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BEST TERTIARY EDUCATION ESSAYS

  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    English/Language Arts Content Framework Overview Name of Student Name of University Abstract English language assessment influences decisions about placement, grades, advancement, need for curriculum improvements, and instructional needs. Assessments provide opportunities to know whether students are learning reading and writing skills that will enable them to meet their educational needs and face the world. It helps in the determination of whether students can think critically, make inferences, and analyze situations. There are three types of assessment based on whether the objective is to assess for learning or assess of learning. The three types of assessment are formative, classroom summative, and large-scale summative assessment. It is important to make considerations for assessment for an effective assessment. Important considerations include students with learning disabilities, scoring, language learners, rigor and quality of assessment, assessment examples, performance levels descriptors, assessment measures, and student involvement.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Employment Classification and Discrimination Name Institution Affiliation Date Employment Classification and Discrimination Employment classification is an important part that companies and individuals have to understand to help them avoid possible legal challenges in the event they are contravened. There are numerous laws and regulations designed in different parts of the world that address the critical issue related to employment and discrimination within the employment world. Some of such reforms have resulted from the affirmative action championed by human rights activists that try to enhance better working conditions for employees and business associates. However, this paper presents an analysis of an employment scenario in “Dream Massage” that touches on independent contractor and employee as well as discrimination aspects related to employment and ethics. Analysis on Whether the Employee Qualifies As An Employee Or Independent Contractor. The employee qualifies as an employee and not as an independent contractor. It is because independent contractors operate as their own businesses, which is not the case in the presented scenario. Secondly, independent contractors would market their services and products independently as asserted by Redfearn III (2016) work that is not the case in the scenario as Dream massage is responsible for providing her clients. Third, independent contractors are engaged in a specific project or time period, which is not the case in the presented scenario. Moreover, independent contractors determine when and how they work that contravene the presented scenario. The above case, thus, qualifies more as an employee and not as an independent contractor. The incidence where the independent contractor is informed on her first day when she reports working about company dress policy in itself is a contradiction of the law as an independent contractor determine when they work and how they work including the dress code they prefer to wear working. The employee that informed the independent contractor about the dress code policy, hence, is not informed and aware of the legal requirements that guide independent contractors. The company ought to brief them on the expectations and conduct in dealing with an independent contractor (Lawlor & Willey, 2017). By providing the contractor massage products and exercising complete control over how she performs her work contravene the legal and work expectation when dealing with an independent contractor. It contravenes her legally bound position that includes working independently and limits her freedom and choice that makes her an expert and professional in the job that she does. In the noted case, there are some aspects that the employer (Dream Massage) has done right in relation to independent contractors that include but not limited to not giving employment benefits or not enhancing tax withholding. In the presented scenario, the terms and conditions stated by Dream Massage make the independent contractor qualifies more as an employee rather than the present case where she is hired as an independent contractor. Discussion Whether Dream Massage Has Potentially Violated Any Employment Discrimination Laws. Dream massage has violated employment discrimination laws that not only contravene the independent contractor’s terms and expectations but also employee’s laws. The company dress policy, for instance, does not apply to the independent contractor and, therefore, when the company staff tries to compel the independent contractor to adhere to the company policies is in itself an act that contravenes the law. Moreover, independent contractors work independently and determine when and how they work. In the above case, the independent contractors are not ‘independent’ and free as she ought to determine her work schedule and when she can perform the tasks with her clients that she are supposed to find them independently. However, the company has scheduled her tasks and controls almost every action that she does including the tasks of finding her clients, scheduling her work and timings as well as provisions of the products that she uses to perform her tasks. The mentioned aspects contravene the laws enhancing discrimination and unprofessionalism (Deross Jr., 2017). The aspects that the employer (Dream Massage) has permitted the independent contractor that conforms to the law include not receiving company and employment benefits or not withholding tax only. In the above case, thus, the company has violated discrimination laws by designing the agreement to suit only the company and not the independent contractor as required by law. It, hence, results in exploitation and abuse of the independent contractor. Moreover, employment discrimination laws prohibit discrimination alongside ethnic and religious lines. The company by not allowing the independent contractor to put on her hijab is a contravention of the law that prohibits discrimination in terms of religious backgrounds and aspects that include the dress codes. Analysis of the Ethical Considerations behind a Company to Maintain a Rigid Dress Policy Many companies have maintained a rigid dress policy that many times has contravened the ethical and legal employment laws in many parts of the world. Many have often argued that the main reason is to distinguish between religion and work setups. They argue that for them to enhance neutrality within the work setups, religious attires have to be reserved and kept in religious settings such as churches and mosques and not workplaces. It is because they argue when it is tolerated it also discriminates between and among workers in organizations (DeVelder, 2010). For example, other employees that do not put on the attires might feel the company is biased along religions line. It might also bring tension between and among employees of different religious beliefs. Companies, thus, try to enhance neutrality within the companies. Moreover, some companies also argue that by prioritizing such policies, they enhance the safety and security aspects of the companies. Manufacturing companies, for instance, prioritize the issue of safety and security and, therefore, it is the reason they have designed working attires such as overall, dust coats, headgear, gloves and other attires that enhances safety aspects. Hence, to such companies, the safety and security aspects can be enhanced through maintaining a rigid dress policy. In conclusion, the described case presents an example that notes how employment and independent contractor’s laws are contravened as realized in many places. It also notes how discriminatory laws and aspects that contribute to the ethical issues relating to different discrimination such as related to dress code policies within companies. It is imperative for companies and employers to understand the legal requirements guiding employment contracts to avoid the possibility of legal interventions when they do not comply. References Deross Jr., J. (2017). Misclassification of Employees as Independent Contractors in Indiana: A State Legislative Solution. Indiana Law Review, 50(2), 673-695. DeVelder, C. J. (2010). Office Culture Wars: Don't Be A Casualty of Generational Battles. Student Lawyer, 38(8), 5-6. Lawlor, L. G., & Willey, S. L. (2017). Are Your Workers Employees or Independent Contractors? Three Exercises to Help Students Accurately Classify Workers. Journal of Legal Studies Education, 34(2), 167-205. doi:10.1111/jlse.12060 Redfearn III, R. L. (2016). Sharing Economy Misclassification: Employees and Independent Contractors in Transportation Network Companies. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 311023-1056. doi:10.15779/Z38JR9M
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Employee Training and Retention Name Institution Affiliation Employee Training and Retention Human capital plays an essential role in the society that ensures that capital goods invested in business organization results in actual production and output to help the businesses make profits. Human resource, therefore, plays an important role that ensures that companies recruit and employ people that have high skills and competencies that would help the business or organizations realize their full potential in the short and long-term. Human resource professionals and scholars, thus, focus on developing strategies and applying techniques that would enhance production and output among the human capital in the different organizations that they are responsible and working for. In contemporary times, competition between and among business entities in the same industry or field as well as other industries has increased tremendously resulting in stiff competition and in particular during this times that the concept of globalization has dominated many issues in the world that include trade and business at both the local and international level. Human resource, therefore, has a significant role to play in an organization that would ensure that organization develops programs that are sustainable that not only enhance production and productivity but also encourages retention of human capital to save the organizations from costs of recruiting and selection of newer employees when employees leave. The human resource, consequently, has to rely upon and conduct thorough research about an organization and the human capital resource available to help the organizations realize the desired benefits as well as encourage and motivate employees that results in high morale and productivity. However, this paper presents different concepts related to employee retention and training and uses Walgreens business as an example that enhances the various ideas presented regarding employee training and retention. It also notes how training problems may be fixed as well as the cost benefits of training new employees and new hires. It concludes by a discussion of how lack of competitive pay affects employee retention. How Proper Employee Training Can Maintain Employee Retention Proper employee training that emphasizes professional growth has contributed positively in many aspects that result in employee retention. A training exercise in professional development makes employees more competitive and increase their output and production in an organization. It also increases the confidence level that employees have to handle and manage different tasks effectively resulting in an effective production that results in profits and other related benefits for the business organization (Finnegan, 2018). Moreover, training programs that business organization have motivates an employee that gives them confidence and trust. That their employer is not only after using them to make profits but also values them as employees, hence, results in a motivated workforce that shows high productivity and also develops mutual trust between employees and employers in the short and long-term that they have a relationship. Besides, employees more often compare and contrast between business organizations or different employers to note the benefits and programs that employers have that would enhance and improve their professional careers and growth. Therefore, if employees discover that only a few employers and businesses consider the option of providing professional training for their employees, they rank and value the organization that they work for among the best. It is because of such training programs that intend to improve the human capital competencies and, therefore, a business organization that provides such services have a higher chance of retaining the employees that they have. It, in turn, results in positive growth and development for the business that eliminates possible costs that could be spent on hiring new employees as a recruitment and selection is a difficult and expensive affair for business organizations. Training in internal leadership programs and management roles also motivates and give employees confidence and motivates them giving them hope and confidence to fill possible internal vacancies in leadership and management positions that would be available in a business organization. It, thus, motivates employees and discourages them from leaving the organizations that they work as it becomes only a matter of patience and time that the employees would rise to higher levels and positions that come with greater responsibilities as well as high rewards in terms of benefits that include higher wages and salaries (Cooper & Rothmann, 2013). Such a strategy, therefore, helps business organization enhance and encourage retention among employees to include even those contemplating to leave for other competitors. Scholars in the human resource, as well as researchers, often note the idea and concept of training employees need to be viewed from the aspects of investments and not an item of expenditure. It is because of the long-term benefits that a business organization realizes in the short and long-term that includes sustainability in production and output from the human capital that would raise the business organizational competitive advantage that it can use to maneuver in the competitive world that business organization in the current environment experience. Retention of employees for a longer period also creates a positive image and brand for a business organization as the public and prospective employees often take the perception that the business must be doing things correctly and professionally that resulted in the higher levels of retention of its employees. Prospects employees, therefore, would make efforts and try to join the companies and business organizations that show such characteristics that would enhance the attraction of different and unique talents from the outside. Such a positive image and brand also attracts other stakeholders that the business organizations deal with that include supplier, financial organizations and even government and administration that encourage employees to its people. The positive image created among other stakeholders would increase the chances that such an organization would attract more business for the organization and, therefore, the organization would realize its set business goals and objectives with ease. Additionally, scholars and researchers in human capital and human resource also note that training employees increase expertise within the company. It makes the business become above bar and competitiveness that sets examples that other competitors emulates and, consequently, giving it a competitive advantage. It, hence, encourages creativity and innovation on different approaches that such business or organization can use and improve its productive output as well as enhance its competitive advantage. Increased expertise within a company fills the gap that can exist that can prompt an organization to higher from outside. It, hence, indirectly helps business organizations save on possible costs that they would use in hiring newer employees to fill a skill gap that might exist within an organization and, therefore, an organization saves directly and indirectly as a result of the training process. It also prepares employees to take up additional roles that can be merged with the current roles that the employees have and, thus, it would directly save on costs that could have been used to fill the gap and acquire the skill (Maylett & Wride, 2017). It is also imperative to note that such merger of roles and duties as a result of enhanced skills acquired by employees has to be rewarded by appreciation and acknowledgment and in particular through a rising in salaries and wages that the employees in the new merged position would play. The merged skills set would not only help the business organization but also improve on the competencies that such worker or employees have resulted in higher output and production by the employees that directly and indirectly contribute to the organization or business success. The training that the employees get grooms future leaders in the organization. The training exposes the employees to newer responsibilities and skills required to fulfill specific tasks and positions in the organization and, therefore, it gives them an earlier opportunity and exposure that can help them reflect upon the positions of leadership as well as contemplate a possible strategies and changes that they can execute when they get the positions in future. It results in competent and confident leaders able to make bold decisions that can help organizations enhance its goals and objectives in the business world. Such leadership training also gives employees hope and confidence about the organization increasing their prospects of getting future positions in the business organization that directly and indirectly also lessens their chances of leaving the organization and, thus, enhances retention. It also assures employees of the organization's internal recruitment policies and practice because the organization invests in them through training and, therefore, gives them confidence and encourages them to produce and give their best as it motivates employees that strive to improve through results and output of their capabilities in leadership positions. Training also challenges and excites employees where they confront newer approaches and methods in the workplace through the training process eliminating boredom and monotony that can happen when there is continuous retention in processes and approaches in the workplace (Noe, 2016). It, hence, encourages employees to learn and acquire more regarding skills and competencies and, therefore, results in output and production that helps the employees, as well as the organization, realize its business goals and objectives with ease. Type of Training Provided By Walgreens and What It Entails Walgreens is an example of a business that shows that employee training can result in more benefits in the short and long-term for a business organization. It has developed training strategies and policies that have helped Walgreens realize its business goals and objectives with ease resulting in its rapid growth and expansion in all states in the US. Walgreens provides internal training among its employees that has supported its policy and strategy of internal recruitment that has made its employees highly motivated resulting in high turnover and production among employees in the short and long-term that the company has existed. The internal recruiting process adopted by Walgreens has made most of its leadership and management team recruited and promoted from within noted in all the stores that they have as well as district and regional leaders. The management and leadership that Walgreens boost of many years experience that they have with the company. Where almost all proudly affirm that they started in the lowest cadres and ranks that exists in the business and, therefore, they acquired vast years of experience with the company that has resulted in retention of the employees for a long time making Walgreens save on costs that would have been incurred in recruitment of new talents to fill the skills gaps that would have existed had they lost many of their employees. Moreover, besides the internal recruitment program that the business organization has, it also has an internal leadership mentorship and training program where potential employees with leadership qualities and competencies are considered and trained in leadership roles and responsibilities as a preparation of leadership positions that more often is filled internally because of the policies that they have developed over time. The internal recruitment policy that Walgreens has as well as the training programs that they have that not only increases the skills and competencies of employees but also prepares them for leadership positions has made the company earn recognition and win several awards in the business world that include the most active retail business in the world. Walgreens has adopted the policy of training for many years because they have realized that it provides more benefits in both the short-term and long-term. Therefore, provides prove and evidence that indeed employee training, directly and indirectly, contributes to employee retention that has brought sustainability concerning production by employees. As well high returns and output by Walgreen company for the many years that it has existed enabling the business to expand and grow its potential in the business world as well as help it realize its business goals and objectives with ease. The training that Walgreens has entails commitment in leadership and strategy not only from the human resource department but also its top leadership. They view the policy and procedure employed of employee training as an investment and not an item of expenditure that has enabled the company to realizes its full potential. It results from employee retention that has increased the skills sets of employees, build confidence among employees, as well as better prepare them for leadership programs and position in the company that results in higher output and production by employees as well as the organization. Its policy can also be related to the facts that it recruited and expanded its workforce in recent times. It can be attributed to its system of employee training that attracted many applicants and interested parties to join the team in Walgreens and be part of an organization that has proved as a leader and created a positive image and brand enabling its expansion programs to reach many places and states in the US. Walgreens, hence, asserts that employee training encourages employee retention and, therefore, business organizations are encouraged to emulate the practice of Walgreens of employee training. How Training Problems That May Exist Within the Organization May Be Fixed Research has proved to be an important and critical process that enables individuals and organizations to find facts and evidence that they can use to expand their programs whether in the social, economic or political aspects. Research findings would show the areas that need to be fixed and, therefore, provide a sustainable solution to the possible challenges that an organization may experience resulting from training problems. The research did also point out the specific areas that the training needs to concentrate as well as the best training approaches that can be used to realize positive and intended goals with ease. Training as an approach and strategy that the human resource and management can use may experience problems that would provide rational and logical as solutions to ensure the issues are addressed objectively (Bush & Great, 2018). Different employee training exists and, therefore, finding the right training that needs to be delivered and to who among the employees would eliminate the possible problems that might arise such as delivering a wrong training to an audience or delivery of a right training to a wrong audience that would, hence, imply and mean a repeat of the exercise. Clearing the question, therefore, of what types of training that needs to be fixed as well as the person responsible for delivering the training. Such a problem may be fixed by stating categorically in advance who will be responsible and when as well as the people to be trained and on what they are trained. Enhanced communication internally and externally as well would make the entire likely problem of training wrong employees, as well as training on the wrong contents and subject, would be eliminated by simply enhanced communication in an organization. The human resource team must actively be involved in such processes in advance and provide all the necessary information required that would make the selected employees to be trained as well as design the content to be trained about. The person doing the training whether coming from internal employees and team or outsourced from the external options may be consultants and experts in different areas and the subject would also provide clarity and enhanced successful training programs and processes in an organization. The human resource would be responsible for determining and making such decisions, and it is expected that they take up active actions that would ensure that the right person is chosen whether internally or externally that would help the organization realize its full potential as far as the training goals and objectives are concerned. The person that develops the training materials, as well as the environment that the training will be conducted, must also be answered promptly. The training materials must be well designed and chosen that would enhance easy learning. The materials should include the employee’s side as well as the learning materials that not only help the instructor deliver the training effectively but also help learners learn with ease to enhance effective learning and successful training process. The learning manager, thus, needs to take actions and responsibility that would facilitate a successful training process for an organization. Standardization of training is a possibility that might bring training challenges resulting in different standards and outcomes that might not help an organization and contribute to successful training. Standardized training models, for example, would play an important role that would increase the chance of eliminating standardization problems that might happen in an organization leading to low standards that might impact an organization negatively. Another factor presented by scholars in the human resource and particularly related to training notes that cultural differences might be experienced as well (Maylett & Wride, 2017). They note that in contemporary times global workforce has resulted in organization recruiting personnel from all corners of the world that display different cultures and competencies. The training, therefore, for an organization that has people with diverse backgrounds and culture must choose an approach that would enhance easy understanding of the concepts and ideologies in the training modules. Use of more than one approach such as collaborative group learning as well as individual learning approaches would likely eliminate training difficulties that might arise as a result of the training. The use of multilingual training documents as well as those that incorporate diverse cultures and backgrounds might increase the chances of the successful training session as well as help eliminate possible barriers that might arise as a result of different cultural backgrounds in an organization that has a global workforce team. Generation gap might also present itself in the training programs and become a problem. It is where the people trained come from different age sets and groups that might cause misunderstandings in the training sessions and programs provided. Another likely problem includes employees showing lack of engagement and commitment because they do not see the relevance of the training as well as cannot understand the objective of the training. It can be addressed by developing an exciting portfolio that would help them better engaged as well as choosing varieties of options and strategies for training to eliminate boredom and monotony can lead to employees withdrawing from such training sessions and programs. Finally, getting feedback that shows course completion that helps the facilitators of the training program note whether the course objectives have been achieved or not is important (Cooper & Rothmann, 2013). The training feedback, thus, would note if the earlier set training objectives and outcomes have been achieved or not and if there is need for a change in the training methods and approach in the event the training outcomes presented initially have not been achieved. The Cost-Benefit of Training Existing Employees versus New Hires The subject of training new employees versus new hires continues to attract debates beyond the profession of human resource. However, the costs benefit analysis shows that increasing retention has more benefits and advantages to an organization in both the short and long-term. Employee turnover that shows how fast employers replace their employees can seriously disrupt organization productivity. Some costs are involved when employee turnover occurs in an organization. The first entails recruitment costs that an organization would have in trying to replace the employees that have left. Recruitment is affirmed as one of the most expensive processes in an organization that starts from advertisements to the end process that involves hiring the employee. It also consists in training the new employee about the organization's policies and approaches that guide the conduct and values that the new organization has (Finnegan, 2018). Secondly, the separation costs also impact the organization negatively. It entails costs such as insurance claims that depend on the nature and type of previous employment agreements that existed as well as times spent on processing termination and conducting exit interviews among others. It impacts the organization negatively. Lastly, productivity costs that have proved harder to quantify that include lost hours of unproductively while the position is vacant and the recruitment process is ongoing. Moreover, the time that the employee would take to adapt and start being productive that can reach the level of productivity posted by the previous employee. Also, the experience and expertise that include training that such employee results in losses as an investment made in training does not result in expected output for the organization. Organizations are, thus, encouraged to have lower employee turnover rates and help retention to realize the benefits that accrue from such actions and reduce the possible cost benefits that new hires bring in an organization. How the Lack of Competitive Pay Affects Employee Retention Lack of competitive pay would discourage employees as they would feel being overused and underpaid. It leads to a reduction in employee output and the business organization overall output and production. Competitive salary or pay enhances self-esteem and confidence that leads to higher production and output. Employee retention, hence, becomes difficult when there is a lack of competitive pay as discouraged and demoralized employees often start thinking and contemplating leaving and look for newer and greener pastures (Noe, 2016). It makes organization have difficulties in retaining employees as well as attracting more unique talents in the organization that ultimately leads to lower productivity by employees and the organization as a whole. In conclusion, employee training and retention has proved to be an essential part for organizations that results in more benefits in the short and long-term. Business organizations are encouraged to take approaches and options that enhance employee training that results in retention and saves on costs that they would incur in recruitment and replacing such employees. It, hence, should be viewed and taken as an investment and not viewed as expenditure by organizations and the leadership of the organization as well as the human resource team must develop strategies that can enhance training and retention. The right type of training also has to be made as noted in the Walgreens case. It is also important to fix training programs that organization might experience when conducting employee training objectively and professionally. The costs benefit of training new employees is expensive and, hence, policies should be developed that encourage employee retention that includes competitive pay and training among other options. References Bush, M. C., & Great, P. W. G. P. W. (2018). A Great Place to Work for All: Better for Business, Better for People, Better for the World. Oakland: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Incorporated. Cooper, C. & Rothmann, I. (2013). Organizational and Work Psychology: Topics in Applied Psychology. Routledge. Finnegan, R. (2018). Power of Stay Interviews for Engagement and Retention. S.L.: Ipg-Academic. Maylett, T., & Wride, M. (2017). The employee experience: How to attract talent, retain top performers, and drive results. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley Noe, R. A. (2016). Employee Training and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
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    Employee Engagement Name of Student Name of University Employee Engagement In the current competitive marketplace, it is impossible for an organization to sustain its operations without an energized workforce. Organizations require employees that believe and understand a firm’s mission and its intentions to achieve its mission. Engaged and committed employees give corporations competitive advantages including low employee turnover and high productivity. Thus, organizations regardless of their type and size have invested in practices and policies that foster commitment and engagement in the workplace. Employee engagement is a major metric in the assessment of the performance of a company (Peretz & Fried, 2012). One of the firms that has benefited from employee engagement is Caterpillar, a construction equipment maker (Peretz & Fried, 2012). Following practices and policies to foster employee engagement, the firm has benefited through savings from reduced attrition, overtime, and absenteeism, increased productivity, and increased profits. Highly engaged employees are more likely to go the extra mile to complete duties and deliver on the job performance. Studies on employee engagement show a correlation between employee engagement and commitment. Engaged employees are likely to commit their future with their current employer. For instance, software company Intuit established that engaged employees were 1.3 times more likely to be classified as high performers. This implies that employee engagement can translate into valuable business outcomes for a company. This is evident from the performance of Molson Coors Brewing Company (Petrescu & Simmons, 2008). At this brewing company, engaged employees were less likely to have safety incidents and lost-time safety incidents than unengaged employees were. The firm established that a safety incident for an engaged employee was $63 while for an unengaged employee, the safety incident potentially cost $392 (Petrescu & Simmons, 2008). Through efforts to strength employee engagement, Molson Coors saved approximately $1,721,760 in costs in 2002. Additionally, differences in performance associated cost for the low and highly engaged employee teams were $2,104,823 (Petrescu & Simmons, 2008). Studies on organizational socialization and work roles can be used as frameworks for the investigation of employee engagement and the degree in which people occupy their job roles. Based on these studies, personal disengagement and personal engagement represent two ends of the employee engagement continuum (Öner, 2012). On the personal engagement end, employees intellectually, physically, and emotionally occupy their work role. Conversely, at the personal disengagement end, employees withdraw and uncouple themselves from a role. Different factors play a role in making employees personally engaged in work related activities. In most of the cases, employers assess employee engagement using opinion surveys and company-wide attitude surveys. Sampling of the criteria used by employees to assess employee engagement reveals that there are ten common themes, which relate to employee engagement. These themes are satisfaction with an employer, pride in an employer, opportunity to perform well in a challenging work, personal support from a supervisor, efforts beyond the minimum, recognition and positive feedback, intention to stay with an employer, prospects for future growth, and understanding the link between an organization’s mission and a job (Osman, Ho & Galang, 2011). Evaluation of employee engagement can help in the determination of the ways an engaged workforce creates valuable business outcomes for a company. In this case, the process begins with practices such as task and job design, training, recruitment, performance management, compensation, and career development. These practices influence employee engagement and job performance. Engagement and performance interact to generate positive business outcomes. Engaging employees and reaping the benefits of engagement requires a business to invest on human resources practices. These practices facilitate employees to cope with job characteristics (Osman, Ho & Galang, 2011). There are five motivational job characteristics, which are task identity, skill variety, performance feedback, autonomy, and task significance. These characteristics help an organization to promote personal responsibility, internal motivation, and job satisfaction, which are crucial for employee engagement. The broadening of job responsibilities and its scope coupled with less management oversight led to the consideration of the social characteristics of work as a driver of employee engagement. Crucial attributes of the social characteristics of work include feedback from supervisors, interdependence of job roles, and opportunities for support from co-workers (McLean, 2010). Analysis of work-design revealed that the social characteristics of work influence employee engagement and subsequently employee commitment. Research on employee engagement has also revealed a relationship between proactive work behaviors and job enrichment relationships (Macky & Boxall, 2007). Based on these studies, workplaces that have enriched work stimulate enthusiasm and engagement in employees. An enriched workplace is characterized by variety, autonomy, co-worker trust, and meaningfulness. In this case, engagement encourages workers to define their roles broadly. This enhances an employee’s willingness to assume ownership of challenges that are beyond their assigned tasks (Marchington & Kynighou, 2012). This inspires employees to solve problems and innovate. Therefore, job enrichment facilitates employee engagement in voluntary and prescribed work activities. Conclusion Engaged employees have the potential to help a company achieve its mission. They can also help a company execute its strategy and create positive business outcomes. Human resources practices such as recruitment, job design, compensation, and training have the potential to enhance employee engagement. Exploration of employee engagement shows that it is more complex than perceived. Companies measure and define engagement in different ways, which suggests that there are diverse ways to stimulate employee engagement in the workplace. Decisions to investment in employee engagement rely on the firm’s strategy with its workforce. Therefore, it is essential to consider the uniqueness of an organization when analyzing its workforce composition and strategy. This will help human resources teams to understand employee engagement in the context of individual organizations. This is also important when weighing options and designing an investment plan for employee engagement.
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    Problematic Aspects in Emigration Name of Student Institutional Affiliation Aspects of Emigration that could be Problematic to an Emigrant and Aspects that Could Be Problematic to a Host Country The recent years have witnessed rapidly rising rates of emigration in many parts of the world as people grapple with ongoing displacement crises, policy developments in integration, political upheavals, and economic instabilities. Unfavorable economic and political developments in home countries, as well as the pursuit of better socio-economic prospects, often compel people to move to other countries either as refugees seeking safety or as professional expatriates seeking better opportunities (Adler & Gielen, 2012). Policy makers and immigration experts foresee a further increase in emigration in future due to the factors above, as well as due to emerging issues not only relating to challenges in the country of origin but also related to migration policies and laws in the host countries (Brettell & Hollifield, 2014). Certainly, emigration portends various problematic issues to both the emigrants and the host country. The first major aspect that could be problematic to the emigrant is prejudice; an immigrant is likely to face prejudice in the host country because of the conventional stereotypes formed against them. The citizens of most host countries often perceive immigrants human of lower stature due to the notion that they emigrate from countries with weaker political and economic structures (Capaldi, 2013). As a result, the citizens of the host countries often view immigrants as people of unfit values and social norms who are capable of eroding their economic and social standing. Immigrants to most host countries are the “bad people” who bring with them various social evils such as heightened criminal activities and widespread insecurity. Due to the underlying stereotypes, emigrants face immense challenges in their efforts to obtain livelihood because of discrimination. Most emigrants have problems accessing job opportunities, and those who secure jobs earn much lower wages compared to the citizens of the host countries (Adler & Gielen, 2012). Emigrants also suffer immense stress and culture shock upon their arrival in the foreign countries. Settling in a new country brings with it physical, psychological, and even physiological challenges to the emigrants. In most cases, they come in reality with the loss of identity, change of social support mechanisms, difficulties in adjusting to new environments, and in some cases forfeiting religious and cultural customs and traditions (Brettell & Hollifield, 2014). The emigrants may also experience language barrier, making effective communication difficult. As a consequence, emigrants are likely to experience culture shock and stress with adverse effects on their mental and physical health (Capaldi, 2013). It is not just the emigrants who face the problematic aspects of emigration; the host country also faces certain problems. For instance, emigrants cause the population of the host country to increase thereby putting pressure on its resources. As a result, services such as education, health, water, and sewerage become affected where the natives and even the emigrants cannot access quality and efficient services (Adler & Gielen, 2012). To improve delivery of essential public services, the government of the host country may have to increase taxation thereby negatively affecting the citizens’ economic situation (Capaldi, 2013). Emigrants also pose serious security concerns to the host nations. Some of the emigrants may be having a criminal background or may be forced by circumstances in the host country to engage in crime. The era of global terrorism further heightens the security concerns associated with emigrants to the host nations. Instances of insecurity such as human and drug trafficking, carjackings, burglaries, violent crime, and petty crime may accrue to the host country following an influx in immigration (Brettell & Hollifield, 2014). Both the emigrants and the host country face problematic aspects emanating from emigration. The emigrants particularly face issues of prejudice, stress and culture shock in their adopted countries. The host country grapples with the problems of increased population resulting in poor public services and increased taxation, as well as a possible surge in insecurity. However, since emigration is bound to continue, the global society should formulate and implement policies and laws to amicably address the issues facing both the emigrants and the host countries.
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    Name of Student Instructor’s Name Course title Date of Submission Effective Management During the course of the project for the Masters program, I have gained important insights into effective management. Among the multiple insights, there are three best practices that I have gained and which I will use in my career: creating cultural cohesiveness; performance management; and, team leadership. The creation of cultural cohesiveness is a best practice that I gained and which will be useful in my career. According to Pospiech (42), cultural cohesiveness is an important component of organizational culture and it relates to the sense of shared values in an organization through the right engagement level that results in to the development of efficient and productive outcomes. I find it to be a best practice in effective management as enables employees to be aligned to the core values, vision, and mission of an organization. More critically, it helps in promoting diversity of socioeconomic status, gender and race which is vital in enhancing collective insight (Chourides, Hadjiphanis & Evripidou 179). Employees feel that they are valued in the organization, and this inspires them to deliver their level best. Creation of cultural cohesiveness is fundamental in making sure that employees are passionately and actively engaged. Healthy relationship among employees is promoted and the organization is able to extract the best out of each team member (Edward 356). The second best practice that I gained relates to performance management. In general terms, performance management is defined as a continuous process that offers accountability, feedback, evaluation, and documentation for performance results within an organization to make sure that departments and employees are achieving strategic organizational objectives (Vele 272). It ensures that employees receive valuable and regular feedback critical in assisting them in not only supporting the organization but also in furthering their career goals. Companies that have implemented performance management strategy have recorded impressive outcomes. For example, Deloitte saved 2 million working hours every year since it started implementing weekly check-ins in 2015 (Schleicher, Baumann and Sullivan 2228). The new process requires each team leader in the company to check in with team member once a week so as to engage in discussion about near-term priorities and work, as well as to provide coaching. This strategy was informed by the previous findings by Deloitte that showed that employees were getting increasingly overwhelmed where about 65 percent were reported to be significantly overwhelmed, a situation that adversely affected their overall performance (Shwartz and van Berkel). Therefore, I will use this practices to streamline performance in my management career by implementing processes and strategies aimed at simplifying the work environment, teaching employees and managers ways of prioritizing efforts, and developing more flexible work standards. The third best practice that I have gained relates to team leadership. Edward (357) observes that team leadership is an important practice in effective management as it determines whether an organization will succeed or fail. During the project, I learned how to build a strong team that can maximize on available opportunities and overcome challenges. To achieve this objective, it is important to unite the team around new and/or revised goals in fast-paced environment; develop innovative teams that can offer new and creative solutions; take on board diverse views from different members and stakeholders; and preserve team optimism and spirit during times of resource scarcity (Pospiech 46). I will thus use the best practice of team leadership in my career to strengthen team effort critical in attainment of set goals and objectives. I will make efforts to ensure that team members do not get distracted and that they remain on track. Conclusively, the three best practices described above that I gained in the course of the project will certainly be helpful in my career. In order to ensure that I am an effective manager, I understand that consistent realignment and reassessment of team goals along these practices is crucial in achieving the best outcomes. Works Cited
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    Effective Communication Name University Effective Communication The six leadership styles were created by Daniel Goleman to describe the ways in which leaders accomplish their goals. According to Goleman (2002), leaders use one of the leadership style at any one time. Each of the leadership styles originates from the application of emotional intelligence. This means that a leader must be aware of their environment, feelings, and needs. This awareness creates opportunities for the leader to adjust their leadership style according to their setting (Boyatzis & McKee, 2015). The six leadership styles are pacesetter, authoritative, affiliative, coaching, coercive, and democratic leadership styles. The six leadership styles will be applied to real-life scenarios in my personal and professional life. Authoritative Leadership Style This leadership style is mainly used by people that are considered as inspiring. The leadership style moves people towards a common personal or organizational goal. In the use of the authoritative style, the leader tells their teams the direction they will take and the ways and resources to use to get to their destination (Boyatzis & McKee, 2015). It is vital to note that the style allows the leader to give their teams the freedom to find their way to a goal. Additionally, empathy is a common aspect of the authoritative leadership style. In my personal life, I apply the authoritative style when I need a new vision or want to take a new dramatic direction. In my professional life, I used the style when I wanted to accomplish aggressive sales goals. In this case, I decided to overhaul the firm’s ways in which the marketing department connects with new clients. I developed new techniques and processes, which were different from the ones people, were used to. I felt excitement when telling the team about the new processes and techniques. I believed that the changes would make a real-life difference to the results. Coaching Leadership Style The coaching leadership style connects a person’s personal goals with the goals of an organization. Leaders that use this style are encouraging, empathic, and focused on the development of other people for their future success. An important feature of this style is the in-depth conversations with employees with the aim of fostering long-term goals (Boyatzis & McKee, 2015). The leader connects personal goals with the vision and mission of an organization. The coaching leadership style positively influences people through motivation and the establishment of trust and rapport. In my professional life, I use the coaching style when my team needs assistance in building long-term skills. I also use the style when I notice that an employee or team member is adrift in the organization and the employee could benefit from a mentorship or coaching relationship. I applied the style after the firm hired a new employee and the employee was experiencing problems fitting in the new role. Affiliative Leadership Style This leadership style promotes cohesion and harmony within a team. The style connects employees together, resolves conflicts, and encourages inclusion. Leaders that use this style value the emotions of other people and value the emotional needs of other people (Boyatzis & McKee, 2015). In my personal life, I use this style when my team faces conflict or tension. I also use the style in my personal life whenever I notice that trust has been broken.
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    Name: Professor: Course: Date: Effect of Plastic Waste on Land In contemporary times the subject of environmental pollution has dominated many discussions in the local and international arena that has attracted different opinions about the issue. The discussion that talk about environmental pollutions have mainly focused on the benefits that people get from the use of plastics among others pollutants. Manufacturers, therefore, of different products that use plastics and related businesses have supported and defended the use of plastics in the world. While the people affected by plastics, directly and indirectly, have more often condemned the use of plastics and in particular the effects related to plastic waste pollution. The subject, hence, has also attracted intense interest from researchers and scholars that have tried to come up with solutions and findings of many questions related to the subject. However, this paper discusses the effect of plastic waste on land. The land is a critical component of the environment that is directly and indirectly affected by dumping of plastics wastes. Soil fertility, in particular, is directly impacted by dumped plastic wastes. Dumped plastic materials when coming into contact with water some react producing hazardous materials and chemicals that affect the soil PH and, therefore, directly impact and interfere with soil fertility. The toxic waste generated from such chemical reactions from the land diffuses in the air and, thus, contributes also to air pollution. It is imperative to note that some of the gases produced from such reactions are poisonous that can bring damage not only to human beings but also wildlife that includes animals and plants that depend mostly on land as part of their ecosystem. Land fertility when affected not as a result of dumped plastics wastes on land, but also other factors related to scientific knowledge and information, might pose a serious threat to humanity because it would, directly and indirectly, impact food production by lowering production due to infertile lands as well as polluted land. Wildlife, in particular, is directly impacted by plastic waste on land. Land supports wildlife and constitutes a significant percentage of the wildlife ecosystem. Forests and game parks among others contribute positively to the economic development of regions and countries through the benefits that accrue from tourism and related effects. Tourism in some parts constitute the primary source of economic activities, and people benefit immensely from such activities through millions of jobs created linked directly and indirectly to tourism and wildlife. Plastic waste pollution on land damages the ecosystem that supports such wildlife-threatening the existence of the wildlife where some species are under the threat of extinction because of the polluted environment and ecosystem that supported their biological needs and survival. The gases produced as a reaction of dumped plastics on land and water that produces hazardous gases that pollute the air has also contributed directly to the subject of global warming that has ultimately led to climate change as experienced in the present times. The global warming phenomenon has come with adverse effects that include extreme weather conditions that have enhanced droughts and floods that ultimately have had adverse effects on humanity such as destroying property and life. The frequency of such extreme weather conditions has also increased resulting in a threat not only to humanity but also the existence of wildlife species due to climate change. The severe weather conditions have also increased the danger to humanity as food insecurity due to the destruction of agricultural produce threatening outbreak of famine. The dumped plastic land has also significantly contributed to pollutions of other parts of the ecosystem and in particular water bodies such as oceans, lakes, and rivers among others. The chemical reactions that arise from dumped plastic and water contamination that produces toxic chemicals and gasses are washed downstream when there is rainfall to the water bodies that have also contributed immensely to the pollution of such water bodies equally threatening the aquatic ecosystem that supports wildlife among others benefits. Moreover, since plastics takes a longer time to decay, most are washed downstream to the water bodies further polluting the aquatic system and wildlife that is commonly noticed in the shores of such large water bodies such as beaches that directly and indirectly impacts tourism negatively. The dumped plastic on land, moreover, contributes to the destruction of already developed infrastructure on lands such as roads and railways. It is because the dumped plastics are washed away downstream, and they block the drainage system of such infrastructure leading to a quick destruction of such infrastructure such as roads that have made the cost of maintaining and repair of such critical infrastructure more expensive leading to great losses that at times has enhanced accidents in the transport infrastructure systems. Such adverse effects of plastics of land have compelled governments and the private sector to come up with strict legislation that encourages members of the public and organizations as well to embrace responsible waste disposal of plastics among other wastes not only in land but also on other parts of the ecosystem. In conclusion, the effect of plastic waste on land has become a serious issue that all stakeholders are encouraged to take responsibility and halt the habit in the shortest time by embracing responsible waste management practices. Many have embraced renewable or recycling of such plastics that continue to be a thriving business that has positively contributed to the reduction of dumped plastic materials in the land. Other measures that include the formulation of policies, legislation, as well as law enforcement on matters of the environment among others, have to be embraced and supported.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Educational Philosophy Paper Name of Student Name of University Educational Philosophy After reading Paulo Freire’s “The Banking Concept of Education” and Alan Sadovnik, Peter Cookson Jr., Susan Semel, and Ryan Coughlan’s “Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education”, the philosophical school that reflects my personal convictions is pragmatism. Pragmatism is a philosophical school that takes into consideration the practical impact of objects of a conception. Thereafter, the conception of the effects is the conception of the object. The philosophical school also considers thoughts as a tool for problem solving, prediction, and action. It rejects the notion that thoughts can represent, describe, or mirror reality. This philosophical school is reinforced by Freire’s article on “The Banking Concept of Education.” It is also supported by the book titled “Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education.” Pragmatism reflects my personal conviction because it sees education and the learning process as an opportunity to bring to life the different dimensions of reality. Based on pragmatism, philosophical topics such as language, nature of knowledge, belief, meaning, concepts, and sciences are best understood using their practical successes and uses. I relate with pragmatism because I believe that in an educational setting, a student must be able to emphasize the practical application of ideas. The student should be in a position to act on the idea and test them in human applications and experiences. This is also reflected in Freire’s article especially when he argues that the relationship between a student and teacher is highlighted by the lifeless narration of content (Freire, 2007). It is also evident in the textbook, which outlines that education has become a process of transferring content rather than a learning experience that keeps the student in touch with reality. Pragmatism does not support an educational approach that is focused on forcing students to memorize and repeat content. I agree with Freire that modern education is characterized by the sonority of words rather than their transformative powers. Using the pragmatist approach, education is about inquiry. Students should inquire about a range of topics based on real doubt and not hyperbolic or verbal doubt. This is important for students and teachers to understand a concept in a successful way. Through this approaches, it is possible for a student to consider the practical impact of the objects of a conception (Freire, 2007). Consequently, the educational system should be set up in a way that equates the conception of objects to the extent of a conceivable implication for the informed practice of the object’s impact. This means that pragmatism is a method of experimentation that arrives at concepts based on the conceivable and dis-confirmatory circumstances. This method is compatible with explanatory hypotheses and hospitable to the improvement and employment of verification. Pragmatism imposes an active role in students. It does not see students as adaptable beings even though it considers them manageable. The emphasis in pragmatism is for students to inquire and not to store content. This means that they have the opportunity and motivation to become critically conscious (Sadovnik, Cookson, Semel & Coughlan, 2018). As a result, they actively take the role of intervening in the world by considering themselves as transformers. Pragmatists do not accept the passive role imposed on them by their teachers or peers. They reject this roles and the notion that they should adapt to the world. Pragmatists take up active roles in trying to change the world. Unlike the banking system that has been imposed on modern education, a pragmatist approach maximizes the creative powers of students. It also stimulates their credulity, which helps them to reveal the world and take part in its transformation. In inquiry, a pragmatist uses positions such as epistemology, truth, metaphysics, philosophy of language and science, and forms of empiricism and verification. Epistemology or justification is a theory that rejects claims. The theory rejects the notion that justified beliefs and knowledge rest on the foundation of justified belief or non-inferential knowledge. This means that justification is a function of the relationship between beliefs. Unlike foundationalism theories, pragmatism does not acknowledge privileged beliefs. The pragmatist theory of truth argues that the predicate truth is not attributed to the property of truth. This means that assertions that predicate the truth of a statement relate to the property of the useful to believe to such statements. Pragmatists also use metaphysics to view the world. Metaphysics is a view that there are multiple ways to conceptualize the world. It can also relate to the content in education by providing multiple ways of viewing the content. The philosophy of science is a scientific anti-realist and instrumentalist view that evaluates the effectiveness of a theory in explaining and predicting a phenomenon. It is not concerned with the accuracy of a theory in describing objective reality. The philosophy of language is an anti-representation viewpoint that rejects attempts to analyze the semantic meaning of mental states, propositions, and statements based on representational relationship and correspondence. It analyzes semantic meaning based on notions such as inferential relationships, dispositions to action, or functional roles. It is vital to note that the philosophy of language is not the same as pragmatics. These tenets are important in education because they help students to see themselves living in a society. They do not dissociate the student from the world, but make them a transformative figure in a changing world (Sadovnik, Cookson, Semel & Coughlan, 2018). A pragmatist viewpoint helps an individual to realize that they must live with other people in solidarity. It also helps them realize that they cannot impose themselves or co-exist with other people. Therefore, they develop skills such as communication and interpersonal skills to enable them live in solidarity with other people. Pragmatism reflects my personal conviction because I understand that the universe is changing. One of the ways in which to contribute to a changing world is through communication. Communication gives human life meaning. Communication provides a platform for humans to express their feelings and thoughts. In this case, the thinking of a teacher is authenticated through communication. It is vital to note that a teacher cannot impose their thoughts on students (Freire, 2007). Thoughts have meaning, which is generated through action on the world. When thoughts have meaning, it becomes impossible for the subordination of students to teachers. In an educational context, pragmatism does not see a difference between theoretical or practical reason. It also does not see a difference between values and facts. Values and facts have cognitive content. In this case, values refer to hypotheses about objects that are good in action while knowledge is what humans should believe. I believe in pragmatism because I am committed to the liberation of people. Therefore, I have adopted a concept of people as conscious beings who have the capability to contribute to a changing world. This belief goes in hand with Freire’s argument and the argument in the textbook for the abandonment of a deposit-making education system. Instead, modern education should focus on providing platforms for the exchange of knowledge and facilitation of problem solving. Pragmatism consists of acts of cognition, which are not easily transferable as information. It is possible for a student to learn the acts of cognition. This is vital for a learning experience in which both the teacher and student participate in problem posing and problem solving. This leads to a situation where the teacher can also learn from the student. References
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Education Responses Name University Education Responses The podcast titled “The Problem we All live with” is a discussion on education and the different types of school reforms that have been implemented by administrators over the years. The core concern of the podcast is the fact that these reforms have not managed to close the achievement gap. One of the major reforms that school administrations have not dealt with is school integration. Despite the documented effectiveness of school integration works, school administrators have given up on the reform. The podcast highlights the ways in which school integration works. Particularly, it informs the debate on the ways in which the Normandy school district managed school integration. The Francis Howell school district started the debate following the transfer of Normandy students (Hannah-Jones, 2015). It is evident from the podcast that the school district and the Board of Education did not provide sufficient evidence or solid answers on the transfer of the students. Most of the evidence provided by the board and the school administration was mere statements. Interestingly, most of the students that provided statements on the school transfer were in support of the transfers. One of the themes from these students is that they were happy to see the new students in their school. They saw the transfer as an opportunity for the new students for academic achievement. There are several assumptions that come out of the podcast. However, it is not possible to assume that the Normandy students would cause problems to their new schools. Could something be done sooner to resolve the issue of poor education in the district? One of the speakers in the podcast provides an outline on the need of integration in the schools. One of the stories in the podcast highlights the journey of a student called Maria. The student had a harsh journey as she sought to obtain a good education in the school district. Michael Brown attended the same school district, which highlights the problem of integration in the school district (Ken Laird Studios, 2016). Michael Brown was an African American male who was shot by a police officer, which led to racial tensions in the U.S. Several complications are highlighted in the story when it came to her education in Normandy. In the podcast, her teachers did not care about her preferences. Additionally, the classes were unorganized and dumbed down. This led her mother to decide to get the student from the school district. Since her residence was outside the nearby district, Maria ran into complications. One of the complications is that she had to pay for higher tuition, which was not affordable. This was complicated by the school’s loss of their accreditation, which triggered a Missouri law called the transfer law (Essak, 2019). This law came as a miracle to the student because it meant that she could transfer to an accredited district free. In my opinion, the new law was effective. The new law means that there will be an increased academic achievement since all students will get the same educational needs. Additionally, educational resources will be disbursed and they will be provided with social and cognitive benefits. Thus, students become motivated and challenged, in addition to being given the ability to confront their learning capacity. Maria’s opportunity to finish school sounds like an integration miracle. However, this miracle was short-lived because a plan was created, which led schools in the district to become bankrupt. It also created a void in the transfer of students. However, the courts sided with parents when they ruled that students could not be forced to attend an unaccredited school. Response In the first response, the author fails to acknowledge the initiative by the school district board to initiate education reforms. As a result, the author does not mention school integration as an important educational reform. The author of the first response focuses more on the segregation and the inequality that exists in the school district. In the podcast, Nicole Hannah-Jones does not focus extensively on the racial inequalities between whites, Latino, and black students. I would also like to point out that the author indicates that Nicole has not found out a solution to the issue of inequality. This is not the case because Nicole states that school integration is a crucial education reform that can ensure inclusivity in schools. I would like to acknowledge the author’s inclusion of statistical data in the response. This data is important in the illustration of the school integration problem that exists in the school district and nationally. In the second response, the author begins by stating that the podcast is about the separation of schools. I would like to point out that the podcast is not about the separation of schools, but about the lack of inclusion of students from minority racial background. It is true that the separation disadvantages black students. It is also correct that the Normandy School District hosted the majority population of black students while the Francis Howell School District hosted the majority white students. Even though the author of the second response states that the issue emerged from racial differences, the author does not delve into details and its impact on education performance and attainments in the two districts. I would like to point out that the second response has moved out of context, by moving into other social areas where there is discrimination. It is important to contextualize the podcast to the education field because it is what the speakers talked about.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Data Analysis (NBA player) Name Institution Affiliation Date Data Analysis (NBA player) Selected team is New Orleans Pelicans 1. The data analysis technique(s) to be utilized and reasons I am going to use the descriptive data analysis technique that present measures of central tendencies that would show the mean, mode, and median of the selected team. It is because it would show how variables in the team that include the performance of players affect the overall team and how the variables relate as well as associations between them. The analysis of the data using the selected technique would help make an informed decision on the areas that need improvement in order to meet the team’s performance expectations in the following season. 2. The results and interpretations The results of the team performance indicate it has great potential to realize great success in the NBA including winning the NBA title and advancing to the playoff stage of the competition. The team has a 41.5 percent win ratio that is close to a 50 percent win ratio that most teams that played in the playoff had. The results when compared to other teams that have performed exceptionally well fall short slightly. It indicates that the team is stable and has potential and only requires minimum changes in training to perfect and improve on areas that would have made them win more games such as on ORED and 3 PM. The results also indicate that the NBA is very competitive as the difference between the teams is minimal that has a great impact on overall performance. 3. The suggestion for the existent players (2016-2017 team roster) in terms of training The existent players have to work harder and compare what their counterparts are doing in terms of training and game performance. They have to train on skills that improve areas that show poor results such as speed, defense and perfecting three-point shots among others. The players have to analyze the performance of leading teams and note what makes the teams the best and what they did best to help them make it among the best. 4. The player(s) among 60 players in the 2017 NBA draft I want to scout and reason I would want to scout T.J Leaf. It is because he is an excellent all-round scorer and would prove to be a utility player that can help the team adapt and change different playing styles. Caleb Swanigan would also help the team in defensive play. As a dominant rebounder as noted in the NBA draft board (2017) data with three points range would reduce the points against opponents drastically. 5. The player(s) I would you like to trade with the other team(s) and reason. I would like to trade Tony Allen who plays as a center forward. It is because age is catching up with him that has contributed to his reduced speed and versatility. I would trade with younger center forward to serve the team for several seasons and also who would be developing and improving their career to make a better trade deal in future to help the team make a positive financial deal. I would like to trade with Tim Hardaway Jr. of Knicks. It is because of the highest points per match that he has and also he is young, thus, can help the team in the long-term. Reference NBA.COM. (2017, June 22). “DRAFT17.” Retrieved from http://www.nba.com/draft/board#/
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Data Analysis Name Institution Affiliation Date Data Analysis The study I find easier to understand and reason The study by Lannering et al. titled “Factors related to falls, weight-loss and pressure ulcers – more insight in risk assessment among nursing home residents.” It is because the tables are well labeled and numbered making it easier for the audience to understand. The text also encourages the readers to refer to numbered tables. Moreover, the data on the table is well spread with subtitles that talks about different variables in the horizontal and vertical lines that enhances clarity and ease of data interpretation and understanding. Finally, the tables are balanced within the text and spread throughout the text making them easier to understand as each talk and presents a different concept and data discussed at a time. The study I find it more difficult to understand and reason. The study by Loghmani et al I find it more difficult to understand the tables. It is because the content in the table is not well balanced that congest information in the given headings and subheadings making it difficult for the audience to know where the different information presented ends and other starts. If I think that the size of the tables influences how well information is understood and reason Yes. The size of the table influences how information is understood. It is because it determines the clarity and easy or difficult for the readers to understand the information. The tables should be balanced in relation to the size of the project and content to enable easy understanding. If I think the way a table is labeled or the use of color influences how well information is understood and reason Yes. Labeling helps readers refers to the correct table and information presented. The use of color also helps to clarify and emphasize of some aspects within the table to further enhance the readers understanding of the content presented. Two additional points learned by reviewing the table Tables need to be balanced and well presented within the articles. Tables should be designed differently but presentable to enable the readers to understand the factors presented with ease.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Student’s Name Instructor’s Name Course title Date of Submission NIST Framework Why was the Cyber NIST Framework Established? The Cyber NIST Framework is primarily mandated with the provision of policy framework regarding computer security guidance with respect to how private sector entities within the United States can undertake the assessment and enhancement of their ability in detecting, preventing, and responding to cyber security issues, including cyber-attacks (National Institute of Standards and Technology). This framework was established with the goal of promoting industrial competitiveness and innovation in the United States through the advancement of measurement technology, standards, and science in the manner that improve quality of life and boosts economic security of the country and its people (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Is the NIST Framework a one-size fits all approach? The NIST framework is not a one-size fits all approach as it acknowledges that cybersecurity is multi-faceted. It recognizes that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to the management of cybersecurity. It further takes into account the fact that organizations have varied and unique risks, including different risk tolerances, vulnerabilities, and threats (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Therefore, their approaches to cybersecurity will vary depending on these factors. It is for this reason that the framework is not designed as a checklist but instead as a compilation of leading cybersecurity practices that organizations should utilize in establishing their individual cybersecurity programs. The framework seeks to enhance the organizations’ capabilities in the area of risk-based security, in addition to delivering benefits such as encouraging effective communication and cooperation between executives and industry organizations (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The Components of the NIST Framework The framework has five major components. The first one is to identify. This component seeks to develop the understanding of organizations in the management of cybersecurity risks to capabilities, data, assets, and systems. It encompasses several categories. For example, it has the asset management category that identifies the facilities, devices, and personnel enabling organizations to attain business objectives through management that is consistent with their relative importance to their risk strategy and business objectives (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The second component of this framework is “protect”. It relates to the development and implementation of the necessary safeguards aimed at guaranteeing the delivery of critical infrastructure services. It contains the following categories: awareness and training, protective technology, data security, access control, maintenance, and information protection procedures and processes. These categories define security controls and subcategories of cybersecurity outcomes (National Institute of Standards and Technology). For example, the access control ensures that the access of assets and related facilities is limited only to the authorized devices and users, and that only authorized transactions and activities take place. The third component of this framework is “detect”. It relates to the development and implementation of the appropriate activities designed for the identification of the cybersecurity event occurrence. Its main categories include anomalies and events, detection processes, and security continuous monitoring (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The fourth component is “respond” which encompasses the development and implementation of the appropriate activities to take necessary actions in the detection of the cybersecurity event. It includes the category of response planning, analysis, improvements, mitigation, and communications. The final component of this framework is “recover” which relates to the development and implementation of the appropriate activities critical in maintaining plans for resilience and restoration of any services or capabilities that were affected or impaired because of the cybersecurity event. Its key categories include recovery planning, communications, and improvements (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Describe the function of core framework The core framework is a set of cybersecurity activities, informative references, and outcomes that are common across the critical infrastructure segments, and they play a key role of offering the detailed guidance for the creation of the individual profiles of organizations. Upon creation of the profiles and their subsequent use, the core framework is essential in helping the organization to align its cybersecurity activities with resources, risk tolerances, and requirements (National Institute of Standards and Technology). It is designed to be intuitive and to serve as a translation layer that facilitates communication between multi-disciplinary teams using non-technical and simplistic language. It comprises three major parts: Functions, Categories, and Subcategories (National Institute of Standards and Technology). What is the overall goal of the framework? The overall goal of the framework is to provide a solid and strong guiding policy framework regarding computer security to private sector organizations with the view of enhancing their capacity in the assessment and improvement in the areas of the prevention, detection, and responding to cyber-attacks. It provides these organizations with enhanced level of taxonomy of cybersecurity outcomes, as well as the methodology for assessment and management of those outcomes (National Institute of Standards and Technology). In addition, the framework seeks to support private organizations’ risk management activities. It helps to guide their key decisions regarding these activities through different levels within their hierarchy from the senior executives all the way to the lowest levels, as well as the process and business levels, and operations and implementation positions (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Its goal is to ensure that there is an effective end-to-end risk management communications regarding cybersecurity across an organization. It creates a basis upon which the executive level communicates information about the overall risk tolerance, available resources, and mission priorities to the process and business level (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Thereafter, the process and business level use this information as inputs into their risk management strategies and in the formulation of the profile aimed at coordinating the operation and implementation activities. Consequently, the operations and implementation levels communicate the profile implementation progress to process and business level, which uses this information in undertaking impact assessments. They then report the outcomes of the assessments to the executive level (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Would You Recommend to a Company to Follow the NIST Standards? I will recommend to a company to follow the NIST Standards. These standards are useful in enhancing their cybersecurity capabilities through effective assessment and improvement of their strategies and methods for the detection, prevention, and response to cyber-attacks (National Institute of Standards and Technology). This is particularly important considering that recent years have witnessed an increase in the risks and threats in the cyber space. This framework is outcome driven even though it does not dictate how organizations should achieve the outcomes. As such, they are useful in enabling scalability (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Due to this flexibility, a company will be in a position of establishing a concrete cybersecurity program. Apart from the aforementioned benefits that a company that follows the NIST standards will obtain, there are other vital advantages. This framework helps organizations to engage in informed conversations regarding cybersecurity risks (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Companies that follow these standards use the principles of this framework in determining their optimal risk management levels. Moreover, organizations that use this framework are finding the processes involved to be very effective in understanding their cybersecurity practices within their business environment. Furthermore, the implementation plans associated with this framework can be leveraged to prioritize and budget for activities aimed at improving cybersecurity capability of an organization (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Companies that intent to follow these standards should understand that the framework allows them to tailor their approaches based on the specific needs, and therefore, they do not have to be concerned about the possibility of rigidity during implementation.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Current Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia Name of Student Name of University Abstract Thalassemia exists either as alpha or beta thalassemia. The existence of one of these forms is dependent on an effective globin chain in addition to underlying molecular deficiencies. It is possible to recognize carriers through hematological tests. The alpha and beta thalassemia carriers or heterozygotes have microcytic hypochromic constraints regardless of the presence of mild anemia. Red blood cell morphology, indices, and the separation n measurement of hemoglobin fractions serve as the basis for the identification of thalassemia carriers. Additionally, the iron status of a patient must be ascertained through zinc or ferritin proto-porphyrin measurements. This should be accompanied by a total iron or iron binding saturation or capacity index. Average corpuscular hemoglobin and average corpuscular volume and significantly reduced in beta thalassemia carriers. Usually, in these instances, the mean corpuscular volume is 60 – 70fl and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin is 19-23pg. conversely, a slight reduction, which is relevant, is observed in alpha thalassemia carriers. HbA2 determination has proven to be the most effective and decisive test for the beta carrier detection. HbA2 is lower and assumes a significant value in case of the exclusion of iron deficiency. It is vital to note that in the laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia; algorithms have been introduced, which help in the discrimination of thalassemia subjects and carriers with iron-deficient anemia. In these instances, the discriminating parameter is red cell counts. Most importantly, there is no need for a molecular analysis to confirm the diagnosis of beta carrier. It is necessary to confirm the presence and status of the alpha thalassemia carrier. Molecular diagnosis is important for the prediction of intermediate-to-mild, severe transfusion-dependent, and non-transfusion-dependent cases. Current Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia Overview of the Syndrome Thalassemia syndromes are a group of hemoglobin disorders resulting from the absence or decreased production of the normal globin chains. Thalassemia syndromes are a common recessive disease and it is estimated that 1-5 percent of the global population suffers or carries a genetic thalassemia trait or mutation. Thalassemia is common in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean countries. The main challenge with this condition is the inability to provide equitable access to medical and quality services for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thalassemia (Weatherall, 2010). Thalassemia syndromes can be classified as alpha or beta thalassemia. This classification of the condition is dependent on the faulty globin chain and the underlying molecular fault. As a recessive trait, the clinical significant phenotype emerges from a double heterozygosity or homozygosity for the diverse globin gene defect. Thalassemia syndromes can also result from the co-inheritance of thalassemia trait or structural hemoglobin variance such as the hemoglobin E, S, and C (Williams & Weatherall, 2012). There are different types of S-beta thalassemia, hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia, and hemoglobin C-beta thalassemia. However, these forms of thalassemia require molecular analysis because they have management peculiarities and unique characteristics. In the absence of treatment, the main feature of thalassemia syndrome is an imbalance in the alpha or beta-globin chain ratio. This leads to an ineffective erythropoiesis. The unsteady free globin chain tetramer precipitates in an erythroid cell, which leads to a premature cell death in and out the bone marrow (Cappellini, Cohen, Porter, Taher & Viprakasit, 2014). Clinical manifestations of the condition are increased spleen function, bone marrow expansion, and chronic hemolytic anemia. A standard treatment of thalassemia is transfusion therapy. This therapy is effective even in severe forms of the condition. The transfusion requirements and frequency reflect the severity of the disease. Furthermore, transfusion therapy has the capability to control most of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms while contributing to secondary morbidity. Currently, for management purposes, thalassemia patients are categorized as transfusion dependent or non-transfusion dependent. Proper laboratory diagnosis is essential for categorizing different forms of thalassemia. This has vital implications for treatment and prevention. Hematological Tests: Laboratory Diagnosis of Thalassemia Being a recessive condition, the recognition of thalassemia carriers is essential. The recognition of these carriers is possible through hematological tests. Beta and alpha carriers have microcytic hypochromic elements regardless of the presence or absence of anemia. This requires a differential diagnosis, which will exclude the iron-deficient anemia. Family history and ethnicity follows the zinc proto-porphyrin or ferritin measurements. The objective of assessing the ethnicity and family history of a patient is to gain useful information that will help in the analysis of the laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia (Steinberg, Forget, Higgs & Weatherall, 2010). Hematological parameters include red blood cell morphology and indices, which is followed by the separation and measurement of the hemoglobin fractions, which serve as the foundation for the identification of thalassemia carriers. In high-risk areas, there are strategies for the identification of the carriers of thalassemia. These are based on primary pre-screening using red blood cell indices and the separation and measurement of the hemoglobin fractions for the indices that have reduced average corpuscular volume (Rund, 2016). Screening strategies are dependent on the heterogeneity of a population, frequency of the disease, genetic factors, religious, social, and cultural factors. Furthermore, screening is targeted for different age groups. Several carrier screening for thalassemia are conducted at the premarital or early pregnancy stages. These can be divided into voluntary or mandatory programs. In high-risk areas such as Saudi Arabia, Palestine, and Iran, hemoglobinopathy screening is mandatory for couples. Beta-Thalassemia Carriers In the case of beta thalassemia, there are over 200-point deletions and mutations, which have different severity described for the beta globin gene (Rund, 2016). Different forms of beta thalassemia mutations produce hematological and clinical phenotypes of different severity even for the beta carriers. Red blood cell counts and their derived indices are important during the diagnosis of the asymptomatic carriers. The determination of these carriers is a common laboratory test and it is performed by an automated electronic cell counter. These counters must be calibrated on a daily basis using appropriate materials for the test to produce accurate results. Carriers of the beta thalassemia have a significantly high red blood cell count while the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and hematocrit are markedly reduced. Notably, the hemoglobin levels vary across patients. The carriers of mild beta mutations have high values than the carriers of beta prime. In most of the cases, the widely used cutoff vale of mean corpuscular value and mean corpuscular hemoglobin are 79fl and 27pg (Rund, 2016). For the beta carrier, reticulocytes are slightly increased or normal. However, they do not have a significant diagnostic value. For carriers of mild or silent beta mutations, the lowest deficit of beta globin production is not related to any consistent hematological changes. It is always important to take into account the iron status of a patient when evaluating the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular values of an individual when screening for thalassemia. This is important because iron deficiency is a common condition that is responsible for micro-cytosis and microcytic anemia. Even though zinc proto-porphyrin increases because of iron depletion, it is low. Therefore, the transferrin saturation that is associated with ferritin is the endorsed parameter for confirming iron deficiency. The ratio of serum iron to the iron biding capacity or transferrin saturation is the most accurate indication of the supply of iron to the bone marrow. In normal instances, the values are higher than 16 percent and 10 percent in adults and children respectively (Rund, 2016). A measure of the variation in the sizes of the red blood cell called the RDW measure is usually above the reference interval in case of iron deficiency anemia in addition to other microcytic anemia. In thalassemia, the RDW is within the reference interval, which reflects uniformity in the size of red blood cells.
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  • Tertiary education
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    Current Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia Name of Student Name of University Abstract Thalassemia usually exists as either a mutation in alpha or beta globin genes. The severity of these mutations is dependent on whether or not there is an effective globin chain in addition to underlying molecular deficiencies. It is possible to recognize thalassemia syndromes through hematological tests. The alpha and beta thalassemia carriers or heterozygotes have microcytic hypochromic RBCs regardless of the presence or absence of mild anemia. Red blood cell morphology, indices, and the separation n measurement of hemoglobin fractions serve as the basis for the identification of thalassemia syndromes. Additionally, the iron status of a patient must be ascertained through zinc or ferritin proto-porphyrin measurements. This should be accompanied by a total iron or iron binding saturation or capacity index. Average corpuscular hemoglobin and average corpuscular volume and significantly reduced in beta thalassemia carriers. Usually, in these instances, the mean corpuscular volume is 60 – 70fl and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin is 19-23pg. conversely, a slight reduction, which is relevant, is observed in alpha thalassemia carriers. HbA2 determination has proven to be the most effective and decisive test for the beta carrier detection. HbA2 is lower and assumes a significant value in case of the exclusion of iron deficiency. It is vital to note that in the laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia; algorithms have been introduced, which help in the discrimination of thalassemia subjects and carriers with iron-deficient anemia. In these instances, the discriminating parameter is red cell counts. Most importantly, there is no need for a molecular analysis to confirm the diagnosis of beta thalassemia minor/traits (carrier). It is necessary to confirm the presence and status of the alpha thalassemia carrier. Molecular diagnosis is important for the prediction of intermediate-to-mild, severe transfusion-dependent, and non-transfusion-dependent cases. Current Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia Overview of the Syndrome Thalassemia syndromes are a group of hemoglobin disorders resulting from the absence or decreased production of the normal globin chains. Thalassemia syndromes are a common recessive disease and it is estimated that 1-5 percent of the global population suffers or carries a genetic thalassemia mutation. Thalassemia is common in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean countries. The main challenge with this condition is the inability to provide equitable access to medical and quality services for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thalassemia (Weatherall, 2010). Thalassemia syndromes can be generally classified as alpha or beta thalassemia mutations. This classification of the condition is dependent on the faulty globin chain and the underlying molecular mutation. As a recessive trait, the clinical significant phenotype emerges from a double heterozygosity or homozygosity for the diverse globin gene defect. Thalassemia syndromes can also result from the co-inheritance of a thalassemia, quantitative mutation, and a structural, qualitative hemoglobin variance such as the hemoglobin E, S, and C (Williams & Weatherall, 2012). There are different types of inherited mutations that may result in S-beta thalassemia, hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia, and hemoglobin C-beta thalassemia. However, these forms of thalassemia may require molecular analysis because they have management peculiarities and unique characteristics. In the absence of treatment, the main feature of most thalassemia syndromes is an imbalance in the alpha or beta-globin chain ratio. This leads to a shortened RBC survival and ineffective erythropoiesis. The unsteady free beta-globin chain tetramer precipitates in an erythroid cell, which leads to a premature cell death in and out the bone marrow (Cappellini, Cohen, Porter, Taher & Viprakasit, 2014). Clinical manifestations of the condition are increased spleen function (hypersplenism), bone marrow expansion leading to bone thinning with an increased risk of fracture, and chronic hemolytic anemia. An effective standard of treatment for severe thalassemia is transfusion therapy. The transfusion requirements and frequency reflect the severity of the disease. While transfusion therapy has the capability to control most of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, it can also secondarily contribute to transfusion related morbidity. Currently, for management purposes, thalassemia patients are categorized as transfusion dependent or non-transfusion dependent. Proper laboratory diagnosis is essential for categorizing different forms of thalassemia. This has vital implications for treatment and prevention. Hematological Tests: Laboratory Diagnosis of Thalassemia Being a recessive condition, the recognition of thalassemia carriers (traits) is essential to help identify those individuals that could potentially produce a child with severe thalassemia syndrome. The recognition of these carriers is possible through hematological tests. Mutations that affect the amount of beta and/or alpha globin chains have microcytic, hypochromic RBCs regardless of the presence or absence of anemia. This requires a differential diagnosis and laboratory tests that will exclude iron-deficiency. In addition to laboratory tests, family history and ethnicity are important in the evaluation and workup of an individual with an objective of gaining useful information that will help in the interpretation of the laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia (Steinberg, Forget, Higgs & Weatherall, 2010). Hematological parameters include red blood cell morphology and indices followed by the separation and measurement of the hemoglobin fractions via electrophoresis serve as the foundation for the identification of thalassemia carriers/traits. In geographical areas where the prevalence of thalassemia mutations is higher, there are strategies for the identification of the carriers of thalassemia. These are based on primary pre-screening using red blood cell indices and the separation and measurement of the hemoglobin fractions for the indices that have reduced mean corpuscular volume (Rund, 2016). Screening strategies are dependent on the heterogeneity of a population, frequency of the disease, genetic factors, religious, social, and cultural factors. Furthermore, screening is targeted for different age groups. Several carrier-screening programs for thalassemia are conducted at the premarital or early pregnancy stages. These can be divided into voluntary or mandatory programs. In high-risk areas such as Saudi Arabia, Palestine, and Iran, hemoglobinopathy screening is mandatory for couples.
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    Cultural Perspective  Name of Student Name of Institution Cultural Perspective  Culture clashes or basic differences can account for possible miscommunications. Congden et al (2009) explain that possible miscommunications can arise from cross-cultural misunderstandings, the main one being cross-cultural insensitivity or ignorance. This aspect relates to lack of awareness about the culture of the person one is communicating with or to or being unaware of their ways of thinking. Due to this lack of awareness or knowledge, one may not appreciate the cross-cultural situations thereby communicating inappropriately (Mato, 2012). Cross-cultural situations are usually complex and communication customs differ from a country to another. As such, one might engage in communication without being prepared for higher levels of ambiguity thereby causing miscommunications (Hurn and Tomalin, 2013). At the same time, lack of cultural sensitivity may result in miscommunication. Failure by one to be cognizant of the other person’s culture and customs may cause them to accidentally offend them with native behaviors and habits that they never knew could be offensive (Norales, 2016). Studies have established that miscommunications occasioned by culture clashes such as those arising from cross-cultural insensitivity or ignorance can lead to adverse consequences like conflicts and loss of business opportunities among others (Gudykunst, 2013). Therefore, it is important to address these clashes to enhance intercultural proficiency in one’s roles. Overcoming cross-cultural insensitivity or ignorance can be through several ways. The first one is by showing flexibility and respect in all forms of communications, especially with work colleagues (Bannon & Mattock, 2013). The second way to overcome it is by being mindful of all behaviors and habits, including those that seem to be innocuous. Moreover, one can overcome miscommunications caused by cross-cultural insensitivity or ignorance by striving to remain receptive and open to all customs whether new or old. It is important to avoid judging the customs and cultures of other people but instead try to understand a situation from the other side of perspective.
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    Late Adulthood Name Institution Affiliation Late Adulthood 1. The gender and age of the person being observed. The person observed is an old male aged 67 years. 2. Identification on how the observed person aligns with his present stage of development and if they seem to be in a stage other than would be expected by their age. The observed person aligns with his present stage of development through the actions that he does and the way he reason and make a decision on the things he does. His present stage of development according to Jean Piaget theory of development is the Formal Operational stage. The person acts and shows an adult characteristic through logical thinking and reasoning. The old man shows more skills that he uses to solve issues he confronts. 3. Bullets for each area of development and appropriately applied scripture Physical Bible Verse: 1 Corinthians 12: 12. Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ. The observed man shows knowledge of metacognition because he was aware of the possible observation conducted as he asked and was curious, an act is appropriate to his age. He used his height to remove a portrait from the wall with ease to show that he had physically developed as he helped his grandchild who tried to get the portrait. The act is appropriate to his age that showed abstract thinking as indicated in Piaget’s formal operational stage of development. He lifted a chair and moved it to another position that showed his fitness and physique. The chair was obstructing free movement in the dining room. It was appropriate to his age as it shows how he uses his skills to solve problems that show creativity and productivity in adulthood stage as indicated in Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development theory. Cognitive Bible Verse: John 14: 26. But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you
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    CRM 499 Discussion Name of Student Name of University CRM 499 Discussion Question 1 Recent clashes between the police and citizens highlight long-standing inequities and the willingness of people to react against the actions and inactions of the authority. Thus, the root cause of civil unrests and distrust of the police is based on the action or inaction of the authority. This is usually the case when the police are perceived to take sides in a social setting or the cause of inequalities. It is also the case when people have different interests in relation to the actions or inactions of the authority. In the last three years, the police have been seen as a major force against minority racial groups in the U.S. This has caused the minority groups to react against the police and the authority through civil unrest. Whether, civil unrest and mistrust towards the police is ignited by economic disputes, political grievances, terrorism, foreign agitators, or social discord, civil unrests occur as reactions to the actions or inactions of the authority. Question 2 Even though Wikipedia is one of the most popular online encyclopedias, it is not a good source because anybody is allowed to contribute on the website. In such a case, contributors with an interest or agenda often prevail. Editors and contributors have provided fake quotations on a Wikipedia article in numerous instances. One of the instances is when Irish student Shane Fitzgerald made a fake quote on French composer Maurice Jarre. Even though the fake quote was removed from the website several times, Jarre re-posted it until the editors allowed it to remain. Despite the lack of credibility on some of the articles on Wikipedia, it is vital to note that there are some instances where Wikipedia can provide scholarly and legitimate information. For instance, a professional body can contribute on a Wikipedia article. In other instances, a person with authority in a subject area such as a doctor or psychologist can contribute on an article. Question 3 Hyde, R. (2016). The role of civil liability in ensuring police responsibility for failures to act after Michael and DSD. European Journal of Current Legal Issues, 22(1), 10-21. The article explores police liability based on the context of police responsibility when the fail to act. In case the police fail to act and the outcomes are harmful, several mechanisms are available to hold the police force and individual police office accountable for their inaction. These mechanisms are covered in public law, criminal law, and private law (Hyde, 2016). The best private law mechanism to hold police officers accountable for their actions or inactions is the claim for damages. According to the article, civil liabilities play a vital role in police accountability (Hyde, 2016). One of the cases that have been used by the researcher to highlight the operational and systemic failures of the police is DSD v. Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis in the Court of Appeal. Question 4 Several factors can make a person give a false confession. One of these factors is perceived or real intimidation of the suspect by the authority or law enforcement officer. The use of force by the law enforcement officers can also make a person give a false confession. It is also important to consider compromised reasoning ability as a factor for giving false confessions. This can happen due to hunger, stress, substance use, exhaustion, mental limitations, or even limited education (Innocent Project, 2017). There are different types of evidence that can be used to identify a perpetrator of crime. This includes evidence such as anecdotal evidence, analogical evidence, character evidence, circumstantial evidence, demonstrative evidence, digital evidence, and direct evidence. Additional types of evidence include direct evidence, documentary evidence, exculpatory evidence, forensic evidence, physical evidence, testimonial evidence, statistical evidence, and prima facie evidence (i-Sight, 2018). Question 5 My experience with the simulation is that crime scene investigation is an investigative activity that requires the use of intelligence and interaction. Investigations require the investigator to focus on the physical state of the scene. This will ensure that the investigator can collect clues that will lead to the resolution of the case (Gaskin, 2017). It is vital to gather important clues that will lead the investigator to determine what happened where, when, by whom, and why. Furthermore, it is possible to solve a crime sing forensic science technologies such as blood analysis, ballistics, facial and dental reconstruction, and fingerprinting. The things that worked well include the interactive aspects of the investigation (RICE, 2018). I believe that I collected the required clues to solve the crime. Some of the things that require improvement include the use of forensic science technologies and collaboration with other investigators. Question 6 The first thing that I would tell these chiefs is that this technique builds confidence and trust through a shift in citizen engagement. This is beneficial to law enforcement because it eases participation, creates commitment in information sharing. These components are interrelated and interdependent (Reece, 2016). The second thing is that the technique focuses on public dialogue, which enables the citizens to believe that they have the capability to make a difference in their communities. This will create a platform for early information sharing. The objective is to increase the confidence and belief that citizens can make a difference in their communities by engaging with the government through law enforcement. I would inform the officer that the advisory board has a limited purpose and scope. Furthermore, operational needs of the authority and agency are based on the issues and situation being addressed.
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    Name Professor Course Date Critique Essay: Rethinking Drug Use and the Youth Culture Author, Title, Subject, Thesis Author: Hillary Pilkington Title: Beyond “peer pressure”: Rethinking Drug Use and “Youth Culture” Subject: The subject of the article is drug use by youths in the U.S. In the U.S, drug use among young people takes into account the cultural context in which the young person encounters drugs. In this article, the notion of peer pressure has been displaced by the idea of normalization. This idea envisages recreational use of drugs as an expression of consumer-based cultural ad youthful lifestyles. Thesis: Recreational drug use has extended to the point that it has become normalized within the mainstream youth culture. Thus, the conceptualization of youth drug use is based on rational decisions on consumption instead of uninformed responses to peer pressure. Placing the Writing in a Relevant Context The article is relevant to our current lives because it helps in understanding the shifting notions regarding drug use among underage people. Drug use among these people is no longer influenced by peer pressure, but by consumerism. The study is important in the assessment of the youth cultural studies and the changing tendencies among young people (Pilkington 215). Thus, it is important to view consumption as an important resource for the formation of the identity of young people. In our current lives, the article can help us understanding the increasing prevalence of drug use among underage people based on the association of the consumerism of substances and re-creation of youth cultural identities. The Intended Purpose and Audience The intended audience includes the parents and guardians of children, youths, school officials and teachers, counselors, and health specialists that deal with substance use youths. The purpose of the author was to explore drug use among young people in the U.S. The author wants to demonstrate that in the western countries, drug use among young people has been transformed by the emergence of sociological approaches. This has led to the understanding that underage drug use must consider the cultural context of a young person’s encounter with drugs (Pilkington 217). The author also wants to create awareness that the notion that peer pressure mediates drug use has been displaced by the notion of consumerism. Thus, the idea of normalization envisages recreational drug use as a primary expression of consumer-based cultural lifestyle. The researcher focuses on the narratives of a young person’s drug use choices in the context of the broad socio-economic process and drugs markets. My Own Thesis Statement That Expresses My Judgement of the Work The idea of consumerism and the proliferation of drug markets are integral to the emergence of new drug market economies in transitioning societies. Thus, drug use in these societies is attractive to the underage people because it provides opportunities to engage in western consumer practices. I can judge the article based on the perspectives of consumerism and market economies (Fitzgerald 569). For a long time, the use of drug has been depicted by western media as a cultural lifestyle. Young people take up this idea from the media and the culture they see around them (Blackman 79). In the end, they adopt similar approaches based on the juvenile idea that drug use is the new way of organizing life around the values of subjectivity and individuality, and the primacy of consumption instead of production. Summary of the Writing The study is based on empirical research drawn from collaborative exercise between Russian and British sociologists. The researcher’s objective was to bridge the gap between discourses on drug use in Russia and drug use in the western countries. The study explores drug use in Russia with the aim of understanding the differences in Russian’s narrative of drug use encounter. The study is designed with the aim of understanding drug use within a daily context. The article shows the transformation of drug use over the last decade from an activity that was mediated by peer pressure to one that is mediated by a cultural context of consumerism and normalization (Pilkington 218). Based on the findings of the study, drug use goes beyond structural locations. This means that a structural location is not just a constraint on a person’s choice. Structural location also serves as a basis for understanding the youth culture through the consideration of cultural formations and practices that reproduce, embody, and negotiate the structural locations of the subjects. Defense of My Judgement The author constructs information using the narratives of the drug use subjects. The study used the data collecting methods of semi-structured interviews, surveys, and intensive ethnographic studies. The persuasive appeal used by the researcher is logos and ethos. It is vital to note that the author’s support material is sufficient and reasonable because it is verifiable. Additionally, the study is not extensive, which means that there are missing viewpoints and facts. However, the proposals given by the researcher are practical. My perspective is that peer pressure is not entirely displaced by the notion of normalization and consumerism. Peer pressure plays a crucial role in some of the instances as a mediator of drug use especially among young people. Conclusion The idea of consumerism and the proliferation of drug markets are key to the emergence of new drug market economies in transitioning communities. Thus, drug use in these societies appeals to the underage people because it provides prospects to engage in western consumer practices. The article shows that drug use has changed from an activity that is mediated by peer pressure to one that is mediated by a cultural context of consumerism and normalization. Based on the findings of the study, drug use goes beyond structural locations. Structural locations serve as a basis for understanding the youth culture through the consideration of cultural formations and practices. Additional questions Do social inequality and the exclusion of people explain drug use prevalence in a society?
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    THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF COASE AND PENROSE by (Name) Course Professor University City and State Date Critically Compare the Theoretical Perspectives of Coase (1937) and Penrose (1959) In Terms Of Their Views on the Size of Firms and the Growth of Firms Edith Penrose (1959) and Ronald Coase (1937) had differing views on the nature of firms. Their views are presented in their opposing books with Coase’s (1937) book titled The Nature of the Firm and Edith Penrose’s (1959) book titled The Growth of Firms. There differing views can be considered in terms of the size of firms as captured by Coase (1937) and the growth of the firm as captured by Penrose (1959). It is vital to consider Coase (1937) first since he published his book before Penrose (1959). The theory of firms can be traced back to Coase (1937) especially when he argued that in a global environment that is characterized by neoclassical price theory, firms do not have a reason to exist. However, firms exist because there is a cost to using the pricing mechanism. This led to the emergence of the transaction cost. Coase (1937) idea was that transaction costs are separate from the ordinary production costs. Later in 1959, Edith Penrose published her book titled The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Her arguments in the book are differentiated from the initial assertions of Coase (1937) especially from the prevailing production-function view. According to Penrose, a firm exists as a collection of productive resources. These resources are disposal between different users and uses over a timeframe that is determined by the administration of the firm. Coase (1937) and Penrose (1959) held similar views especially on the centrality of resources in the existence of a firm. However, they differed in the nature of the firm because Penrose (1959) viewed the management to be controlling the productive opportunity set while Coase (1937) viewed transaction costs to be controlling the productivity of a firm. The Size of Firms Coase (1937) and Penrose (1959) had different views on the size of firms. In one hand, Penrose (1959) argued that there is no limit to the size of firms while Coase (1937) figure out why people formed firms and partnerships. Coase (1937) argued that it is possible for production to be performed without the need to form a firm or organization. Coase (1937) noted the conditions for which people should expect a firm to emerge. According to Coase (1937), firms emerge when an entrepreneur hires people. His analysis on the nature of firms considers the conditions required to make sense of an entrepreneur to hire instead of contracting for a specific task. Traditional economic theories that were predominant during Coase (1937) time suggested that a market is efficient when it I cheaper to contract rather than hire. This is facilitated when the people that are best at producing or providing services and goods do so cheaply. Coase (1937) further noted the transaction costs involved in a market. These costs include the cost of obtaining services or goods through a market that is more than the price of the services or goods. Additional costs include bargaining costs, information, and search costs, in addition to the cost of securing trade secrets can add to the cost of procuring and producing through a market. This leads to the suggestion that firms emerge when there is a need to arrange to produce what is needed internally while avoiding some of the transaction costs. According to Coase (1937), there is a natural limit to internal production. Decreased productivity return to an entrepreneur’s function including an increase in propensity and increased overhead costs. This has the potential to overwhelm a manager to make mistakes during the allocation of resources. Coase (1937) suggests that the size of firms is based on the establishment of an optimal balance between competing tendencies of costs. Generally, the tendency to make firms large is advantageous, but decreasing productivity and returns will kick in, which will prevent the firm from expanding and growing indefinitely. Firms tend to be large when the cost of organizing is low and the costs increase slowly with an increase in organized transactions. They are large when the entrepreneur is less likely to make mistakes and the less the mistakes in the transactions organized. One of the assumptions in Coase (1937) nature of firms is that markets are efficient, which will make it cheaper to contract service providers than to hire. Like Penrose (1959), Coase (1937) believed that the normal economic system works itself. Thus, for its operations, it does not need a central control or central survey, unlike a firm, which needs administrative control. Coase (1937) argued that over the range of human needs and activities, supply and production and adjusted to demand and consumption respective through a process that is elastic, automatic, and responsive (Hong 2018, Lecture 2, 8). Coase (1937) argued that a firm exists in an economic system because it is coordinated by the pricing mechanism. This means that the direction of resources in a firm is dependent on a price mechanism. The allocation of resources or factors of production between different users and uses are dependent on the price mechanism. Penrose (1959) did not explain what controls the market or activities outside a firm. Coase (1937) noted that outside the firm, prices move according to the direction of production. This is coordinated through series of exchange transaction on a market. Within firms, market transactions are removed and in place of complicated market structures, the exchange transaction is replaced by an entrepreneur coordinator. This coordinator directs production, especially through the allocation of resources. Even though price mechanism play a crucial role of coordination, the entrepreneur also has a central coordinating function. (Hong 2018, Lecture 2, 14). When an entrepreneur decides to form a firm, then they must consider the Porter five forces to guide their competitive and market strategies. The five forces provide insight into the intensity of the profitability and competitiveness of the industry. The five forces are the bargaining powers of suppliers and buyers, threats of new entrants and substitute products, and rivalry among existing firms. Industries that have high entry barriers have low threats of new entrants (Hong 2018, Lecture 7, 8). The driving forces of intense competition and rivalry among existing firms include slow industry growth, equally balanced competitors, highly fixed storage costs, and the lack of differentiation and switching costs. Substitute products also contribute to competition pressure. These products limit the potential profitability and returns of an industry by affecting the pricing mechanism (Hong 2018, Lecture 7, 28). Furthermore, the higher the buyer’s sensitivity to price, the high their bargaining power. The bargaining power of suppliers is driven by whether the industry is dominated by few suppliers and whether there are few substitute products. It is also determined by whether supplier products are differentiated, the switching costs are high, and whether the supplier products are vital inputs of the buyer. After understanding the competitive nature of the industry, a firm must obtain competitive advantages to deal with the five forces. This is possible through the implementation of strategies that use the firm’s internal strengths and responding to environmental opportunities. It is also important for a firm to avoid internal weaknesses and neutralize external threats. Firms need to take on resources based view, which emphasizes that firm, must need inside themselves to find sources of competitive advantages rather than look at the competitive environment for the competitive advantages (Hong 2018, Lecture 8, 6). This is similar to Penrose (1959) assertion that firms need not look for managerial resources in the open market. Firms within an industry could be heterogeneous concerning the resources they control. Additionally, the strategic resources may not be mobile across the firm. Therefore, heterogeneity may be long lasting (Hong 2018, Lecture 8, 9). According to Barney (1991), firms should not expect to have sustained competitive advantages when the strategic resources are evenly distributed across competing firms. Therefore, the search for strategic resources must focus on a firm’s resource immobility and heterogeneity (Hong 2018, Lecture 8, 10). In addition to considering the Porter five forces, an entrepreneur should also determine whether to form partnerships with multinationals. This has the potential to give their firm monopolistic competitive advantages. Multinationals are characterized by direct production and direct business in foreign countries (Hong 2018, Lecture 9, 6). In most of the instances, multinationals seek partnerships with affiliate firms abroad and acquire ownership of the firm with the aim of controlling their resources and assets. Another option is to use the internalization approach. Coase (1937) supported this approach through the assertion that within firms, the allocation of resources is done through internal direction and planning instead of arm’s length transactions (Hong 2018, Lecture 10, 5). Internalization presents an opportunity for a firm to exist and grow through the benefits and costs of internal transactions. This means that there is an internal allocation of resources within the firm. The Growth of Firms According to Penrose, a firm exists as a collection of productive resources, which can be non-human or human. These resources must be under an authoritative communication and administrative coordination for them to produce services and goods for sale in a market for profitability. Penrose (1959) asserted that authoritative communication and administrative coordination define a firm’s boundaries. Like Coase (1937), Penrose (1959) provided a distinction between a market and a firm. In this case, Penrose (1959) maintained that the difference between economic activities in a firm and the economic activities in a market differ because inside the firm, the activities are performed within an administrative organization, but in a market, there is no administrative organization. Based on this difference between a firm and market, the boundary of a firm distinguishes it from a market. Thus, it exists whether it is real or not. Penrose (1959) and Coase (1937) acknowledge that from within a firm, the human resources, especially the managerial resources exist as the most significant resources. They differ when it comes to their views on expansion. According to Coase (1937), expansion must be mediated by the pricing mechanisms and transaction costs. Conversely, Penrose (1959) notes that a reason for expansion requires planning. This means that planning for expansion must be accomplished by the firm’s management, which is firm specific, not available to the open market. Penrose also identified the major categories of the cause for growth. The first category comprises of causes that are external to a firm and the second category comprises of causes that are internal to a firm. External causes include demand conditions and raising capital. However, this cannot be understood without an evaluation or assessment of the nature of the firm. According to Penrose (1959), the problem was the internal incentives and the limits on the firm’s growth, which leads to the postulation of a theory on the growth of firms that does not dependent on the fortuitous external events. Two reasons can be used to explain the endogenous nature of firms that are incentives for growth. These incentives are self-reinforcing and create opportunities for the expansion of firms. The first reason is that execution of plans requires resources, which in most of the cases are in excess of the resources that are necessary for execution. The second reason is that on completion of plans, managerial resources are released. Moreover, the services that the management is capable of offering tend to increase from the time the plan is made to the time of completion of the execution of the plan. The ubiquitous presence of unutilized resources can be attributed to the principle of multiples, which argues that in the presence of invisible productive resources, the level of output of a firm must correspond to the least common multiple. In case the output is great, the varieties of resources are diverse. Penrose (1959) argued that firms must produce on a large scale in case they were to use all the resources required for small levels of outputs. According to Penrose (1959), managerial resources are important because that are available to firms in limited amounts. For instance, management executives with experience within a firm can only be found within that firm. Production of managerial resources requires time, which limits the scope of the firm’s expansion plan. However, this allows the continuous extension of the firm’s plans through time. A firm cannot increase its effectiveness simply by hiring more managers. This implies that a company cannot expand efficiently merely by drawing up a management blueprint. Extensive planning is required for the plan to execute its expansion plan (Hong 2018, Lecture 6, 5). It is vital to note that the completion of a firm’s expansion plan creates and releases resources. Resources are created because the personnel in a firm provide and gain experience with time. Resources are released because there is a likelihood for generalized improvement in efficiency and skill in addition to the development of new specialized services. Increase in knowledge is not only an outcome of productive opportunity of a firm to change in unrelated ways, but also to change in the environment and contribute to the uniqueness of the opportunity. Unused productive services are in most of the enterprising firms a challenge to innovate. However, they are incentives to expand and sources of competitive advantages. These unused resources facilitate the introduction of a combination of resources within the firm, in addition to serving as selective forces in the determination of the direction of expansion. Penrose (1959) wanted it to be recognized that firms cannot be defined based on products, but on resources and their potential versatility. Furthermore, demand conditions should not limit the expansion of a firm. Without traditional managerial diseconomies, Penrose (1959) asserts that there are no limits to a firm’s size, but to the firm’s rate of growth. Penrose (1959) assertion can be viewed as criticism of traditional economic systems. From the assertion, it is possible to see traditional economic systems as being static rather than dynamic. Traditionally, it has been presumed that there is a profitable or ideal size of a firm. This ideation of firms does not require additional explanations other than the search for profits, which is what Coase (1937) argued for. Coase (1937) view can be considered as a traditional economic system in light of Penrose (1959) arguments. In traditional economic systems, the appropriated model of a firm represents the forces of pricing mechanism, which is one of the view of Coase (1937). The model has the forces for determining the quantities and prices produced of a specific product in a firm. According to Penrose (1959), the firm can be viewed as a production function whereby, its equilibrium is the equilibrium output for a product from the perspective of the firm. In the theory of price and production, a firm is a production function in case it has reached an optimum size, which is the lowest point in the average cost curve for a product. Thus, since there is no limit to the size of a firm, its rate of growth is limited by the amount of products it can produce. Based on this theory, the growth of a firm is dependent on an increase in its output of specific products. It is vital to note that by viewing a firm as an administrative organization, Penrose (1959) tended to the agency theory in which the firm is the principle and the managerial resources are its agents (Hong 2018, Lecture 4, 4). Therefore, the growth of the firm is dependent on the relationship between the principle and agent. The management provides services on behalf of the principle, which is the firm. This can be achieved through contractual agreements, which are evaluated according to the outcomes of the agent (Hong 2018, Lecture 4, 6). Based on the agency theory, a firm delegates work to the managerial resources. The main problem with this type of a relationship in the description of the existence of a firm is that in most of the cases, the outcome of a contract does not always align to the interests of the principal (Hong 2018, Lecture 4, 7). This usually occurs when there is a conflict between the goals of the principal and the agent and the methods used to monitor the goals (Hong 2018, Lecture 4, 9).
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    General Knowledge
    Critical Thinking Name Institution Affiliation Date Critical Thinking Initial Post: The two potential research topics explored include “Global Environmental Politics” and “Aviation and Climate Change.” The first topic on global environmental politics notes how different stakeholders in the global system try to address the global challenges where they display contrasting ideas on how best the issue should be addressed. Governments and multinational agencies try to protect their interest as far as global politics is concerned where some have placed their national interest first at the expense of the global environment in addressing issues that touch on pollution, manufacturing and accountability in the global challenge problems among other issues. The global stakeholders have differed on the approaches to be used to address global environmental challenges that have pitted different camps opposing each other that have brought a stalemate on the way forward on addressing the issues. International institutions and organizations such as the UNEP among others have tried to intervene and set up policies and regulations that national, regional and international players have to use to address global environmental challenges. The second topic, Aviation and Climate change, notes how the aviation industry has reciprocated to the climate change phenomenon that has made the prediction of weather and climate issues challenging in the present times. It also notes the action the aviation industry is taking in issues that result to climate change and possible impacts that include an increase in natural and human-induced disasters. The climate change concept has directly impacted the aviation industry due to changing trends in weather forecasts that at times has led to an increase in aviation-related challenges including accidents and flight interruptions among others resulting from climate change. The aviation industry has also tried to incorporate modern technology to help it overcome the challenges brought by climate change that has helped it improve in addressing the challenges objectively. Reply Posts The suggested topics give an in-depth analysis of the environmental issues. In particular, they note how the stakeholders involved that have contributed to global environmental challenges such as pollution resulting in climate change that has diverse negative effects on humanity and development at large. They take positions that try to protect their selfish interests. The developed and developing countries at the global level have often conflicted on who to take the responsibility and on the measures that can be done to reverse the situation. The differing sides, hence, have sustained the stalemate that limits the possible actions that can be taken to address the global environmental challenges in the era that globalization concept has become a reality. The aviation industry also is directly affected by the environmental challenges compelling to take actions that can help it improve service delivery and business improvement. “Global Environmental Politics” is the topic that I would like to continue researching. Problem Statement for Global Environmental Politics topic For many years, people have debated about global environmental politics and the scenarios that have dominated the media about the contrasting views and opinions by stakeholders involved. They include individuals, organizations, nation-states, regional bodies as well as international bodies such as the UNEP on the approaches and actions that each party has to take to address the global environmental threats and concerns. The different positions have brought a stalemate in the actions that stakeholders have to take to address the global environmental concern and in particular who to bear the greatest responsibility. The difficulties realized in coming to a common ground about the problem have risen because of selfish interests by concerned stakeholders. At first glance, it may seem that the developed and developing countries taking different sides on who to take the greatest responsibility would solve the problem, but also it is important to note that even within the developed countries, they differ on the approaches to take about the subject. This initial perception fails to take into account the fact that the world is one and the global environmental challenge is not an issue of either the developed or developing countries but an issue of humanity and responsibility that would enable future generations to live sustainably. By rethinking our approach to addressing the global environmental politics, we can fix the political stalemate that halted progress and actions to be taken to address the global environmental challenges and the status quo. The status quo can be changed by changing the politics from that of developed and developing countries and talking about humanity and future generations ability to live sustainably would resolve the stalemate noted in the global environmental politics and address the challenge objectively.
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  • Tertiary education
    General Knowledge
    Critical Assignment 5 Name Institution Affiliation Date Critical Assignment 5 1) How the First Article Relate To Gender Identity Development The article relates to gender identity and development in different ways. The main theme or subject in the article talks about gender identity, that is, transgender. It also talks about the impact that rules and regulations in the society that guides social interactions. For example, privacy and safety risk that has led to the separation of facilities used by opposite sexes, a concept that is elaborately discussed in identity and development subject. It impacts the socialization process as noted in the social domain theories of social conventional reasoning and moral reasoning. The different points of arguments as indicated in the article relates to the differences noted in the social conventional reasoning as well as that of moral conventional reasoning. The article evokes emotions that relate to either empathizing or sympathizing with people of transgender. It shows possible consequences that the transgender might experience as a result of the legislation in the article, for example, the stigma that might result in harassment and violence (Moral Development, Values and Religion, 2017). Emotions help in Emotional development that provide children with a natural base for the acquisition of moral values and be attentive to moral events. The issues in the article, thus, affect thoughts, behaviors, and feelings of the transgender community that impacts on their development and personality as asserted in Santrock (2008) work on life-span development. The impact of the legislation has resulted in reactions by critics such as boycotts by companies and musicians among others that indicate that issues of gender and identity can impact the entire society and it goes beyond those directly affected by such legislation. It indicates how the social convention and moral convention reasoning, directly and indirectly, affect the society. The piece also notes the impact that moral personality made up of moral identity, moral character, and moral exemplars have on identity and development by giving examples on how different people and interested groups have reacted to the story in the article. As a global social network, people interact with others from different social backgrounds that react to emotions differently and moral development. The global moral culture is broad and diverse where what one might consider being immoral in one part of the society might be the contrary in the other. It, thus, encourages diversity and tolerance of different moral values. However, there is a standardized moral culture that many places in the world consider to be appropriate that is mostly defined as a global culture. The subject of transgender, therefore, has determined and impacted social networks positively and negatively where some parts of the society have supported their concerns while others have opposed impacting on the formation of social networks. The societies that unisex bathroom has existed for years and have been commonplace react to such news with shock. The news brings a puzzle and a new idea related to the subject where it evokes concerns of the people who were not comfortable with such positions and might lead to advocacy to change the status quo. On the other hand, unisex group members in such societies might protest such moves and actions and might try to institute measures to avoid such restrictions and laws to spread in such societies. 2) Why I Think It Is a Controversial Issue The issue is a controversial issue in the contemporary society. The subject of transgender in the recent times has dominated social discussion forums because they have been empowered by civil societies and related organizations to come up and openly express their positions in social concerns. Many rules and regulations in the past had relied on the conventional gender to classify and regulate rules and regulations that impacted the social processes (Yerke & DeFeo, 2016). The same case is also noted in the gay and lesbians cases that in the contemporary times they have openly come out to champion for recognition and total integration in the society and eliminate bias and discrimination as a result of their choices. The transgender issue, therefore, is controversial because of the many moral and ethical questions that it raises in relation to the safety and concerns of other people that might feel aggrieved by their presence threatening their peace, safety, and security (Yerke & DeFeo, 2016). Many societies have encouraged freedom of expression and open society, a factor that has contributed to the increased cases related to transgender concerns. There are incidences where reading materials that contain transgender stories have raised controversies in learning institutions. It raises intense debates whether such literature materials should be accepted in such institutions. The main controversies have pitted conservatives against liberals where the former advocates maintaining the status quo while the later advocates for change and inclusion of transgender concerns in the society. The controversies have also affected the scholar and research world where models by scholars such as Freud that provided different ideas about sex and related psychoanalytic theories. Questions have been raised whether to review such models and psychoanalytic ways and probably include transgender and come up with newer models and analytic ways and approaches that considers the transgender subject (Kloppenberg, 2015). The subject of transgender, as a result, continues to raise controversies. References Kloppenberg, B. (2015). Psychoanalysis, Sexual Difference, and Transgender: Questions and Controversies. Issues in Psychoanalytic Psychology, 37(1), 43-51. Moral Development, Values and Religion. (2017). In Developmental Psychology (pp. 405-417).Mc Grow Hill Publication. Retrieved from https://newconnect.mheducation.com/flow/connect.html Santrock, J. W. (2008). A topical approach to life-span development (M. Ryan, Ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 26(30), Yerke, A., & DeFeo, J. (2016). Redefining Intimate Partner Violence beyond the Binary to Include Transgender People. Journal of Family Violence, 31(8), 975-979. doi:10.1007/s10896-016-9887-y
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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