Individual Annotated Bibliography
Using resources available to you via the library, Internet, or other media sources, find relevant background information to help gain more knowledge about the client, its industry, stakeholder behavior, social trends, economic conditions, regulations, consumption patterns, etc.
Each team member must include information from the following resources in their own personal annotated bibliography (2 pages per team member):
• One commercial/industry database (e.g. Business Insights, Gfk MRI University Reporter)
• One scholarly journal article (e.g. Journal of Marketing)
• One news article from a credible source (e.g. Wall Street Journal)
• One website (e.g. competitor website, industry trends blog, etc.)
• One Google Trends analysis (https://trends.google.com/trends/)
Once you have identified a sufficient set of resources, create an annotated bibliography in which you cite each resource (APA style) and – in 3 to 4 sentences - summarize its content and explain how it is relevant to the client and/or its business environment (1 sentence). Note: Please break up the summary and sentences about relevance into two paragaphs.
Next, identify three themes (common ideas) that appear in your research resources, and complete the following table, including it in your annotated bibliography file:
Theme Title Description of Theme Sources
E.g. Industry competition E.g. Industry competition is growing, increasing product mix for consumers
and pricing pressures for companies E.g. Industry database, news article, website
Your 1st theme
Your 2nd theme
Your 3rd theme
Amazon.com Business Combinations and Financial Results Analysis
The financial and business combination analysis for Amazon.com Company reveals a positive trend concerning profitability including revenue index. Financial records and statements indicate that the Company has been expanding revenue base since its inception.
• This is manifested through the financial data of 2012 when more acquisitions were made resulting in over $103million income from goodwill alone.
• The important strategies that have expanded the growth levels of Amazon Company include diversification, acquisition and market development or strategic partnership strategies.
• The strategies have enabled the Company to grow locally and internationally.
• For instance, they have promoted the expansion of product portfolio, market share, customer numbers, and sales.
• The ripple effect of the growth is evident in the revenue figure that has been increasing continually. Particularly, the Company remains the largest entity in the technology industry globally in terms of revenue.
• Equity investments that Amazon Company undertakes have resulted in a positive effect on financial performance.
• Despite the existing impairments that result from acquisitions and investments, positive results have always been recorded.
• The expansion into the European market is bound to expand the Company’s performance and revenue base.
Strategy, Planning, and Selection
Strategy, Planning, and Selection
Among the many marketing strategies adopted by businesses to enhance their competitiveness, the cost leadership strategy, differentiation, and niche strategy are the most popular among efficiency-minded organizations. The differentiation strategy, which is one of the widely adopted strategies by businesses today, entails a company pursuing competitive advantages across the wider market. The strategy entails the development of unique products and services that the target market will find better than, or distinctive from other products offered by the competitors in the market. In markets characterized by intense competition such as the retail industry, differentiation in terms of innovations, price differentiation, branding, and packaging among other ways is fundamental in setting a company’s products apart from those of its competitors.
The niche strategy targets only a smaller section of the market, striving to build a long-term relationship with the target market. Some of the features of this market include the existence of unique needs, smaller market size, and competitiveness. The niche strategy entails identifying and selling to a small, carefully selected market segment. Finally, cost leadership strategy is one that entails the establishment of a competitive advantage in the market through the adoption of strategies that reduce the cost of operations in the given industry (Daft, Murphy & Willmott, 2010). The cost leadership strategy enables a business to stay competitive through strategic pricing of products and services driven by the minimal costs of production and operation. In this strategy, businesses strive to reduce the overall costs of operations by leveraging on a mix of strategies with the aim of realizing market leadership.
While the different strategies are effective for various business enterprises, the cost leadership strategy is the most useful strategy applicable to an efficiency-minded retail organization. By adopting the different strategies to lower costs, a retail business is able to gain the desired competitive advantage (Stewart & Brown, 2011). Having a strong competitive advantage in terms of operational costs enables a retail business to compete at lower prices while realizing profitability. Adopting the cost leadership strategy enables the retail business to attract price-sensitive customers in the market by easing off the final price of a product through efficient cost management. When applying the cost leadership strategy human resource management, a company should not adopt cost reduction approaches that reduce the overall gain for the employees but seek to invest in cost management strategies that result in production and operational n efficiency. AN efficiency-minded retail organization operating on a cost leadership strategy should focus on aspects that use minimum resources to generate wider product ranges and increase the size of the market
Approaches to Job Design
The four main approaches to job design include:
Job rotation entails moving employees from one job to another to add to their variety of skills and aid in the reduction of boredom in the workplace. Through job rotation, employees gain new experiences and may exhibit skills not previously observable in the usual jobs. Considering the banking sector, for instance, clerks often work in one section for some time before moving to other sections. A clerk may begin at the cash counter before shifting to the card section after a specified period. The same clerk may then shift to the customer care desk and other department in the bank.
THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE & STAFF MOTIVATION ON SECURITY LEVELS AND COMPLIANCE
Chapter 1: Introduction
Aviation terrorists continue to exploit countermeasures in place and remain intent on causing untold damage to civil aviation. The current threat and risk environment demands that aviation security remain among the highest of priorities for States and the global international community (UN Security Council, 2016). Threats from improvised explosive devices (IED) in portable electronic devices continue, alongside the emerging threat of drone strikes. Person-conveyed IEDs are deemed to pose a continued significant threat (ICAO, 2017). The global aviation security environment has seen huge technological advancement in recent years, including advanced passenger and baggage security screening system infrastructure and technologies. Security screening and security checks are crucial to deter and detect threat items; however, technology alone cannot fulfil the requirements to achieve this. There must be an appropriate human resource, suitably trained and operating within an effective security culture, to oversee the technology and contend with the outcomes of the screening activity. An airport may have state of the art technology in place, however this will be undermined if not implemented effectively by a motivated workforce. As Thomas Reid wrote “a chain is no stronger than its weakest link” (Reid, 1786). This research will investigate the job satisfaction of aviation security screening personnel, leadership styles employed to manage said personnel; and whether there is a link to reduced aviation security breaches. The study will attempt to interpret the experience, attitude and behaviour of a number of teams under different leadership styles to discover whether patterns exist that could be exploited to develop an optimum leadership method to complement the advanced technology in place. Levels of staff engagement such as motivation, training and sickness levels will also be studied.
Background of the Problem
There have been many studies carried out to attempt to assess which leadership styles lead to better motivated staff and better job satisfaction. Three distinct types of leadership were established during a study carried out by Kurt Lewin (Lewin, 1939): Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-fare. This original study deemed democratic leadership to be the most effective in terms of gaining commitment from team members and heightened levels of productivity. Modern research studies have expanded on the original styles; including the most well- known: Transformational, Transactional and Situational leadership. There is a large amount of literature demonstrating a positive connection between superior performance and transformational leadership styles, there is little empirical evidence to support this. Marcel F Van Assen (Assen, 2018) investigated the relationship between three senior management leadership styles and improved operational and financial (lean) performance. He found that two leadership styles related positively to lean; one of the style related negatively. Thus, this study will focus on the contingency model of leadership in the airport security setting. The contingency theory of leadership began with Fiedler and then went on to be adapted by Blanchard in his situational leadership theory.
Problem Statement and Significance of the Study
The impact of leadership styles on the success of the ‘human factor’ in aviation security – an examination into how security and intelligence failures have arisen from issues with leadership styles and whether changes are possible from strategic directorship down to the shop floor level (such as x-ray screening) to improve security outcomes.
The scope of perceived threats to aviation security continues to widen and technology is constantly evolving to meet aviation industry requirements and threats (United Nations, 2017). Focus is on the systems being used to minimise risk to aviation operations. However, there is less attention given to the importance placed on the human factor element in maintaining secure environments. Employees are a fundamental part of the airport security process across all stakeholders; ensuring that they are doing their jobs properly and minimising the security risk is dependent on organisational leadership. All employees are responsible for being vigilant in relation to potential threats – the ‘see it, say it’ principle; those directly involved in security operations are vital to ensuring the maintenance of a secure environment. Dependant on the country these staff may be military, police or civilian.
The Electoral College and its Impacts on United States Government
Every four years, millions of Americans vote in presidential elections that are ultimately decided by only 538 electoral representatives selected proportionately across the 50 states. The 538 electors constitute the Electoral College, a system established in 1787 by the founding fathers of the American nation to equitably redistribute the powers of the government between the national government and the states (Cebula and Richard, et al 186). Even the Electoral College system is puzzle that most people find undemocratic, it is the best system for diverse federal system like the United States because it gives the elected president a national stature and a general acceptability across a majority of regions.
The Electoral College was aimed at ensuring in equity in the distribution of the power vested on the citizenry across the various states to elect the president of the union. It safeguards the possibility of the populous states enjoying unchecked power in selecting the president in disregard of the wishes of the smaller states. Under this system, each state regardless of the population is allocated two senators and a minimum of two electoral votes before the rest of the electors are allocated depending on the number of electoral districts (Riggs, et al 36). The process facilitates the two-party system, creating more stability and enabling leaders to have a widely acceptable platform instead of focus on selfish gains.
The Electoral College further directs more power to the states instead of a specific individuals or political parties (Riggs, et al 37). Additionally, the Electoral College system diffuses the tensions associated with presidential elections in most democracies where elections are a hotly contested contest between leading presidential contenders. The system often produces a clear and decisive winner in most instances since the candidate who garners 270 electoral votes becomes the outright winner. This eliminates the possibility of presidential re-runs, legal contests or the need for collision government in hotly contested presidential outcomes.
The Electoral College system produces a president with a broad regional appeal and national stature. This system of selecting the president of the United States reflects a compromise that is consistent with representative of various states in the legislature. The system would then yield a president whose wider national appeal would attract a stature independent of the Congress (Neale 3). Compared to a parliamentary democracy, the Electoral College sustains a practical separation of powers between Congress and the president by enhancing the independence of the executive branch. This would be untenable in a situation where the president seeks re-election from Congress. Therefore, the Electoral College is a hybrid system between pure presidential and parliamentary democracies where the people exercises the right to elect the president through the states.
Despite creating stability and equity in presidential elections, the Electoral College system has various shortcomings that make it appear undemocratic (Gofman and Feld 1). For instance, it compels the presidential candidates to direct campaigns towards winning narrowly divided states with decisive Electoral College votes as opposed to selling a national agenda on the campaign trail. Another problem that arises in the Electoral College is the issue of drawing district lines to benefit one group. Therefore, the system tends to favor one political party over another depending on the dynamics influencing a given election.
The Electoral College contradicts the underlying virtues of a democracy, especially where a few swing states succeed in electing the president against the majority vote. In the 2016 for example, Trump outmaneuvered Hillary Clinton by winning the decisive swing votes in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Florida among other key Electoral College voting blocs even though he lost the popular vote by an insurmountable margin (Neale 5). In the year 2000, George W. Bush defeated Al Gore by winning the fiercely contested Florida electoral vote.
In a number of instances, the Electoral College picks a president in a way that contradicts the outcome in the states and the popular vote (Cebula and Richard et al 188). It assumes a given state preferred a given candidate without giving due consideration to the voters within the same states who voted differently. As a result, the Electoral College discourages moderate voters in predominantly blue or red states from voting because their votes may insignificant if they do not prefer the popular candidate in their respective states. The citizens are given the feeling that their votes do not count (Gofman and Feld 5).
The Electoral College can be improved to accommodate both the majority and the minority citizens of America. To change the electoral system, states need to change their ways of allocating the electoral votes between the presidential candidates by replacing the electoral votes of winner takes it all with proportional representation (Neale 7). Moreover, the Electoral College electioneering process should be amended to bring back democracy and the principle of one man one vote. The insignificant over-representation of states with a small population in the college should be looked at keenly to give American citizens a chance to be adequately represented a give the candidates a fairground to compete.
Cebula, Richard J., and Dennis R. Murphy. "The Electoral College and voter participation rates: An exploratory note." Public Choice, vol. 35, no. 2, 1980, pp. 185-190.
Gofman, B., & Feld, S. (2005). Thinking About the Political Impacts of the Electoral College. Public Choice, 123, 1-18.
Neale, T. (2017). The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections. Congressional Research Service, 7-5700.
Riggs, J., et al. (2012). Electoral College, 1804 – 2008: Winner’s Propensity and Electoral Entity Vote Size. The Open Political Science Journal, 5, 36-39.
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
Differences between the Types of Diabetes
Like other diseases, the treatment of diabetes must be preceded by accurate diagnosis and cauterization of the diagnosed condition into the various types. There are three main types of diabetes include type 1, type 2 and gestational type diabetes. These types manifest different symptoms and require diverse medication and treatment approaches.
Type 1 Diabetes
This autoimmune disease targets the pancreatic beta cells. The disease leads to the destruction of the pancreatic beta cells (MedlinePlus, 2018). Beta cells primarily secrete insulin and produce hormones that promote cellular uptake. Insulin and the hormones produced by these cells maintain the metabolic function of the body. However, when the beta cells are not working, the pancreas fails to produce insulin, hence; the blood glucose levels will increase (MedlinePlus, 2018). Type one diabetes is common in children. The symptoms of type one diabetes are usually sudden and the disease can progress to ketoacidosis. Common symptoms of the disease include polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia.
Type Two Diabetes
Type two diabetes is characterized by the failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Thus, the pancreas produces low amounts of insulin than the body requires. It is also characterized by the muscle or adipose cells becoming insensitive to the actions of insulin (MedlinePlus, 2018). It is vital to note that this type of diabetes is not common in children. Mainly, it affects middle aged and old people. Risk factors associated with type two diabetes include family history, obesity, low high-density lipids, high triglycerides, hypertension, and pre-diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is common among women during pregnancy. This type of diabetes leads to hormonal changes such as an increase in the levels of cortisol, progesterone, and lactogenic (MedlinePlus, 2018). A higher secretion of these hormones inhibits the body’s insulin intake. Genetics and obesity are leading precursors to one developing gestational diabetes. After birth, there is a high probability of the blood glucose levels of a mother that had gestational diabetes to return to normal. However, there is a risk for the mother and child to develop type one or two diabetes.
One Type of Drug Used To Treat Type Two Diabetes
Human-Centered Organizations and Information Systems
Human-Centered Organizations and Information Systems
Over the last few decades, firms have increasingly realized the importance of utilizing information systems to gain competitive advantage. General Motors has not been left behind in this regard. Headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, General Motors is one the leading manufacturers of motor vehicles. The company has over 160 manufacturing plants located in different parts of the world (Schmidt, 2012). Additionally, General Motors has more than 350,000 employees working in at least 157 countries. The chief objective of information systems is to bring together the sociotechnical components of a firm with a sole purpose of boosting the organizational performance ( Xu & Quaddus, 2013). Examples of sociotechnical components include logistics, business processes, and organizational culture.
General Motors uses information systems to assist in creating new services and products. Design thinkers within and other important stakeholders such as engineers are connected via personal computers and help in creating new products and services that effectively addresses the needs and preferences of customers (Vanian, 2016). Additionally, General Motors employs information systems to improve its relationship with suppliers, customers, and other important stakeholders.
The process domain, according to Gottlieb (2004) encompass the tasks, business tools, procedures, and processes that encode business rules needed to support a broad range of functions within an organization. It encompasses the applications required at the levels of operations. Information system can assist in reducing the cost of the business process by bringing together all the components highlighted above.
Information/knowledge domain encompasses business data and business rules as well as all information of all categories, their demographics, interrelationships, and their usage (Gottlieb, 2004). Information system can improve the sharing of business data within the organization to improve its performance. Infrastructure domain includes human interfaces, communications and networks, data storage resources, system software, and facilities and hardware (Gottlieb, 2004). Information system can boost communication between employees, subordinates and top management officials. On the other hand, organizational domain encompasses people as well as their responsibilities and roles. It also encompasses organizational boundaries and structure and their interrelationship to suppliers, customers, partnerships, and alliances.
Information systems have helped General Motors to operate effectively. Specifically, the company uses information systems with an aim of reducing operating costs. For instance, the company uses e-procurement to minimize cost. Additionally, the company uses social networks and online charting systems to understand the needs and preferences of their customers and to improve the quality of their products and services (Boler-Davis, 2016).
General Motors conducts online research and ask its customers a broad range of questions such as GFM technology, vehicle designs, color, as well as, upholstery texture. The feedback obtained from this research is employed by the company to improve its product and customer service. The General Motors, according to Vanian (2016) effectively uses cloud to connect its factory robots. There are approximately 800 robots on the floor in Lake Orion manufacturing plant. The robots are able to coordinate and communicate with other to ensure that the production lines run smoothly without any interruption. General motors used digital marketing with the aim of promoting and marketing their products. Borrowing from Kotler and Armstrong (2010), digital marketing entails marketing in which digital promotional messages are sent to potential customers through the internet. The invention and evolution of technology has increasingly influenced how marketing is done in a broad range of ways. Today’s business organizations are increasingly employing digital technology with the aim of promoting and marketing their products and services. Existing literature has highlighted some of the merits associated with digital marketing. In particular, digital marketing provides customers or potential customers with an opportunity to interact online as well as sharing their ideas and experiences regarding the product offered by a given company (Goi, 2009; Kotler & Armstrong, 2010; Fill, 2009). Ornua has implemented digital marketing by creating Twitter and Facebook accounts with the aim of promoting and marketing their products. Promotional ads contain testimonials and pictures of the product to persuade and convince customers or potential customers to buy the product or the services offered. On other hand, Twitter plays an integral role in promoting and marketing products offered by business organizations.
General Motors has created a significant number of twitter ads and displaying them on its twitter account with the aim of attracting the attention of customers or potential customers. The tweets contain testimonials and pictures aimed at persuading potential customers to purchase the product. Other benefits closely associated with digital marketing encompass leveling the playing field between large businesses and small businesses, building links or relationships, measurable results, reaching wider audience, delivering immediate results, reaching targeted customers or clients more effectively as well as being cost-effective ( Kotler & Armstrong, 2010; Fill, 2009; Goi, 2009). Nevertheless, existing literature has demonstrated a broad range of shortcomings closely associated with digital marketing.
Nurse-Patient Communication in Oncology Settings
5 March 2019
Nurse-Patient Communication in Oncology Settings
Patients with cancer tend to experience distress related to the diagnosis. The communication competencies of nurses determine their competence in meeting the psychological and emotional needs of oncology patients. Behaviors such as comforting and empathy allow oncology nurses to provide sufficient support for patients with cancer (Bumb, Keefe, Miller, & Overcash, 2017). Nurses should also be able to address the spiritual needs of patients with cancer (Magro et al., 2016). The main aspects of nurse-patient communication in oncology settings include diagnosis disclosure, breaking bad news, discussing death, dialogue about the prognosis, and health literacy. This paper contains research evidence on effective nurse-patient communication in cancer care. The purpose of the research paper is to demonstrate the significance of integrating evidence-based communication models into nursing practice within oncology units.
Magro et al (2016) assert that the satisfaction of cancer patients with diagnosis disclosure is influenced by the nature of nurse-patient communication, the information given, and emotional and psychological support. Therefore, giving patients bad news related to cancer diagnosis should be aimed at responding to their emotional reactions. As Bumb et al (2017) have noted, “A diagnosis of cancer is a stressful, difficult, and life-altering event. Breaking bad news is distressing to patients and families and is often uncomfortable for the nurse delivering it.” This implies that oncology nurses need to master evidence-based communication models for clinical practice to guide in breaking the news of cancer diagnosis. The diagnosis disclosure process should also focus on addressing stress pertaining to the expectations of patients for a cure. Magro et al (2016) demonstrate that effective nurse-patient communication in oncology settings entails the involvement of family members. However, the consent of patients should be sought regarding revealing their diagnosis to relatives. Bumb et al. (2017) indicate that giving bad news to cancer patients is complex because it requires the consideration of cultural and spiritual factors specific to every patient.
Nurses need to understand the possible psychological reactions of cancer patients before diagnosis disclosure. As Magro et al (2016) have stated in the background to their study, “The way to disclose a cancer diagnosis has evolved, and psycho-oncology has developed a more prominent place in cancer care”. The diagnosis disclosure process was established to improve the overall quality of patient care and the communication about a cancer diagnosis. In this sense, nurses will be able to support patients during the early reaction phase, during distress, and in the period of adaptation. The main challenge nurses face in diagnosis disclosure is being honest with oncology patients without destroying their hope. Nurses also face difficulties minimizing the emotional impact of disclosing cancer diagnosis to patients (Magro et al., 2016). Oncology care nurses should assess the perceptions of patients about the incidence of cancer prior to the delivery of bad news. In this sense, nurses will be able to determine the right words to use when informing patients about their diagnosis.
Oncology patients and their families frequently often consult nurses on prognosis-related implications of cancer. Consequently, nurses should be knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced in providing patients with reliable information on the prognosis of cancer (Coyle et al., 2015). Prognosis-related communication is an effective strategy for involving patients in the process of making decisions on treatment interventions for their cancer. The ability of patients to cope with cancer depends on the effectiveness of health professionals in communicating on the prognosis of the disease. Notably, nurses play a critical role in disseminating life-changing knowledge that enables patients to make appropriate health choices following the diagnosis of cancer.
Newman and Helft (2015) demonstrate that nurses play an essential role in translating information provided by physicians to cancer patients. This allows patients and their relatives to make sense of the condition and the recommended treatments. Therefore, the competence of individuals with cancer to cope with the illness is defined by the nature of nurse-patient communication processes. Bumb et al. (2017) indicate that communication about the prognosis of cancer reduces uncertainty and improves the psychological adjustment of patients. Nonetheless, patients’ understanding of cancer and their cultural values affect the impact of information about the prognosis of the illness (Coyle et al., 2015). As a result, nurses should gain an understanding of the cultural factors that affect the perceptions of patients and relatives on terminal illnesses in order to be effective in providing knowledge about the prognosis of the disorder.
Effective communication regarding end-of-life care is a vital skill for oncology nurses. It enables nurses to ensure that they communicate relevant information and discuss the life preferences of patients in a meaningful way. As Coyle et al (2015) assert, “Effective communication, particularly at the end of life, is an essential skill for oncology nurses, but few receive formal training in this area”. This implies that effective communication is the main prerequisite to improving the quality of end of life care for terminally ill patients. In addition, patients evaluate the quality of cancer care in the context of the effectiveness of nurse-patient communication processes. Notably, it is through proper communication that nurses demonstrate compassion and empathy in the care of patients with terminal illnesses (Wittenberg, Ferrell, Kanter, & Buller, 2018). Nurses should be competent in providing psychosocial support during end-of-life care. They should be confident and effective in handling criticisms and conflicts when discussing death with oncology patients and family members.
Date of Submission
Analysis and Reflection on Plato’s Allegory of the Cave
The Allegory of the Cave outlines details concerning ignorance portrayed by the individuals of a certain era. The story revolves around the illiteracy witnessed by majority of the people who still hold a strong belief in the old and outdated living styles as well as nature that does not add value to the people’s wellbeing. The story quotes Socrates who views ignorance as being the biggest hindrance to improved livelihood. According to the allegory of the crave, ignorance can be defined as lack of or rather inefficient knowledge, being unaware of certain useful aspects of improved lifestyle as well as deliberate disregard of significant changes in lifestyle, including information. According to Socrates, ignorance is so common amongst individuals of the given era that the affected persons fail to realize its effects on their wellbeing.
According to the Allegory of the Cave, the ignorant are often non-receptive to change for reasons such as fear of rejection by others around them who oppose the light or enlightenment. Education has an emancipating effect on human nature but it mostly fails to achieve its intended purpose because the ignorant are skeptical about acquiring new knowledge. The ignorant also resist change because they are not used to the new appearance of things that come along with being subjected to education or enlightenment. The story depicts ignorance as a serious challenge across various spheres of life. Ignorance is often paradoxical and difficult to eliminate because those immersed in it are never aware of its existence or its effects on their wellbeing.
The allegorical representation of ignorance as an underground den, which has its mouth open towards the light, with chains that tie down the occupants to prevent them from turning their heads and legs depicts Plato’s views about the cave. Symbolically, the cave signifies a state of mental slavery, where people shy away from gaining new knowledge or pursuing education. Additionally, Plato describes the cave as an underground den with fire blazing from a distance and a raised way through which a low built wall is visible to a keen observer. By this, Plato implies that ignorance is not permanent since its severe effects are reversible through education and enlightenment. Education provides a ray of hope for the ignorant and ultimately gets them out of the cave.
Even though education promises a safe exit from ignorance or the cave, it does not guarantee steady transition to enlightenment because the society prefers the status quo and often dismisses or disregards new knowledge. In essence, the ignorant are so comfortable in their current situation that they do not see anything wrong with being in that position since that is all they know. When subjected to education and progressive change, the transition frightens them and a significant number remain stagnated in their old ways for fear of the unknown. To make the successful transition to enlightenment, one must have the sheer determination to seek light. Such determination arises from those who have gained education and understood its significance on their lives, becoming desirous of further education.
Allegory of the Cave provides a philosophical analysis of the transformative effect of education on human nature. When the ignorant is enlightened and subjected to the reality that surrounds him and happens to test the truth as a result, he definitely defies that stand on their way to beneficial transformation. The result is that the light is more important and much better than the darkness represented by the cave and those who get education will easily forfeit ignorance and pursue progress.
Reflexive Final Speech
Over the recent holiday, I had a frightening experience while diving in the Maldives. This experience was borne from my idea that the ocean or open waters are full of dangerous lurking animals. The instructor told me that I would dive first among the group that was waiting to go in. he also told me that I needed to dive down quickly since the currents were big on that day. I felt a surge of anxiety since I was used to diving in the swimming pool where I would go down slowly. Despite the anxiety, I dove in and began my descent quickly. While descending, I would look around I see nothing, but the deep blue of the water around me. Because I was the first to jump into the water, I did not have a reference point. This heightened my sense of panic, which subdued after I checked my depth gauge. I was able to gain and stay calm by keeping my eyes on the depth gauge, which gave me something familiar to focus on. This experience resonates with my experience when speaking in public. When speaking in front of a crowd, I feel a surge of anxiety, which is also disorienting. To overcome the feeling of anxiety when speaking in front of a crowd, I usually find something to focus on, which gives my brain something to do instead of ruminating over my insecurities, which create the anxiety.
Outside the course, I will use this strategy when speaking during conferences and seminars. I will avoid using the strategy during one on one conversations, which require that I maintain eye contact with the other party. However, during public speaking outside the course, I will identify an object in the room that I located at the eye level and focus on it. While focusing on the object, I will build a speaking rhythm so that I know when the anxiety kicks in. for instance, when anxiety kicks in, I notice that I increase the pace of my speaking. By building and using a speaking rhythm, I get into a flow that prevents anxiety from kicking in. One of the examples where I used this strategy is during a class presentation.
During this presentation, I trained my eyes on a building column that was located at the center of the room where the presentation was taking place. I realized that while focusing my eyes on the audience heightens anxiety and may affect the quality of my presentation, keeping my eyes off the audience completely can detach me from the audience and I may end up speaking to myself. This is how I learned the trick of having my eyes moving systematically in the middle of the of room while keeping my mind on the core points of the presentation. This way, the audience feels engaged while I manage to minimize anxiety.
I also noticed that my classmate also uses the technique of guessing through a column across the middle of the room technique to overcome anxiety. For her, anxiety sets in when she comes to face with the audience. Initially, she struggles to find an object to focus on. However, after locating the object, she calms down and gives her speech or presentation like a person that is not affected by anxiety. Another thing I noticed with her is that she controls her breathing. Controlling her breathing enables her to extend her exhales and take small sips of air while talking. By focusing on an object, my brain becomes conscious to the situation and the feeling of anxiety. I become conscious of the warning signs, which enables me to intervene early. From my previous experiences, anxiety comes as a wave and it is evident through signs such as the wavering of my voice and the shaking of my hands. By using this strategy, I can identify the warning signs early and initiate an intervention.
Anthropology Observation: Indian Wedding
I have always believed in experiencing diverse cultures, people, and food. Recently, I attended an Indian wedding and it remains one of the most beautiful events I have attended in the recent past. In Indian Culture, the final wedding event is a culmination of many preparations and the colorful state of the event clearly indicates the scope of intricate planning and attention to detail that goes into organizing the event. The color and lights at the evening event stood out and made the event even more beautiful. Everyone at the event donned bold-colored clothing. Eye-catching jewelry complemented the vibrant colors of everyone’s clothing at the event, making it even more colorful. Indians place a lot of emphasis on the traditional sari clothing as it reflected on everyone in attendance at this wedding. The endless Punjabi wedding songs, the rhythmic dances, the colorful dressing, the exquisite decorations, and exceptional delicacies coupled with a perfect fusion of modernity and traditional values made this wedding highly memorable.
I previously attended a mehndi event of the wedding. This event brings together the bride and her female friends to beautify themselves in readiness for the wedding ceremony. They apply intricate and beautiful henna patterns on their hands and feet. The significance of the henna patterns are evident at the main event as the bride and her procession is clearly beautiful as the patterns complemented their red saris. All the processions, including the grooms’, are meticulous, with everyone paying attention to the calculated steps. The groom arrived at the event on a well-decorated horse with guests dancing all around him. After the processions, the segment that followed was that of exchanging vows and the couples exchanged flower garlands that they wore on their necks as a symbol of acceptance of each other in marriage.
A characteristic feature of Hindu weddings is the use of rituals. All the steps in the wedding, the processes of giving out the girl by her father, and the holding of hands as a highlight of the union and the number of steps taken in some of the instances occur in a ritualistic manner. I learnt that the rituals are prescribed in the ancient Hindu religious books and are conducted in Sanskrit, a predominantly Indian language for holy ceremonies. The rituals are a way of affirming allegiance to the goddess of love and fertility, whose blessings are quite essential in a marriage.
The Indian cuisine and traditional foods at the event were unique but very delicious. I learnt that Indians do not shy from showing their love for food as was noted through the many varieties of fried meals and soups presented at the event. Paneer, buttery naans, tandoori meat and creamy curries, some prepared with a spicy touch, were characteristic traditional meals that stood out at the reception. Other meals present include rice dishes and bread. On such an important occasion, everyone present had something favorable to eat, as the meals presented catered for everyone’s interests, including the vegans.
The beauty of the wedding made the Indian culture exceptional. The strict adherence to local values and culture was something rarely witnessed in many western weddings. Most of the events surrounding the main wedding event, the rituals and the amazing food are unique features that make the wedding a memorable one and a testament to the resilience of the Indian culture in the face of cultural erosion in the era of globalization. On a personal level, the event enlightened me regarding the beauty of Indian traditions and culture. The fact that they allowed me to attend also signifies their interest in accommodating diversity. It also enabled me to debunk some of the misconceptions that surround Indian culture and worldview. For instance, I learnt that not all Indian meals are heavily spiced as many people often think. The wedding was an experience that left lifetime memories.
Name of Student
Name of Instructor
Autism and Interventions
Autism is one of the most common developmental disorders today. As an indicator of the pervasiveness of the condition, the Center for Disease Control reported that an estimated one in every 59 children born today suffers from Autism Spectrum Disorder. For many years, the condition was misunderstood and many myths and misconceptions regarding the condition. According to Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ), the common manifestations of autism include repetitive behaviors or interests, as well as difficulty with social interactions and communication (1). Advancements in medicine and psychology have helped enhance understanding of the subject, enabling easy diagnosis and formulation of intervention measures. Autism as a developmental disorder with devastating effects on the physical and mental wellbeing of affected, which necessitates further research aimed at assessing the impact of existing intervention practices to provide viable solutions.
Autism spectrum disorders, also called pervasive developmental disorders, occur in different forms. There is the more severe autistic disorder, and even the milder Asperger syndrome. Proper diagnosis provides more concise information diagnosis that is more concise such that the patients understand. According to Wiggins et al, more than 30% of autistic people are verbally impaired and hence use nonverbal cues, which are often hard to decode at times (3183). Those with autism face many problems, mostly due to their inability to move effectively, or interact with others easily, leading to rampant bullying by peers and abuse in the hands of caretakers (Reed 2). As they grow up, most of them have injuries acquired from hurting themselves through things like head banging; or falls and missteps. One of the main causes of death among children with autism is drowning in pools when they wander of unattended, which exposes them to many hazardous situations with permanent effects on their ability to lead normal lives.
Leo Kanner first described autism in 1943 after observing behavioral patterns in a number of children (Wiggins et al 3183). He noted an extreme loneliness behavior from the children from the onset of their life, and he proposed the name. There is consensus that both genetic and non-genetic factors play a role in the development of the condition. Children with autism show impaired motor developmental and physical abilities. SD covers a range of symptoms, skills, and even levels of impairment and this determines the level of intervention. Research on the subject has been complicated by the fact that most of the diagnosis has to happen when the child is still young, which is often hard, unless a specialist is carefully engaged. Advancement in science and research has made it easier to diagnose autism in infants. This is often a problem because most parents are not aware of the manifestations of autism in early infancy.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the industry standard for defining and diagnosing mental conditions. According to the DSM-IV, autism is diagnosed through evidence of a qualitative impairment and should be manifested in several ways:
There is marked impairment in how the child uses non-verbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye contact and gazes, their facial expression, the posture they sit with, and their usage of gestures.
The individuals have an inability to develop friendships and relationships with their peers.
The individuals have a general lack of spontaneous speaking and expression like other children, and it is often hard to understand if they are happy, their interests, achievements
They show a reduced social and emotional reciprocity (Cantino and Bozzi 6).
While children and young people need to be physically active in sports, leisure activities, social interactions, and hobbies, children with autism tend to manifest a passive outlook to these activities. They are less likely to take part in the activities spontaneously. This relates to deficits in the development of motor functions of the body and physical activity behavior. The inability of the children to participate in these activities and other recreational activities contribute to their inactivity and more often further complicate their motor and behavioral development (Cantino and Bozzi 7). From a qualitative perspective, autistic children exhibit delayed communication and development of language.
Memari et al notes that children with autism are often predisposed to several comorbid conditions that are not directly linked to autism such as overweight and obesity (1). Their study highlights that daily physical activities have a critical role they play in psychosocial development of individuals and this explains why most autistic children have problems interacting even in adulthood. For children without autism, participating in such activities is known to enhance their physical nature and even their brain development, which ensures that they become good with decision-making and academic performance in the future.
There is a consensus that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the escalation of autism. It is a behavioral-specific condition and it has been established that it is linked to unknown brain dysfunctions that tend to complicate the overall development of the brain. While at it, it is essential to appreciate that the precise etiology of the condition has not been determined. Studies have linked children born to older parents as being at a higher risk of being autistic (Huerta and Lord 103). Families with a history of autism have some likelihood of having an autistic child. It is important to appreciate that research in the subject is ongoing and all these are preliminary findings that have enhanced understanding of the subject.
The clash of two ideologies: Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
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The Clash 8of Two Ideologies: Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
Great rivalries have shaped the American historical landscape since the inception of the republic. America was founded in the 1700s and the country was in dire need for an ideological direction into the future. Perhaps one of the most important debates and ideological clash at the time happened between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, concerning how the country was to advance into the future. While Jefferson had served previously as America’s diplomat in France, it was his service as state secretary that was most impactful. Jefferson became America’s founding Secretary of State on 21 March 1790. He came from a humble and well-bred faming background in Virginia. Hamilton, on the other hand, was Washington’s first Secretary of Treasury. He was born and brought up in New York; hence, he was more urbane (Ferling, 2016).
Jefferson, a staunch republican, believed that a centralized government would breed European-style tyranny. As he was born in an agricultural setting in Virginia, he believed that the state should not be centralized. He believed in a distributed society, where the people had control over the property system and general control of the production economy. He believed that an economy founded on agriculture and controlled by the farmers would be the best approach to build personal liberty and economic freedom. Jefferson believed that industrial manufacturing should be done by countries such as England whereas the U.S. should be left to continue farming. While Jefferson held that America’s power lay with its ability to utilize its agricultural capabilities, Hamilton believed that America’s power was in commerce. Hamilton’s America was a country of businessmen, entrepreneurs, bankers and financiers. He pursued the belief that a properly structured merchant economy would bring opportunities for everyone, and would usher America to its next prosperous phase (Scott, 2008). Owing to the rapid growth of America since her independence, I argue that Hamilton’s views overrode those held by Jefferson and arguably steered America to prosperity.
America is today a global financial superpower largely due to its belief in commerce, industrialization, and the financial system. Hamilton thought of a country run by many industries and systems, employing millions of Americans and contributing massively to the economy. While Jefferson vouched for the agrarian system, it is essential to appreciate that it would only result in self-sufficiency to a given extent. Participating in global trade is a norm today, something that Jefferson did not see coming. Regarded as the father of capitalism, America’s economic prosperity today can be traced back to his thoughts. Jefferson favored a protectionist approach towards the economy. As a young nation in need for growth and a desire to be competitive, especially with their industrializing counterparts in Europe, reliance on the least profitable agrarian economy was not a favorable approach (Guay, 2006).
In comparing to Jefferson’s view that the country had to center its economy on local farming production systems, Hamilton saw that it was flawed and would force America to continue importing many goods that were not being manufactured locally. Reliance on other countries’ manufacturing systems for goods needed locally would empower other economies and could potentially slow down America’s growth. Gaining the same economic prosperity as other countries at the time such as England required a robust industrial strategy that could spur faster economic development (Klein, 2017).
Jefferson favored a local government design over the federal approach. He held that the government had no direct responsibility to helping the people. The best and only way to help the people, Jefferson argued, was to leave real power close to the people through state government, hence effectively keeping federal involvement and control away. While such an approach was good from a subsistence perspective, it would not be effective in long-term growth of the country. Hamilton argued for the strong federal involvement in the society. He held that the federal government had to wield significant power over the people as this would steer the country to a successful course. In his defense of the government, Hamilton pursued the establishment of strong state institutions such as a national bank, the consolidation of states’ debts under the national government, and putting in place tariffs and government subsidies aimed at protecting local markets and manufacturers (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008). Jefferson had opposed Hamilton’s ideas, arguing that the consolidation of the debts and repayments was an avenue for wealthy investors to benefit from the government at the expense of the people. It is essential to note that the country had racked up huge amounts of debt during the revolution period to pay off the debt. In the end, despite opposition from Jefferson, the American National Bank was approved by President Washington. The bank was essential in supporting the government and ensuring that the country’s manufacturing industry was sustained.
Jefferson’s ideas were good on paper and on a short scale. To think of a future where the country had to be prosperous, take care of its increasing population and seek global domination, interest in trade, commerce and stronger government involvement as advocated by Alexander Hamilton was necessary. Hamilton further argued that the approach to commercialize, invest in manufacturing, and take part in trade would also benefit the agrarian industry as advocated by Jefferson. Strategies such as division of labor would give chance for separation of occupations in agriculture and beyond, leading to development of a population skilled in different areas. In the context of agriculture, investment of industrial practices such as mechanization would increase production as compared to use of physical labor. In this regard, establishment of manufacturing and commerce would also improve the state of agriculture and advance the interests of those participating in it.
Improving the Adoption of Electronic Medical Records by Physicians
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Improving the Adoption of Electronic Medical Records by Physicians
The implementation of electronic medical records (EMRs) is ongoing in many healthcare organizations. Healthcare administrators lead IT projects aimed at adopting EMRs for associated benefits such as advanced diagnosis, efficiency in the management of patients’ conditions, and a decrease in operational costs (Standing & Cripps, 2015). However, the adoption of EMRs by physicians is associated with notable barriers that make it difficult for healthcare organizations to achieve change objectives. Silverman (2013) demonstrates that an understanding of factors that hinder the acceptance of EMRs by physicians is vital for the execution of effective change solutions in health facilities. The purpose of this paper is to review current research literature that demonstrates how healthcare administrators can improve the adoption of EMRs by physicians.
Obstacles in the Adoption of EMRs by Physicians
Ancker et al. (2014) reported findings of a retrospective cohort study indicating that the level of adoption and use of EMRs by physicians is determined by the quality of the technology solutions and their level of personalization. Similar studies show that lack of flexibility in EMRs limits the willingness of physicians to accept and apply the technologies in completing their daily tasks (Ancker et al., 2014). Researchers also reveal that physicians are often reluctant to adopt EMRs that lack the specific functions they need such as remote access, information sharing features, access to medical literature, electronic signatures, integration of mobile devices, and receiving of automatic alerts (Tu et al., 2015).
Lack of relevant IT skills is reported in research literature as one of the main obstacles in the adoption of EMRs by physicians. On basis of findings from surveys, scholars disclose that many primary physicians lack useful skills required to apply EMRs in patient management processes (Or, Wong, Tong, & Sek, 2014). Surveys involving physicians provide valid evidence on the competency-related setbacks that limit their motivation to adopt EMRs. Silverman (2013) asserts that vendors of EMRs tend to misjudge the level of IT skills physicians require to be effective in applying EMRs. Basic errors such as typing medical information into EMRs indicate lack of the required competencies among physicians. According to Standing & Cripps (2015), many physicians attained professional qualifications before the introduction of EMRs programs. In this sense, skill gaps are serious problems healthcare administrators need to consider in the implementation of IT projects.
Shibuya et al. (2017) assert that the lack of IT support and limited training of technical skills are among the commonest complaints from physicians during the implementation of EMRs systems. Or et al. (2014) agree that when vendors fail to address the technical issues facing physicians in regard to the use of EMR, resistance to the new technology is likely to occur. Since physicians are not technical experts, training in the use of innovative health technologies is the prerequisite to preventing resistance to change (Tu et al., 2015). An analysis of critical factors influencing the success of IT projects in healthcare organizations shows that the attitudes of physicians towards EMRs are affected by the level of technical support and training (Ancker et al., 2014). The reviewed literature shows that lack of training limits physicians’ understanding of the impact of EMRs on communication and workflow. Information exchange among physicians across EMRs also depends on their level of training (Ahmadi, Nilashi, Ibrahim, & Raisian, 2016).
Raymond et al. (2015) demonstrate that problems with the adoption of EMRs by physicians would be associated with concerns about the confidentiality and security of new technologies. Silverman (2013) adds that the extra time physicians require in data entry affects their willingness to adopt EMRs. Reliable research evidence indicates that time constraints during the processes of procuring and installing EMRs impact on physicians’ adoption of the new systems (Standing & Cripps, 2015). There is vast empirical evidence on the use of EMRs. However, gaps exist on research findings on reasons why physicians do not maximize the use of EMRs regardless of their benefits (Or et al., 2014). In addition, researchers on the topic tend to generalize the challenges that limit the acceptance of EMRs to the general population of physicians. More studies on the topic will help to identify the unique problems that hinder the adoption of EMRs by physicians in small, large, for-profit, and public health facilities.
Improving EMRs Adoption by Physicians
Shibuya et al. (2017) recommend that the requirements of physicians in the context of EMRs should be met to encourage the adoption of new technologies. This includes ensuring that EMRs have key functions for physicians such as clinical decision support and order entry. In addition, physicians should be equipped with the competencies they require in using specific functions of the EMR applications. Ahmadi et al. (2016) affirm that the technical problems physicians face in the use of EMRs can be eliminated through effective skills training. Moreover, during the procurement of EMRs, healthcare organizations should ensure that they have vendor support services. This will help to reduce technical challenges and complaints from physicians and improve their acceptance of EMRs (Ancker et al., 2014).
Jong-Yi et al. (2015) assert that healthcare organizations should determine differences in the workflow requirements of physicians depending on the nature health services they provide. This will allow for the design and implementation of EMRs that are relevant to different medical practices. Or et al. (2014) explains that the complexity of EMRs is influenced by the size and kind of healthcare facility. Consequently, competency training of physicians should be informed by the type of health services they offer and the level of sophistication of new health information systems. In addition, the skills training for the use of EMRs should also focus on improving the attitudes of physicians towards new IT solutions. Silverman (2013) demonstrates that IT training programs in hospitals fail because they focus on enhancing only the technical skills of health providers. Effective training prevents false assumptions among physicians that EMRs are overly complex and a resultant resistance to new systems (Tu et al., 2015).
Healthcare facilities should provide physicians with interoperable EMRs to reduce reworks and improve the dissemination of medical data and knowledge (Ancker et al., 2014). Raymond et al. (2015) explain that interoperability improves the efficiency with which physicians use EMRs. Therefore, interaction between EMRs and other devices should be part of the requirements vendors should meet before they are selected to deliver the IT solutions to health facilities. Ahmadi et al. (2016) present research evidence indicating that complaints from physicians reduce with the interoperability of EMRs. Additionally, physicians develop better perceptions about the benefits of EMRs when they realize that they can be used with mobile devices (Tu et al., 2015). Notably, perceived attributes and relative advantage of EMRs influence their adoption by physicians (Bredfeldt, Awad, Joseph, & Snyder, 2013).
Religion as a Significant Factor in the Development of Early World Civilizations
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Religion as a Significant Factor in the Development of Early World Civilizations
Religion was a significant factor in the emergence of early world civilizations. Christianity, Muslim, and Hindu religions were intricately intertwined with early history and formation of early western societies. Throughout its long history, religion has been a major source of services such as medical care and schooling, which were critical for the development of early world civilizations (Adler & Pouwels, 2012). Religion also served as the inspiration for the culture, art, and culture, in addition to the politics of early civilization. The job of Christianity in human progress has been unpredictably interwoven with the history and development of Western culture. All through its long history, the Christian Church has been a noteworthy wellspring of social administrations like tutoring and therapeutic consideration; motivation for artisanship, culture and logic; and compelling player in governmental issues and religion. In different ways, it has looked to influence Western mentalities to bad habit and ethicalness in assorted fields. Celebrations like Easter and Christmas are set apart as open occasions; the Gregorian calendar has been received universally as the common calendar; and the calendar itself is estimated from the date of Jesus' birth (Adler & Pouwels, 2012).
The social impact of the Church has been huge. Church researchers safeguarded education in Western Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire. During the middle Ages, the Church rose to supplant the Roman Empire as the binding together power in Europe (Horosz & Clements, 1987). The houses of God of that age stay among the most notorious accomplishments of engineering delivered by Western human advancement. A large number of Europe's colleges were additionally established by the congregation around then. Numerous history specialists express that colleges and house of prayer schools were a continuation of the enthusiasm for learning advanced by monasteries. The college is largely regarded as a foundation that has its starting point in the Medieval Christian setting, conceived from Cathedral schools. The Reformation finished religious solidarity in the West; however, the Renaissance artful culminations delivered by Catholic artisans like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael around then stay among the most commended masterpieces at any point created. Likewise, Christian consecrated music by arrangers like Pachelbel, Vivaldi, Bach, Handel, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Liszt, and Verdi is among the most respected established music in the Western standard (Horosz & Clements, 1987).
The Bible and Christian philosophy have emphatically affected Western scholars and political activists. The lessons of Jesus, for example, the Parable of the Good Samaritan, are among the critical hotspots for current thoughts of Human Rights and the welfare measures normally given by governments in the West (Huntington, 2007). Long held Christian lessons on sexuality and marriage and family life have additionally been both persuasive and (as of late) questionable. Christianity assumed a job in completion practices, for example, human forfeit, slavery, child murder, and polygamy. Christianity when all is said in done influenced the status of women by censuring conjugal unfaithfulness, separate, interbreeding, polygamy, conception prevention, child murder (female newborn children will probably be slaughtered), and abortion. While official Church teaching views women and men as reciprocal (equivalent and unique), some advanced "backers of appointment of ladies and different women's activists" contend that lessons ascribed to St. Paul and those of the Fathers of the Church and Scholastic scholars propelled the thought of a supernaturally appointed female inferiority (Huntington, 2007). Nevertheless, women have assumed noticeable jobs in Western history through and as a component of the congregation, especially in training and medicinal services, yet in addition as compelling scholars and spiritualists. Christians have gained a heap commitments to human ground in a wide and differing scope of fields, both truly and in present day times, including the science and technology, medicine, expressive arts and architecture, legislative issues, literatures, music, magnanimity, philosophy, ethics, theater and business.
According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes an audit of Nobel prizes grant somewhere in the range of 1901 and 2000 uncovers that (65.4%) of Nobel Prizes Laureates, have recognized Christianity in its different structures as their religious preference. Eastern Christians (especially Nestorian Christians) have likewise added to the Arab Islamic Civilization amid the Umayyad and the Abbasid periods by interpreting works of Greek savants to Syria and a short time later to Arabic (Huntington, 2007). They additionally exceeded expectations in logic, science, religious philosophy and medicine. A portion of the things that Christianity is normally scrutinized for incorporate the persecution of women, judgment of homosexuality, expansionism, and different instances of viciousness. Christian thoughts have been utilized both to help and to end servitude as an organization. The feedback of Christianity has originated from the different religious and non-religious gatherings around the globe, some of whom were themselves Christians.
Christianity started as a Jewish order in the mid-first century emerging out of the life and lessons of Jesus of Nazareth. The life of Jesus is described in the New Testament of the Bible, one of the bedrock writings of Western Civilization and motivation for endless works of Western art. Christmas and Easter remain occasions in numerous Western countries. Jesus took in the writings of the Hebrew Bible, with its Ten Commandments (which later wound up compelling in Western law) and turned into a powerful meandering evangelist. He was an influential teller of illustrations and good savant who encouraged devotees to adore God, act without brutality or partiality and care for the debilitated, ravenous and poor. These lessons have been profoundly compelling in Western culture. Jesus condemned the benefit and false reverence of the religious foundation, which got under the skin of the specialists, who induced the Roman Governor of the territory of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, to have him executed. The Tanakh says Jesus was executed for witchcraft and for driving the general population into apostasy. In Jerusalem, around 30AD, Jesus was crucified. The early adherents of Jesus, including Saints Paul and Peter conveyed this new religious philosophy concerning Jesus all through the Roman Empire and past, sowing the seeds for the improvement of the Catholic Church, of which Saint Peter is recognized as the primary Pope. Catholicism, as we probably are aware it rose gradually. Christians regularly confronted oppression amid these early hundreds of years, especially for their refusal to participate in adoring the sovereigns. In any case, brought through the synagogues, dealers and evangelists over the known world, the new internationalist religion rapidly developed in size and influence (Neusner, 2006). It is one of a kind interest was somewhat the aftereffect of its qualities and ethics .
The world's first human advancements were Mesopotamian sacrosanct states managed for the sake of a heavenly nature or by rulers who were themselves seen as perfect. Rulers, and the clerics, troopers and civil servants who completed their will, were a little minority who kept power by abusing the many. In the event that we swing to the underlying foundations of our western custom, we find that in Greek and Roman occasions not all human life was viewed as sacred and deserving of security. Slaves and 'brutes' did not have a full ideal to life and human penances and gladiatorial battle were adequate (Neusner, 2006). Straightforward law necessitated that distorted babies be killed; for Plato, child murder is one of the consistent establishments of the perfect State; Aristotle views fetus removal as an attractive alternative; and the stoic thinker Seneca composes proudly: "Unnatural descendants we obliterate; we suffocate even kids who during childbirth are feebly and unusual.” In addition, while there were deviations from these views, it is presumably right to state that such practices were less banished in old occasions. Most antiquarians of western ethics concur that the ascent of Christianity contributed extraordinarily to the general inclination that human life is profitable and deserving of respect. W.E.H. Lecky gives the now established record of the sacredness of human life in his history of European ethics saying Christianity "framed another standard, higher than any which at that point existed in the world" (Neusner, 2006). Christian ethicist David P. Gushee says "The equity lessons of Jesus are firmly identified with a commitment to life's sanctity" John Keown, an educator of Christian morals recognizes this 'holiness of life' convention from "a personal satisfaction approach, which perceives just instrumental incentive in human life, and a vitalistic approach, which sees life as an outright good esteem.
Rome had a social position framework, with women having no lawful freedom and no autonomous property. Early Christianity, as Pliny the Younger discloses in his letters to Emperor Trajan, had individuals from each age and rank, and both sexes. Pliny reports capturing two slave women who professed deacons in the main decade of the second century. There was a ritual for the appointment of women ministers in the Roman Pontifical, (a ritualistic book), up through the twelfth century (Neusner, 2006). For women ministers, the most established ritual in the West originates from an eighth-century book, while Eastern ceremonies go the distance back to the third century and there is a greater amount of them. The New Testament alludes to various women in Jesus' inward circle. There are a few Gospel records of Jesus conferring critical lessons to and about women.
As indicated by Christian theological rationalist Tim Keller, it was normal in the Greco-Roman world to uncover female newborn children in light of the low status of women in the public eye. The congregation denied its individuals to do as such. Greco-Roman culture saw no incentive in an unmarried woman, and hence it was illicit for a dowager to go over two years without remarrying. Christianity did not drive dowagers to wed and upheld them fiscally. Agnostic dowagers lost all control of their significant other's domain when they remarried, however the congregation enabled widows to keep up their better half's home. Christians did not have confidence in dwelling together. On the off chance that a Christian man needed to live with a woman, the congregation required marriage, and this gave women legitimate rights and far more noteworthy security. At last, the agnostic twofold standard of enabling wedded men to have extramarital sex and paramours was illegal. Jesus' lessons on separation and Paul's support of monogamy started the way toward raising the status of women with the goal that Christian women had a tendency to appreciate more noteworthy security and uniformity than did women in encompassing cultures.
Strategic Management of Healthcare Organizations
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Strategic Management of Healthcare Organizations
Barriers to Entry
Barriers to entry refer to the existence of financial and non-financial obstacles that prevent new competitors from easily venturing into a given industry or market (Wootton & Horne, 2010). Too stringent barriers to entry tend to benefit the existing firms as they protect their revenues and profits. Low barriers to entry imply an industry or market is easily penetrable by new firms as there are less obstacles. The healthcare industry is a dynamic, fast growing industry with an increasing number of players but the existing regulatory framework and stringent certification requirements still act as barriers to entry of new providers in the industry (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2013). Some of the barriers to entry include:
Certificate-of-need (CON) laws
Certificate of need statutes came into force in the 1960s with the aim of determining whether a given healthcare organization can add its bed capacity, operation rooms, and add expensive technologies and equipment. The laws came into force to encourage the consolidation of small hospitals, reduce overall healthcare expenses, and reduce duplication of medical services (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2006). Established health centers have been in favor of CON laws because of the belief that the laws protect them from Wallstreet-funded outpatient facilities targeting the paying clients. If this were to happen, critical facilities such as community hospitals would struggle to run some services such as emergency rooms due to the loss of the paying customers. On one hand, proponents of CON process hold that the laws help in moderating healthcare costs. New entrants view these laws as a barrier to entry because they favor and protect already established hospitals. Reducing the number of health facilities entering the industry reduces the level of innovation and is partly responsible for the high healthcare costs. The laws introduce artificial restrictions in the provision of healthcare services (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2013). Under the regulations, patients have fewer options for medical services as they have to choose among the few accredited providers in the market.
Existing Product or Service Differentiation
Existing products and service providers in a given market often act as a barrier to entry. Adding new products to a market with already existing products requires a strategic acumen, with ability to identify gaps in the market and providing products and services that plug the gaps (Wootton & Horne, 2010). Innovativeness and customer centered marketing are also important efforts in penetrating an existing market. In the case of healthcare, the existing providers in the industry have invested years in product innovation and streamlining their operations to match the needs of the core customer segments (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2006). In addition, the experience and the superior healthcare infrastructure give the existing players the ability to deliver better health outcomes than the new entrants. In addition, the established healthcare providers enjoy considerable goodwill with the customers, who might be unwilling to entrust their health and wellbeing with the new entrants.
As a requirement for Certificate-of-need (CON) laws, healthcare organizations need to invest a lot in infrastructure and facilities. MRI, CT, and PET scanners among other technologies are quite expensive. Healthcare organizations further need to invest in emergency and operation rooms that meet the specifications required by law before approval. Furthermore, some of the equipment is expensive to purchase and maintain. The high costs favor already established health organizations in the industry (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2013). Newer firms penetrating the market need to ensure they can meet these high costs, which only a handful of them can. With the high initial expenditures, new healthcare organizations need to perform serve many customers and charge higher if they intend to break even.
Porter’s Five Forces
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Porter’s Five Forces
The Porter’s Five Forces model provides an overview of the level and nature of competition in a given market. It draws from the industrial organization economics to generate the five forces that saliently influence the competitive pressure in any given industry. These five forces include competitive rivalry within an industry, product differentiation, and the bargaining power of customers, the bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, cost of substitute products, and cost of leadership (Besanko, Dranove & Shanley, 2013). A market is unattractive if these five forces have the potential of reducing the profitability of firms operating in it. From the analysis of nursing homes in Poughkeepsie, NY, it is highlighted that there is a high risk of potential new entrants as new or two possible new nursing homes are intending to open in the area. The new entrants into the market pose a threat to the existing providers in the market because they will intensify the overall competition.
In the same market, there are already five nursing homes with a capacity of 1200 beds. This creates heightened rivalry for customers in this market, which compels the operators to provide competitive incentives to continue attracting patients. The rivalry is marked by the fact that the hospitals discharge about 96 patients to nursing homes annually, which is lower than the capacity already provided by the five nursing homes. The rivalry is likely to result in price wars with the effect being that the nursing homes have to charge much less to attract clients (Besanko, Dranove & Shanley, 2013). The bargaining power of suppliers and buyers in this market also increases the overall competitiveness. The buyers, mainly the patients, hospital heads, insurance providers and other parties paying for the clients seek to find the least costly service. As the number of buyers is small, they have a strong bargaining power, choice and can force lower prices. The nursing homes compete with each other through price reduction and additional service enhancements.
The presence of 600 substitute beds for assisted and independent living as well as 100 community alternatives is also a critical factor in the market. These substitutes compete for the same customers as the existing organizations, especially when they offer same service, lower cost or better quality. Their presence, therefore, increases the competitiveness of the market. From the Porter’s Five Forces analysis, it is fundamental to note that Poughkeepsie, NY area is extremely competitive and hence undesirable for a new nursing home. The many nursing homes already in the market competing for the few patients make it untenable for an additional nursing home.
Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)
Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)
International trade is one of the most prominent methods through which countries foster their national interests in the international arena with an ultimate objective of achieving prosperity, stability and security. International trade of most countries is often regulated by unilateral barriers such as outright prohibitions, nontariff barriers, and tariffs (Salazar-Xirinachs and Granados, 2011). These barriers may hinder international trade, thereby denying a country benefits that are associated with international trade. Trade agreements are important in helping to reduce these barriers by opening all parties to the benefits of improved and increased trade (Yeboah et al, 2007). In general terms, trade agreement is defined as any contractual arrangement between two countries or among more than two countries regarding their trade interactions and relationships (Lester et al, 2016). It entails a broad range of trade treaties, tariff and taxes that in most cases encompasses investment guarantees. The United States has over the decades entered into numerous trade agreements in a bid to promote its international trade (Fitzgerald, 2009). The Central America Free Trade Policy (CAFTA) has had far reaching effects both on multilateral relations amongst member states and economic outcomes by influencing foreign policy making and aggressive lobbying by business interests among other aspects of international interest.
The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is a free trade agreement which was entered into in December 2003 between the United States and five Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras (World Bank Group, 2005). In March 2004, the Dominican Republic was added to be party to this agreement (World Bank Group, 2005). This agreement reflects a push by the party-states towards corporate globalization aimed at creating new and improved economic opportunities through the reduction of barriers to services, elimination of tariffs, and widening the markets. The creation of this agreement was premised on the understanding that the trade area that it covers is Latin America’s third-largest export market after Brazil and Mexico (Garavaglia, 2005). CAFTA intended to foster economic growth amongst the smaller developing economies of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic, thereby improving the living standards of their populations (Yeboah et al, 2007). At the same time it was meant to further improve the economic prospects of the United States particularly by benefitting the country’s exporters of textiles, paper, plastics and petroleum products. It was also designed to benefit U.S manufacturers of electronic/electrical products, machinery, motor vehicles, and medical equipment among others (Salazar-Xirinachs and Granados, 2011). While the objectives of CAFTA are noble, questions still abound as to whether they have been achieved over a decade since it came into place.
The rationale behind the establishment of CAFTA was premised on the successes of other trade agreements, particularly the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that was made up of the United States, Mexico and Canada (Fitzgerald, 2009). The formulators of CAFTA saw it as a vehicle to enable not just the United States but also the other members to achieve greater trade and investments that would lead to their greater economic prosperity (World Bank Group, 2005). The crafters of CAFTA envisioned it to be a blueprint for greater economic corporations between the United States and its Central American neighbors that would provide a platform for even more ambitious trade agreement called the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), bringing together all the Caribbean, Central, North and South American countries except Cuba (Yeboah et al, 2007). The CAFTA aimed at cutting down nearly 80 percent of exports from the United States to other member states over the next decade to create a balance of trade between the countries involved (Salazar-Xirinachs & Granados, 2011). Consequently, this agreement did not need significant reductions in the United States import duties regarding the other nations since the substantial exports from member states already got in the United States markets duty-free through the Caribbean Basin Initiative (Lester et al, 2016).
CAFTA’s was intended to achieve specific outcomes and objectives. Its primary purpose is the elimination of trade barriers and tariffs, as well as the expansion of opportunities in the region for service providers, farmers, manufacturers, ranchers, workers, and consumers (Garavaglia, 2005). The particular objectives of this agreement included diversification and expansion of trade among participating countries; promotion of fair competition; establishment of a framework for greater multilateral, regional, and bilateral cooperation leading to FTAA; increasing investment opportunities; elimination of trade barriers as well as enforcing and protecting intellectual property rights amongst the member countries (Lester et al, 2016). In essence, this purpose and objectives are aimed at benefitting key players in trade in the participating countries who include manufacturers, service providers, those involved in agricultural production, consumers, workers in formal and informal sectors, and retail and wholesale traders (Fitzgerald, 2009).
Lester et al (2016) observe that most trade agreements around the world are usually driven by key influencers/actors who are not just involved in the formulation of such agreements but also in their implementation. Such actors transcend the economic, political and social spheres seeking to achieve various political objectives and extend progressive business interests. CAFTA was no different as it had key influencers and actors behind it (World Bank Group, 2005). It is these business interests and political motivations that saw the agreement facing support and opposition. Its key supporters included majority of the United States government leaders (Yeboah et al, 2007). For instance the then United States Trade Representative Robert Zoellick stated in May 2004 that this agreement would create significant economic opportunity that will strengthen the democratic commonwealth in the region (Salazar-Xirinachs and Granados, 2011). Other government leaders supported this agreement by commenting that it will lead to citizens of the participating countries to achieve better living standards when their businesses grow and profit increase. In addition, the government officials of the other member countries including Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras, and the Dominican Republic in their support to this agreement argued that the participating nations will rely and benefit from the principle of comparative advantage (Garavaglia, 2005). This principle implies that they can concentrate on contributing goods and services that they can produce in most efficient and cost-effective way (Lester et al, 2016).
Apart from the political leadership and government policymakers from the United States and other nations in CAFTA being key influencers behind it, powerful corporations in the member countries also played a crucial role in realizing the inception of the agreement. For example, the United States-based companies with operations in CAFTA countries supported it because it enabled them to ship goods without paying high value-added taxes (World Bank Group, 2005). CAFTA eliminated the quotas for particular goods being exported and imported between member nations. Business people from the Central America countries were also in support of this agreement (Garavaglia, 2005). Costa Rica’s Commerce Minister took note of this support when he said that this agreement was a positive force for his country’s business people particularly those in the food production, agribusiness and electronics industry as their exports will grow (Fitzgerald, 2009). This observation is supported by statistics which show that Costa Rica will obtain nearly $1.5 billion in foreign direct investment from United States between 2006 and 2010, a figure that amounts to about 70 percent of the total foreign investments going to Central America (Salazar-Xirinachs and Granados, 2011).
Even though CAFTA received significant support, there are groups that opposed it not just in the United States but also in other CAFTA countries (Yeboah et al, 2007). Some environmentalists opposed this trade agreement by arguing that it should require the United States Companies which have operations in other CAFTA nations to comply with the United States laws on environment, a requirement that was not imposed by CAFTA (Yeboah et al, 2007). They further argued that the environmental provisions in the agreement were merely symbolic gestures since it does not require participating countries to enforce or maintain environmental laws or standards (Garavaglia, 2005). Environmentalists from Costa Rica which is hailed as a leader in Central America in protection of the environment argued that the agreement imposed conflicting and unclear environmental mandates on businesses. Therefore, according to environmentalists, CAFTA was likely to exacerbate environmental degradation (Fitzgerald, 2009).
Moreover, CAFTA faced opposition from human rights and indigenous groups in Central America. They not only raised concerns on environmental effects of this agreement but also they opposed low wages that were paid to workers in Central America countries (Yeboah et al, 2007). They were concerned that natural resources and low wages as a result of CAFTA only served to benefit major corporations and shareholders that exploited the local populations (World Bank Group, 2005). The Salvadoran American National Network which is the biggest association of Central American community based organization in the U.S in 2004 expressed opposition against CAFTA (World Bank Group, 2005). It claimed that this trade agreement was not ideologically motivated as it fell short of the potential benefits of transnational trade cooperation which include protection of shred environment, improving economic opportunities and guaranteeing human rights especially for workers (Garavaglia, 2005). Doctors without Borders also opposed CAFTA by arguing that it would lead to unethical medical practices, particularly in regard to manufacturing of generic drugs. Their opposition was based on the view that CAFTA contained provisions about test data exclusivity that gave drug manufacturers a leeway of keeping test data secret. This provision would limit local firm’s ability to produce generic drugs thereby maintaining the monopoly of multinational corporations to produce branded drugs (Lester et al, 2016).
Since it came into force in 2004, CAFTA has had varied results. Available data shows that total trade of goods between 2005 and 2013 among the participating countries was $60 billion which represented a 71 percent increase (Lester et al, 2016). This increase improved the economies of the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. For example, Nicaragua, one of the poorest countries in Central America recorded significant growth in export of its agricultural and textile goods that accounted for over fifty percent of the total exports (Frederick et al, 2015). As a consequence, Nicaragua’s economy has witnessed impressive growth of 5 percent in 2012, 4.6 percent in 2013, and 4.7 percent in 2014 (Frederick et al, 2015). The Dominican Republic saw its exports increase by more than half to the United States. Its exports are primarily tobacco, coffee, and sugar. Besides, it saw remittances from its expats in the United States to increase to equal 7 percent of the nation’s GDP (Salazar-Xirinachs and Granados, 2011). Costa Rica has benefitted from this agreement not just through enhanced foreign direct investment in the telecommunication and insurance sectors but also in exports as the United States became its biggest trading partner accounting for about 32 percent of the country’s total exports (Lester et al, 2016).
The positive effects of CAFTA notwithstanding, there are those who have been hurt by it. It has had some destabilizing effects on Central American countries due to the subsidization of the United States agribusiness (Lester et al, 2016). This has resulted in exports of low-cost grains going up by about 78% to Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. It has made it difficult for local farmers in these countries to compete (Salazar-Xirinachs and Granados, 2011). It has also caused economic instability in these countries which has led to the rise in drug trade and prompted locals to immigrate to the United States (Frederick et al, 2015).
Conclusively, CAFTA is an integral trade agreement between the United States and Central American countries that is driven by the philosophy that underpins the other trade agreement such as NAFTA. Its primary purpose is to eliminate trade barriers and tariffs and to expand opportunities for consumers, service providers, workers, farmers and manufacturers. It has received support from political and government leaders and also opposition from various groups especially environmental and human rights activists. While it has negative effects, its positive impacts are greater, and therefore, this trade agreement should be sustained and strengthened.
The social issue that is worth studying is the criminal victimization of African Americans. This is an important area of study because victimization has an effect on the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development of the victimized people. This is usually the case when children are involved. Studies of criminal victimization show that African Americans are victimized more than any other ethnic group in the U.S. furthermore, African American males are more victimized than white males.
Studies have shown that compared with other ethnic segments of the population, the victimization rates for African Americans are higher than for any other ethnic group. Studies suggest that African American youths aged 12-19 are more likely to be victim of violent crimes than their white peers. They are also more likely to be victims of child neglect and abuse, robbery, and homicide than other ethnic groups. Living in an urban setting increases the risk of exposure to violence among African Americans.
The study will use a quantitative research method. A questionnaire will be employed for data collection. The independent variable is the ethic group while the dependent variable includes crimes such as homicide, robbery, and child abuse.
The expected results will show that African Americans are more likely to be victims of diverse crimes committed in the U.S. The results will also show that African American youths are more likely to be victims of crimes such as child abuse, robbery, and homicide. Additionally, African Americans who are victimized in the transitional period of adolescence of adulthood may experience disruption in their emotional and behavioral developmental processes. These are worsened by the perception that existing institutions and unable and unwilling to protect or help the victimized population. This leads to the perception that the victimized population must cope with the unsafe environment.
Supervision of Sex Offenders
The high likelihood of recurrence of sexual offenses perpetrated by convicted sexual offenders once they are reintegrated into the communities necessitates a multifaceted and collaborative approaches as well progressive legal regimes that enable communities and law enforcements to watch sexual offenders closely. State laws that advocate for GPS monitoring of convicted sex offenders, expanded use of polygraphs on suspected sex offenders within community settings, and lifetime parole sanctions on convicted offenders have yielded have gone a long way in mitigating recurrence of sexual offenses but more concerted efforts are still necessary to improve supervision outcomes for sexual offenders. This paper seeks to explore the various laws that deal with the mandatory treatment for sexual offenders and the different ways it is being done. The paper also explores strategies and best practices that are most effective when working with sexual offenders in societies. Finally, this paper seeks to understand the various technologies employed in tracking the offenders, treating them, and attempting to restrict their activities. In the same line, this study seeks to understand the number of sex offenders who are savvy and use technology to lure their victims.
Supervision of Sex Offenders
There are very few crimes that result in the sort of outrage that characterizes sexual offenses, especially when the victim is a minor. The public usually springs forth, seeking vengeance and calling for even stronger means to punish such individuals. This explains why laws and regulations to stiffen the punishments to sex offenders have been proposed around the world. State laws that advocate for GPS monitoring of convicted sex offenders, expanded use of polygraphs on suspected sex offenders within community settings, and lifetime parole sanctions on convicted offenders have yielded have gone a long way in mitigating recurrence of sexual offenses have recorded varying outcomes across the states, which calls for the formulation of more standardized programs to identify, monitor and supervise sex offenders within the community setting.
Laws for Mandatory Treatment for Sex Offenders
Various laws and policies have been enacted all through the country aiming at addressing the problem that sex offenders pose to society. The first method of treatment proposed has been that of castrating the offenders. While this may be perceived as a radical approach to supervising sex offenders, the proponents hold the belief that it is the only way to ensure public safety, especially in the instances of those offenders who are not incarcerated. Eight states in America have passed legislation allowing for chemical castration of sex offenders (Findlaw Team, 2018). These states include Florida, Georgia, California, Montana, Louisiana, Texas, Oregon, and Wisconsin. California was the first state in the country to publicly allow for chemical castration when it signed into law a measure permitting the use of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), which is traded using the name Depo-Provera and medically used in managing female reproductive health issues (Findlaw Team, 2018).
California amended the Penal code to include the requirement that first offenders of certain sex crimes had to undergo MPA treatment, or its chemical equivalent, to qualify for parole (Douglas, Bonte, Focquaert, Devolder & Sterckx, 2013). Some of the crimes for which one could be liable for this punishment include sodomy, forceful sex, rape, and oral copulation. The same was done in Florida, with the only exception being that this treatment could not replace or reduce other penalties that the court process could impose on the offenders. The Texas government passed the regulation recommending repeat offenders of aggravated sexual crimes to children aged below 14, indecency and other crimes to elect for orchiectomy the surgical removal of the testicles. Like in other states, this may not be considered as a condition for parole (Douglas, Bonte, Focquaert, Devolder & Sterckx, 2013). Finally, the Wisconsin government included the same condition in their penal code, recommending that inmates who have served two-thirds of their sentences were expected to undergo the process. The amendment to the code was such that the courts and the correctional facilities could deny the release of serious sexual offenders who refused to participate in chemical castration using antiandrogen or an equivalent chemical (Douglas, Bonte, Focquaert, Devolder & Sterckx, 2013).
Laws on Public Notification of Sex Offenders in Neighbourhoods
The laws and regulations passed to ensure easy identification of sexual offenders essentially protect the public from repeat offenses perpetrated by convicted sex offenders. The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act, simply called the SORNA, is part of a far-reaching federal law requiring states in the country to maintain a comprehensive system for monitoring and tracking of sexual offenders arrested and convicted in the legal system (Findlaw, 2018). Specifically, the Act makes it a federal crime for a sexual offender to fail to register with a given state’s authorities or fail to keep the updates at the given intervals of time. As a federal requirement, the law applies to all the 50 states in the country and all the other U.S. territories. The Law was passed in 2006 under Title 1 of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act (Findlaw, 2018).
The Act gives each state the discretion to define for them what types of crimes they categorize as sexual offenses as well as the punishments for each of these crimes. SORNA assigns three categories for the various crimes. Tier 3 includes the most serious sexual crimes that receive the highest form of punishment by the various state laws. Tier 2 includes those that are punishable by imprisonment for at least a year in prison. Tier 1 includes those offenses that do not fall into either of the two tiers (Findlaw, 2018).
Sex offender notification laws are simply examples of communities attempting to provide a degree of sense of security for their citizens against horrific crimes that affect the most vulnerable individuals in society (Findlaw, 2018). They are intended to enhance general community safety. Megan’s law is another set of community notification laws passed in the country. This law is notably associated with the rape and murder of seven-year-old Mean Kanka in 1994 who was lured by a neighbor to his house. The neighbor was a convicted sex offender who had just left prison for the same offense. The law was passed as an amendment of the Wetterling Act which had been adopted in 1989 (Findlaw Team, 2018). This law demands that convicted sex offenders have to register with the local law enforcement agencies and this information is stored in a central bureau. The information taken from the sex offenders includes their dates of birth, physical address, photographs, and social security information among others. In addition to that, Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act mandated states to establish procedures for tracking the whereabouts of sexual offenders.
How Technology Will Shape the Future of Work
Technology is transforming the workplace and the role of professionals in diverse fields in many remarkable ways. With the advent of artificial intelligence and automation of work processes, the human workforce must be prepared for the inevitable turbulence that technology may soon bring to their desks or even the potential of being rendered redundant as technology takes over most roles currently performed by human labor. The employers on their part must be prepared to higher new talents and retrain the existing workforce to match the emerging demands of the smart workplace. In the technology supported society, highly efficient machines operating independently or with the aid of non-specialist users will take jobs currently performed by high flying professionals, including doctors, lawyers, and accountants among others. This will cause a transformation in the production and distribution of workers across various industries, which will lead to a dismantling of the traditional professions. This paper examines how technology will shape work in the future.
How Technology Will Shape the Future of Work
Production economics advocate for more innovative efforts to generate goods and services which can then be consumed or traded out. Traditionally, people have worked on the farms, in the industries, and in provisioning services like education and healthcare around the world where they are then entitled to a reward in the form of wages or salaries. In the modern era, work has undergone various changes and seen many transformations. Prior to the industrial revolution, for instance, the concept of work was fairly less developed with people working manually. The industrial revolution brought with it advancements in machines that could then be used to make work easier, faster, and more efficient. The result was increased production among many other benefits (Kelly, 2016). The last 50 years saw the development and growth of computing power, which has resulted in even advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence. In all these avenues, the nature of work has transitioned. This paper seeks to explore how technology will influence, drive and shape the future of work and the realities that the current workforce must expect.
The last few years have seen a significant proliferation of technology in many facets of our life. Technology today guides how we socially interact with others and how we work among other areas. There are technologies developed which have an implication on each and every facet of our lives. There has been varied views in the media regarding the impending role that technology will possibly have on how we work. Technology already has a significant influence on how we work especially applying the tools presented. Computers and software like word processors, spreadsheets, and databases have helped organizations improve their overall efficiency and productivity (Kelly, 2016). Tasks which would hitherto take time and effort can today be handled seamlessly and with the least effort. Many workplaces today cannot function efficiently without the computers, an internet connection for communication and correspondence purposes, and all other associated tools and equipment.
Many researchers have sought to explore the many fears, theories and thoughts on how technology is going to affect how we work today. It is pertinent to acknowledge that since the industrial era, workers have had mixed feelings towards technology. Many have held the belief that technology and automation would negatively affect how they work and render them jobless. There have been fears that the various automation technologies and approaches that are influencing work were intended to drive them jobless. This has been a hotly contested subjected both in the world of academia and from the workers’ standpoint. On February 24, 1961, TIME Magazine ran a story titled “The Automation Jobless,” in which it highlighted that many jobs are going to be lost through the development of highly efficient machines. The article pointed out that the automation of work carried the risk of slowing down the economy by inhibiting its ability to create new jobs and that it was driven mainly by the need to have smaller workforces in organizations driving even bigger production systems. Overly, the article sought to warn against the many dangers that the automation of work could bring.
In their paper titled “The History of Technological Anxiety and the Future of Economic Growth: Is This Time Different?” Mokyr, Vickers and Ziebarth (2015) elaborated the fact that technology and automation have created a significant level of anxiety all through history, with the press and literature portraying it as an alien, powerful and threatening, and potentially uncontrollable. They note that the tension and anxiety over technological adoption take several forms. The first is the optimistic view that technology will continue growing and accelerating (Mokyr, Vickers & Ziebarth, 2015). There have been various models that have expounded on the extent and scale with which technology is growing and is expected to grow. This optimistic view holds that this continued growth and expansion of technology will continue to cause widespread substation of machines for labor, which many fears could lead to technological unemployment, where people are driven off work by machines. Secondly, Mokyr, Vickers and Ziebarth (2015) noted a rising anxiety amongst professionals about the moral implications of technology processes on human welfare.
From the industrial revolution and workplaces today, human welfare like wages, working conditions, and safety among others are of critical importance. During the industrial revolution, working in dehumanizing conditions was one of the leading causes of industrial actions (Mokyr, Vickers & Ziebarth, 2015). Given that machines can work in nearly any condition without considering the safety and other conditions, the possible future of workplaces has been questioned, especially where humans may work alongside the machines. Based on the changes in technology and the fact that it could potentially replace work, the moral dilemma has been whether this replacement constitutes a dehumanizing situation. In handling human workers, for instance, it has been recognized that many people consider it satisfying and gratifying to complete a task. The third anxiety has been based on the fear that the periods of rapid technological transformation may be behind us, and that our greatest worry today should be on economic development and productivity levels (Mokyr, Vickers & Ziebarth, 2015).
As mentioned above, these early anxieties have had a profound impact on the development of work. Interestingly, they have not affected the advancement of technologies and automation to the workplace. It should also be noted that early economists exploring the subject had mixed thoughts on it. As argued by Mokyr, Vickers and Ziebarth (2015), economists such as Thomas Mortimer envisaged a time when machines would exclude and replace thousands of the workforce who are currently employed. Economist David Ricardo held a contrary view, arguing that the application and inclusion of machines and automation to the production process was generally a good idea. While admitting so, he also added that the substitution of the labor force for machinery and automation would be bad for the thousands of the working class, and that rendering them jobless was generally not a good idea (Kelly, 2016). Ricardo did not believe that technological unemployment would arise from the application of the technological process to the production process. Since he had been a proponent of the wage-fund theory, he argued that the capital spent on the development and purchase of machinery would have been taken from the funds available to pay the employees, which would have reduced as a result of the investment in the machinery.
In their research paper titled “Workers, Wages, and Technology,” Doms, Dunne and Troske (1997) sought to unmask some of these early theories and explore the likelihood that skill-based technical changes would cause wage and employment issues. The study acknowledges that at the time of its publishing there had been little microeconomic studies that directly investigated the impact of adoption and use of new technologies and how they would impact the structure of the workforce at the factory or plant level (Doms, Dunne & Troske, 1997). This early research did not find any correlation between the changes in the workforce characteristics and the adoption of technologies. In the research, the firms that tended to adopt a large number of new technologies did not appear to increase their level of non-productive labour or actual labour. Many of such studies and experiments have been conducted and there is little scientific correlation to that. It is important to acknowledge that this research was conducted more than 20 years ago and a lot has changed in the technology and workplace automation landscape. The findings, however, have remained nearly sustained, there is little scientific or economic backing to the fears that the early economists had on workplace automation.
Ethical Policies and Procedures
Business ethics are practices and policies that a business creates to deal with controversial issues such as discrimination, inside trading, fiduciary responsibility, bribery and other concerns that may affect a business image and reputation (Bowie, 2017). The paper has seven sections of business code of ethics. These main sections of a company’s code of ethics provided in the context include:
Discrimination and harassment section that request the employees of the company not to discriminate any member based on sexual orientation, age, gender, race, religion, nationality or origin through either physical or verbal harassment.
Relatives and family members that provided policies that govern recruitment of a family member or relative of an employee who works with the company.
Prohibition of improper payment that deny the deliberate use of bribery or kickbacks to remunerate or actuate favorable governmental actions and buying decisions.
Conduct with suppliers section that discuss different ways that the employees of a company are required to relate to the vendors, suppliers and subcontracts.