in an interview-style. This means that respondents did not get an opportunity to give their opinions on the questions. Instead, they were required to stick to the answers provided with the survey questions. I hypothesized the independent variable to be the gender role. In this case, gender roles are socially assigned based on the sex of an individual. They are not dependent on the work available, but on whether the person is female or male. Conversely, the dependent variable is the categorization of work or duties. Work or duty is assigned to a person based on their gender. Description of the Findings Analysis of the data showed that males and females usually behave according to their expected social roles. As males and females grow from childhood to adulthood, they learn about their social roles. Females learn and accept domestic chores while males accept work that is physical and hard. Females are able to complete domestic chores because of their communal attributes. These attributes involve primary concern for the welfare of people and the society. For instance, women are friendly, considerate, unselfish, and emotionally expressive. Conversely, the agentic attributes of males enable them to complete hard or physically demanding work. They are able to accomplish these tasks because agentic attributes enable them to become ambitious, assertive, independent, dominant, competitive, and self-confident. Eighty percent of the respondents agreed that men and women should be allocated respective roles because of their different body structure. Because of the physicality of males, they should be allocated hard or physical tasks. Since women are not as muscular as males, they should be allocated normal house chores (Eagly, Karau & Makhijani, 2015). This is in line with traditional social roles. It was also established that females are better at domestic chores because they are active than males in house chores. Evidence suggests that the communal attributes of females make them suited for domestic chores. Conclusion This study explored the relationship between gender assigned roles and the categorization of work or duties. It is based on long-held beliefs that males and females should do different work because of gender differences. Based on the exploration, males and females should be assigned duties based on their body structure. Because of the masculinity and physicality of males, they should be assigned hard and physical work. Conversely, women should be assigned domestic or light chores because their bodies are less muscular. Furthermore, the communal attributes of females enable them to perform well in domestic chores when compared to males who have agentic attributes, which enable them to perform well in physical work.
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  • Tertiary education
    film
    First Assignment: Questionnaire Design and Analysis of Survey Data Name of Student Name of University First Assignment: Questionnaire Design and Analysis of Survey Data Research Question The research question is what is the impact of gender role in the categorization of work and duties in a society? The independent variable is gender role while the dependent variable is the categorization of work or duties. The research question has been developed keeping in mind that the defined genders in a society are male or female. Work in a society is assigned to a person based on the physically supported capabilities of a person. I choose this question because it may provide insights into the factors that play a role during the allocation of duties. The first hypothesis based on the social role theory, I expect females to associate with the communal attributes of gender stereotypes than their male counterparts (Deaux & Miller, 2014). This means that they have a better collective performance in congruent feminine tasks. The second hypothesis is that males are likely to activate their agentic attributes and achieve poor collective performance in congruent masculine tasks. The third hypothesis is based on the trans-active memory theory. Thus, trans-active memory will be a mediator of the capability to complete a task. This means that females on a congruent feminine task will be task oriented while males will be more self-focused, which means that their attention shift might affect their performance in a chore. Justification of the Research Question Previous studies have suggested psychological factors act as important processes that enable males or females to complete a task using their skill, knowledge, and effort. The physicality and endurance of males or females play an important role as facilitators that improve effectiveness and performance. Empirical evidence also shows that differences in interpersonal behavior and task content affect the ways in which a male or female may complete a task. In this study, the research question examines the effect of gender role on task content and effectiveness in performance. The social role theory provides clear insights into the impact of task content and gender role (Dovidio, Brown, Heitman, Ellyson & Keating, 2012). In this case, women and men will behave in ways that are consistent with the expected social roles. The main difference, which is also a crucial factor in the categorization of work as feminine or masculine is that gender differences pertain to agentic or communal attributes. Therefore, females rely on communal attributes to complete domestic chores while males rely on agentic attributes to complete physical or hard work. Description of the Variables The two variables used to answer the research question are the categorization of work or duties and gender role. The two variables were selected based on the recognition that in most social and organizational setting, work is assigned based on assigned gender roles. The corresponding questions were asked through an online survey. Respondents logged into a website called Survey Monkey and answered the corresponding research questions. The response options available were whether to agree or disagree with the statement posed in the research question. It is vital to note that the questions were not answered in an interview-style. This means that respondents did not get an opportunity to give their opinions on the questions. Instead, they were required to stick to the answers provided with the survey questions. I hypothesized the independent variable to be the gender role. In this case, gender roles are socially assigned based on the sex of an individual. They are not dependent on the work available, but on whether the person is female or male. Conversely, the dependent variable is the categorization of work or duties. Work or duty is assigned to a person based on their gender. Description of the Findings Analysis of the data showed that males and females usually behave according to their expected social roles. As males and females grow from childhood to adulthood, they learn about their social roles. Females learn and accept domestic chores while males accept work that is physical and hard. Females are able to complete domestic chores because of their communal attributes. These attributes involve primary concern for the welfare of people and the society. For instance, women are friendly, considerate, unselfish, and emotionally expressive. Conversely, the agentic attributes of males enable them to complete hard or physically demanding work. They are able to accomplish these tasks because agentic attributes enable them to become ambitious, assertive, independent, dominant, competitive, and self-confident. Eighty percent of the respondents agreed that men and women should be allocated respective roles because of their different body structure. Because of the physicality of males, they should be allocated hard or physical tasks. Since women are not as muscular as males, they should be allocated normal house chores (Eagly, Karau & Makhijani, 2015). This is in line with traditional social roles. It was also established that females are better at domestic chores because they are active than males in house chores. Evidence suggests that the communal attributes of females make them suited for domestic chores. Conclusion This study explored the relationship between gender assigned roles and the categorization of work or duties. It is based on long-held beliefs that males and females should do different work because of gender differences. Based on the exploration, males and females should be assigned duties based on their body structure. Because of the masculinity and physicality of males, they should be assigned hard and physical work. Conversely, women should be assigned domestic or light chores because their bodies are less muscular. Furthermore, the communal attributes of females enable them to perform well in domestic chores when compared to males who have agentic attributes, which enable them to perform well in physical work.
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    First Assignment: Questionnaire Design and Analysis of Survey Data Name of Student Name of University First Assignment: Questionnaire Design and Analysis of Survey Data Research Question The research question is what is the impact of gender role in the categorization of work and duties in a society? The independent variable is gender role while the dependent variable is the categorization of work or duties. The research question has been developed keeping in mind that the defined genders in a society are male or female. Work in a society is assigned to a person based on the physically supported capabilities of a person. I choose this question because it may provide insights into the factors that play a role during the allocation of duties. The first hypothesis based on the social role theory, I expect females to associate with the communal attributes of gender stereotypes than their male counterparts (Deaux & Miller, 2014). This means that they have a better collective performance in congruent feminine tasks. The second hypothesis is that males are likely to activate their agentic attributes and achieve poor collective performance in congruent masculine tasks. The third hypothesis is based on the trans-active memory theory. Thus, trans-active memory will be a mediator of the capability to complete a task. This means that females on a congruent feminine task will be task oriented while males will be more self-focused, which means that their attention shift might affect their performance in a chore. Justification of the Research Question Previous studies have suggested psychological factors act as important processes that enable males or females to complete a task using their skill, knowledge, and effort. The physicality and endurance of males or females play an important role as facilitators that improve effectiveness and performance. Empirical evidence also shows that differences in interpersonal behavior and task content affect the ways in which a male or female may complete a task. In this study, the research question examines the effect of gender role on task content and effectiveness in performance. The social role theory provides clear insights into the impact of task content and gender role (Dovidio, Brown, Heitman, Ellyson & Keating, 2012). In this case, women and men will behave in ways that are consistent with the expected social roles. The main difference, which is also a crucial factor in the categorization of work as feminine or masculine is that gender differences pertain to agentic or communal attributes. Therefore, females rely on communal attributes to complete domestic chores while males rely on agentic attributes to complete physical or hard work. Description of the Variables The two variables used to answer the research question are the categorization of work or duties and gender role. The two variables were selected based on the recognition that in most social and organizational setting, work is assigned based on assigned gender roles. The corresponding questions were asked through an online survey. Respondents logged into a website called Survey Monkey and answered the corresponding research questions. The response options available were whether to agree or disagree with the statement posed in the research question. It is vital to note that the questions were not answered in an interview-style. This means that respondents did not get an opportunity to give their opinions on the questions. Instead, they were required to stick to the answers provided with the survey questions. I hypothesized the independent variable to be the gender role. In this case, gender roles are socially assigned based on the sex of an individual. They are not dependent on the work available, but on whether the person is female or male. Conversely, the dependent variable is the categorization of work or duties. Work or duty is assigned to a person based on their gender. Description of the Findings Analysis of the data showed that males and females usually behave according to their expected social roles. As males and females grow from childhood to adulthood, they learn about their social roles. Females learn and accept domestic chores while males accept work that is physical and hard. Females are able to complete domestic chores because of their communal attributes. These attributes involve primary concern for the welfare of people and the society. For instance, women are friendly, considerate, unselfish, and emotionally expressive. Conversely, the agentic attributes of males enable them to complete hard or physically demanding work. They are able to accomplish these tasks because agentic attributes enable them to become ambitious, assertive, independent, dominant, competitive, and self-confident. Eighty percent of the respondents agreed that men and women should be allocated respective roles because of their different body structure. Because of the physicality of males, they should be allocated hard or physical tasks. Since women are not as muscular as males, they should be allocated normal house chores (Eagly, Karau & Makhijani, 2015). This is in line with traditional social roles. It was also established that females are better at domestic chores because they are active than males in house chores. Evidence suggests that the communal attributes of females make them suited for domestic chores. Conclusion This study explored the relationship between gender assigned roles and the categorization of work or duties. It is based on long-held beliefs that males and females should do different work because of gender differences. Based on the exploration, males and females should be assigned duties based on their body structure. Because of the masculinity and physicality of males, they should be assigned hard and physical work. Conversely, women should be assigned domestic or light chores because their bodies are less muscular. Furthermore, the communal attributes of females enable them to perform well in domestic chores when compared to males who have agentic attributes, which enable them to perform well in physical work.
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    Financial Planning Name Institution Financial Planning Introduction A rational management of a given organization should consider a feasibility analysis of any investment undertaking under consideration before its implementation. Undertaking a feasibility study helps in signaling if the investment has the potential of creating value for the organization to determine if it is viable for implementation or not. Financial managers use models to conduct a feasibility analysis of selected investment projects. One of the feasibility analysis methods applied is the cost-benefit analysis method. The cost-benefit analysis approach entails an evaluation of the costs incurred in implementing the initiative compared to the benefits that will accrue from the project upon implementation (Singh, 2016). In this case, a hypothetical organization requires a professional opinion, based on cost benefit analysis to assess the viability a variable pay package it is considering advancing to motivate its employees. The analysis reveals the potential impact of implementing the envisioned pay package on the future profitability of the company. Discussion In reviewing the profitability of the variable pay initiative proposed by the organization, the sunk costs involved in the implementation of the policy have been identified. A sunk cost is a past cost that has been incurred, which cannot be recovered whether the policy is implemented or dropped (Kaplan & Atkinson, 2017). As such, sunk costs are irrelevant in the evaluation of the policy’s profitability in the long-term. Examples of sunk costs in this scenario include research cost and policy formulation overheads. Research cost is sunk cost since the cost incurred in researching on the variable pay model cannot be recovered if the organization decides to drop the idea (Bhattacharyya, 2011). Similarly, the travelling and utility costs incurred during the deliberation of the policy are unrecoverable, making the overhead expenses a sunk cost (Kaplan & Atkinson, 2017). The research cost incurred amounts to $1,000 while the overhead cost amounted to $500. The cost-benefit analysis of the policy has been conducted for the next five years to determine its profitability in the long-term. It is projected that the implementation of the variable pay policy will see the company realize revenue generation by $50,000 in each of the next five years. The sales revenue generated at the end of 2018 financial year amounted to $1,500,000. Similarly, the compensation cost to the employees is expected to expand by $20,000 in each of the next five years following the implementation of the variable pay policy. The total compensation cost incurred at the end of the 2018 financial year amounted to $560,000. The initial cost that will be involved in the implementation of the policy is $100,000 while the cost of capital is 12%. Thus, the cost-benefit of the idea has been reflected in the computations below. Year Cash flow Cost of capital Present value
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    Financial Fraud Prevention and Management Recommendations Name of Student Name of Institution Abstract Financial fraud within an organization is often a product of collusion or complacency from diverse organizational departments or employees entrusted with the recording and reporting of financial transactions. Therefore, detecting and deterring acts of financial fraud within an organization requires corporation and accountability from all stakeholders concerned with the financial information within an organization. Core stakeholders in management of financial information and prevention of financial fraud within an organization include line managers, top managements, internal auditors, internal audit committees, and corporate lawyers or legal officers. These officers and departments work in complementarity to help detect and deter financial fraud or facilitate recovery of embezzled funds. This paper highlights management recommendations for the detection and deterrence of financial fraud within a hypothetical organizational case scenario. Fraud Prevention and Management Recommendations Introduction Financial fraud that goes undetected over long periods can potentially lead to the collapse of a vibrant and profitable organization. Financial fraud at the corporate of organizational level takes different forms depending on the capability of employees, line managers, or the top management to manipulate or exploit weak internal controls to their advantage. Therefore, organizations should take proactive and adequate measures to detect and deter loopholes for possible financial fraud in future. One of the viable means of deterring financial fraud within organizations is by involving financial reporting supply chain experts to ensure accurate recording and reporting of supply chain transactions. The various personnel along an organization’s supply chain must play proactive role in financial reporting to detect, report and deter acts of financial fraud. Discussion The top management is one of the players in the financial reporting supply chain that has an essential role in the prevention of financial fraud. The top management should establish an an ethical organization culture that discourages corruption, misappropriation or mismanagement of organizational resources (Tysiac, 2014). Setting an ethical tone at the top management level of organizations has the effect encouraging an ethical culture across all organizational departments. An ethical culture discourages complacency or collusion among lower cadres of the organization and encourages prompt reporting or whistleblowing on suspicious or potentially fraudulent activities. The top management should also sensitize the line managers and the junior employees on financial reporting procedures and standards accountability of the concerned officers for the reported financial data (Tysiac, 2014). A culture or skepticism towards financial data is equally important in sealing loopholes for financial fraud in the organization because the reporting department or individuals will be more alert when reviewing financial data to detect any material misstatements before reporting. Once the organization instills a skeptical attitude towards the recording or reporting of financial information, internal auditors will test the financial reports from the different departments from the point of doubt (Tysiac, 2014). This has a significance impact in deterring individuals and department from overstating or understating financial information for personal gain. The top management also, has the role of providing resources and support required to establish adequate internal control measures and fraud risk management programs across the organizational departments (Rezaee & Riley, 2010). The establishment of strong internal controls to monitor and detect misrepresentation of financial statements will facilitate the detection and mitigation of intentionally fraudulent or erroneous recording of financial transactions. Equally, the top management has the responsibility of instilling risk management systems and strategies of responding to financial risks attributed to the behaviors of the line managers and employees. The line managers are another stakeholder in the financial reporting supply chain with a role in preventing the financial fraud. The line manager should exercise constructive skepticism when reviewing the financial reports to detect any anomalies or material misstatements. The line managers are an integral part of the financial internal control system because they possess expansive knowledge on the nature of the company’s transactions and operations and will easily detect an unusual financial activity within their departments if anything goes contrary to the norm (Crain, Hopwood, Pacini, & Young, 2015). Additionally, the line managers have the responsibility of keeping the store supervisors and employees accountable for any financial variances that they report or requiring them to explain deviations from the favorable financial position of the company. The line managers also have the role of evaluating the potential effect of the rationalization, opportunities and pressure in contributing to the financial fraud (Crain, Hopwood, Pacini, & Young, 2015). These three elements are the main causes of financial fraud within an organization. As such, the line managers must develop strategic measures and appropriate technology to monitor and detect fraudulent entries to deter potential financial fraud. Another weak link that could be paving way for financial fraud within the organization is the lack of a functional audit committee. The audit committee reviews and monitors the management risks overriding the internal controls across the various departments and creating loopholes for financial fraud (Rezaee & Riley, 2010). Even though the organization could have installed internal controls to check the recording of the financial transactions, there is potential of management infiltration to compromise the checks and balances of the system with the intention manipulating the financial performance depending on the changing operational environment. Consequently, the audit committee should regularly evaluate the internal controls to realign them with emerging the organizational and market dynamics that could potentially support financial fraud. Additionally, the audit committee has the role of establishing confidential reporting mechanisms within the organization to manage complaints regarding auditing, accounting, or internal controls flaws in the organization (Rezaee & Riley, 2010). This approach is crucial in enabling the audit committee to gather intelligent information on the areas and forms of ongoing or concluded financial fraud in the organization without exposing the whistleblowers. The internal audit department also plays an essential role in the prevention of the financial fraud in an organization. The internal auditor prevents financial fraud by undertaking regular evaluation of the internal controls and fraud avoidance procedures within an organization (Tysiac, 2014). The internal auditor has the responsibility of assessing the systems applied to prevent fraud on a continuous basis to ensure that they are updated as the potential and opportunities for fraud become more sophisticated. This approach is essential in ensuring the financial fraud prevention measures are relevant in the context of the financial reporting complexities that could be facing the organization in different periods and dynamics (Rezaee & Riley, 2010). Similarly, the internal auditor has the primary role of raising alarm on potentially misleading financial reports and signs of financial embezzlement from the different departments to the line managers and the top management before the preparation of the consolidated financial reports. The internal auditor should notify the line managers and the top management of any detected acts of financial fraud by the various employees or departments. Reporting fraudulent activities promptly enables immediate action to protect the interests of the shareholders. The corporate security is another integral player in the prevention of financial fraud in an organization. The corporate security department ascertains the integrity of the data and technologies used in financial recording and reporting and protect the accounting systems from internal and external threats. The corporate security personnel ensure that the financial data stored in the organization’s information systems are free from unauthorized access or manipulation (Crain, Hopwood, Pacini, & Young, 2015). Thus, the corporate security has the role of installing technical measures such as data encryptions to prevent accessibility of the financial information by unauthorized personnel or external entities once it has been stored. Similarly, the corporate security has the role of advising the management on the latest data prevention technologies to capture the financial transactions effectively and protect the stored data from any irregular alterations (Crain, Hopwood, Pacini, & Young, 2015). The corporate security team should be involved in researching on the potential security threats to the financial data of the company and the contemporary mechanisms in the market that are suitable in protecting the integrity and confidentiality of consolidated financial information. The corporate security personnel should strive to create a safe environment for financial data recording and reporting to deter financial fraud.
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    Final Research Proposal Name University Final Research Proposal: The Negative Physical and Mental Effects Working From Home Has On Employees versus the Traditional Office Environment Introduction The research question is what are the negative physical and mental effects associated with working from home compared to the traditional office environment. This is an important research question especially in the mental health area of study. The research intends to explore the psychological effect of working from home in terms of the effects of working from home on the health and stress of the employee and the emotions of the employee when compared to the traditional office-based worker. Recent trends have shown that more and more people prefer to work from home either as full or part time employees. Even though this mode of work is cost effective, it is associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The research question is relevant given the current labor trend in which more people prefer to work from home. It is also important because it will contribute to the knowledge that will help people achieve a better work-life balance. It is also important to note that currently, more companies are adopting flexible policies with the aim of accommodating shifting workplace realities and priorities. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of working from home to identify the negative mental and physical health outcomes. Employees, especially millennials, are seeing working from home as an ideal means to stay in the workforce and maintain the tangible benefits associated with being part of an established company while enjoying the advantages and flexibility of being based at home. However, the option of working from home has its pitfalls when compared to the traditional office-based worker. The hypothesis that the research question generate is that working from home is associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. The hypothesis that I intend to test is that working from home leads to physical inactivity and can cause mental health conditions such as increased anxiety and stress. Existing State of the Field Different researchers have explored the positive and negative health outcomes of working from home compared to the traditional office environment. One of the outstanding findings from these studies is that working from home has negative physical and mental health outcomes. The study by Sandi Mann and Lynn Holdsworth (2015) established that working from home has negative emotional outcomes particularly in emotions such as irritability, loneliness, guilt, worry, and stress. The researchers also found that employees working from home experience and exhibit more mental health symptoms of stress that traditional office-based employees. They also show more physical health symptoms than the traditional office-based employee. An exploration by Paige Smith (2018) on the mental health outcomes associated with working from home also established that even though working from home is cost effective for the employer, it could take a toll on the mental and physical health of the employee. Insights from licensed clinical social workers and clinical psychologists enrolled by Smith (2018) in her exploration provided insights to the effect that working from home leads to isolation and has the potential to create challenges for the employees in setting work boundaries, which leads to anxiety and stress. The employee may end up not doing important personal and home chores or they may cut into their family time or reduce their sleep schedule. According to Markham Heid (2018), a study by the Harvard and Princeton Universities found that more employees that are American were joining the workforce as employees working from home. The researchers found that income instability and limited access to the office were major causes of anxiety. Employees working from home experienced high levels of anxiety and stress because they do not have an idea of what is going on at the office regarding their work position or decisions being made by the management (Bloom, Liang, Roberts & Ying, 2014). Home-based workers have been found to experience high levels of social isolation than their office-based colleagues. Social isolation is associated with an increase in stress and anxiety, and in some instances heart problems. I intend to contribute to the existing scholarship by tacking the same question, which has been tackled by other researchers, but in a different way. One of the ways I intend to address the question in a different way to previous researchers is to use two methods in the exploration of the study question. In the first method, I intend to enroll 12 participants who are full-time journalists working for a local News bureau. From the 12 participants, six will be office-based workers and the other six will be home-based workers. The objective of the first method is to identify the emotional and physical experiences of the office and home-based workers. Data will be gathered through semi-structured telephone interviews. In the second method, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey will be employed with the aim of comparing the occupational mental and physical symptoms experienced by the office and home-based worker. Physical and mental health experiences will be measured through self-reported frequencies of the symptoms associated with occupational stress and physical conditions. Methods Methods and Justification
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    Final Reflection Log Indigenized Educational Curriculum for Cultural/Racial Integration and Reconciliation This course identified the gaps in educational curriculum as it relates to the indigenous people and identified indigenization off the curriculum as a proactive step towards integrating indigenous issues in the curriculum and encouraging participatory learning among the aboriginal people. The course also looked elaborated at the core role of education in the reconciliation and cultural integration of the aboriginal people with other communities in Canada. Indigenization of the curriculum requires a comprehensive review of the education system, including providing the correct information about the aboriginal people, history, and their worldview. Indigenization is also about changing the established stereotypes about the aboriginal people and making teachers more involved with the aboriginal child to understand their core learning issues and challenges. It is about changing the perfect stranger view that most Canadians, including teachers take towards the aboriginal issues and making the indigenous question a Canadian question to be answered by all Canadians. The successful indigenization of the curriculum requires a 4Rs (Respect, Relevance, Responsibility, Reciprocation) approach to education for the indigenous people. Respect is about respecting the aboriginal culture and worldview and creating a classroom environment that makes the aboriginal child feel a valuable participant in the learning process. Teachers must equally show respect by spending more time with indigenous communities, listening more to the indigenous elders and avoiding stereotypic or disrespectful language in the classroom. Relevance is about designing a curriculum that resonates with the aboriginal worldview and addresses the core learning gaps of the aboriginal child. Reciprocation is about the other communities, especially the teachers showing interest to learn and listening to the aboriginal worldview. This calls for interactive learning methodologies that allow mutual exchange of knowledge between learners and their instructors. Responsibility is about letting the aboriginal learners take charge and play a leading role in the learning process, rather than imposing the conventional curriculum on the indigenous child, the indigenized curriculum advocates for learning and assessment approaches from the perspective of the aboriginal child. Using educational curriculum, as a tool for cultural and racial reconciliation in Canada requires a new, indigenized curriculum that addresses the learning needs of all Canadian children and encouraging the oneness of the Canadian nation through a positive recognition of cultural and racial diversity of the nation. Education for reconciliation tells the truth about the oppressive colonization of the indigenous people and its lasting impact on the racial and cultural prejudice in Canada and fostering mutually respectful avenues for reintegration of the Canadian communities. The Indian residential schools feature prominently in the reconciliation course because they are the lasting symbol of cultural genocide on the indigenous child, whose lasting scars form the basis of the reconciliation debate in Canada. The government must use the educational platform to offer a lasting apology to the indigenous people for the residential school experience and making the mainstream Canadian communities view aboriginal issues as their issues rather than leaving the reconciliation process in the hands of the government. References Interview with Dr. Jo-ann Archibald. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bqe5ka7iCw&feature=youtu.be> Verna Kirkness: The 4 Rs. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ktQrUpPAuw&feature=youtu.be Kirkness, V. J. and R. Barnhardt (2001). First Nations and Higher Education: The Four R's - Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity, Responsibility. Knowledge Across Cultures: A Contribution to Dialogue Among Civilizations. R. Hayoe and J. Pan. Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong. Video 2: The Aboriginal Worldview? <https://vimeo.com/113924147>
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    The Logic of Geographical Thought Name Institution Affiliation The Logic of Geographical Thought Globalization and geopolitics have proved to be critical elements that help people understand better international relations as well as international diplomacy. The two concepts have shown great similarities that complement each other in addressing issues that touch on the economic, political as well as social aspects of the key players in the international system. Geopolitics as practiced presently has shown significant changes when compared to the past due to the emerging concepts in the world such as globalization. It has encouraged liberation of markets and borders of countries and regions at large resulting in enhanced interactions between and among people from the different areas, cultures, and nationalities among others competencies. The two key concepts note how international institutions, as well as regional bodies and institutions, have also emerged due to the changed realities in the global arena. It mainly has been shaped by the geopolitics and globalization concept as realized in the present times. However, this paper notes how globalization and geopolitics have emerged as two great forces shaping and feeding on each other and, thus, shaping the entire world and similarly encourage research into how the forces interact that shape the regions and the world as a whole. How Geopolitics Influence the Interpretation of Global Trends and the Development of Policy Geopolitics influences interpretation of global trends and the development of policy in some ways. First, geopolitics helps in establishing a relationship between and among different players in the world arena. When relationships exist that can be analyzed and viewed from an individual country or regional bodies to that of the world, analysis of global trends and policies, thus, can be done and, hence, note similarities and differences that the global players present on issues that trend in the worldwide arena. For example on matters or subjects such as conflict and wars, environmental debates among other global trends that have made geopolitics to be used in reaching decisions and policies about the topic (Song, Lu, Liang, Wang & Lin, 2017). Second, geopolitics helps in comparison and contrast of the key players that determine geopolitics noted especially in economic and military powers. It was common on matters that touched on the world where, for instance, in the past, the world superpowers before the cold war era that was dominated by the US and Russia determined many issues in the global trends and development of policies. Countries or regions that were friendly to the superpowers more often supported them in global trends and decisions such as conflicts and wars as well as economic relationships that existed at the time. Geopolitics, hence, helps in comparison and contrast of the different ideologies and positions taken by the major players and their associates in the international stage. The policies developed by countries and regions on global trends showed significant similarities to those of allies and great influencers to the geopolitics region. Third, geopolitics helped analysts and scholars in international relations to predict the possible position taken on global trends and issues. It is because due to the influence and closeness that main shapers of geopolitics that often include the US, Russia, China, UK, and France, for instance, had, it was possible to predict on what actions and positions taken by the allies. It includes the nature and kind of policies that they would develop on global concerns and issues that touched on conflict and war as well as global economics and trade among others (Agnew, 2015). For example, in the United Nations Security Council or the United Nations discussions of different issues trending in the global arena, it was possible to predict the position and ideologies presented by the United States and Russia. More often they conflicted on issues and policies to be taken noted in the Veto powers that the countries have where more often they oppose each other a position that analysts and scholars in the international relations note to be resulting from the geopolitics because of the fierce rivalry that existed when the two countries dominated world affairs. However, it is imperative to note that determinants of geopolitics presently has changed where it is no longer a bipolar affair but rather a multi-polar affair where China and other European countries such as Germany and France have equally raised their level in the international arena and politics. Finally, geopolitics addresses the economic issues of member country and regions. It has then helped analysts to note changes in global trends and positions taken by countries that shock the world. For instance, there are incidents and global trends that the influencers of geopolitics such as US and China have supported and corporate with each other to protect their interest. For instance, the global trend on environment protection and the demand from stakeholders that the US and China take great responsibility because they contribute significantly to environmental pollution. In such incidences, China and the US, for instance, have openly opposed the actions and demands that they take responsibility as a measure to protect their economic interest. Geopolitics, thus, helps to understand even the extreme situations and cases noted in the global arena in global trends and policies. The Aspects Connection between Globalization and Geopolitics The connection aspects between globalization and geopolitics range in issues that touch on economic, political as well as social concerns. Globalization has led to increased interaction between and among people from different parts of the world for various reasons that include trade, education, technology, religion, and shared culture among others. Trade and business, for instance, has played an essential role in connecting the two aspects of geopolitics and globalization. It is imperative to note that globalization has resulted in liberated markets worldwide where it has encouraged member countries to allow competition and business transactions from a global point of view (Agnew, 2015). On the same note, it has also allowed countries and businesses from different regions to freely adventure in new markets and areas in the form of expansion and explore the new opportunities found in such places. The globalization reality, hence, has made countries and regions to consider the geopolitics in determining the policies and measure they take to protect their interests in such affairs. Some, therefore, have come up with the rules that try to protect their economic interest such as noted in the formulation of regional bodies and institutions to help protect their interests as countries and regions. For example, the formation of the European Union and conditions and terms that people that aspire to trade in the EU have to meet as well as the level and quality of the products and services that they have in order to access such markets. The connection between globalization and geopolitics as noted in the above example has resulted in review and introduction of new policies to help the countries protect their interest as well as regions from possible impacts of globalization such as competition and protect their markets. Technology is also a key aspect in globalization. It has encouraged interactions from any part of the world making the world referred to as a global village. Innovation in technology has allowed easy applications and implementation of globalization concepts wherein the present time people and institution can engage globally from any part of the world and does not necessarily require physical movements. Countries and regions, therefore, have tried to install and embrace technology that would help enhance globalization such as the spread and use of the internet supported technologies among others. Technology, thus, has contributed to creating a link between the two concepts. Next, emerging markets has connected geopolitics and globalization. The globalization concept has allowed liberation and opening up of new markets and investment opportunities in the world. Asia and Africa, for instance, has proved to be an essential part of emerging markets that compelled world superpowers to rush and compete for such opportunities. China, in particular, has capitalized on the break and, consequently, influenced its geopolitics as well as of its significant competitors that include the US and the European countries such as France and Germany. It has made some of the geopolitics influencers to review and change its policies towards such places that provide emerging markets as well as seek for coalitions and partnership with such countries (Song, Lu, Liang, Wang & Lin, 2017). In the past, the relationships that existed with such countries especially found in Africa and Asia was based mainly on the political ideology that the countries had and what their perception and views about global trends were on different issues. However, all that has changed and developed countries compete for the opportunities in such emerging markets that has compelled some of them to change their geopolitics and policies that establish and determine aspects of relationship in the global arena. China, for instance, has a policy that does not allow it to interfere in the local politics of such countries. Emerging markets and opportunities, thus, has connected the concept of globalization and geopolitics. The Future of Geopolitics and Globalization The future of geopolitics and globalization presents an exciting position as globalization concept continues to diffuse and be embraced by many people, countries, and organizations in the world including multinational companies and business that have actively capitalized on the idea. Geopolitics, thus, has no option but to consider the concept of globalization and reshape its strategies and policies to explore and note how best they can capitalize on the opportunities availed as a result of globalization concept (Agnew, 2015). The geopolitics initially was determined by the political interest of countries and regions, but with globalization idea, they have to incorporate the economic interest in their strategies and policies so that they can capitalize and explore the opportunities. The existence presently of a multi-polar world implies there would be intense competition among the partners and, therefore, the possibility of changed tactics and ideologies in the form of policies to incorporate newer measures that would help take advantage of the globalization concepts would be encouraged. The formation of regional bodies, for instance, is an example that shows how the globalization concept shapes geopolitics. The regional bodies formed, for example, also indicate the level of integration regarding infrastructure, the economy as well as the use of regional currency such as the Euro, for instance, which show that geopolitics is changing and continues to change in the future due to the globalization concept. In conclusion, the two concepts of globalization and geopolitics have shaped the current international relations concepts and ideology. It includes but not limited to issues that touch on the global economy, global politics as well as social concerns from a global perspective. The concepts show great similarities that establish close relations that enable them to complement each other by shaping and feeding on each other. Geopolitics has influenced the interpretation of global trends and the development of policies at the local, regional and international level. The aspects of the connection between globalization and geopolitics include technology, trade, and business as well as emerging markets and changing world order shows relationships. The future of the two concepts also would be more linked and related than before. References Agnew, J. (2015). Understanding “Geopolitics” in an Era of Globalization.Rev. Tamoios, São Gonçalo, 11(2), 4-21. DOI: 10.12957/tamoios.2015.19221 Song, T., Lu, D., Liang, Y., Wang, Q., & Lin, J. (2017).Progress in international geopolitical research from 1996 to 2015.Journal of Geographical Sciences, 27 (4): 497- 512.
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    Final Leadership Paper Name of Student Name of University Final Leadership Paper Situation Every part of the world faces with an ever-increasing diversity of population. As a nurse leader, I would be faced with a situation of having to deal with running an organization that not only has a culturally diverse staff but also serves a culturally diverse population. A nurse leader working with diverse populations have to content with challenges and issues that may undermine the performance of health organization and the achievement of desirable patient care outcomes (Dauvrin and Lorant, 2015). Culture is vital in shaping the experiences of people, including in aspects such as patient satisfaction (Zydziunaite, 2012). As a nurse leader, I can be faced with a situation where some of the patients have difficulty communicating effectively with the staff of the organization that I am leading thereby negatively affecting patient care. In such situations, nurse leaders and other health care leaders would be required to offer short and long-term solutions to ensure that the health care organization attains high patient satisfaction scores, as well as enhanced staff productivity and performance (Arroliga et al, 2014). Analysis of Ethical Challenges Involved The primary ethical issue that arises while working with cultural diverse populations in health care often emanates from language barriers. In particular, lack of proper understanding can affect decision-making and clinical assessment as well as the ethical principles of informed consent and confidentiality (Blake, 2013). Due to language barrier, a patient may not fully comprehend the content of information where he or she is required to fill the informed consent form (Congress, 2014). In addition, due to language barrier, a patient may seek help from third parties while communicating with the health care provider thereby breaching the ethical principle of privacy and confidentiality, which is critical in a patient-physician/clinician/nurse relationship (Blake, 2013). Analysis of Leadership Challenges Involved For a health care organization to serve diverse populations effectively and efficiently, it should have culturally competent leadership (Arroliga et al, 2014). Nurse leaders are influential health professionals whose input can significantly help in helping an organization to provide quality and accessible health care to its diverse populations (Zydziunaite, 2012). Lack of such competency would imply that the organization would more likely face problems such as litigations and complains caused by breaches to ethical principles, poor patient satisfaction scores, and undesirable patient care and health outcomes (Jasper & Jumaa, 2015). In addition, serving culturally diverse populations can result in leadership challenges where the performance and productivity of staff of a health care organization is below optimum due to the challenges that they are experiencing (Dauvrin and Lorant, 2015). Analysis of the Implications for Patient Outcomes and Safety Serving cultural diverse populations can lead to adverse implications for patient outcomes and safety if there is no proper leadership to ensure that the critical aspects related to this area of practice is effectively managed (Jasper & Jumaa, 2015). It can lead to many cases of medical errors due to lack of clarity and understanding during communication between patients and health providers due to factors such as language barriers (Zydziunaite, 2012). Medical errors affect patient care outcomes and safety. Similarly, it can lead to low patient satisfaction score, as patients would feel that they were not accorded proper care that meets their expectations due to poor communication or inadequate cultural competencies on the part of providers (Congress, 2014). Stakeholder analysis Provision of quality and accessible health care to culturally diverse populations requires that the health care organization leadership and staff develop cultural competency (Arroliga et al, 2014). It would require that the staffing of the hospital take into account the different religious, ethnic, and racial backgrounds of people within the community where it is located (Dauvrin and Lorant, 2015). The staff should also be trained extensively on how to offer care to culturally diverse populations. The other important stakeholders are the community leaders. They have a responsibility of collaborating with health providers to improve health literacy of their community members to make it easier for the health organization to offer better care to them (Jasper & Jumaa, 2015).
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    Final Essay Assignment Name Institution Affiliation Final Essay Assignment Description of Self and Work When In a Management Position I am passionate about success in all aspects that I do include professional career and growth when I find a perfect position in management that would resonate with market salaries and roles in the management position as indicated in the General Management: Salaries article. I enjoy being accountable and working towards set specific goals in the short and long-term. It enables me to note the progress and development that I make towards the set goals and career objectives in the management position. The skills that allow analysis and review the progress made. It is through monitoring and evaluation of the business environment and goals monitoring. It enables showing indicators about the progress that would enhance making of drastic actions and making firm decisions based on the earlier indicators that might give a hint and direction of possible set goals and results. In some incident where the signs show the possibility of a wrong path that would not result in the anticipated results from the management position resulting either from the internal or external factors, drastic action would be taken that shows a sign of responsibility. I believe in, and I am a team player even in the management position that I seek to fill in the different available opportunities from both the private and public sector. Team building is an essential aspect in the business environment, and the philosophy that I have about business contexts is that they work as a system right the bottom to the top where everybody contribution irrespective of the position they hold in the company or organization is essential. I prefer working in an organization or company that allows free and democratic processes and actions that makes all workers happy and motivated to produce. Also, freely communicate between and among themselves in the professional contexts that allow easy building of teams and setting of goals to be met inclusively where every person and the department would be actively in goal. The management position would all be there to provide guidance and include the strategic management approaches and goals that the board needs to be realized in the short and long-term. Description of the Company and the Place I Would Like To Work The company that I would like to work for is a Franchise business that would allow me to use and trade with their brand in the different location that I would seem to have potential. It is after I do thorough market research and analysis about the business a shown in the overview of duties of a marketing manager in the Top 10 Jobs For Business Management Students piece. The franchising business would provide me with the management position and roles because I would be responsible for the realization of the goals and objectives set in the branch of the franchised business that I would responsible for. Besides, I am passionate about entrepreneurship and, thus, the franchised business would give me more room to initiate moves and actions in the entrepreneurial world. It would enhance and increase the chance of the franchised business to realize its full potential in the shortest time possible through implementation of business strategies such as marketing, customer care, and service as well as employee management and motivation among others. It would ensure the franchised business works systematically where every person decisions are shaped by the focus and vision that we would establish for the business to enhance timely decisions making and actions at a personal and group level. The strategies that would improve the building of the business culture that would determine the norms, leadership values, teams as well communication competencies internally and externally as shown in the Careers in Management that describes specific management functions. Different franchised business have separate business agreements and corporation that both parties that show interest, as well as other stakeholders involved, need to discuss and note how flexible the franchised business can allow concerning culture and corporate image and value that the business has. I would select a company that will enable more flexibility regarding changes that it can recognize in the products or services it offers that would increase the chance of innovation and creativity that can result in more exciting products and services that would enhance the quicker realization of already set goals and objectives in the business. References Careers in Management, http://www.careers-in-business.com/management/ General Management: Salaries, http://www.careers-in-business.com/gmsal.htm Top 10 Jobs For Business Management Students, http://www.rasmussen.edu/degrees/business/blog/jobs-you-can-get-with-business-management-degree/
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    Film Critique: The wizard of Oz Name Institution Affiliation Film Critique: The wizard of Oz The Wizard of Oz displays film techniques and narrative elements that results in an exciting story. Formalist theory will be used in the following film to analyze The Wizard of Oz theatrical presentation by the author. The theory (formalist) allows critiques to relate how meaning is displayed by learning a film structure through analysis. By aligning the formalist theory to the technology used, editing style and mise en scène would assert that indeed The Wizard of Oz is worth watching action adventure that provides excellent learning experience beyond the science fiction lovers. A reflection upon as an individual, my film analysis capabilities, have developed throughout the lessons and how it might be used it in the present and the future. Finally, the author will conclude by an explanation of why The Wizard of Oz is an articulate entertainment experience in excitement, achievement effect, and thrill as well as virtue familiarity. Different themes intertwine in Films, and The Wizard of Oz is no option as noted all over the story of the piece. Among the many themes presented in work, ‘confrontation with evil’ is the most dominant and influence that runs throughout the film. It is noted in many scenarios that make up a critical part of the work. It leads to subthemes such as garnering respect, valuing honesty, respecting friendship, and fulfilling hope among others. The background and dynamics of the elements used in the production of the film such as culture, legacy, family dynamics, and heritage of the dramatic presentation augment and supports the central theme of ‘confrontation with evil’ that blends to form a top-quality piece. It provides lessons and sends a strong message to the audience that views the film about issues of life in the different themes displayed. They can use as an example to structure faith, developing a compassionate understanding as well as promoting democratic values that enhances unity and equity principles. The Wizard of Oz film analysis will address contextual information, story and plot structure, aesthetic choices as well as Social and Personal impact. Contextual information entails the identification of the essential elements about the film that include the title, the Director(s) as well as major actors and actresses including cinematographer, type of film and year of release among others. The Wizard of Oz is directed by Victor Fleming, King Vidor, George Cukor, Richard Thorpe, and Norman Taurog. The film had many directors due to the long periods it took to finish the shots and produce the film as well as natural causes such as illness and reassignments to other duties within the company that produced the film. Victor Fleming, as the chief director, delegated some responsibilities to the other directors. They presented their work to Fleming for approval before they could proceed with the plans in the film production. The directors control the creative skills of actors and actress in the interpretation of scripts as well as guide the technical teams on the different tasks that they have in the production of the film. Harold Rosson, as the cinematographer, ensured that the camera crew and people working under him worked as a team in technical artistry and they reported to him for tasks and assignment related to the production of the film. The significant actors and actress comprise Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton and Charley Grapewin (LeRoy (Producer) & Fleming et al. (Directors), 1939). The actors and actress had roles to play in the overall design process of the film production. It includes creating a sense of culture and species diversity to enable the story and themes of the piece flow well and efficiently with the audience making the piece a great sample. The concept design of The Wizard of Oz relies upon a vast community theme (Nussbaum, 2014). Shown where the community has values and standards that they use and build upon to enhance their interest either in the political, social or economic aspects. The identifying information in the eight named principal actors helps in ease of understanding of the different theme complexity according to the views of the authors of the work. The piece, science-fiction was released in the year 1939 the month of August. It had a multi-million dollar budget, classic, magic and animated has an average run time of 101 minutes. A summary of The Wizard of Oz will serve as an overview of the plot and story and, orient the treatment of the theme. Dorothy, a sad Kansas farm girl, is lonely and lives her Uncle Henry and Aunt Em. Dorothy loves her dog named Toto and cannot stand the torment that her dog would undergo as a result of a hateful neighbor. She, therefore, decides to run away from home. A fierce tornado happens, and she is struck on the head and transported to lands ‘beyond the rainbow.’ Dorothy alongside her friends meets magical characters that include The Wizard of Oz that could help her get back home. The help comes with conditions including receiving threats from the Wicked Witch that promised revenge on Dorothy. The Wizard of Oz rewards Dorothy and her friends after the defeat of the Wicked Witch of the west. Each had a different heart desires, and Dorothy was able to return home in Kansas with Toto after undergoing a challenging expedition in unfamiliar territories. The differences noted between a film’s story and a film’s plot is sequence and method. The author writes down the story or strings of actions, into a plot that narrates the story in its unique way (Doughty & Etherington-Wright, 2018). In transcribing The Wizard of Oz into a themed plot, the directors Victor Fleming et al. organized the camera team led by Harold Rosson and every actor, setting or dialogue towards intended story ideology creation. A combination of different skills in film production such as narrative ideology, costuming and live action among others resulted in critical moments scenes in the piece. An example of the directors plot methodology recapturing The Wizard of Oz story sequence, and a scene from the abovementioned film synopsis, is Dorothy’s friends’ bold and courageous decisions that ambushed the guards that were manning the Witch castle to save Dorothy because the witch wanted Dorothy to be dead before she could be removed from the castle. The theme of confronting evil is well shown because of the expertise in the film production that show changed settings, editing styles, camera angles as well as character movements summed up in design and techniques elements (Harmetz, 2013). As the film transitions from the evil sneak attack from the Witch and her guards when they set fire to the scarecrow, Dorothy action of tossing a bucket of water changed the scenario as the water also splashed at the Witch and melted her away. The events in the film support the three areas of in-depth film analysis that helps convey The Wizard of Oz themes. The mise en scène, farmland and castle, is low-key lightning that supports the different scenes and events in the piece. For example, the lightning at the castle creates a balance that promotes the magic that the Witch performs. Lightning helps the viewers of the piece to follow the events and different times of the day and night with ease. It enables easy transitions in events such as noted when the powerful tornado struck. The sound of the music is well balanced that enhances suspense at critical scenes in the film and background music. Costuming is also correctly done that enables the animation of characters as well as distinguish between the characters. For example, the costumes displayed by the Good Witch of the North and the Wicked Witch of the west differ (Nussbaum, 2014). The editing sequence shifts back and forth from the settings in the farmland to that in the castles. The cuts and transitions and shots used. For example, when debris from the wind knocked Dorothy unconscious when she awakens she sees a different environment from the one that she is used. The transitions and cuts, hence, enable the story to transit and flow from one event to the other supporting the themes in the film. The angles of the shots also differ that supports twisting and turning to capture clear images. Technology impacts films on many ways that include targeted release venue and stock among others. Technology keeps changing that might affect a film production and targets. The initial releases used black and white. Subsequent releases, however, used sepia tone and other modern technology. In 2013, 3D IMAX version was availed and premiered at TCL Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. The impact of the changing technology implied that some changes had to be done in the original story content. The social impact of The Wizard of Oz film was it enhanced the spread of morality in the society as noted in the plot. In particular, it targeted educating children about the possible challenges that they might face when they fail to listen to their parents and elders (Erten, 2016). It targeted social change by upholding and enhancing moral values. The personal impact that film has had on me is that it has Reflection The author ability to analyze movies has increased when compared to the past at the beginning of the course. Vocabularies, techniques, concepts, and descriptions of film analysis and production have become much easier due to the information attained during the course. Through analyzing film, one understands deeply the themes and messages that the producers of the work intended for the audience of the work. Also, it places one at a better position to create and produce a film or participate in film production at one stage or the other. The analysis has changed how I view movies from the only position of an audience that concentrates mostly on the plots and stories depicted in a film to incorporate also the position from producer’s perception. I analyze movies noting how it can be improved and made better as well as acknowledge what was done best in film and, hence, can emulate that in future when I engage in production. I can use film theory and criticism to interpret meaning in movies by comparing films alongside themes of similar or related nature to help people understand deeply messages displayed in films. It can also help me in editing tasks and developing benchmarks to use in film production. The course has enabled me to relate movies to society by analyzing themes in film and comparing them to the real events in life and society. Most of the themes displayed in movies replicate what happens in society. The movie producers and directors have also focused on specific parts or groups in the society by targeting such audiences in the movies that they produce. It indicates that society can be changed and transformed directly and indirectly through films. The skills that I have developed in course include critique and analysis of movie at an in-depth level. The skills learned might be applied as an expert in film production, analysis, and lecture on matters relating to film in future. The Wizard of Oz displays meaning in enhancing just and moral values with potential consequences. Cinematic techniques and narrative elements through a formalist approach enable themes to be displayed easily in films. Science-fiction lovers and others are highly encouraged to watch to note how theatrical styles and techniques are professionally presented distinguishing between ‘good vs. evil’ in the themes displayed. References Doughty, R., & Etherington-Wright, C. (2018). Understanding film theory. London : Macmillan Education : Palgrave Erten, A. (2016). Children’s Literature in Translation: A Case Study on L. Frank Baum’s the Wonderful Wizard of Oz. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 9(3), 133–139. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=124904745&site=ehost-live Harmetz, A. (2013). The making of The Wizard of Oz. Chicago: Chicago Review Press LeRoy, M. (Producer). & Fleming, V. et al. (Directors). (1939). The Wizard of Oz [Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ]. USA: Loew's, Inc. Nussbaum, B. (2014). The wizard of Oz: An over-the-rainbow celebration of the world's favorite movie. New York: I-5 Publishing.
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    Student’s Name Instructor’s Name Course Date Heathers: The Musical Heathers: The Musical is a play by Laurence O’Keefe and Kevin Murphy based on the film by the same name released in 1989. It is an interesting, intriguing and immersive theatre piece that highlights social issues that face high school students. The play tells the story of Veronica Sawyer, a senior at a fictional Westerburg High School, whose social scene is run by the three girls all named Heather; Heather Duke, Heather McNamara, and Heather Chandler. The Heathers are ruthless bullies, but Veronica, like the rest of the high school children, admires them and desires to be as cool as them. After she uses her forgery skills to get the Heathers out of detention, they are so impressed that they allow her into their circle. She is initially ecstatic, but starts to regret joining them when they force her to betray her friend Martha, forcing her to quit the group. Veronica is also attracted to a new student named Jason Dean, or JD, who accidentally poisons Chandler, then convinces Veronica to forge a suicide note as having been written by Heather. JD then goes on a spree of violent and manipulative acts, such as killing fellow students and planning to blow up a pep rally. Veronica thwarts his plan and ends the tumultuous reign of the Heathers and JD. The play is a wonderfully executed piece, with prodigious actors, smooth transitions, well placed and relevant music pieces, and a simple but effective set. The artist playing Veronica Sawyer in the play executes the role brilliantly. She marvelously portrays the range of emotions that Veronica goes through in the story and captures the viewer’s attention with her humor and despair in different parts of the play. Her on-stage posture and movement are amazing, both in their realism and relevance to the different scenes. The actor playing JD also does an excellent job of portraying the role of the high school jock. He exhibits great chemistry with Veronica in their periods of intimacy, and displays the manipulative, violent JD accurately. He also infuses humor, cunning and a sense of ruthlessness into the character through the various scenes. The rest of the actors in the play execute their roles excellently, contributing significantly to the story of Veronica, the Heathers and JD and passing the intended message of the musical. The design of the set is simple, yet functional enough to allow the play to proceed. It is set on a platform stage, with a smaller platform, two small staircases and several square wooden stools on the stage ("What are The Types of Theatre Stages and Auditoria?"). It lacked detailed decorations or elaborately set demarcations, and majority of the play is performed in front of the platform and stairs. Two wooden screens at the back of the stage complete the set. The set is augmented by a clever use of spotlights and ambience lights to shift focus onto the relevant actors during the various scenes, with intermissions between scenes created by short, well timed blackout periods. The set is used brilliantly by the actors despite its lack of complexity and detail, and thus is able to augment the story of the play well while aptly fading into the background of the activity. The designers of the set and directors of the play are able to harness its simplicity and functionality to create a wonderful show. The play brings out cultural diversity by depicting many students from different backgrounds and social classes, typical of an American high school. It however fails to accurately reflect racial and religious diversity, as all actors are Caucasians; no African Americans, Latino Americans or people of other races were casted in the play. This may have been intentional to portray a high school predominantly populated by white American students even though such a choice would create a significant bias and may fail to appeal to audiences of different racial backgrounds. The different social backgrounds of the students are portrayed well in the play, with noticeable differences in the dressing, behavior and associations of the characters. The Heathers, for example, are portrayed as dominating girls from affluent backgrounds who use their social class to undermine other students. An actor on the play is also seen on a motorized wheelchair, offering representation for the disabled in the society. Gender is also accurately balanced in the play as it focuses on different male-female relationships, chief of them the dynamic relationship between Veronica and JD. The play also references other relationships, highlighting the interactions between various friends and enemies. While the play could have done better in racial and cultural representation, it accurately depicts the relationships between high school students from different social classes and backgrounds. Heather: The Musical is a rich theatre experience that discusses the social scene in high school, recounting a story that delves into the various dilemmas that Veronica Sawyer undergoes as a result of her interaction with the Heathers and JD. It displays the ruthlessness of the Heathers, the manipulative nature of JD, and the emotional rollercoaster that Veronica undergoes, with appropriate use of brilliantly composed music to augment the story. The musical was funny, somber, sad and uplifting in different scenes, building the story to a climax before offering a succinct resolution. It succeeds in illustrating the unforgiving, cut-throat environment that is high school, and discusses the themes of high school bullying and manipulation to graphic detail. The musical is a feast for the eyes and ears, and is an enjoyable experience overall. Work Cited “What are The Types of Theatre Stages and Auditoria?” Theatres Trust, (n.d.), www.theatrestrust.org.uk/discover-theatres/theatre-faqs/170-what-are-the-types-of-theatre-stages-and-auditoria. Accessed 1 Apr. 2019.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Name Tutor Module Date Admission Essay My parents have always been my role models in terms of academic pursuits. My father and mother were both economists and while growing up I loved seeing them challenge each other’s knowledge. I learned to love economics based on the exposure to knowledge from my parents who could always relate any real-life issues to economics. For instance, they loved to use the concept of scarcity and choice to teach us about the importance of budgeting. They often emphasized the importance of weighing between alternatives to optimize the opportunity cost. Therefore, I learned to analyze different situations according to the concepts I heard from them. When I joined high school, my interests were skewed towards economics and business studies. I knew I would further my studies in economics based on the challenging concepts and insights I gained from my parents. When I joined college, I met a friend who was also passionate about economics. He was brilliant to the extent of using his knowledge to innovate real-life solutions. I also pursued economics during the undergraduate course to gain extensive knowledge in the discipline. I loved everything about the economics class, which had brilliant students who understood economics beyond the theoretical aspect. I came to realize that the globalized world requires practical subjects such as economics to solve the basic problems such as poverty and conflict over scarce resources. I knew my knowledge and competencies would be applicable anywhere across the globe as long as I worked hard to excel in economics. The beauty of Economics is that it focuses on explaining interactions between different agents that propel economies to thrive. My passion for economics has been growing with each passing day. I want to further my studies and find an area of specialization within the broader field of economic theory. I believe a Master of Arts degree in Economics will be a major step towards the achievement of my dream. The degree will offer an in-depth exploration of the theoretical and empirical frameworks in economics. It will be a suitable platform for me to gain technical and professional skills to work in different institutions across the globe. Certainly, an MA degree in economics will help me bolster my competitiveness in the job market. Economics is an area of study that has high demand for new ideas and practicality of knowledge. My purpose of applying for the master’ degree is to improve my existing knowledge and tap into new opportunities for career growth. I believe the degree is a good preparation platform for me to enter the challenging career in economics. I intend to use my knowledge and experience to make positive contributions to the global economic discourse. I want to motivate other scholars to embrace economics in their academic and professional pursuits. I used my undergraduate platform to meet different mentors and attend various seminars in economics, which provided invaluable experiences in applying the knowledge of economics to solve real life problems. I also joined economics club to share ideas and transfer knowledge with other students. I believe your institution has the capacity to propel me towards my educational and professional dreams. I have gone through the modules offered within the Master of Arts degree in Economics program. I am happy that the curriculum is rich in different modules with sufficient hours of study. The diverse modules will help me choose the best specialization for my doctoral studies. The institution is also endowed with a competent faculty team. The faculty members have impressive qualifications in economics. I believe they will be my strong support system as I pursue the degree. I know they will be great mentors to steer me towards the right directions. I also believe in adding value to the institution as a student with diverse ideas to share and transfer knowledge. Based on my strong beliefs in the value of education, I can act as a mentor to other students. I will encourage them to embrace their studies and focus on their ultimate goals. I believe my passion and resilience in education are important straits that other students can emulate to enrich their lives. Upon completion of my graduate studies, I hope to join the academic realm to replicate my knowledge to other students as a tutor. Overall, I have confidence in my capabilities, competencies, and skills to pursue higher education. Since economics is my passion, I am ready to work hard and achieve the best outcomes despite my challenges. I look forward to being part of the student base in your institution. The opportunity to enroll for the graduate degree program will be a great milestone towards achievement of my long-term goals and dreams. I look forward to obtaining positive feedback as you seek further clarification about the information I have provided.
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAANIAAABcCAYAAAAbI+vqAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAAlwSFlz AAAOxAAADsQBlSsOGwAAABl0RVh0U29mdHdhcmUATWljcm9zb2Z0IE9mZmljZX/tNXEAAGY5 SURBVHhe7b0HYJRV9gd6ZuabPpPJpPdeICQECL03FaRIsSBiF5VF1EVllWVHzbKo/Fl0RWQV u6CoSG9KLwkQCAQI6b23yWQyk+nl/e4kYUFZRd33niWfDjOZ+cq9595zT/udc7mXX36Zfurx J82yT7yJP1NHNG1devqRq6/XLF2cQC7r1PRX167+qfftOb+HAr9VCnA/p+EC4i8AE60FE52e f/v8VLGP+imfIIkN99qTnp6+A+89TPRzCNtzzW+WAj+Lkdakp3egx6dZr3UGnapV33yfwBEg 8PfzeeAFjeackOh2MFTdb5YqPQ3vocBPpMDPYqSrn7H5m83H4keOefvy6fJFZoFEPK5XyrCE 8JC9SzWajSvS01f+xPb0nN5Dgd8kBX4xIy1ZMt/XJPQTSyrrzZ/uOiItqHJQvwRH31kTIvr+ SaOJ9iNaCOnk+k1Sp6fRPRS4QQr8YkZyOLhob5F7e9/Q4HETho+K35FVRkcrG6j061q6Y2jC 42lBCtJoNG8Y6x1eq9evOHOD7eo5rYcCvykK/GJGWr163VnWY6hyQSMTo9eeKGqTNDkFVG3v oI++OU2OUUMfF8WIowI4+stvijI9je2hwE+gwC9mJPYszeJFQ6lo34bohEl9po3rvzj322yy SJWkcxB9djyHRNzASeMSvIohmZ7uUfN+wuj0nPqbocD/hJEcdgfHcQliL6IPolT2GZFKYUyZ jSOXMojIrKVNmecoOmbsogSOBKDMwt8MdXoa2kOBG6TA/4SROLWykNScE9Lm8j2Ln6vrrZLG lNUTNfMkxFP6UnlTK+2/WE7+/aOn9TDSDY5Mz2m/KQr8TxjJ4jS8wgm4D9HzDIVAIgkVi4nv 7CC3QkYtVgv5qf3ocm0dNcX5GX5T1OlpbA8FbpAC/xNGctgt/5AIFM3smVojb1GzUXeC40wC zi4jkcCX2slJ7S4TtTS33mCzek7rocBviwL/E0ZavfLD8u5ui8gWa+UTjy92kNBpIz4JycLj yOlwkstu/Z8877dF4p7W/hEo8Isn9hzNHHECJfBgH1kYwQQcPe8Wc3yLC9wklBHP6iQp305y spOvUt72RyBqTx//eBT4xYwURCHTtGQKB+leZ+Qz2Z3tequNzE6OOJEEbjo7CW3tFKgQkNXa 8Qw7Z4lGMwJvzpXp6af+eCTv6fHvkQK/mJHsREoil5wRR9Nbwz/Qrue3Wu3EEyvJ5eYR5zCR 0mGkhAAfV1pIRPUQjWZUs9P1bXVF+UnElSZBkjHUeM/RQ4HfNAV+ESOBEZQ6srzvIpuGUcEx kxZaKgX9anQGEvgGktsEO8naTskhKhILBX+XSCQNFxr0lw5kn5X48R3Rg0NDB+KyzN80BXsa 30MBUOAXMRKuZ9LkFT7xDzBqlhldvpeb2yRmkpDLwSeR00JSu47SIsJpWnK4rqyx/YEjuaXK cr2V5KG+p0giOdkzCj0U+D1Q4BcxEtQyK4jwV49ap9GE767SPXy6ponAJiRwgkthG0V4C2hM 73DyhfmUXVk//3KjgRwKbwrtlezC9e7fAxF7+tBDgV/ESFeTL89kmZdVrw2rcriJL/YBI7lJ 4TZTSqSvy1dAf+cTvVevMy/Q8mFOwQmhtbt7mKhn/v1uKPA/YSRII/nOosqnT1ZXkU4cDIVP SpxVT/4SHvWN8OH7EP2TSZ+IUfMEbQIbOeGEqKptkOA6UY+z4Xczl/7QHfmfMFLhhcq/FDQ0
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Thin-Ideal Media and Eating Disorders in Women Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Abstract The society constantly reminds women that attractiveness depends on their physical outlook and that the ideal woman must be definitively thin to look beautiful. To attain the socially constructed image of the perfect woman, most women engage in minimalist diet or self-imposed starvation . This study will examine how the characterization of thinness as the ideal body size of women in the media leads to eating disorders. Specifically, it will highlight the findings of other researchers, such as, Grabe et al. regarding thin-ideal media images of women and its consequences on women’s eating habits. Furthermore, the study will use various methods to investigate the correlation between media portrayal of thin women and eating disorders in women. These techniques include identifying the dependent and independent variables of the study, measurement tools such as questionnaires and scales, and different scales of measurement like nominal and ordinal scales. Finally, the study will outline the expected findings of the investigation. Key words: Popular Media, Thin Ideal Body Image, Eating Disorders Introduction
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  • Tertiary education
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    Author 2018-11-22T10:36:00 Author 2018-11-22T10:37:00 Author 2018-11-22T10:37:00 Author 2018-11-22T10:38:00
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    The United Nations Regions Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation The United Nations Regions Topic 3:3: UN “spots” African Group The African Group comprises the 54 nations in the continental Africa and countries physically located outside the African continent but which form part of the geopolitical Africa, including Sao Tome and Principe, Madagascar, Cape Verde, and the Comoros Islands. Some member countries of this group I have not heard of before are: Mali, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome and Principe. Asia-Pacific Group The Asia-Pacific Group has fifty-three countries drawn from the Asian and Oceania continental territories. This group also comprises countries such as Russia and the Caucasian states, which belong to the Eastern European Group of the United Nations but still geopolitically align with the Asia-Pacific region as well as well as countries in the Western European Group such as, Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Kiribati, and Turkey. . Some of the names I find new in this group are Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Tuvalu, Timor Leste, Nauru, Vanuatu, Kiribati, and Bhutan. Eastern European Group: The region has twenty-three-member states drawn from the Eastern European region, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Europe and the Baltics. The countries I have never heard from this group include Azerbaijan and Albania. Latin America and the Caribbean Group:
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Author 2018-11-30T15:19:00 Author 2018-11-30T15:20:00 Author 2018-11-30T15:19:00 Author 2018-11-30T15:22:00
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Surname 1 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Reflective Journal Executive Summary Self-awareness is the ability to distinguish oneself from others and the process of defining one’s individuality. It leads to knowledge of one’s self determined goals and being able to make self-driven preferences. Self-aware people are not easy to influence, they are firm in their views, and are always willing to go against the popular views that contradict their personal conviction. The value of self-awareness involves self-reflection. Self-reflection is the act of evaluating one’s character as an individual and as a leader. This article is my self-assessment in public speaking, negotiation, time management, and assertiveness skills. The tools that I use to accomplish this evaluation are MBTI tool of personality, feedback from peers, the Johari Window, colleagues, the Blake Mouton Managerial Grid, my approach, and commitment to meeting deadlines, Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, and academic reports. I also use a personal SWOT analysis to assess my strengths and weaknesses. The results of my self-reflection show that I have excellent public speaking and negotiation skills, I am a poor time manager, and unassertive. Keywords Public Speaking: The act of presenting a speech before an audience. Negotiation: The ability to bargain with people with different aims, needs, and viewpoints to discover a common ground Time Management: The act of locating the right time for the right activity. Assertiveness: The ability to express and defend ideas effectively while respecting other people’s views.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date The Temporary Assistance for the Needy Family (TANF) Policy Reasons for the Development of the Policy The Congress created the TANF Policy in 1996 under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (Falk 2). With the TANF policy, the government intended to end rising dependence on government welfare support and the reluctance by welfare recipients to seek gainful employment. . The federal government under the leadership of President Bill Clinton replaced the Aids to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with the TANF, in a bid to make welfare programs more efficient (Falk 2). TANF reformed the AFDC by freezing direct funds to the poor families and instead directing the funds to the states to distribute the funds to eligible families. The TANF policy aimed at channeling block grants to states for use in their different programs aimed at supporting poor families, especially those with dependent children. The states only received the funds after outlining and supporting programs for the low-income families. The "maintenance of effort" MOE was an essential requirement for the federal-state financial relationship under TANF (Falk 2). The failure of the state to comply with the requirements forced the federal government to impose certain financial penalties aimed at minimizing pilferages and enhancing efficiency of welfare programs. The TANF policy aimed at achieving four salient objectives: First, the initiative was to end the dependency of parents on the federal government's support. State governments were tasked with championing work, ensuring people are skillfully prepared for jobs, and facilitating marriages. The second objective was to support the needy families and ensure that they could take care of their children at home (Falk 3). Thirdly, the program would discourage single families and encourage the establishment and sustenance of two-parent family units. Finally, the state government programs were to prevent both teen pregnancies and child bearing out of wedlock to promote the rise of nuclear families. However, states use their funds differently. Some of the standard programs supported by TANF include supplementing the wages of working for low-income families, job training, education, support of children susceptible to abuse and neglect, transport, and childcare. Initiating policies that uplift the wellbeing of families is essential in enhancing a country's prosperity. Policy’s History The passage and approval of Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 led to the emergence of TANF policy (Washington et al. 2). The establishment of this doctrine originated from the Social Security Act of 1935, which formed the Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) policy before becoming the AFDC (Falk 4). The ADC/AFDC policy supported the needy children and their families. Later on, the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) came into force to support the custodial parent. In the early 90s, the families that depended on the program increased tremendously. During the presidential campaigns in 1992, Bill Clinton promised the electorate to end the AFDC because it increased financial gains to non-working families. In 1994, during the mid-term elections, the Republican Party-led Congress expressed their discontent with the AFDC and through an omnibus welfare bill scrapped the AFDC. The proponents of the TANF then presented the bill d before the Senate Finance Committee in 1995 and modified after the negotiation between party leaders (Falk 3). In the senate, Thomas Daschle led the Democrats, while Republic Senator Robert Dole led the GOP side (Falk 3). The committee made several recommendations, including the introduction of the MOE, contingency funds, and supplemental funds to states with high levels of poverty. In 1996, the president signed the bill into Act, and the TANF became the guiding social welfare policy in the United States. The TANF has been subject of much legislation since 1996. The first legislation was the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which increased grants allocated for financing work activities (Washington et al. 3). In 2005, President George W. Bush signed the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (ARC), eliminating the performance bonuses enjoyed by states. After the 2007-2008 economic recessions, the Obama administration introduced the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (Washington et al. 6). Despite the tax custs, the federal government allocated extra funding to the policy. Further still, the Middle-Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 aimed at ending spendthrift behaviors of TANF beneficiaries (Falk 4). Finally, the Consolidated Appropriation Act of 2017 proposed the allocation of 0.33% of the TANF grant to research at the federal level (Washington et al. 8). The Policy’s Current Situation The TANF policy has achieved notable improvements on American social welfare policy despite criticisms of reversing the gains made under the AFDC. For instance, the labor force participation of single mothers has improved since the introduction of the policy. In 1995, only 59.5% of unmarried mothers were in employment, while in 2001, the number rose to 73.8%. The number of families receiving cash assistance is reducing massively since the 1990s to-date, reaching a historic peak in 1995 when approximately 5.1 million Americans depended on the program for economic survival (Falk 5). According to the Congressional Research Service, the number declined to about 1.7 million in 2013. The reduction in the TANF cash assistance shows the effectiveness of TANF programs in uplifting Americans out of poverty. TANF is also responsible for the many changes in characteristics of caseloads. Most beneficiaries of the program are women who form the bulk of single parents. The records by Congressional Research Service shows that 36% of recipients are Hispanic children, 29% are African Americans, while 25% are non-Hispanic white children (Filindra 35). This program benefited the racial minority groups that make the larger percentage of the beneficiaries. TANF locks out noncitizens as ineligible for the benefits provided under the program. However, the states can assist such families when they are legally living in the United States, as illegal immigrants cannot benefit from the program. Since the policy focuses on children, caretaker relatives can access the support to assist needy children living in their homes, the majority of whom are victims of neglect and abuse. The people who continue to benefit from the program include the unemployed, those employed but receiving low income, single parents, nonparent caretakers, and noncitizen parents. The Challenges Facing the TANF Policy The implementation of the TANF policy came with several challenges. . Firstly, the program faces an inadequate allocation of resources and disregards demographic changes in weak states. In 1996, 4.4 families were benefiting from the policy, but only 1.3 million families were targeted in 2016. The decline is contrary to statistics on poverty level. In 2000, approximately 5.1 million families with children were poor. The poverty level of families with children rose to 5.8 million in 2016. The primary objective of the TANF was to support those living in poverty; yet, the policy has continued to minimize its sustenance to the needy families. The assistance provided by the plan is far much below the support that families received from the AFDC, making TANF a policy that avails more funds to the states but stifles the same funds from America’s poorest families. The implementation of TANF caused a significant decline in cash assistance to the poor families. Some families are receiving as low as $300 and $400 per month, an amount that cannot sustain their needs (Filindra 33). Despite the decline in the extent of assistance, expenses such as housing prices continue to increase. This constrains the poor families financially, with some families using the entire amount of received on housing expenses. The result is that children in such households cannot access decent education and most of them end up in the same cycle of poverty in their adulthood, leading to endless dependency amongst such families. Thirdly, the policy has failed to improve the recipient employability. Another objective of the welfare system was to assist needy families in accessing and maintaining jobs. The unresponsiveness of states to the employability gaps of the poor families deters them from allocating resources to improve the needy families’ employability despite such families becoming continuously dependent. The work support services only receive 3% allocation, while necessary assistance and childcare receive an approximated 24% and 17% respectively. Specific economic challenges such as recession have affected the TANF budget and destabilized its operations. Such limitations make it difficult for the program to achieve its objectives. The Inappropriateness of the Policy The TANF policy’s failures outweigh its gains as its comparison to the previous AFDC policy indicates its ineffectiveness in improving the living standards of the vulnerable American population. The reason why the program has not achieved its objectives satisfactorily is that families in deep poverty are still struggling economically, despite the program prioritizing their needs. In 1995, AFDC lifted approximately 2 million families from deep poverty; however, TANF has only improved the lives of about 400,000 poor families from 1996 to 2014 (Filindra 28). Policymakers should be worried about this program given its glaring failures to realize its objectives in 22 years. According to Filindra, the policy needs to be realistic, relevant, and attainable (28). TANF is proving ineffective and unattainable, raising the need for alternative policy. The failures of the TANF policy manifest in its inability to find and sustain jobs for needy parents. The policy also precludes low-income families from accessing sustainable income during economic difficulties. The program’s continuous provision of little assistance to families with dire needs is unhelpful. In the 1990s American economy, TANF was useful social welfare program because unemployment and poverty levels were much lower. However, it failed to withstand economic recessions, which pushed most low-income families into abject poverty. The allocation of grants by the program is inequitable because it still relies on the federal spending data used for the AFDC programs. Another cause TANF failure is the fact that the formula for state allocation formulated in the early 90s is still in use today, and several local administrations that set a low cash assistance level continue to receive minimal amounts compared to the richer ones. For instance, the value per poor child in Alaska and Vermont is about $2000, while in Arkansas it is about $332 (Washington et al. 11). The poverty levels of the two states are different, but the policy does not meet the needs of the poor child adequately. It is evident that TANF policy is inappropriate in addressing poverty levels in different states, it does not provide sufficient financial support, does not create employment for needy family members, and it has fails to cushion them during the economic difficulties. Alternative Policies Due to failure of TANF to fulfill its objectives for past 22 years, and there is no need to amend the policy Congress should introduce e alternative plans that will address poverty and inequality in the United States (Mataloni 281). There have been a series of criticisms towards the TANF by economists because it encourages pay without work and in some instances continues to advance cash assistance to recipients after they find work, which diverts funds from the poorest deserving families (Washington et al. 11). The policy makes beneficiaries susceptible to laziness because they know they would find extra pay. Republican politicians view the policy as a manifestation of communism in contemporary America and an encouragement of dependency welfare state. The Congress and the executive should consider replacing the TANF policy with Sponsored Education and Training policies that lift the poor out of poverty by enhancing their employability skills (Mataloni 281). Because poverty most afflicts helpless children, depriving of basic needs such as food, policymakers should also consider implementing a Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP).
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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