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BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Name Professor Course Date E-Commerce Case Study: Borderfree What Borderfree does and Why it is Appealing to an SME Borderfree is an online platform that interconnects online retailers and their consumers. The agency acts as the intermediary between retailers and consumers through elaborate international logistics and trading platforms. Its primary responsibilities involve managing the international retailers' online sale logistics, enhancing the process of consumer identification, and making the marketing and sales procedure efficient for both the retailer and the consumer. Borderfree saves SMEs money, time and energy resources while at the same time improving efficiency and profitability. In the absence of e-Commerce platforms such as Borderfree, SMEs would have to undergo extensive research and travel to identify willing consumers and establish elaborate logistic systems to deliver products to the customers. Moreover, they would need to establish a substantial marketing networks international market to establish a connection with the customers. Due to huge capital investment required to establish logistics systems and marketing networks in the international market, most SMEs would find it impossible to venture into the international market in the absence of e-commerce platforms. Borderfree presents SMEs with the opportunity to venture into international trade through internet networking, communication, and cash transfers, enabling them to nonporous to penetrate a wider regional and international market. Advantages that Encourage a Company to Hire Borderfree International trade has experienced tremendous growth in the past century due to technological advancements in transport and communication. The growth in international trade exposes SMEs to a multicultural global population that is receptive to diverse goods and services. Hiring established online platforms such as Borderfree guarantees a company an unlimited access to the consumers in the global marketplace by creating a reliable and trustable virtual trading platform. . A business hiring Borderfree finds an expansive ready market, with no limitations of distance, logistical barriers, or prohibitive trade policies. The essence of Borderfree is to eliminate the operational gaps between a company and the targeted consumers, enabling them to realize revenue growth and minimize costs associated with marketing and overseas operations. Borderfree is located in major international cities, which enables companies to establish their presence in leading consumer markets across the globe. Borderfree also provides companies with an extensive global distribution network, covering more than 200 online retailers and facilitating business exchanges across difference currencies. . Participating in this extensive global retailing platform enhances the interconnectivity of retailers and consumers from different parts of the world, expands the market coverage of SMEs to near infinite potential, and guarantees a rapid growth in revenue The location of Borderfree’s branches in the global trading hubs of Abu Dhabi, New York, London, Dubai, Tel Aviv, Toronto, and Shanghai enables its clients to enjoy unlimited interconnection to thousands of regular business travelers who visit these countries for business and recreational purposes. Borderfree’s further expansion into the Middle East, Japan, South America, South Korea, India, Mexico, and Ireland will expand the enlisted retailers’ market share and make them more competitive in domestic and international markets. Borderfree offers convenience and reduces expenditure to both the retailers and consumers by eliminating distance and logistical costs. Additionally, the diversified platforms such as the use of mobile phones enable the retailer to maintain their rights of ownership for the product on sale with Borderfree acting as the agent of sale. The retailers on e-commerce platforms such as Borderfree also eliminate intermediaries such as advertising agencies and retain their rights of sale, which leads to lower product prices and higher sales volumes. Borderfree Knowledgeability Borderfree clients expect them to have broad information on market trends, opportunities, and threats that may hinder or advance trade in future. As the intermediary between the consumer and the retailer, they have to provide updated data on in market trends and emerging gaps or opportunities in diverse markets. Borderfree is often involved in online surveys and reviews to ensure improved client and retailer experience. Online surveys are usually anonymous; thus, encourages honesty in reviews of the clients’ service delivery. With a growing presence in global economic hubs in the Middle East, the United States, and Europe, Borderfree is a prominent online retail platform with an expansive global knowledge. Marketing and Sales Strategies used to Drive Borderfree’s International Growth Borderfree offers timely solutions and convenience to its clients. The agency provides solutions to supply chain challenges that bar most SMEs from venturing into the international market, enabling firms to grow their market coverage and revenues. International Trade and the Use of Intermediaries The convenience offered by Borderfree in international trade serves both the seller and the buyer. It also solves international trade barriers such as high operational costs, logistical challenges and government imposed bureaucracies at international borders. Therefore, Borderfree helps retailers to minimize expenditures and maximize profits. Intermediaries simplify and make international trade convenient, less costly, making it possible for SMEs to participate in the international marketplace despite their limited financial resources. It encourages small enterprises to take significant risks in a more prominent global market that encourages growth, healthy competition, and diversification.
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Group Name/Number Name of Professor Course Name Date of Submission Alibaba Case Report Introduction The 21st century ushered in revolutionary computer related technologies such as the internet and networking, which paved way for e-commerce as an efficient global trading platform. With the emergence of e-commerce, , customers across the globe shifted to online shopping due to the convenience of accessing a variety of products from remote locations. (Gervasi 39). Since the advent of e-commerce in the1990’s, new corporate startups emerged to claim global dominance in the online shopping platform while preexisting companies reinvented themselves to adapt to the changing business dynamics such as new customer trends, virtual regulation, policy, and technology within the e-commerce environment. The Alibaba Group, eBay, Amazon, Airbnb, Visa, Facebook, Tencent and Uber are some of the classic examples of corporate matchmakers in this new era of globalization and virtual marketplace. The Alibaba Group stands tall among its peers, having positioned itself as a successful Chinese and international digital business giant. Alibaba derives its dominance from an aggressive expansion strategy characterized by strategic mergers and acquisitions as well as product diversification into online retail, wholesale, cloud based computing, electronic payment, advertising, and network services (Glowik 96). Despite enjoying unrivaled leadership in the global digital marketing platform, Alibaba needs to continue focusing significant resources towards technology innovation and market driven strategic change to stay ahead of its competition both in China and abroad. Company Background Alibaba Group Holdings is a Chinese company founded in 1999 by Jack Ma. Alibaba started as an entity that focused on providing B2B (business-to-business) services via creation of Chinese manufactures and exporters (Jie 7). At the time, internet penetration in China stood at less than 1%. This came with mixed fortunes for the newly founded company creating challenges and opportunities in equal measure. Being a pioneer in the industry in China and among the first globally, Alibaba had the strategic advantage of establishing market dominance within the newly established industry with so much untapped resource and potential (Jie 12). While Alibaba anticipated internet penetration in China to grow in subsequent years, it was difficult for the company to predict future market trends in terms of consumers, competition, and regulations. In the wake of this uncertainty, Alibaba adopted business models and strategies that would enable it to cope with the dynamic and fluid nature of the online business environment. Alibaba realized its first breakthrough in 2005 following its strategic partnership with Yahoo, effectively bringing Alibaba.com, one of the pioneer online marketing technology platforms to the global marketplace. Other notable milestones in the company’s growth path included the creation of Alibaba Cloud in 2009, the acquisition of HiChina, Chinese premier provider of internet infrastructure services in 2009 and the launching of the global online platform, AliExpress in 2010, which ultimately granted Chinese exporters access to diverse foreign markets (Glowik 96). The company went public in 2014 following the launch of its IPO and expanded operations to various major overseas markets, including Hong Kong, Taiwan, The United States, the United Kingdom, and India, becoming a true global giant. Strategic Analysis/Strategic Position of Alibaba Alibaba is the world’s largest online business-to-business (B2B) marketplace with an unmatched online trading platform in China. Domestically, the company controls over 70 percent of all business-to-business e-commerce. On the global front, the company ships over $100 billion worth of goods of every year, handling more packages than its closest rivals eBay and Amazon combined (Piercy 531). Holding a dominant market position makes Alibaba hugely profitable and gives it the requisite financial strength for future strategic acquisitions and divesture. Using the PEST (Political, Economic, Social and Technology) strategic analysis framework reveals a strong strategic position for Alibaba, informing prudent future decision making and strategic measures for accelerated sustainable growth(Johnson et.al 36). PEST ANALYSIS P-Politics: The political component of PEST highlights the role of government in the operations and growth of businesses as well as how the politics of a country affect the general business environment. The relationship between the Chinese government and Alibaba is remote and unofficial. Johnson et.al (2017) cite that Jack Ma, Alibaba’s founder is on record stating that he has never received any funding from the government with most of its investors being foreigners(p. 56). He also has a philosophy that goes, “Always try to stay in love with the government, but don’t marry them” (Johnson et.al 59). Opportunities Despite delinking the company from the state, political influence continues to propel Alibaba’s growth over its global rivals. With a 70% market dominance in the e-commerce industry in China, is an integral part of China’s economy, attracting state orchestrated protectionist policies such as censorship of would be competitors in China like Facebook (Greeven 109). Additionally, Hong Kong’s first executive chief once served in the board of directors at Alibaba. Alibaba also enjoys ties to children of influential politicians (pricelings) who are investors in the company, including the son of former Chinese premier and grandson to the former president (Johnson et.al 59). Such influential stakes in the company tend to influence policies aimed improving the company’s position in the domestic and global markets. Most notable development of partial government influence is how Alibaba managed to ward off competition from Google and Amazon a decade ago. The Chinese government then implemented stringent protectionist policies to limit scope of western companies’ operations in China. Faced with state sanctioned restrictions in China, Google only managed to get a market share of less than 1% while Amazon opted to list on other Alibaba’s portfolios such as Tmall to penetrate the Chinese market (Johnson et.al 58) Threats Changes in government and the political landscapes tend to influence how companies perform both domestically and internationally. In Alibaba’s case, the current president Xi Jinping’s political and economic reforms have posed a new challenge that threatens to alter Alibaba’s business strategy. In 2015, one of the political investors’ sibling was under house arrest over allegations of corruption. Earlier in the same year, a state publication indicated that counterfeit goods were on sale on Taobao, one of Alibaba’s sites leading to a 10% drop in Alibaba’s share price (Johnson et.al 60). These developments leave Alibaba with no guarantees on their local positioning in China. Additionally, China’s hostile policies towards foreign-based companies are likely to derail Alibaba’s mergers and acquisition strategy in future. E- Economic: This aspect focuses on key economic influencers that determine a company’s growth and performance. Opportunities Over the past 30 years, China had experienced double-digit economic growth (Christensen 76). This coupled with the populous Chinese domestic market accelerated Alibaba’s growth within the same period that coincided with its inception. With a 70% market dominance in China, Alibaba was the largest e-commerce market in the world with the Chinese population accounting for 90% of its total sales. The company’s international sales accounted for 10% of its revenues with strong establishments in Brazil and Russia (Johnson et.al 58). During this period, the Chinese government also provided incentives for e-commerce as a key enabler to future economic development.
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Children in Poverty in Relation to Allied Sciences Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Children in Poverty in Relation to Allied Sciences The Definition of Child Poverty Poverty is the lack of adequate resources to sustain decent livelihood by limiting one’s access to education, health and other basic services (Hagenaars, 2017). The adequate resources required to sustain to facilitate decent living conditions include; clean water, balanced diet, clothes, shelter, and stable income (Tracy et al., 2008). The World Bank classifies people surviving on less than $1.25 per day as living in extreme poverty. As per this definition, about 1 billion people around the world are living in extreme poverty with children comprising substantive 387 million of the world’s poor population ("Child poverty - UNICEF DATA", 2018). The high number of children living in poverty today implies that the global poverty index will continue to rise if the children currently living in poverty remain poor into their adulthood and form families under the same poor living conditions. Child poverty refers to the number of children raised in families that live off inadequate resources on a daily basis (Redmond, 2008). Poverty has more detrimental impacts on children than adults. According to records from UNICEF, an estimated 22,000 children die every day due to associated with life in poverty (Press Centre, 2018). The physical, mental, and psychological scars of poverty remain permanent among the children well into their adulthood even in the cases where the afflicted children survive the consistent hardships. According to Biesalski and Birner (2018), hunger and malnutrition are the leading causes of death among children with statistics indicating that more children die from poverty-related hardships than to those who die from HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Due to challenges that limit their access to basic and tertiary education and gainful employment, children born in poverty are more likely to live throughout their lives in poverty as compared to adults who have poverty double chance of working their way out of poverty (Biesalski & Birner, 2018). According to a joint World Bank Group – UNICEF study (2018), children living in poverty experience stagnation in growth due to malnutrition, encounter health complications and fall behind in academic progress. Without proper education, food, and health services, a critical cycle of deprivation begins for the children living in poverty that interferes with every level of their development. The outcome is a global prevalence of children living in poverty without any source of proactive assistance to eradicate the social menace. The Measurement of Child poverty Different nations employ varied measures of child poverty to determine the extent of damage on children living in certain poverty stricken households. The wide range of resources necessary to provide proper living conditions motivate the different metrics applied in measuring child poverty (Corak, 2006). Every country considers the most essential items to the proper development of children in their population. However, the World Bank Group and UNICEF consistently apply the relative household income level per day to measure poverty levels across countries. According to Hagenaars (2017), the main problem in using the relative household income to measure child poverty is identifying the income level at an aggregate and individual level. The global definition of poverty refers to the lack of resources at an individual level resulting to the classification of a person as poor (Hagenaars, 2017). When the lines classifying poverty are set based on individual level inadequacy, an aggregate estimate will lead to inaccurate measurements. The definition of child poverty requires analyst to assess poverty levels according to individual income and not aggregate income of the household. The fundamental point of measuring child poverty should be according to their access to basic resources that facilitate their general wellbeing. According to this metric of measurement, absolute deprivation of basic resources falls under the extreme poverty classification. Orphans in most low-class societies easily fit into this classification since they experience relative deprivation of all basic resources. However, such a classification leaves most of the children in poverty without a classification of their level of deprivation. Child poverty is a situation of relative deprivation that emanates from households with inadequate resources of all kinds, especially the basic components. The fundamental items required for the wellbeing of children create a better understanding of the measurements of poverty in society. For instance, in the developed countries of Europe, lack of education, material wellbeing, basic health, and psychological factors of growth are essential indicators of poverty in a society (Fitzpatrick et al., 2015). However, applying the same definition of poverty in the developed countries in Europe to the African scenario would yield a distorted view of poverty. . The resulting metric of measuring child poverty after all these criticisms and problems highlighted should display elasticity to encompass all the various concerns. The incorporation of all the necessities of proper child development such as food, health, clothing, and education combine to form a metric that can classify all the impoverished children of the world (Croan et al., 2002). To invest in the proper future of children living in poverty, relative household income provides a more accurate universal metric of measurement. The reason for selection of this metric is to grant a special concern to all the indicators of poverty that are obtainable through access to a stable source of income. The relative household income is not synonymous with aggregate or individual household income, which only represents a fraction of the finances trickling down to a household per day. Bills payable on utilities such as electricity, water, and sanitation comprise relative household income and contribute to the general wellbeing of the child (Roelen, Gassmann & De Neubourg, 2009). Using relative household income as a standard measure of poverty will enable the formulation of better policies to address the plight of children living in poverty in the 21st century. The Impact of Child Poverty on Educational Outcomes The inadequacy of basic resources during the developmental stages of a child born in in poverty limits their access to quality education and weighs down on their educational outcomes. Education is an important tool for combating poverty among children as they learn to fend for themselves through courses and life skills learnt in school. Low- income parents often accord higher priority to providing the basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, and healthcare at the expense of quality education, which leads low school enrollment and poor educational outcomes (Ferguson, Bovaird & Mueller, 2007). Based on this perspective, the impact of child poverty on educational outcomes begins from an early stage for children born under extreme depravation due to restrictive family priorities. For instance, Roelen, Gassmann and De Neubourg (2009) survey of Canadian families revealed that children born in low-income families enroll in kindergarten slightly later than affluent children do. The decision to join early childhood school for children living in poverty comes after the respective families obtain the basic needs.. Moreover, the children in low-income households display slow readiness to join school with most of their energy focused on surviving through the hardships of poverty, which derails their cognitive development (Roelen, Gassmann & De Neubourg, 2009).. These factors have a permanent impact on the academic progress of the children because they perpetually derail their educational development and adequate behavioral adjustment. The poor cognitive development manifests in the academic performance of children from low-income families, most of whom score relatively lower in their school tests. Poor academic performance is an immediate impact of children growing up in low-income environments because such children lack the basic support structures to enhance creative or cognitive development (White, Leavy & Masters, 2003). The poor academic performance among children living in poverty also relates to continuous disadvantage in acquisition of learning resources. The children from high-income families easily access the best learning materials throughout their academic lives, translating to the state of imbalance witnessed in the scores in school tests. In other instances, children living in poverty abscond school due to shortage of tuition fees and related expenses (White, Leavy & Masters, 2003). The unequal distribution of learning resources that deprives children from low-income families throughout the academic lives also tends to lure such lower the morale of such children and may yield poor educational outcomes irrespective of their learning capabilities. Due to these constraints, children born in poverty are less likely to bridge the material and institutional gaps resulting in their shortcomings within the educational sector. Conclusion As the income gap between high income and low-income families continues, educational inequalities between the rich and the poor children are growing with devastating effects on the cognitive, social, and economic development of children born in poverty. Since access and quality of education is often a function of a family’s income, children born in poor families lag behind their affluent counterparts in terms of educational of school readiness and educational progress because poverty related challenges weigh down on their cognitive growth and enthusiasm towards learning. The incidence, duration, depth, and timing of poverty coupled with a child’s immediate social networks and community characteristics influence the educational attainment, especially where they affect the physical and mental health of the child. In extreme instances, children living in poverty end up dropping out of school due to lack of basic resources for academic excellence. In other cases, children from poor households result to illegal activities such as drug peddling to supplement family income or support their academic needs. Improving the educational outcomes for children from low-income families requires the formulation of proactive policies to address income inequalities while providing institutional support to mitigate the cognitive and physical impacts of poverty on children.
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    FEASIBILITY REPORT ON MR. CHIP COMPANY LIMITED By (Name) Course Code: Course Title Name of Instructor Name of University City, State Date Introduction Mr. Chip is a fast-food company that specializes in preparation and distribution of fast food delicacies such as burgers, roast, sandwiches, Chinese, Cole slaw, French fries, and soft drinks. The restaurant has a capacity of 75 people with an initial capacity utilization of about 40%. The company of late has been losing customers to rival firms due to various reasons. This feasibility report exposes the risks inherent to the current situation, the SWOT analysis, and the strategies that the company can use to turnaround the company. The ease of implementation of these strategies will also be analyzed with the objective of picking the company back to its profitability. Cost and Effectiveness The total costs estimate for Mr. Chip is about $585,000 with a fixed capital of $ 300,000 and a working capital of $ 100,000. Provided the cost assumption IRR and the payback period is 3 years respectively, this feasibility report has identified various critical factors for the turnaround of this fast food company. The location for the fast food outlet has been noted to be a major concern. The fast food joints location is wanting; some joints are located far from major offices and working class. In addition, creation of the right menu as well as menu pricing at times has been noted to influence sales and distribution (Lewis, Miller and Draeger, 2011, p. 73). The company has also not focused on the knowing the competitors and hiring experienced staff and cooks. Risks This report has established that Mr. Chip like any other fast food restaurants has been experiencing various risks such as hike in raw materials, government policies, and change in trend in the consumption of the foods. A major concern was on the distribution of fresh bread as well as Irish potatoes, which was noted to dwindle as the suppliers were complaining of slow settlement of invoices and the large number of fast food firms, which inhibits the supply. The change in consumption levels in particular the consumption of soft drinks and French fries. Majority of the consumers are becoming health conscious due to emerging food related complications such as obesity and cancer (UNITED STATES, 2012, 89). Most consumers are finding easier to prepare homemade food and carrying the food to work places to avoid buying fast foods. Identification of Success Factors and Ease of Implementation
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Fate Conquers A Brief Paragraph Proposing the Research Topic The work presents and shows how fate overcomes free will and uses the work of Sophocles titled “Oedipus the King.” Examples from the scenes in the piece are used to support statements and position took that justify fate over free will, and it also uses additional sources that talks about the book to help the comments that are presented in work. It also concludes by giving a general view about the topic that shows fate overcoming free will. Annotated Bibliography Fletcher, John. “The Scenography of Trauma: A ‘Copernican’ Reading of Sophocles’ Oedipus the King.” Textual Practice, vol. 21, no. 1, Mar. 2007, pp. 17–41. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/09502360601156906 The scholarly source presents a different dimension about the topic and piece of work analyzed by the introduction of a psychologist perspective regarding the subject. It introduces a French thinker and analyst Jean Laplanche that incorporates Sigmund Freud views and analysis of trauma and stress. It, hence, presents and relates to the piece that has aspects discussed in the psychoanalysis theory by Freud by using examples in the work of Sophocles. It is, for this reason, an essential scholarly work that would contribute positively to the research project completion and analysis. Nassaar, Christopher S. “Faith and Reason in Sophocles’s Oedipus the King.” ANQ, vol. 3, no. 4, Oct. 2018, pp. 211–212. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/0895769X.2018.1434607 The scholarly piece analyses the characters in the work of Sophocles linking the relationship that would have existed when faith and reason were used in the development of different scenes and plot in the story. It notes that Oedipus fate would have been increased and more useful had he used prophecy and reason as most of the issues he underwent was already predicted and forecasted in the contacts that he had. It is, hence, an essential piece to be used in the task. Nigdélian-Fabre, Valérie, and Rose Brichard. Antigone by Sophocles: Book Analysis. France: BrightSummaries.com, 2016. Internet resource. The piece presents different aspects essential in literary analysis relating to the work by Sophocles. It offers a plot summary, key themes and symbols, character studies and also presents questions that can help in further discussions and analysis of the work. It notes show rebels in the rule of Thebes try to manipulate the system and, thus, presents a good classic that shows different aspects and development that dominated ancient times. The book, for this reason, would be useful in the research as it would allow comparison and contrast of different ideas and views concerning the task. Svarlien, Diane Arnson. “Sophocles, the Theban Plays: Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone - Translated, with Notes and an Introduction, by Ruth Fainlight and Robert J. Littman.” Religious Studies Review, vol. 36, no. 4, Dec. 2010, p. 291. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1748-0922.2010.01465pass:[_]4.x. The scholarly source reviews a different piece of work done by Oedipus that includes Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus the King and Antigone. The article reviews essential elements in the work that include themes and characterization as well as relevance that each character plays in the realization of the plot of the story. It, thus, is an essential piece that would prove useful in the completion of the task that would allow for comparison of different events in the article. White, T H. The Once and Future King. , 2016. Print. The book presents a series of a classic that shows how King Arthur administers his city. It shows how the king overcame challenges during his early youthful years until the time that he was mature enough to initiate roundtable talk and solve problems encountered by his community. It also shows enough examples of the use of magic and war among other themes that would make it easy for comparison and analysis to the work to be done. The book, hence, would be essential in the completion of the task as it would allow comparison and analysis of how different events develop. The book, consequently, is necessary for the completion of the functions provided. The Working Outline Introduction Thesis Discussion Conclusion Work cited/ references Fate Conquers
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  • Tertiary education
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Title: Fate Conquers Outline Thesis: How fate conquers over freewill using Sophocles “Oedipus the King” literary work and inclusion of different concepts and ideas that support the statements from credible sources. Introduction A. Broad description B. Thesis The life of Oedipus presents examples that show how fate overcomes free will justifying different developments that happen in the scenarios and story in the piece. A. As an adopted child, he rose through the ranks and became the King of Thebes and was in charge of the interests and events that occur in his territory of Thebes. B. It shows that indeed when fate is on your side, the free will of people that would have loved to get the position of king or even that would have refused such an adopted child to become their leader would be many. C. Oedipus rise in the ranks to become King of such a wealthy and respected area at the time is to prove that fate overcomes free will and conquers. King Oedipus was determined and focused person that tried to improve the welfare of his people.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Family Health Assessment Part I Name of Student Name of University Family Health Assessment Part I I conducted the interview with the Teddy Wood family. It is a nuclear family comprising of Teddy Wood (father), Rose Wood (mother), Bill (son), and Mary (Daughter. They are American citizens of the African-American descent. The family’s annual gross income is $70,000, which places them in the middle class cadre of the American society. In respect to their spirituality, all family members are practicing Christians. They live in a relatively serene environment in Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, Maryland. While most of the people living in this area do it as a sign of accomplishment and prestige, a sharp contrast of Mr. Wood’s family who mentioned during the interview that they barely afford to live to the standards of that neighborhood. They indicated that they chose to live there because of its proximity to where both parents work and to the schools the children attend. Fadlon and Nielsen (2016) explain that health behaviors in a group such as a family are defined as consumption choices, investments, or actions that have an impact on the mortality and health risk of individuals and the group as a whole as they are key inputs in the production of the health of individuals. Based on Woods family responses to the interview questions, their overall current health is seemingly unhealthy. When a group is unhealthy, it implies that they are engaged in negative actions, low investment in their health, and in adverse consumption choices (Short and Mollborn, 2015). The responses from the questionnaire identified some functional health pattern strengths in the Woods family. The first one regards stress management. The family members noted that they engaged in effective stress management strategies such as engaging in regular conversations with each other and discussing some of the challenges that each of them is facing, with the view of obtaining help from other members. According to Fadlon and Nielsen (2016), learning how to control or deal with stress can assist individuals and groups to maintain positive physical and mental health. The second functional health pattern strength noted in the findings relates to the family’s sleeping habits. Every family member reported getting between six and nine hours of sleep per night. Getting desirable hours of sleep every night leads to positive health outcomes as it helps individuals to maintain good energy levels, healthy weight level and feel mentally alert (U.S. Institute of Medicine, 2017). Despite the functional health pattern strengths in the Woods family, the questionnaire revealed that the family members engaged in behaviors that adversely affected their health. The first one related to the negative behaviors of smoking and drinking. The responses showed that Teddy (father) smokes tobacco daily and drinks alcohol almost on a daily basis. Rose (mother) does not smoke tobacco but drinks alcohol, especially on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays. The second negative behavior related to lack of regular physical activities. Whereas their children, Bill and Mary, neither smoke nor drink alcohol, they engage in other behaviors that affect their health. The responses showed that no family members were involved in regular physical exercises. The third negative behavior in Woods family that affected their health relates to poor dietary behaviors. They consumed vegetables or fruits less regularly; there were less than four serves of vegetables and/or fruits daily. In addition, the responses revealed that the family consumed unhealthy foods on regular basis such as fries and carbonated drinks. The U.S. Institute of Medicine (2017) observes that human behaviors play an important role in preventing diseases and in maintaining health. Negative behaviors such as lack of regular physical exercises and poor dietary patterns such as those exhibited by the Woods family precipitate adverse health risks, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Unhealthy dietary habits and lack of regular physical exercises, coupled with consumption of alcohol and tobacco smoking are the core causative agents for higher blood levels of C-reactive protein and systemic risk factors such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and obesity (Short & Mollborn, 2015). Family systems theory would be effective in inspiring changes in the living habits of Woods family members, initiating positive changes to the overall functions over time. This theory holds that a family is an emotional unit that uses systems thinking in describing the complex relationships and interactions within the unit (Kerr, 2018). Since this theory considers that family members share intense emotional connection, it can ensure that each member strives towards engaging in positive actions that will promote positive health outcomes. While working to achieve healthy living habits, each member will solicit each other’s support and attention and reach out to each for their upsets, needs, and expectations relating to the process of changing from negative actions to positive actions that impact on their health (Kerr, 2018).
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    Faculty Diversity in Higher Education Name Institution Affiliation Faculty Diversity in Higher Education Abstract Diversity in higher education has proved helpful to the faculties and universities and society as a whole. The paper has described the context that diversity applies in higher education focusing on programs of the hiring of teaching and non-teaching staff, students enlistment, colleges branding, and the use of different methodologies in the teaching of students in the higher education. The marketing strategies and language aspects also show diversity elements are extensively covered in the piece. Next, the Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) framework is described briefly had how it applies in the contexts of diversity in faculties and later through analysis of the different approaches that universities use using the framework is done extensively that notes the different methods used. It then presents the impact that such acts have and recommends the action that faculties can take to enhance positive outcomes in diverse projects. It concludes by summarizing the ideas. Faculty Diversity in Higher Education Diversity is an essential factor in society in aspects that touch on the economic, political as well as social contexts in contemporary times. Humanity has brought different attributes in life such as race, ethnic relations, and backgrounds, religions, gender, geographical location and regions as well as ideologies and philosophies on issues in life. As some believe that there is unity in diversity and, therefore, the concept of diversity needs to be embraced by people and organizations to help them realize the advantages that diversity brings at a personal level as well as organizational level. Higher education plays an essential role in the society that results in the training of different people in different skills and information in their field of interest resulting incompetent workforce and human capital that plays and contributes to the development of the society positively in the various areas that touch on the economic, social as well as political factors. However, this paper discusses different variables affecting faculty diversity in higher education by presenting the background of diversity, application of Milem, Chang & Antonio (2005) framework and finalizes by analysis, implicational and recommendations. Context Universities have different faculties that offer different programs to both undergraduate and postgraduate students in different institutions in the world. The element and concept of diversity in contemporary times have contributed to trend and embraced in different fields in the world that more often has resulted in positive outcomes and brand if inclusivity and appreciation of the different humanity attributes (Whittaker & Montgomery, 2014). Historically, many societies have been dominated by patriarchal systems and models in the society where the male gender dominated most of the aspects of society that touch on social, economic as well as political actors, and higher education is not exempted including the different faculties in higher education. The status quo as noted in many patriarchal societies in the world prompted changes and uprisings through affirmative action and civil societies that tried to bring changes and incorporate the minority groups and the female gender in many aspects that goes on in the society as they equally constitute an important fraction and part of the society. Faculty diversity in higher education is not exempted from such changes and reforms that often are instituted by the civil and human rights groups. The same idea of change has also been embraced by international institutions such as the United Nations among others. They have required members countries to implement and embrace diversity of gender and ethnic backgrounds in different factors that they do. The philosophy has equally guided the principles and inclusion of the united nation in its workforce that comes from all parts of the world. Business world equally has accepted the concept of diversity where they recruit and higher people not only depending on their qualifications but also their ethnic backgrounds to create a picture and image that can result into a positive public relations and inclusivity. The subject, thus, has also attracted interest from scholars and researchers that try to find out and elaborate more on the positives and advantages that diversity brings in the society (Cuyjet, Howard-Hamilton & Cooper, 2012). Where studies reveal that it brings more benefits that include different skills and talents in the broad pool that people from different backgrounds bring to an organization as well as enhances and creates a positive image and brand that makes and increases the business potential to realize its business goals and objectives with ease particularly in the contemporary times that the concept of globalization has led to increased competition because of the liberated markets. Universities administration and leadership have also embraced the idea and philosophy of diversity in its programs and management that include faculty concerns. They have developed policies and guidelines that require different faculties of the university to embrace and incorporate the philosophy and concept of diversity (Stewart & Valian, 2018). It includes the staffing aspects of the faculties in the teaching and non-teaching staff, student’s admission and enrolments, gender aspects as well as the inclusion of the people with disability and minority groups among other aspects and elements that happen in the faculty as well as the university as a whole. Universities has also developed its administration and faculties where some have been empowered to run their independent programs but guided by the main administration and Senate of the university and, therefore, different faculties have launched their independent marketing strategies to reach potential students and other stakeholders such as professors and staff to work in the faculties and different departments in the faculties and university as a whole (Stout, Archie, Cross & Carman, 2018). In the marketing approaches and decision they reach in the faculties, they have to embrace the concept of diversity that would create positive image and brand about the faculty where it can incorporate is diversity related to gender and different ethnic background such as race and ethnicity in their marketing strategies to attract students and other concerned stakeholders and give them confidence and believe about the university and faculty inclusivity of different backgrounds and humanity aspects (Moody, 2013). The concept of diversity in faculties in the higher education, hence, taken different approaches in the administration and management of the different diversity aspects in higher education that include diversity in staffing to create and meet the institutions policies and management requirements as indicated in the university policies as well as affirmative action and requirements in the society as passed by legislators to address the subject of diversity as a whole in the society. The diversity concept in faculties in higher education has also touched on student’s admission and enrollment. The faculties encourage students to apply from different backgrounds including those from low-income backgrounds where the faculties have come up with programs that support such students such as faculty and university scholarship and also linking them to other different potential scholarship in the society. The ultimate goals are to create a positive image of inclusivity from the different parts of the society in the faculty. Affirmative action that enhances diversity has not only encourage recruitment and staffing of workers from the different gender, but also the aspects of persons with disability have to include as part of the staff of the faculty as a requirement that would show inclusivity and diversity aspects in the university and faculty at large (Abdul-Raheem, 2016). Faculties have been impacted by the concept of diversity different that has also touched on the methodology and instructional methods used by the faculties. Many faculties and universities as a whole have embraced the use of different teaching methods and approaches such as part time and full time learning methods to enhance the flexibility and comfort of students that are committed in other aspects but prefer or would like to enhance their educational profiles and opportunities. The teaching methodologies such as through lectures, discussion boards, assignments and use of visual aids is also encouraged by the faculty management to enhance inclusivity in approaches and methods of learning to cater for the diverse students capabilities and potentials of learning as well as increase their potential to understand the concepts and ideologies in different courses presented by the faculty institution and schools (Thompson, 2018). On the same note, some faculties have also embraced dual or multi-language approaches and methods that they can use to enhance the faculty and universities goals at large by attracting students and staff from different backgrounds and culture that include different languages and enhance their teaching and learning as programs that interest the students can be taught in different languages in the faculties. Other approaches embraced by the higher education that touches on diversity in the faculties have also empowered different departments, institutions, and schools in the faculties in higher education to brand differently as part of its approach and methods to deliver the different programs in the faculty and university. It is, hence, possible to find different departments, schools and institutions within the same faculty and university branded differently. For example, the environment department and schools might embrace the use of green color in most of its facilities, colleges, and institutions. The branding of different colleges, schools, and institutions in the faculty differently has also contributed to easy differentiation of the diverse departments and schools that have also contributed positively to ease of management and enhanced professionalism in the schools and colleges in the faculty (Whittaker & Montgomery, 2014). Faculty diversity in higher education, hence, continues to be an important aspect in the higher education process that resonates well with the job market as well as society demands and expectations. Theory, Model or Framework Milem, Chang & Antonio (2005) structure of Expanded Campus Climate Framework is used in the analysis of different faculty diversity in higher education to elaborate and enhance the various concepts and application. It guides the faculty’s decision relating to diversity in the short and long-term periods through the policies and action that faculties in the university often makes as noted in the present trends across many universities in the world. The expanded framework by Milem et al. (2005) is preferred and selected because it provides more options that different contents that touch on the faculty diversity can be analyzed. And, therefore, enhance deeper understanding and ideas or variables that directly and indirectly play and contributed to the application of different diversity concepts in faculties. Such as noted in the description above that touches the staffing aspects of the faculties, the student's admission factors, the methodologies and teaching approaches used, genders aspects and also the disabled groups among many other concerns that show diversity elements in the faculties and universities at large. The variables that make up the Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) framework notes the historical dimension, Compositional dimension, the organizational/structural dimension, Behavioral dimension, and Psychological dimension. The different aspects presented in the structure makes it easy to apply the different approaches that faculties have used in its application of the diverse elements as described above. They include its staffing approaches, students admission approaches, the methodology and programs used to teach the students, the different programs that include part and full-time that faculties have for their stakeholders. Also, the different language used to enhance communication and realization of the faculty goals in the various schools and colleges that make up a faculty as well as marketing approaches of the faculties to its potential stakeholders. It includes students and other partners that might consist of business partners such as suppliers of different materials used in the university that makes and enhances the provision of the faculty’s goals as set in the faculty vision and mission. The different applicable dimensions show more similarities in and correlation concerning concepts such as that of behavioral dimensions and psychological dimension that related and influence the others directly. The model, thus, can enhance and allow comparison and analysis of the different variables the faculty applies in its diversity program. And, therefore, rank and categorize them according to the most influential or least effective regarding approaches that can also help in the provision of recommendations and opinions that the faculties can use to enhance its diversity programs. Besides, the aspects that it can use to realize the desired results from the diversity programs effectively and efficiently. Each element applied in the faculty that touches on the diversity approaches used also can be analyzed from different dimensions as noted in the Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) framework. Hence, the approaches can result in better understanding of varying diversity concepts from different perceptions as noted in the dimension. Such moves and act would results in more revelations and knowledge of the subject as well as help possible in establishing objective recommendations that would impact on the different stakeholders positively. It is due to the in-depth analysis of the various concepts in the study of the faculty backgrounds and applications of diversity concerns and approaches used as well as the factors that determine the criteria and methods used in the faculties. Analysis, Implication, and Recommendations Analysis Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) dimension can be applied broadly in the different approaches and methods used by the faculties in the implementation of the different programs that it has. It includes the inclusion of different methodologies of the teaching of programs offered, admission diversity of students that include different backgrounds and factors such as gender and ethnicity among others. The marketing approaches that faculty’s use that incorporates and includes different people from different ethnic background and genders, for instance, displays the psychological dimensions, organization dimensions as well as compositional dimension. The psychological dimension is presented whereby people that read or are reached by the different marketing approaches used by the university would be influenced psychologically and also establishes a real brand about the faculty and universities. It is because of the image and brand that would create about inclusivity and diversity in its programs that would enhance the chance of the faculties and the universities at large capturing the attention of such students and, hence, help them in making the decisions to join the faculties or because of the psychological dimension that such approach carets (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009 ). There is high chance that when such potential students or stakeholders see people with same backgrounds such as race in the marketing adverts of the universities, there is a high possibility that they would be interested and show concern. The organization dimension is also displayed for such faculty acts in its marketing strategies. It sends and shows the way the institution is organized concerning diversity. Finally, the marketing approach that displays different ethnic and racial backgrounds for instance also show the compositional dimension as indicated in the Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) framework that attract people of diversity and captures their interests in the institution. The faculty acts of branding different schools and colleges in the faculty using different colors and other designs also shows the dimension of organization and composition. It sends the messages that the faculty is composed of different colleges and schools as well as campus among others as well as shows how the faculty is organized and runs its programs that touch on diversity. The use of different languages and methodologies by the university and its faculty to enhance its programs show the dimension of behavior, compositional and organizational. The behavior elements are displayed where the languages used would show how potential students and the teaching fraternity, as well as other stakeholders, behave and act in different settings and approaches that touch on diversity factors in the faculty. It also would help in projecting the likely behavior among students and professors in the universities because of some language control many aspects of life and culture that can also project and predict behavior. It also shows the composition of the language used and the organizations structure that shows the different methodologies used in teaching and enhancing programs offered by faculties. The recruitment of staff and other workers from different backgrounds and genders show the dimension of composition, historical as well as organization dimension. It shows and notes how the staffing is composed and also relates to the historical approaches and acts that the society has passed through to initiate such changes of the status quo through affirmative action’s and civil society movements that have struggled historically to initiate such changes in the society. The political class also has played an essential role by the creation of rules and laws that enhance diversity and inclusivity of people from different backgrounds in the society that include the faculties and universities. The organization aspects as stated in Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) framework also is indicated from the act of inclusivity of different genders and ethnicity in staffing and recruitment enlistment that presents the picture of how the institution is organized. The different enlistment of students from different backgrounds such as different ethnic background and genders in the different programs offered at the faculty shows and displays the dimension of composition and behavioral dimension. It allows people to notes how the different approaches the institution used to attract different students from a different background as well as help in the projection of possible behaviors among students because students behave differently in different or mixed gender and groups as opposed to when there is only one gender in their environment. The use of Milem, Chang, and Antonio (2005) framework, thus, is essential as it allows in-depth analysis of different factors that show diversity and factors that contribute to the decisions that institutions and faculties take to help address the concerns that they have objectively and help it realize its vision and desires in the Implication The implication that faculties use different diversity approaches and alternatives in their programs means that enough resources have to be channeled to programs that enhance diversity so that they institution realize its benefits and other advantages that result from inclusivity in the faculties. It also would imply that training of the benefits that inclusivity has to the faculty key stakeholders that include students, teaching and non-teaching staff, boards among others would be helpful to the faculties in the short and long-term approaches that it uses in the projects and programs that enhance diversity in higher education (Stout et al., 2018). Universities and faculties produce graduates that actively play a role in the job market and the shaping of societies goals and visions in the economic, social as well as political aspects. The inclusions of the different approaches and strategies in the faculties that enhance diversity would provide them with enough information and examples that they can replicate outside when they are done with the studies. Universities constitute an essential part of the society and, thus, it would imply that such changes that enhance diversity and inclusion in the programs and process offered by the faculties and universities would be replicated in the society to improve changes realized through the affirmative action’s and civil rights movements. Recommendations Faculties should continue to support the diversity and inclusivity programs in the different programs that they have to help them realize their desires and goals with ease.
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  • Tertiary education
    creative writing
    Faculty Diversity in Higher Education Name Institution Affiliation Faculty Diversity in Higher Education Abstract Diversity in higher education has made many people from minority groups experience challenges. This paper has discussed the background of diversity challenges in higher education faculties relating to diversity and the orientation taken in addressing the concern. It then briefly presents the theoretical model and framework of Milem, Chang and Antonio’s (2005) to help understand the subject of diversity in higher institution of learning. It afterward concludes by analyzing the framework model using a selected university case of the University of Louisville and by elaborating on the variables that are found in the model that includes the historical, the compositional, the organizational/ structural, the behavioral and the psychological dimension applies to the context of the selected university. It finalizes by noting the implication on research and practice and gives three recommendations that the university can use to address the challenge objectively. It winds by a conclusion of the presented aspects. Context About the Author In the year 2007, I graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. While at the campus, I was also enlisted in the Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and upgraded to active Army duty after the graduation. The relevance of the ruling about the University of Michigan in the Supreme Court did not capture my attention then despite being aware of the issues and subject that was related to diversity issues in the campus. My experience in the faculty of diversity in higher education this semester has provided me with more in-depth information and knowledge related to diversity efforts that the campus had initiated as well as other sectors of the society such as the legislators in the formulation of bills and laws that try to address the concern objectively than in the past. The analysis of the paper using the framework has deepened my understanding of the concepts involved in faculty diversity in higher education. It has helped in the transition that I had of the higher education to the University of Louisville and future professional career. Understanding faculty diversity in higher education would empower all concerned stakeholders to play an active and objective role and address the subject objectively initiating anticipated changes and reforms. The purpose of this paper is to test the usefulness of Milem, Chang, and Antonio’s (2005) campus climate framework in its application in campus faculty education to better understand the campus applications. Also, the concepts that show how diversity impacts the campus and the steps and action that the university has taken to address different variables related to diversity. It would also note the action and possible contribution from various stakeholders that include students and their leadership, administrators and staffing among other aspects such as policies and regulations in the campus that address concerns of diversity objectively. After a brief review of the literature that talks about the subject of diversity objectively, I would briefly present a summary of the Milem, Chang, and Antonio’s (2005) Campus Climate Framework. Next, the application of the framework in a campus analysis of the University of Louisville and concludes by stating the specific implications and recommendations. Those that would improve the aspects that the university can implement to raise its profile in the society as a university that shows an example of how accurate and useful diversity can be applied in the higher institutions of learning in the society. Diversity concerns have continued to dominate many institutions that fall in the economic, social as political contexts in contemporary times and higher education institutions are no exemption. The subject of diversity has become an essential topic for debate and analysis in the present times where affirmative action and related initiatives more often supported by the civil society continues to impact and dominate many attributes and actions experienced in the society presently regarding the diversity subject (Hurtado & Guillermo-Wann, 2013). The legislators have tried to establish laws and rules that address the discrepancies and concerns that diversity in the society has. It has ensured that past changes about diversity are addressed objectively, for example, by compelling organizations to consider and formulate diversity policies that would enhance diversity interests in such institutions and organizations in the society that include higher education. GRUTTER v. BOLLINGER 539 U.S. 306 (2003) case provided an exceptional example that pointed out how concerns related to diversity effect and impact higher education. It traverses in many aspects beyond the admission of students on campus but also other aspects that include staffing and leadership position. Where issues of diversity that include gender and ethnic background have to be considered to resonate with the realities in the society and humanity as a whole to enhance and increase social integration and related benefits and national interest as noted in the business world and related organizations. Diversity as a subject has continued to attract interest from scholars and researchers. They try to look deeply on issues that touch on diversity and particularly racial and ethnic relations and relate them to the job market and demands. It has emphasized and incorporated principles and policies that include diversity in the workforce in different positions in such organizations.It has become part of the trend in the job market and offers companies competitive advantage due to the related benefits that the potential customers and stakeholders in the business bring to organizations that show elements of diversity and higher education is not exempted. The history of racism and ethnicity in many societies resulted in the formulation of structural and frameworks that guide many issues in the society that had racial and ethnic biases in them. It limited others particularly from the people of color and minorities groups from accessing positions and resources that can contribute to the empowerment of the different sectors in the society. For example, the Jim craw rules discriminated against the black community and limited their access to education and other facilities in the society that show and points an example of how structural aspects that were designed in society impacted higher education as well as other institutions of learning in the country (Smedley, Myers & Harrell, 1993). The historical structure in the society that affected other sectors of society also affected the campus life and environment. It is due to the structural technicalities that made sections of the society that particularly came from low-income families and the minorities group. They found it difficult to access and fill a position not only related to students admissions in the universities but also administrative and staffing positions in the different available opportunities availed in the universities among other institutions of learning related to higher education. The requirements for admissions, for example, which required proof of stable financial background and surety for the same placed the low-income families and the minority groups at a disadvantage. It contributed to the propelled diversity challenges in the higher institutions of learning in the society. It is also the reason why a few people from the low-income societies and the minorities groups in the society have tried to establish a foundation to try to empower and finance the minority group in the society as well as talented students from low-income families in the society to help address and bridge the gap objectively. The reality related to faculty diversity in higher education in the staffing and administration of personnel in the higher institution, hence, resulted from the structural frameworks that existed at the time that impacted many aspects related to employment as the qualifications that were required including the academic competencies for lecturers and professors, for example, made it difficult for people that came from low income families and the minority groups. They were eliminated from such positions by technical default because the qualifications they stated were higher than what most had concerning education among other issues required for merits in such vacancies. However, through affirmative action and the civil struggles and movements that paid the price in bringing changes in the society that include the higher education sector. It was through advocacy to end discrimination, profiling, stereotyping and prejudice along ethnic basis that resulted in the many noted changes in the diversity faculty education (Stulberg & Weinberg, 2012). The changes noted in the faculty diversity aspects have shown signs and actions that signal slight changes and improvement. They try to address the concern objectively, but the gap that needs to be filled is huge. Therefore, more actions need to be taken that would make changes in diversity in students admissions, employed staff, and administrators. Also, establish diversity programs and branches that would include offices to address and formulate plans and policies that would guide the institutions in positively addressing the concern related to diversity in the higher institutions of learning. Case Selection: The University of Louisville The examination of the tasks started from the 1950s when the University of Louisville began its desegregation efforts. Kentucky State where the university is allocated has a rich history connected to the slave trade (Kocher, 2013). It implies that diversity challenges are rooted in its history because of the harsh laws and regulations established at times. It limited slaves and other minority groups from accessing opportunities that include education in higher institutions campuses. In the year 1951, University of Louisville was desegregated, and its website has less information that notes the history related to diversity and discrimination that existed at times. The news that captures real history and concern in the past and present about diversity comes from the civil rights movement that published past events in diversity. Theory, Model or Framework Milem, Chang, and Antonio’s (2005) theory and framework are selected to help in the analysis of the faculty diversity in higher education topic relating it to the University of Louisville. A description of the framework is presented together with analysis supported by relevant literature. The reason for choosing the framework is because it is assessable and actionable that results in comprehensive analysis. Secondly, my experience in command in the army requires that leaders conduct survey periodically and data and findings reported to the senior authorities and people in command. The external aspects in the analysis are relevant, but for the tasks only internal framework and analysis would be used to determine the faculty diversity in higher education as presented in the Milem, Chang, and Antonio’s (2005) theoretical framework. The five include the historical dimension, the compositional dimension, the organizational/structural dimension, the behavioral dimension, and the psychological dimension. Historical Dimension The structural framework established in the past provide for clauses that enhanced institutionalized discrimination that limited people of color from accessing opportunities is education among other aspects in the society. It resulted in the dominance of white supremacy in many elements in the community. Minorities continued to experience overt and covert discrimination even with the abolishment of the act that made desegregation mandatory also noted in higher institutions of learning. The historical structural framework enhanced the covert form of discrimination that was difficult to notice that resulted in diversity challenges as experienced. Acknowledging the history is the first step in addressing the faculty diversity challenges positively according to the Milem et al. (2005) work. Compositional dimension It entails the stakeholders that constitute faculty education. It forms the framework and starting point for universities because it defines the people that come together to make university education and process a reality. Diversity should be encouraged in the composition elements of people on campus in different departments and programs administered by the institution. Lack of diversity might discourage students from the programs and plans of the university including admissions. Diversity in compositional part of faculties is encouraged. The organizational/structural dimension It entails policies and practices that determine the way the organization is administered. The organization process should provide inclusivity. It is often reflected in decisions making organs of the university that distribute task and responsibility to enhance production of the different services done by universities in the society. The structures are reflected in the university curriculum and decision making practices that have to embrace and include issues that enhance diversity and inclusivity of people from different backgrounds and abilities Behavioral dimension In the higher education climate, it consists of the social interaction of the universities, the quality of intergroup set up as well as the nature of interactions between and among individuals from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. It entails instilling inclusivity and diversity aspects in the conduct and acts of the university stakeholders. They include students, administrators, and even professors among others to develop and show conducts that enhance real application and development of diversity. Psychological dimension The stakeholders would perceive different issues in the campus differently that include issues that touch on different stakeholders that include diversity among others. According to Milem et al. (2005), psychological dimension of the campus environment is defined as the inclusion of views held by individuals about intergroup relations as well as institutional responses to diversity perceptions of discrimination or racial conflict, and attitudes held toward individuals from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Initiatives such as conducting campus survey can help the university in the evaluation and assessing of psychological dimension of their higher education faculty environment. It can help them instill programs that enhance diversity as part of the courses offered in the institution to improve the development of positive psychological dimension.
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    Case Study Task 3 Name Institution Affiliation Case Study Task 3 Training is an important and integral part of any successful organization for host country nationals (HCN) and parent country nationals (PCN). Training entails acquainting the right candidates with the rights skills and knowledge that would enhance them realize their full potential in their new work environment to enable the organization realize its goals and objectives in the international market and expansion programs in new adventures in the business. Training needs to be seen by organizations as an investment and should not fear the costs involved but rather see the expenses involved in training from the perception of investment due to the numerous benefits that such training of expatriates have to organizations. However, this paper presents a proposal for Holliday Villas training program for its six hired new hotel managers of home country nationals. It presents the best practices in expatriate training and sets an agenda for the five day training with justification of the choices made. A. Best Practices in Expatriate Training The international market and the dynamics experienced has contributed to the sharing of information about the competencies necessary for a successful adventure in the global market for organizations as well as individuals. Training in such competencies, hence, has proved to be an important part that organizations have to prioritize (International HRM considerations, nd ). Communication is an important aspect for individuals and organizations. Language that is a tool used for communication would help ensure that the right messages and exchange processes of ideas and views about issues is done correctly. Expatriates, therefore, should be trained on the foreign language that is dominant and used for business in the host country that they will work. Language, which is an important part of culture, is described as the key for success and communication. Language would help the expatriates adapt and settle faster in the new foreign destination and work station they would be working in as well as help the business and management easily lead those working under them and also easy and faster market penetration in the newer areas. Cultural training is also critical and important for organizations and persons preparing to work abroad as expatriates. Cultural competencies would ensure that organizations designs product that resonate well to the foreign market that they target as well as enable them easily penetrate the foreign market as the potential target markets and business targets would easily adapt and own the project as the business would display and portray some or part of their cultural identities (Goodman, 2014). It would also enable the organization and individuals plan well in advance when they understand the cultural dates and values that the target foreign markets offer that enable them note important dates and seasons that important cultural events and functions occur in those country. Such information would help the organizations and the individuals working for the organization to exploit such opportunities in terms of business privileges. Cultural training would provide more to the organization to enable them plan and execute strategies that would enhance the chances of the business realizing its goals and objectives in the short and long-term. Cultural training further reduces the chances of conflict between the host-country relationships as it would entail the values and morals that the host country has among other important cultural competencies (Vance & Paik, 2014). It, thus, enhances long-term investments plans and strategies due to enhanced host-country relationships. Furthermore, it also is important in motivating the host-country staff resulting in high performance and motivated work force that increases the chances of the business organization realizing its business goals and objectives with ease in the foreign international markets. New countries and working environment require readjustment of strategies and goals and, consequently, training on setting the goals in the newer environment is equally important and would result in positive business outcomes that help realize short-term and long-term goals. The newer environment would separate the expatriates from the families, friends and familiar territories that would result in stress that might hinder their output and efficiency in the newer foreign environments. Training the expatriates on the best approaches and methods that they can use to manage families and stress as well as elaborating on the policies and strategies that the organizations have in place to enhance comfort and limit the foreign stress developed by the changed status would prove helpful to the organization and the individual enabling both enhance the chance of realizing their set goals in the foreign territories. Finally, repatriation planning should also be part of training that should cover issues such as job guarantee upon return, training on assignments and counseling on overseas before leaving among others critical concerns (Machado, 2015). Training in expatriate is important and, hence, Holliday Villas has to prioritize it for its hired managers to help the organization realize its international business goals. B. An Agenda for the 5 Day Training With an Explanation of Each Training Activity and Its Purpose The agenda for the five day training activity to be conducted for the hired managers would include the following: Agenda Items: 1. Compensation and Rewards The training and activity on compensation and rewards will let the managers know exactly what they expect to earn while performing their duties in the foreign land. It will iron out any outstanding issues and questions related to salaries and allowances as well as any other benefit that the package has to the managers. It will also clarify on the benefits that the position has including free air tickets and others important aspects. The purpose of the training is to clarify and enhance professionalism to help the organization chose the right candidates able to perform their duties and the compensation and rewards offered by the business organization. 2. Cultural Training Cultural training would take most of the time in the five day training plan. It is because culture is broad and carries many topics that include but not limited to religion, etiquette, food, politics, management styles and even arts among others. Cultural competencies and skills would enable the managers formulate effective business strategies that would enhance the chances of the business organization realize its desired goals and objectives in the foreign lands. It would also entail how the Holiday Villas culture would be gradually instituted and incorporated in the foreign culture to enhance and sustain its business and organization cultural goals and policies among others. 3. Language Training It would address the communication aspects in the expatriates country and business communication. Language used for business would be a priority for the managers to learn and, therefore, the training would address how they will do it including hiring of professionals language teachers and institutions to help them learn and communicate. It will help the business communicate freely and easily with other stakeholders such as suppliers and customers among others. Clarification of the verbal and non-verbal communication and the meanings denoted would also contribute an important part of language aspects in the training. 4. Goal Setting Holliday Villas has goals that they desire to achieve or realize in the international markets. The goals have to resonate to the parent business goals and for this reason the training would help managers remain in focus and in control to the parent company business goals and policies. The training would help them strategize the goals correctly and, thus, increase the chance of success. 5. Managing Family and Stress It will give the managers skills and techniques that they can use to address stress and related impacts due to separation not only with their families but also familiar environment. It will also clarify the opportunities and privileges that the family of the managers have as a result of having the opportunity abroad as well as the actions that the organizations has put in place including organization to help the families and the managers enhance communication despite of the distance. It would prepare the managers and their families mentally for the tasks and its consequences and, as a result, help them easily cope. 6. Repatriation The training would address the concern and questions related to the requirements that include visas, ticketing, psychological preparation as well as benefits and job security when they return to the parent countries among others issues of interest. The purpose is to help enhance the success of the project for the organization and the expatriates. 7. In-country Training The training, monitoring and evaluating the progress of the expatriates and the business organization. It helps develop the metrics and appoint people responsible to ensure the earlier training was a success and beneficial to the individuals and also the organization at large. It would provide a platform to turn some of the theories learnt into practical application. 8. Any other business (AOB) It will address any possible questions and concerns raised by the managers as results of the training process as well as help them clarify on issues discussed in the previous training activities and their purpose.
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    Executive Project Management in the US Government and In the UK Name of Student Name of University Executive Project Management in the United States Government and In the United Kingdom Summary and Analysis of Articles on Executive Project Management in the U.S and U.K Governments The first article, Project Management Institute and Members of Government Efficiency Caucus Discuss New Law Aimed at Improving Federal Government Efficiency was written by the Project Management Institute and published on February 15, 2017. The article discusses the problems that the federal government faces in the management of public project and the interventions to address these problems. The main problems facing executive project management in the U.S are efficiency and accountability. These problems have affected executive project management and they have led to the wastage of public resources through wasteful government spending. To counter this problem, the Project Management Institute together with the Congressional Government Efficiency Caucus met to discuss initiatives and interventions that would increase the efficiency of the government in the management of public projects (Project Management Institute, 2017). It is important to acknowledge the role of the legislature in ensuring the effective management of public projects. In the case of the U.S, the legislature passed the Project Management Improvement and Accountability Act (2015) with the aim of reducing wastage in government spending. According to the Project Management Institute (2017), the law has the potential to enhance accountability and efficiency and reduce wastefulness in government spending (Project Management Institute, 2017). A study by Project Management Institute revealed that in 2017, the government wasted $97 million for each $1 billion invested in programs and projects in 2016 (Project Management Institute, 2017). During the discussions between the Project Management Institute and the Congressional caucus, the outstanding theme was that the law passed in 2015 would help in maximizing efficiency in the federal government and generate successful outcomes in government projects. The law would also increase the value of the American investments in public projects. The second article, Staking a lot on program and project management was authored by Alan Harpham and Tony Kippenberger and published in 2010 by the Project Management Institute. Like in the first article, the article discusses service delivery in the U.K through accountable and effective project management. In the U.K, the executive government considers project and program management as an important component of service delivery (Harpham & Kippenberger, 2010). Like in the American context, service delivery through effective project management is hampered by the lack of accountability and wasteful government spending. In the U.K, the government sought to address these issues through the improvement of its project and program management. According to Harpham and Kippenberger (2010), the U.K government faces the same problem of repeated failure by government departments and institutions to manage important large-scale projects. One of the instances in which the U.K government has faced challenges in executive project management is during a 1999 information technology upgrade (Harpham & Kippenberger, 2010). In 1999, the government initiated changes to a new information technology platform. Because of failed project management, the U.K Passport Agency had a disastrous experience in handling the traveling and holiday plans of U.K citizens (Harpham & Kippenberger, 2010). Because of the failed project management, the government wasted public resources. Despite these experiences, the U.K government faces similar problems in the management of public projects. According to Harpham et al (2010), problems with executive project management are experienced because of inadequacy in identifying the business resources and skills required for the management of these projects. In response to the weaknesses and concerns in executive project management in the U.K, a cross-departmental project was proposed with the aim of developing a package of measures that would achieve sustainable improvements in service delivery through executive projects and programs (Harpham & Kippenberger, 2010). Findings from the cross-departmental project highlighted the need for cultural and structural changes in executive project management. They also emphasized on new toolkits and processes useful by non-specialists. The team also recommended the recruitment and retention of employees with the public project management skills for specific delivery roles. Comparison between Executive Project Management in the U.S Government versus U.K Government The main similarity between executive project management in the two countries is that they face similar problems in the executive project management. In the U.S, the problem is largely with the accountability and efficiency of the project management team. It seems that when it comes to the management of public projects in the U.S, the people mandated to ensure the delivery of project outcomes are not accountable (Project Management Institute, 2017). As a result, the government wastes public resources through unaccountable spending. Project managers in the U.S are not willing or ready to serve as the stewards of American taxpayers resources. Conversely, the problem with U.K executive project management is the inability to match the skills of the people mandated to manage project with the needs or requirements of the project (Harpham & Kippenberger, 2010). This has led to a situation in which large-scale government projects have been poorly managed and resulted to the loss of public funds. The difference between executive project management in the U.S and U.K government is in what is needed to reform project management. In the U.S, reforms in the federal executive project management policy are needed. This can be accomplished in four ways. The first method is to create formal career and job series paths for executive project managers with a focus on creating positions in the federal government. The second method is to develop standards-based executive project management policies that target the federal government. The third step is to acknowledge the important role of executive engagement and sponsorship (Project Management Institute, 2017). This can be done through the designation of a senior executive project manager in a federal agency. This manager is given the responsibility for executive project management strategy and policy. The last step is sharing knowledge on successful approaches of executive project management through the establishment of an interagency council on executive project management.
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: EWRT 2 The movie industry in the recent times continues to grow and in particular monster movies. In the contemporary times, innovation and technological advancements have resulted in changes in perception and ways people do many things in life. It also has expounded the avenues that moviemakers can pursue to make films as they imagine and designs scenarios that are yet to be experienced presently that most have dominated in monster or zombie movies. However, this paper indicates how the work by Chuck Klosterman and Stephen King prove that monsters movie result from the fears of humanity that has resulted in its faster growth in the recent times. The two articles give an in-depth analysis of the horror, zombie or vampire movies. Klosterman asserts that Zombies and Monsters stories and themes that dominate most films result from human fears as stated in the third paragraph. Klosterman states examples of human fear such as diseases, atomic age and unearthed science that dominates the themes and stories in the horror movies. It is part of the reason that has made such movies rapidly become common and interesting as people try to imagine and put themselves in the shoes of the actors and what they might do or happen in the real life in the event it happens. Klosterman also notes that world condition often has been offensive to zombies and the Zombies have failed to adapt and fit in such conditions (Klosterman, par. 2). It hence creates unavoidable conflict as they rebel resulting in a conflict where they often overcome the human measure taken that try to suppress them such as the use of bullets that makes them more interesting. In the contemporary times, the work by Klosterman also states that changes have occurred where depictions of people unconscious fears are used to create Zombies films that enable the audience to relate to, for example, death. King also asserts that horror films are often anarchistic, reactionary and revolutionary at all times. It is because of the fears that human beings especially the young that have made such films among their favorites (King, par. 3). He notes that the movies try to dare the nightmares that people have. The movies, thus, are conservative and reactionary as they mostly evoke the same theme and fears as noted in similar films. In conclusion, the two pieces have proved that fear of the unknown dominates most of the stories and themes in the movies. The pieces help the readers comprehend the movies at an in-depth level. Works Cited King, Stephen. “Why We Crave Horror Movies.” Marshall, n.d. http://faculty.uml.edu/bmarshall/Lowell/whywecravehorrormovies.pdf. Accessed 30 Sep 2017. Klosterman, Chuck. “My Zombie, Myself: Why Modern Life Feels Rather Undead.” The New York Times, 3 Dec. 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/05/arts/television/05zombies.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 . Accessed 30 Sep. 2017.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Evidence-Based Learning as a Training Method Name: Professor: Course: Date:
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  • Tertiary education
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    Evergreen Enhancement Case Analysis Name Institution Affiliation Date Evergreen Enhancement Case Analysis Problem Statement Richard Alpert must show great leadership as well as make a bold decision and choose Faraday for the promotion as head of the managing VP despite his slightly low performance when compared to Pace. Pace uses a performance-enhancing drug of Adderall that creates unfair competition to colleagues and competitors (Harris & Mead, 2012). Alternative Solutions Alternative 1: Richard Alpert should meet personally (privately) and discuss the concern that he has about Pace use of Adderall. The discussion should be objective where each party should present their views and positions including the reason Alpert should consider the promotion of Faraday. This approach would give both parties an opportunity to understand each other better and the impact that such actions has not only to Pace but also the colleagues and competitors as a whole. Furthermore, the possible impact that the company might have when such information becomes public that might tarnish the image and name of the company. It would also assert whether Pace knows the short and long-term impacts of using such drugs or not, and provide an opportunity for change. Alternative 2: Richard Alpert should convene an urgent meeting of all employees and introduce a policy of a drug-free environment where employees would be screened for drug use. It would also provide an opportunity and platform to educate the entire employees of the impacts that performance-enhancing drugs have to their lives, colleagues and competitors and possible legal and moral impacts. It would provide a long-term solution to the problem where employees can also educate those close to them about the concerns of drugs. Recommended Solution: The best approach is for Richard Albert to meet personally and discuss with Pace about the concern so that the two parties might understand each other better and possible reasons why Pace is taking such moves and the impacts that it has to all the concerned stakeholders in the Evergreen company. It is also because of the limited time constraints that he has before he makes the decision. Reference Harris, J. & Mead, J. (2012, Dec 1). “EVERGREEN ENHANCEMENT.” Darden Business Publishing: University of Virginia.
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    Ethical Case Study Analysis Name of Student Name of University Q-1 IS, Ethics Case Study Analysis- Case 78- Unapproved treatments: Honey on the Wound This case study was selected because it relates significantly to ethical issues that healthcare professionals deal with on regular basis. I believe that the ethical issue involved in this situation is about beneficence. It is an ethical issue that is anchored on the principle that healthcare professionals should do everything possible to help improve the situation of a patient (Dracopoulou, 2012). This requires that all the recommended treatments and procedures must be undertaken for the good of the patient. As such, the providers should not only develop but also maintain high level of knowledge and skill so ensure they administer treatments and procedures that benefit the patient (Ashcroft, 2007). In this case, the health provider administered unapproved treatment to the patient thereby violating the principle of beneficence (Buchbinder, 2013). The beneficence principle can be used in resolving the identified situation by requiring that the healthcare provider strive to administer the right treatment. For example, in this case, if he was unsure of what the right treatment should be, he should have consulted another practitioner, preferably a senior physician. Q-2 IS, Living by a Code of Ethics  As a professional nurse, I (like many nurses) often face the challenge of relating and communicating well with other health professionals in the hospital setting such as physicians and lab technicians. This challenge is mostly because of disconnect between professionals and feeling of superiority or inferiority by practitioners of different specialties and cadre. Buchbinder & Shanks (2012) explain that such kind of situation usually affects the patient care outcomes in the health setting. The code of ethics appropriate for nursing in respect to this challenge is provision 8 of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics, which states that nurses should collaborate with other professionals in reducing health disparities and promoting health diplomacy (American Nurses Association, 2018). Therefore, in order to resolve the challenge of poor communication and interaction with other practitioners, I will devise ways of enhancing collaboration. As a leader, I will support and guide the process of resolving this ethical challenge by such as by seeking to devising and implementing activities to boost collaboration. For example, I will facilitate team building events and other activities to help nurses and other practitioners to have a better understanding of each other (VanDeVeer & Regan, 2014).
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Ethical Dilemma in Nursing Name of Student Name of Institution Ethical Dilemma in Nursing Provision of quality patient care and avoiding harm is a cornerstone of ethical practice in health care. Professionals in health care are expected to do the right things (Gore, 2015). However, this is not always the case as each situation is somewhat different from the other, and ethical dilemmas can occur even when a health care institution has policies to deal with them or even when there is a direct ethical provision on how to deal with them (Rainer et al, 2018). In the course of the work, nurses have to call on nursing ethics on many occasions when dealing with difficult situations. They deal with various ethical issues on regular basis, and therefore, they need to reconcile their values with their obligations in the nursing profession (Davis & Davis, 2010). This paper will focus on how ethical dilemmas come about in health care, as well as discuss the role of the nurse when addressing an ethical dilemma and finally conclude with findings from ethical experts in health care field concerning ethical dilemmas. According to Davis & Davis (2010), ethical dilemmas come about in health care due to difficult situations that health professionals have to deal with, especially nurses. Nurses should always reconcile their own values with their professional obligations. However, various reasons make this expectation unachievable. The main reason relates to insufficient time, financial, material, and human capital resources to do so (Barlow et al, 2017). Ethical dilemmas among nurses usually come about when they have to provide quality care without adequate resources and with minimal benefit. Therefore, nurses find themselves in crossfire where they feel they are hurting patients and colleagues instead of providing help (Rainer et al, 2018). In addition, working in an ethically unsound health care organization brings about ethical dilemmas among nurses because it impairs their capacity to make sound decisions (Gore, 2015). There are a number of ethical dilemmas in nursing. The first one relates to the issue of informed consent, which involves patients and their families getting concerned about inadequate information regarding their clinical prognosis or treatments (Barlow et al, 2017). This is particularly a major issue in end-of-life decisions. The second ethical dilemma is about disclosing medical conditions. Often, nurses face the dilemma of choosing between being truthful or deceptive about a patient’s medical condition (Rainer et al, 2018). This dilemma results from the nurse’s obligation to prevent harm but also being required to be faithful to colleagues. The other major ethical dilemma relates to incompetence among peers. When a nurse takes note of incompetence in a member of health care team, they find it difficult to decide whether to remain silent or to speak up (Davis & Davis, 2010). In light of an ethical dilemma, what is the role of the nurse in addressing it? Barlow et al (2017) explain that since ethics is fundamental to nursing practice, nurses should enhance their ability to deal with ethical issues through continuous professional development aimed at improving their competencies, skills and knowledge in recognizing and addressing ethical issues. They can do this by taking courses in nursing ethics or bioethics. The second way of addressing ethical dilemma is by being comprehensively familiar with code of ethics for nurses to use it as a justification and resource for ethical practice (Rainer et al, 2018). Thirdly, a nurse should always strive to get facts and to clarify meanings, biases and assumptions among health care team (Barlow et al, 2017). Additionally, a nurse should employing systematic processes in undertaking ethical discernment and analysis with the view of determining an ethically justifiable response to a dilemma (Gore, 2015). Equally important, a nurse should deal with ethical dilemma by knowing relevant resources to enable them navigate ethical concerns that supersede their individual capacities. This may include seeking advice from more experienced health professionals (Barlow et al, 2017). From the above discussion, it is clear that there is a consensus among ethics experts that ethics is an integral part of the nursing practice and that each nurse should adhere to established ethical practices. However, they also acknowledge that realizing optimal ethical compliance is near impossible as nurses face ethical dilemmas on regular basis. Therefore, it is important for nurses to know how to address these dilemmas. The experts have listed a number of ways of addressing ethical dilemmas including improving competencies and skills on nursing ethics, familiarizing with code of nursing ethics, and utilizing systematic processes of undertaking ethical discernment and analysis among others.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Ethical Decision Making Name Institution Affiliation Ethical Decision Making Ethics play an important part that not only contributes to the making of the business brand but also determines to a great extent whether the business organization realizes its desired goals and objectives or not. The decisions and actions made by an individual at a personal level or organizations levels are guided by ethical principles and terms that guide the particular organization that the person works for. The issue of ethics touches on different aspects that include the employee behavior and legal issues, employee working conditions as well as supplier and customer working relations among others. Employees with the right ethics skills and knowledge, hence, proves to be an asset in an organization at both the senior and management level as well as the junior and subordinate level as every human resource in an organization directly and indirectly impacted by the decisions that they make at a personal or group level in an organization. However, this paper analyzes an ethical dilemma at XYZ organization that I am familiar with using The PLUS ethical decision-making model. The ethical case in the XYZ organization occurred when an employee at a senior level failed to promote the most competent and qualified employee in an internal vacancy as an assistant to head of finance because they had previously conflicted in the work about the decisions made at the organization but instead promoted a friend to that position who did not score highly as posted or compared to the employee who was most qualified and more competent according to the set metrics and results of the internal interview processes. Evaluation of the seven steps of the PLUS ethical decision-making dilemma and how each step can be applied to the ethical dilemma Step 1: Define the problem Defining an ethical problem is important as it helps in coming up with pragmatic and objective solutions. The problem has to be defined correctly so that solutions instituted can result in short-term solutions to the problem as well as enhance the organization's realization of its business goals and objectives (The PLUS Ethical Decision Making Model, 2018). The problem in the noted ethical dilemma case is “lack of clear structure and transparency in making internal promotion and rewards of employees that encourage fairness and transparency. Defining an ethical problem correctly hence has proved to be important in the subsequent course of instituting a solution. Step 2: Seek out relevant assistance, guidance and support The tangible and non-tangible resources would prove critical in the ethical dilemma to help solve the issue objectively as noted by Klein et al. (2017) piece. The available resources in the case include people (colleagues) in the XYZ organization, the company policies and codes of conduct that would help and give guideline on the possible steps that the person that feels offended need or even concerned third person might take or consider in the decision that they make In relation to the ethical dilemma. The resources would prove important in providing solutions, prioritizing options and analysis of the impact of the chosen solutions to resolve the ethical concern. Step 3: Identify available alternative solutions to the problem The alternative to the ethical challenge noted in the case of biasness in the promotion of the employee in the internal vacancy include outsourcing of external human resource services to counter and audit the organizations internal and external performance, setting up of appeals duration in such recruitment and promotion processes before the chosen candidate officially assumes office and responsibility bestowed to them by the position, expansion of the managerial team responsible for such recruitment and promotion process from one to at least three so that it can allow for voting and enable them to choose the most competent and qualified candidate as well as enable them to check themselves and enhance professionalism and finally allow such employee in the organization to consider pursuing legal address at a personal level in the organization. 4: Evaluate the identified alternatives Evaluation of possible alternatives to address the ethical dilemma would enhance the chances of addressing the issue objectively (Miller, Wolf & Grodzinsky, 2017). It would also increase the chances of solving the problem in the short and long-term. The strength and weaknesses of each option have to be considered and pragmatic option chosen among the available. In the noted case, considering the external human resource services and audit would reveal the potential problems and help them solve the problem. It would ensure that the organization internal recruitment and promotion processes meet the expected standards and professionalism as required in an organization. It would also point out possible discrepancies within the human resource and organization. The disadvantage is that it would be costly and add additional costs to the organization. The second alternative would enable candidates a fair opportunity to address the ethical challenge and possible promotion and selection issues. The appeal body would help restore the ethical dilemma and ensure those concerned and involved adhere to the ethical decision as they would be made to answer on how they reached their decisions in an appeal case. The drawback is that it would increase the time before a decision is made and in situations that require immediate replacements, it might delay organizations processes. The third option of increasing the number of decision-makers in the decision-making process would improve on transparency and fairness when reaching such decisions. On the negative side, it might also delay on arriving at a decision due to the voting process and reaching a consensus among the responsible people concerned with the process. Finally, the alternative that allows employees to pursue legal measures might increase the option of arriving at a just decision but the drawback is that it might create a rift between the employee and the organization and tarnish the name or brand of the organization when the information comes to the media. Step 5: Make the decision The decision preferred in the presented case to address the ethical dilemma selected is the second option of setting up appeal duration and alternatives so that it can give all concerned stakeholders alternative to express and explain their decisions made. It would also help the organization help resolve its internal issues objectively and internally that would help sustain the organization's image. Step 6: Implement the decision In the implementation process, it would require action. The employee that was victimized as a result of the unethical decision or the colleagues has to initiate internal talks that would allow all the stakeholders involved address the issue objectively by instituting an appeal process in such internal promotions and recruitment. For example, it can introduce internal policies and rules that allow for an appeal on the decision reached in the organization. Step 7: Evaluate the decision The decision of creating appeals process in such decision that includes recruitment and promotion that enhance positive addressing of ethical challenges would help solve the problem objectively. It would enhance transparency, justice and fairness within and without the organization. The decision makers, thus, would have to be compelled to follow the ethical rules and regulations to avoid such appeals and redresses. The new solution, however, would increase the time frame of the decision-making process in an organization. Evaluation of how the model could have mitigated the ethical dilemma The model would have evaluated the ethical dilemma positively by providing alternative options that the organization can take and address the issue positively and objectively. It would also have provided the most logical and rational decision that would provide the short and long-term solutions to the ethical dilemma. References Klein, S. A., Thielmann, I., Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (2017). Between me and we: The importance of self-profit versus social justifiability for ethical decision making. Judgment & Decision Making, 12(6), 563-571. Miller, K., Wolf, M., & Grodzinsky, F. (2017). This 'Ethical Trap' Is for Roboticists, Not Robots: On the Issue of Artificial Agent Ethical Decision-Making. Science & Engineering Ethics, 23(2), 389-401. doi:10.1007/s11948-016-9785-y
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Ethics of Death and Dying: Ethical Analysis of George’s Case Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world? Christians believe that all humanity disobeyed God when after Adam and Eve, the first man and woman, ate the fruit from the “Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil”. This disobedience is termed as the Original sin. Before this occurrence, Adam and Eve lived a righteous life, free from any evil and death. Their world was completely different with the one we have today – it was full of everything they needed. They could also communicate with God directly. However, the original sin caused the rest of the Creation to suffer; humanity became exposed to enslaving powers of evil and death (Sanders, 2007). The two were banished from the Garden of Eden, which Christians term as “The Fall”. The perfect human nature changed abruptly, and humanity became exposed to suffering and the dominion of death. The consequences of original sin are still evident today; people live with pain and suffering, they must work to provide for themselves and they eventually die. George is a victim of the original sin. Firstly, George is an attorney and a legal scholar in a law school in Oregon. He is also a coach at his son’s basketball league. In the beginning, Adam and Eve were not working as the Garden of Eden provided everything they needed to survive. However, upon committing the original sin, God cursed them forcing them to work to meet their needs. George has to work to provide for himself and his family. Also, George has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) which has no cure. Pain and diseases are consequences of the original sin. His life expectancy stands at less than three years. Again, he is going to face another consequence of “The Fall” – death. How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection? Christians believe that there is life after death. Jesus Christ, the Son of God, sacrificed life so that human sins can be forgiven. He died and resurrected on the third day. Through Jesus resurrection, Christians were set free from the dominion of sin and death. To Christians, the resurrection of Jesus and Christianity is the same thing. The resurrection proved that Jesus is the Son of God especially because resurrection was unheard of at the time (HealGrief, 2016). It also proves that physical death is not the end of human existence. God, the giver of life, has the power to raise his followers from the dead. All people – alive and dead – will be judged during rapture (House, 1991). People who follow God’s teaching will go to heaven, and the rest will go to hell. Heaven is described as a magnificent place with no pain, suffering or diseases – only happiness while hell is full of suffering and pain. According to Christianity, we are all sons and daughter of a supreme being – God. This makes George a son of God, just like Jesus. Despite leading a painful life, a happy life awaits him after he dies and resurrects. During the rapture, he will resurrect and face judgment. If he was observing God’s teaching, he will go to heaven and live happily ever after. According to biblical teachings, there is no pain, diseases or suffering in heaven, only happiness. Christians have the hope of resurrection. As such, they should not be worried about earthly pains and sufferings. After resurrecting, George will have another chance to live in either heaven or hell depending on how good he was at observing God’s teaching. Also, God uses his people to manifest his powers either by doing good or bad. Maybe in one way or another, he is using George’s sufferings to show his might. God would like George to be drawn closer to him and pull along others in the cause. As George contemplates life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), how would the Christian worldview inform his view about the value of his life as a person? According to the Christian worldview, George is a perfect example of living in Christ. Firstly, he works to provide himself and his family. He holds three different demanding post – an attorney, legal scholar, and a coach. During creation, the Bible identifies that God worked for six days and rested on the seventh day. This shows the close relationship between Christianity and hard work. Additionally, God commanded man to toil the land and benefit himself from its proceeds. George works hard. Therefore, he follows God’s teaching. Biblically, George’s suffering is a way to strengthen him not only physically but also spiritually. The Bible claims that sufferings should draw us closer to our maker. We should pray for God to heal us or navigate us through our predicaments (Collins, 2002). As such, George is expected to seek God’s intervention at this hard time. Besides, he led a good life and had his aspirations. He is a father meaning that he fulfilled his God-given role as a procreator. What sorts of values and considerations would the Christian worldview focus on in deliberating about whether or not George should opt for euthanasia?
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Ethical Analysis for Leaders Name of Student Name of University Ethical Analysis for Leaders Health professionals often confront various ethical dilemmas, especially those relating to palliative care. The dilemmas have increased in the face of technological and scientific advances in the field of medical care (Giblin, 2012). As the ability of health professionals to deliver positive health outcomes increases, the implicit obligation to offering ethically and clinically appropriate care also increases. However, many nurses who are at the frontline of their organization to provide skilled and compassionate palliative care feel ill prepared in addressing the ethical issues that occur (Jooyoung et al, 2015). This is in spite of them being more involved in this kind of care and being present at the time of death of patients who are under this form of care compared to other health professionals. This paper will focus on the issue of ethical dilemma that relates to hospitals leaving it up to the individual nurses to initiate palliative care decisions. Entrusting nurses to initiate palliative care decisions presents various ethical challenges. The first ethical challenge relates to the issue of beneficence that requires nurses to act in patients’ best interests. Nurses have occasionally shared cases where care provided to patients proved futile or non-beneficial (Jooyoung et al, 2015). In some instances, the family of patients request that all efforts be directed on their on their patients even when there is no improvement with the treatments. Nurses in these scenarios face difficulties understanding the best treatment solution available to such patients and struggle to determine what care is the most appropriate for the palliative care patients (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009). The second ethical challenge that they face relates to the possibility of usurping or threatening the autonomy of patients. Some of the decisions that a nurse may make while initiating palliative care may be based on own judgment and may be opposite of what patients wanted. This is particularly the case when physicians have abdicated to nurses the duty of making important palliative care decisions. In other instances, a nurse may be faced with the challenge of attempting to determine whether patients has a capacity of making own decisions (Giblin, 2012). The ethical challenges presented in a situation where individual nurses initiate palliative care decisions have adverse implications for patient outcomes and safety. It undermines the quality of patient care outcomes including patient satisfaction (Jooyoung et al, 2015). For example, due to the ill preparedness of many nurses to deal with ethical issues when they occur in palliative care, they are likely to cause medical errors that might have negative consequences on the patients. The second implication is that it undermines human dignity as a fundamental guide for patient safety (Giblin, 2012). For instance, a nurse decision in palliative care that interferes with a patient’s autonomy takes away the responsibility and freedom of patients for their own lives. It also negatively affects the level of transparency and trustworthiness of patients towards health organizations and professionals thus affecting the psychological, cultural, and physical safety of patients (Beauchamp and Childress, 2009). The main stakeholders who have interest in this issue are physicians, nurses, patients and patients’ family members. Physicians’ frame of reference relates to the sufficiency of treatment decisions. Nurses’ frame of reference relates to the levels of communication and confidentiality between them and physicians and with patients. Patients and their families’ main concerns are about the impact of treatments on their wellbeing. All these stakeholders are engaged in decision-making regarding palliative care (Jooyoung et al, 2015). Leaving individual nurses to initiate palliative care decisions can lead to numerous ethical challenges. Some of these challenges include on the ethical principle of beneficence and autonomy. It is important to address these challenges by involving all the key stakeholders in making palliative care decisions.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Essay 1. The chosen two sets of source texts The chosen sources of sets are Ooka Shohei novel titled “Fires on the Plain” and Chimakatsu Monzaemon’s play titled “Love Suicides at Amijima.” a. Discussion on how Shohei and Monzaemon adapted their work to achieve success. The two pieces of literature display an example of an exceptional literal work that incorporates different literal styles and elements making them easily understood and meet high standards. The first piece by Shohei is a novel that narrates the story of war and the experiences that the main character private Tamura overcomes in the different episodes that form the main part of the story. The story builds from the essentials that include separated sub-titles or themes that enable the easier transition of events from one episode to the other. For example, it starts with the sub-title of “departure” that transits to others that builds on the previous contents. There is the use of dialogue between different characters in the piece that enables readers to understand the traits of actors. It also makes the work interesting. The use of figurative language such as metaphors and similes that enables readers creates an image and picture about the scenarios described. For example, “I scooped up some of the earth and it shone in my hands like a firefly” (Ooka 63). The piece also presents different themes that include war, love, and revenge among others that makes the work interesting presented in different scenarios between and among characters. The play by Monzaemon also displays different elements and styles of literature that make it great. It starts by indicating cast of characters and their relationships with other actors. The play is divided into three Acts with several scenes. The interchange between dialogues and actors is well placed that makes it easier for readers to understand and follow the play. There is also the use of poems and songs by different actors that supplement the messages and themes presented. The transition in between scenes and Act is well presented where the venues of such scenes also indicated to guide followers of the play. For example, “Scene Two: The Kawachi House, a Sonezaki tea house” (Monzaemon 174). The use of footnote in the pages also provides additional guidelines and directions about the contents presented that makes it easier for readers to follow the play acts and scenes. The themes of love, revenge, social class, and prostitution dominate the play. The use of figurative language such as simile is noted in the work that makes the work interesting enabling viewers reflect about the scenarios and contents presented. The directors of the works incorporated the mentioned themes and literal styles as well as professionalism that helped them achieve success in their works. b. Consider the socio-historical contexts in which each of the films you have chosen was made. i. How the times in which each film was made have influenced each director to make the changes from the source text to film The times influenced the director to make changes from source text to film by replacing scenarios or events that would be difficult to be displayed as indicated in the text, for instance, of Monzaemon play, was done in the early 1700s.There might be some cultures and practices that are no longer practiced as noted in the text and, thus, such changes might influence the directors to make changes. They can bring a similar scene or scenario that can replace such extinct practices but retain the main message and theme to enable the audience of the work to comprehend it and relate it to the present society. The costumes and attires used at the time might be replaced with the current attires that can enable viewers easily relate and understand the film, hence, encourage the directors to make changes. ii. The messages the changes convey The messages that the changes convey include changed cultures such as costumes and dress cords and changed technology that was used at the time. The messages indicate that production of such films has experienced positive development with changing technology and culture in the production process. iii. How the changes affect the apprehension of each of the films in terms of significant form The changes affect the viewer’s apprehension of the film as it creates a possibility of misinterpretation of the themes and messages as some of the changes involve language used in the production of the films. Some directors translate the work to different languages and in the course of doing that, the main message originally expressed in the works might be lost. It also creates a fear that ancient cultures and practices that are supposed to be preserved by such films might be lost when such changes occur. For example, the costume and other culture shown by the actors that shows the socio-historical contexts in the source texts. Works Cited Monzaemon, Chimakatsu. “The Love Suicides at Amijima.” 1720. Print. Ooka, Shohei. Fires on the Plain. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company. 1957. Print.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Working With Vulnerable Adolescents and Transitional Age Youth Name Institution Affiliation Working With Vulnerable Adolescents and Transitional Age Youth I. Two primary reasons for working with vulnerable adolescents and transitional age youth in NYC. a. The first reason is that I am currently working with that population that has given me experience and exposure on how to handle and address issues affecting them objectively impacting on their lives positively as asserted in Katie (2016) piece. The organization that I work for, SCO Family Services helps runaway adolescents aged between 18-21 years. The organization has a mission of helping young vulnerable people to transit in the future with a strong foundation that helps them unlock their potential and succeed in life. b. The second reason is that I am young and can relate to them and, therefore, it would help me understand deeper factors and issues that affect them. I was once an adolescent and I can relate and reflect on the experiences and challenges that many youths go through at that stage of life. 2. The reasons stated above are from personal experiences. However, I have also read more about vulnerable adolescent populations that have enabled me to understand the subject more as it is a subject that interests and excite me as I relate to what the different scholars and researchers have published about vulnerable adolescents on a daily basis. 3. I hope to learn more from the project field that include different approaches that can be used to address the vulnerable adolescents population, strategies to be employed in understanding the dynamic backgrounds and lifestyle of vulnerable adolescents population as well as establish a network of professionals that can form a good consultancy base in issues affecting vulnerable adolescents and transitional age youths. 4. I see myself working with at-risk teens, run away homeless youths and LGTBG populations to help them overcome the challenges that they confront on a daily basis objectively. It is because the groups show a common variable related to age and potential child abuse and upbringing challenges noted also in Gateman (2014) work. The experience that I have developed will give me an upper hand possibly in working in the mentioned settings. References Gitterman, A. (2014). Handbook of social work practice with vulnerable and resilient populations. New York ; Chichester, England : Columbia University Press. Katie, W. (2016). Helping Vulnerable Children and Adolescents to Stay Safe: Creative Ideas and Activities for Building Protective Behaviours. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Comparison of Delia and Emily Characters Literature work enables the readers to understand the information that the authors and producers of the different pieces have through the incorporation of different styles and techniques that will allow literal works such as novels, plays, stories and drama among others convey meaning and messages to the audience. The use of a character that has qualities and competencies to portray certain images and traits also contributes to the development and formation of the stories in the different literal works produced. Character analysis, therefore, has continued to remain an essential part of styles and techniques that authors and producers of different pieces of literal works continue to use. However, this paper compares and contrasts two different characters of Delia from Hurston’s piece “ sweat” and that of Emily from Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily" noting how they contribute in developing of the plot and stories in the different work. The two women in the different pieces portray characters that share and show the same theme that notes women empowerment, freedom and feminism. The similarities shown by Delia and Emily enables the topics and messages conveyed by the authors easily displayed and understood. Delia shows brevity where she revolts against oppression that she has undergone for many years in the men dominated society. The society was equality surprised that noted the oppression that Delia had experienced over the years in her marriage that commenced shortly after their marriage. Delia also shows patience and understanding. It is because she had undergone difficult moments for over 15 years in their abusive marriage relationship through the threats and fears that her husband had used to enhance her oppression and abuse by capitalizing on the fears of snakes that Delia had (Gale, 14). Emily also shows a similar scenario that improves and portrays the theme of feminism and women empowerment. Emily, a woman of age that is supposed to be married has to adhere to her father’s demands and wishes that refused her to get married. It is imperative to note that marriage is a right of women and they have a right to make decisions about their lives whether to get married or not. Emily shows patience and understanding even when her rights and privileges are abused by her father who died surprisingly. Emily shows brevity after her father's death where she changes her social life and status and engages more with the community in the socialization process and events. Emily is fierce and proud because she continues to behave and live in happiness even after her father’s death (Faulkner, 27). Her personality and character surprise many that have made the local administration fear to confront her in the subject and interest that they had about their family and life. Her character enables portrayal of women empowerment and feminism aspects as they note and show how society relates and treats women who advocate and enhance justice, freedom, and equality in the society. The personality and character of the Delia and Emily in the mentioned literal work helps the authors and presenters of the piece convey the messages and themes that they had to their audience with ease. It also allows others characters and parties to portray and play their parts, hence, enabling the audience to reflect on the real societal concerns they encounter in life. The two also shows the relationship that women have with their families and close relatives where most more often shows loyalty and respect to their families. However, in the event of abuse, the two characters had demonstrated that women could revolt in brevity demanding change in the status quo. In conclusion, the character of Delia and Emily has enabled the authors and producers of the two literal pieces to portray true character and themes that advocate for change and revolution against the oppression of the women in the family and society as a whole. Works Cited Faulkner, William. A Rose for Emily: Short Story. Toronto: HarperCollins Canada, 2013. Internet resource. Gale, Cengage L. A Study Guide for Zora Neale Hurston's Sweat. , 2016. Internet resource.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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