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  • Business
    Ethical policies and procedures
    Ethical Policies and Procedures Name Institution Outline Business ethics are practices and policies that a business creates to deal with controversial issues such as discrimination, inside trading, fiduciary responsibility, bribery and other concerns that may affect a business image and reputation (Bowie, 2017). The paper has seven sections of business code of ethics. These main sections of a company’s code of ethics provided in the context include: Discrimination and harassment section that request the employees of the company not to discriminate any member based on sexual orientation, age, gender, race, religion, nationality or origin through either physical or verbal harassment. Relatives and family members that provided policies that govern recruitment of a family member or relative of an employee who works with the company. Prohibition of improper payment that deny the deliberate use of bribery or kickbacks to remunerate or actuate favorable governmental actions and buying decisions. Conduct with suppliers section that discuss different ways that the employees of a company are required to relate to the vendors, suppliers and subcontracts.
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  • Business
    Marketing Report: Costa Coffee vs. Starbucks Coffee
    Marketing Report Costa Coffee vs. Starbucks Coffee I Introduction The International Coffee Organization states that around 136.5 million coffee bags were consumed in 2011, registering an increase of 2 percent from the total consumption in 2010, making coffee a staple drink throughout the world. In the United Kingdom alone, the number of coffee shops has almost doubled from 2004 to 2008 (Mrda et al n.d. p. 8). However, this is not surprising as latest researches associate coffee drinking to several health benefits such as living longer (Freeman et al 2012, p.1891), preventing Alzheimer’s disease (Liu 2012), boosting brain power and attention length, lowering the chances of getting basal cell carcinoma (Harvard Medical School 2012), reducing the risk of heart failure, stroke and cardiovascular diseases (Mineharu et al 2011, p. 230) and other diseases such as diabetes and colon cancer (Sinha et al 2012, p. 1). No wonder coffee shops are mushrooming and competition among coffee brands is getting stiffer. This paper will evaluate the marketability of Costa Light coffee over its competitor, Starbucks’ low calories. It will also compare and contrast Costa coffee against Starbucks in terms of their marketing strategies. II Background Costa Coffee ranks second to Starbucks as the largest coffee chain in the world but in the United Kingdom, they are the largest in terms of number of coffee shop outlets since 2007 (Mrda et al n.d, p.9). Costa coffee was founded by brothers, Bruno and Sergio Costa in 1971 and Costa coffee is known for its slow-roasted coffee beans using the genuine blend of 6 Arabica to 1 Robusta coffee beans. Its broad market segmentation has precipitated the launching of other coffee products such as Costa light to fill-in the market gap for a milder coffee that is tasty but indulgence guilt-free. III Evaluation Costa light is the newest addition to the Costa Coffee products and it is a mixture of Costa’s Mocha Italia blend and fresh skimmed milk. It is made milder than the traditional Cappuccinos and Costa lattes by frothing coffee and the fresh skimmed milk in the same jug (Costa coffee 2013) Market Segmentation Costa light targets the young and old alike who are health and figure conscious and want to cut-down on calories but refuse to settle on a coffee with a bland taste. This market includes students, young professionals, mothers, models, and those who have ailments but love coffee. This market segment also includes the upper middle class and the privileged and is not affected by gender, ethnic or religious affiliations. Marketing Mix (4Ps) Price Since Costa Coffee targets the upper middle class and the privileged class so their prices are quite higher as compared with their competitors. However, this also serves as their strategy in positioning their product, banking on the notion that expensive products have high-quality. Yet they compensate their higher prices with the excellent quality of coffee they serve and the outstanding service they give to their customers.
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  • Business
    How to find Joint Venture Marketing partners
    How to find Joint Venture Marketing partners Working with another company through a joint venture marketing scheme is a good business perspective especially to those companies who have limited sources but are willing to take the risk. Teaming up together and creating a new business entity with its own assets and share whatever is the outcome from the project is like offering winds beneath the wings to two businesses in accomplishing what seems to be impossible to accomplish successfully by themselves. But the question is how to find joint venture marketing partners that will click with you. There are two possible solutions to finding the right joint venture marketing partners. Firstly, look around for possible prospective partners and talk to them directly. The other is getting in touch with them through a “feeler”. A feeler usually brings out the hint, opinions or purposes of others to a group of people who might be interested into contacting you. One of the best places to find prospects is through the internet. The web provides almost everything the world offers, just search for the kind or qualities of business partners that you are looking for and they are all just a click away. Also, there are available websites where you can post your intentions and requirements. In looking for possible joint venture marketing partners, you should ask yourself the qualities of a business partner that you are looking for. Are you lacking in funds? If you want additional capital but not interested in getting business loans, then getting a moneyed business investor is what you need. Look for them in your own business milieu, or even from your direct competitors. Sometimes your competitors are just waiting to be asked for a possible merging. Teaming up with your competitor is easier than getting somebody who has no knowledge of the business at all. Industry journals are also valuable venues. Look for its advertisers who might be interested in joining the venture. Scan your circle of business associates. It is easier to tap someone who shares the same interest with you. They can be reached in conventions, conferences or seminars that you are attending. For those companies who have enough capitalization but lacks expert people to further expand the business, schools, web or some specialty institutions are possible places. The internet has websites that offers the meeting-up of freelancing service providers. You could browse on their qualifications and the businesses that they are into, and who knows, maybe he is the one that you have been looking for to team up with. Actually there are no limitations as to where you can find your possible joint venture partner. They could be your friends, or your friends, friends and so many other friends and associates out there. You just need to share your insights and visions of the joint venture that you have in mind. The best thing is to be friendly and share what you have in mind. Who knows, may be the person sitting next to you in a restaurant or airplane turns out to be your future valuable joint venture partner. Joint venture marketing and freelancers – working together to grow Joint venture marketing and freelancers working together to grow is a proof of global competitiveness. Gone were the days when all the works were confined in one area or country. Due to global competitiveness, outsourcing and off shoring are two of the competitive measures that businesses are doing to cut costs. It is either works are sent elsewhere in the world that has cheap labors or companies get the services of freelancers from all over the world to collaborate with them. For some, this is bad news but for others, this is a good opportunity. Forming good partnership is one of the keys to success. Good business partners could be found anywhere or you could just bump into each other in a conference or meeting. There are several good, expert people who are worth working with. Creating partnership with expert freelancers increases credibility and strength. Combined forces of two experts will yield to bigger projects and revenues. As the saying goes, “two heads are better than one.” This works in families but this also works in business ventures. Nowadays, almost all kinds of expertise are available in freelancing. There are freelancer writers, CAD technicians, graphic designers, web developers, illustrators, and so many others. Teaming-up with someone of your category is valuable to accomplishing certain goals. There are times when you get lots of projects but your capacity as human limits you in performing all those works. In cases like this, teaming up with a freelancer who is equally good and qualified as you can make things possible. There will be no missed work nor missed opportunity. There are also instances wherein you get an opportunity to work on a project that is not within your niche or expertise. Instead of just letting it go, why don’t tap the services of a qualified freelancer to do the job? You both earned and did not let a rare chance to be wasted. However, there are some things to consider when working with freelancers. First, make sure that you already have worked together before signing contracts. There are instances when freelancers hop from one work to another and forget your previous agreement. Also, this minimizes the risk of working with a freelancer who is not capable of doing what was intended to be done. In teaming-up with freelancers, you should figure out the distinctive roles of each other. You should be clear on things like who is responsible for getting projects and who is in charge of promoting the business and other issues. Proper communication is a must to avoid future conflicts. Communicate through phone, text, email and any other electronic means. This is especially helpful for those partners who are in distant locations. Moreover, money matters must be discussed early in the partnership. Partners should be transparent on how much each is getting or will they be dividing equally what is earned from the joint venture. And consider making a contract. Having a contract does not mean that you do not trust each other, it’s just that in times of conflicts and disagreements, a written contract can possibly shed the light.
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  • Business
    Theory of taste construct
    “Buy me, I’ll change your life: taste and consumption” Introduction Taste is the faculty of discriminating what is artistically and aesthetically appropriate. It reflects the states of social relations such as classifying people, things and practices into sets of unequal value. Moreover, it serves as a marker of status and identity of a person (Douglas & Isherwood 1979 p. 12). People who have similar tastes form groups and discern outsiders who are easily identified by their different values and aesthetic ideals. Bourdieu’s theory rejects the idea that the preferences of consumers are caused by the inherent, personal selections of their human intellect, but rather, socially conditioned and determined by the socially predominant so as to impose the distinction from other classes (Allen & Anderson 1994: 70). In this retrospect, the phrase “buy me, I’ll change your life: taste and consumption” is possible because some people have the tendency to buy what is in fashion and consume what the leading class consumes in order to place themselves amongst the socially high ranking class. This paper aims to examine the theories of taste construct and analyse its role in the social class. Moreover, it will prove the proposition that consumers’ preferences are affected by branding and advertising because they want to position themselves among the majority. Corsets will be the object whilst various articles and books related to the topic will be critically analysed before finally concluding. Body Bourdieu’s theory of consumer taste formation states that taste serves as a “social weapon” in defining the sacred from profane, the high from low and the legitimate from the illegitimate in things such as cosmetics, foods, newspapers and drinks on one end; and music, art, and literature on the other end (Allen & Anderson 1994:70). Bourdieu’s theory rejects the idea that the preferences of consumers are caused by the inherent, personal selections of their human intellect, but rather, socially conditioned and determined by the socially predominant so as to impose the distinction from other classes (Allen & Anderson 1994: 70). Trentmann (2006:1-27); Brewer & Trentmann (2006: 19-69) support this argument, claiming that in many domains of cultural effort such as architecture, cooking, the decorative arts, clothing, music, gardening and religious worship, tastes are confined within the community and fashion is bounded by the observance of historical and cultural preferences. Hence, taste formation is grouped and paradigmatic in the intersecting communities of taste and are sustained and promoted through generations, linking the past to the present (Harvey et al 2011:247). Such as in the case of the decorative arts of William Morris i.e., furniture, embroidery, stained glass, wallpapers and other decorative pieces for public buildings and big houses. Morris’ works were considered excellent products at his time and the succeeding generations of designers acknowledge his excellent works of art and integrated Morris’ practices into their own, promoting Morris’ designs to all their other products – from cards to wall hangings, to book jackets and many more, making Morris’ design the quintessence of Englishness (Naylor 1980). However, Baudrillard’s theory delves into the likelihood of consumption as the major basis of the social order and of its internal categorizations (Baudrillard 2001:2). Baudrillard argues that consumer objects institute a system of classification that ciphers groups and behaviors. According to his theory, consumer objects are affected by the linguistic sign function such as in advertising. Advertising codes consumer products by using symbols that set them apart from all other products. However, the actual effect of the product is when it is finally consumed – transferring its signification or “meaning” to the consuming person. The vast composition of signs is thus established which guides the society whilst offering the individual an imagined sense of self-determination and freedom to choose (Baudrillard 2001:13). Baudrillard (2001:29) adds that through the multiplication of objects, material goods and services, affluence and consumption become obvious. People are now surrounded by modern objects and all kinds of products competing in different advertisements communicated through various forms of mass media. The power of advertising provokes the manufacturers to compete in the imaginary competition so as to win the approval of the consuming masses. Their messages are the same, encouraging the people to buy because their product is good and consumed by the rich and famous. Others use message like, “buy this, everybody is using this”. In this sense, consumers use their freedom to choose so as to feel unique but still going for products or brands that resemble what the rest of the community or the social dominants are patronizing (Baudrillard 2001:15). Meanwhile, Thorstein Veblen’s theory of conspicuous consumption (1899/ 1939) connotes that the accumulation of wealth is not only motivated by the need for survival, but significantly, by the honor that goes with possessing the wealth. Veblen adds that in order to be bestowed with honor, wealth must be displayed either through consumption of expensive products or visible leisure such as excessive vacation trips or abstaining from employment. In Veblen’s theory, the standards of taste do not mirror the superficial standards of beauty, but through the costliness displayed under the guise of beauty (p. 128). It is always the honor that goes with the possession of expensive objects that determines the ideals of taste. On the other hand, Miller’s views in terms of consumer culture and consumption were drawn from Bourdieu and Veblen’s, claiming that consumption plays a contributory role in social distinctions. To him, the objects attain their meaning of social differentiation by imposing tastes on the society. Miller states that “taste is the key dimension controlling the significance of ordinary goods” (Miller 1987, p. 149). Similar to that of Bourdieu’s theory of consumer taste formation, Miller believes that tastes work through social distinctions; tastes are represented by the social groups that an individual belongs to. Education and the total social environment are the key players in the formation of tastes (Miller 1987, p. 149). Everybody consumes, except that every individual does it differently. In terms of consumer choice, it could mean in the singular or in multiple sense because there are a variety of reasons in choosing goods as well as a list of ways in representing the consumer and upholding a model role for oneself (Fine 2002; 220). The notions of consumer culture and consumer are present in people’s daily lives and some approaches in marketing the products are contradicting, where the market actors try to sell the goods but the social and political actors promote some informational campaigns that could be damaging to the image of the goods such as in the case of clothing, specifically, corsets that are used to achieve an S-bend shapes and give emphasis to the whistle-bait figure of women. While the market actors promote the product as body contouring and “the secret to the beautiful body of celebrities”, the social and political actors may be running an informational campaign depicting the physical discomfort of wearing corsets, including the possibility of body deformation or other permanent disabilities brought about by too tight lacing (Davies 1982). The consumer choice may all depend on the individual’s taste – whether to consider the taste conditioned by the social and political society, dress what the elites dress in order to belong to their social class and achieve the honor attached to having a beautiful body, or make use of her freedom to choose based on her own judgment. Conclusion: Taste refers to the ability to discern what is artistically and aesthetically beautiful and appropriate. It is also a marker of status and identity of a person. Bourdieu’s theory rejects the idea that consumer’s preferences are caused by the inherent, personal selections of their human intellect, but rather, socially conditioned and determined by the socially predominant so as to impose the distinction from other classes. Baudrillard thinks that consumer objects are affected by advertising and the actual effect of the product is when it is consumed. It is the messages in the advertising that consumers are offered the freedom to choose, but still, his choice is based on what is generally approved by the society. Veblen’s theory of conspicuous consumption emphasizes the importance of the honor attached to the possession of the wealth. In order to be bestowed with honor, the wealth must be displayed either through consumption of expensive products or visible leisure such as excessive vacation trips or abstaining from employment. The standards of taste do not mirror the superficial standards of beauty but through the costliness displayed under the guise of beauty. Miller’s theory is similar to Bourdieu’s and Veblen’s, claiming that consumption plays a contributory role in social distinctions and that tastes are represented by the social groups that a person belongs to. Based on the above mentioned theories, the phrase “buy me, I’ll change your life: taste and consumption” is possible because people have the penchant to buy what is in fashion and consume what the society is dictating. The case of wearing corsets in the 19th century is a classic example because women that time continues to wear corsets regardless of the pain and discomfort that they are experiencing to position themselves and consume what is generally approved by the social class.
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  • Business
    Business in Leadership
    Business in Leadership My experiences in life have taught me that anyone can be a leader in his own right, with or without formal authority, as long as you know how to influence or convince others for the accomplishment of a common goal. Leadership can be practiced in situational interactions where a person can solicit the help of others in doing a task or by using charisma or intelligence in guiding or directing others (Chemers, 1997). I have personally experienced this while doing a group research project where I was one of the group members. In that project, we were tasked to make a comprehensive analysis on a successful organization. Unfortunately, our team leader got hospitalized and I had to take his role to keep going. That project was a team project and everybody was expected to cooperate. Gibson, et al (1980) defines teamwork as a cohesive action of team members in harmonizing their efforts and assistance for the delivery of a common task. I directed every team member on what task to perform. Our teamwork was great, everybody was present in our meetings and the division of labor was fairly distributed. Each member was interactive and cooperative up to the presentation of our project. I could say that one of the secrets to our success was the good exchange of communications, even if they were mostly done through emails and text messages. Communication was very important in achieving teamwork within the group. Though we had differences, they were set-aside and just focused on helping each other till we delivered our task. That project taught us that good interaction among team members is important in each team. My level of capacity as a leader is The Achiever. My leadership style is strategic and result-oriented. I certainly believe that power is achieved not only from expertise and authority but also from motivating others. One key to motivating others is through good communication and being a good follower. “Everybody got a boss”, says Jim Collins to August Turak (2012). “The Vice President reports to the President and the President reports to the CEO and the CEO reports to his wife. All God’s children got a boss. If you want to be a good leader, you must be a good follower”(Turak, 2012, p. 1). Even Aristotle says, “He who cannot be a good follower cannot be a good leader”. Thus, one can motivate others by practicing what he is preaching. Just Like what I did in our group project. Although I just took the role of a leader due to the absence of our team leader, I functioned like a real team leader by setting meetings and discussing with the other team members the important issues needed to be resolved so we can finish the task. Although I sensed some of my team members were questioning my authority to give orders, the sincerity and initiatives that I put into work perhaps made them realized that I was leading them well. Moreover, they saw me working with them and not just giving orders. To better understand the current growth in my leadership abilities and flexibility, I will be comparing it with the following expectations: Context-setting agility My ability to scan the environment, structure the initiatives needed and determine the best outcome that should be achieved was manifested in the group project we did. I was able to sense that the hospitalization of our leader would lead us hanging in the air and failing the subject so I initiated the move to talk to my other team members and offered my services to be the leader’s replacement. That move saved our grades and we were able to prove our agility in undertaking initiatives that would benefit us all. Stakeholder agility It is expected that a leader has the ability to participate with major stakeholders in measures that would solicit support for the proposed initiatives (Cambria Consulting 2010). Hence, I identified our major stakeholders which include all the team members and the officers in the company on study. I met with my team members first and discussed what we should do to achieve our task. Then we came up with the “things to do” and our strategic plan.Then we met with the company officers and laid our intention. Luckily, they were open to the idea and supported us with all the information needed for the company analysis. Creative agility During the project, I thought then that everything was fine since the company officers and employees were very cooperative in giving us information. However, when we were already doing the report, we encountered problems such as who will be writing the Introduction? The Conclusion? The graphs and charts? It appeared that the one tasked to encode does not know how to do graphs and no one among the members wanted to do the Introduction and Conclusion. However, the problem was solved when I decided to volunteer in writing the Conclusion and the other members help in writing the Introduction and making the graphs. Self-leadership agility Self-leadership agility necessitates stepping back and being more conscious of one’s feelings, thoughts and behaviors and trying with novel and more operational strategies (Mackay, 2009). Hence, in my case, I want to be a Catalyst leader, the kind of leader who can articulate inspiration and innovation and can motivate people to make a vision into a reality. In the future, I would like to be an instrument in empowering others and be a medium in facilitating positive changes in their lives. References Cambria Consulting, Inc. & Changewise, Inc. (2010). Changewise leadership agility 360 brochure. CCI. Chemers, M. (1997). An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gibson, T., Moore, J. & Lueder, E. (1980). Teamwork in cooperative extension programs. University of Wisconsin.
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  • Business
    Business Ethics and how it affects consumers
    Business Ethics and how it affects consumers Business ethics usually mean three things to businessmen – not breaking the law in line with the business activity, avoiding civil law suits against the company and avoiding any action that may put the company image in a bad light. Any involvement with these three would mean loss in profit and company reputation. But due to stiff competition and the ever-changing competitive environments, some businesses look for new methods to address competition other than the conventional ways of better products, more freebies or much lower prices. Some business organizations respond to these challenges through unethical, sometimes illegal activities. There are some instances when doing the right thing reduces profit, which is why some business organizations regard business ethics as a constraint on profitability. But there are also some organizations that benefit from good ethical business activities. Through their good company image, a foundation of trust with consumers and stakeholders are built. Today, the stakeholders are considered as the “new consumers”. Considered stakeholders are the policy makers, media, regulators and other influencers who shape purchase decisions of the buying public from their recommendations and reactions about a company or product. Their reactions spell the difference between a long-tem product success and failure. Nowadays, the increasing societal focus regarding the safety, labor issues and environmental responsibilities affect the purchasing decisions of the buying public. If a business organization were involved in some unethical business practice, then its tainted company image will be reflected in its sales and profits. With this information at stake, companies are in the upswing to anticipate opportunities and threats by being ethical from the start rather than suffer the consequences sooner or later. However, the importance of business ethics to a business is viewed in varying perspectives. Some managers consider ethics programs in their organization as very expensive that affect their profits. Studies were made to distinguish the correlation of business ethics to profits and the results pointed that satisfied skilled employees are more loyal to the organization and more productive in delivering high levels of service. As a result of high level of service to customers, the company’s clientele hold positive approach toward the company which is reflected in customer’s loyalty as seen in their repeat patronage of products and services. The end result of this positive attitude is long-term and stable growth in revenue and profitability. Consumers today are more informed and tend to always demand value for their money. Getting consumer satisfaction from service products is different from getting satisfaction from a purchase of physical goods. Consumers expect the physical product to provide their expected high level of perceived value from the combination of the product itself, organization and contact with the organization’s representative. This is the reason behind the surveys conducted by business organizations. They want to know how consumers perceive their products and their company; how their services meet consumers’ expectations, and how they can further improve their services and products. Any negative feedback will surely affect the reputation of the company and its product while positive feedbacks will definitely register as increased sales and/or improved consumers’ trust to the company.
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  • Business
    Business - short answers
    Business What is the difference between internal and external customers? Are internal customers just as important as external customers? Why or Why not? An internal customer is someone who is a member of the company who depends on another member of the company to fulfill his job duties, like a Sales representative who still needs the assistance of a Customer Service representative in placing an order. On the other hand, an external customer refers to anyone who uses the services and products of the company but does not belong to the organization, such as retail store owner who enters the company and buys the company’s products or services. Both internal and external customers are important because they both contribute in the sales of the company products. While external customers contribute to the survival of the company through revenue stream via their purchases, the internal customers satisfy the external customer’s questions, service needs and good customer service that are vital in maintaining good costumer-company relationships. What records and reports would a business need to keep? A business needs to keep financial records of the company, employee records and all records regarding fringe benefits and capital gains. Financial records include a cash book, Sales invoices or financial accounting and bank accounts. It may also include the Sales record which is consisting of the record of company sales. Employee records include the records of all the names and information of the employees, their rates, and other employment details. It may also include records regarding trainings and seminars of employees. Records of fringe benefits and capital gains include the employees’ benefits, leave and other work, health and safety records. Give three examples of poor systems in an organization that would lead to poor customer service Three examples of poor systems that would lead to poor customer service are: (1) employees are not trained, (2) employees do not care, and (3) employees do not believe in the products and services of the company. When employees lack training, chances are, it will result to poor service because they will not be able to demonstrate or train the customers on how to maximize the potentials of the product. Also, when employees do not care, they will not be sincere in dealing with customers, resulting to poor service. And when employees do not believe in the products and services of the company, naturally, they will not be enthusiastic in endorsing the products or in giving testimonials on how good the product’s features are. How would you describe customer-driven organisations? A customer-driven organization employs business strategies or tactics that target the best customer experience. A company that is customer-driven uses customer and business intelligence in determining the needs and wants of the customers so they will be able to understand the customers’ behaviors and be able to satisfy their needs. Also, a company that is customer-driven always uses branding and marketing strategies that are geared towards giving the right expectations of the clientele to the product.
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    Improving the Quality of Healthcare Service Delivery
    Facilitated Communication At the onset of the 1990s, the people that did work with children having autism and other disabilities did experience a breakthrough method in handling the children. This method did involve a facilitator providing some physical support on the hand, wrist, finger, or even at the arm on the disabled child whom according to those advancing the method was the one typing his or her thoughts. This was an alleged unlocking of children from the unresponsive body prison and revealing their average and in some cases, the superior intelligence thus advancing their skills in literacy and offering profound insight into their experiences. The facilitator is the speaker or the author according to the critics of facilitated communication. Many studies allude to the fact that the technique lacks validity and thus is a pseudoscience with no scientific logic and is unreliable. There are however very few research studies that support this kind of approach to communication, and in many instances, they lack control and as such cannot pass for any reliability and replicability as well as validity. Those who support facilitated communication are believers and have an evangelical attachment to the method. These people are most common on social media and not in any peer-reviewed journal or any other systematic scientific review. Funnily, this technique is a fad to some, but despite the same, it has had longevity beyond a fad. The argument against facilitated communication has nothing to do with people speaking against the rights of the people with disability, but instead, the argument is that it takes away legitimate methods of handling the communication methods of people with disability. Deej the movie is one of the movies that try to address facilitated communication although nowhere in the movie is the word facilitated communication found. Deej essentially does no communication in the movie at least at face value as per the audience. The manner in which the facilitator's act is likely to suggest that in one way or the other they are simply influencing what Deej should do in the movie in his quest to communicate. Deej according to the movie communicates through assistants who hold the pencil and the board for him as well as guide his hands on the various machines as he hits the tabs and types. Everything that Deej does in the movie is subject to some assistance, and there is no initiative from him in any way as the assistants, or the mother has to offer some prompt or place the hands under his to help him write. The one who writes in such a case is not Deej who has a disability but rather the assistants led by the mother. In fact, it is interesting to note that Deej seems very active while with the mother than any other person in the movie. There are numerous worrying signs in the movie which point to a well-choreographed manner of doing things to try and convince people of the influence of a facilitator helping a child with autism. There is so much stimulus control and in one-way ideomotor effect on Deej which means that whatever he does is not subjective to him but rather emanates from the facilitators. It is possible because facilitated communication lacks a scientific basis, the movie deliberately chose to avoid the wording to keep off controversies of the method, but in totality, this movie offers worrying signs with the facilitators doing the communication at the expense of Deej. In fact, this movie denies Deej and other children with a disability an opportunity to access legitimate methods of assistance towards improving their communication. Perhaps one of the most recent cases that continue to baffle many in regards to facilitated communication is that of Marjorie Ann Stubblefield. Ann Marjorie Stubblefield was a scholar of disability studies at Rutgers University and was also the chair of Philosophy at the same institution. Anna Stubblefield as she is famously known right now was a facilitated communication professional who met the victim at his home in New Jersey at the Cerebral Palsy Center at the university. She made the family believe that she could elicit responsive communication from the victim and as such, they gave her the opportunity to spend as much time as possible with him. Stubblefield was a married woman, and so many of the acts did occur in her private office. Stubblefield was a professor of ethics something that does many wonders about her ethical knowledge and practice. Professionally her job was pure to ensure that she maintains all professional boundaries but all the while Stubblefield shunned all ethics and decided to use the victim to satisfy her sexual desires. John Roe was the victim in this case and was suffering from cerebral palsy and was at Cerebral Palsy Center at the Rutgers University. John Roe lived with his guardians at the time was mentally and physically incapacitated and was part of the Rutgers university human research. He lived with his mother and brother at the university. John Roe was unable to eat by himself, wears a diaper, cannot bathe on his own and requires assistance in walking. Stubblefield said that John Roe was progressing in his communication skills and that although he had an intellectual disability, the two were equal intellectually. John Roe's family was people who did believe in the rule of law and did everything humanly possible to prove their case. They were also ignorant of issues of disability and more especially on facilitated communication. They had faith in Stubblefield, and anything she said was the gospel truth such that even when they complained that John Roe could not respond to their queries, Stubblefield told them to try hard and it didn't mean anything to them. Stubblefield met John Roe in various places including taking him to the conference to do a presentation, but mostly the sexual ordeals did take place in her office which according to her was private. This is significant in the fact that it was not a public place and in Stubblefield's view it was appropriate. According to Stubblefield, John Roe gave his consent to the sexual advances, and in fact, in her letter, she states that it John Roe that made the advances through facilitated communication. According to the family, the boy was unable to give consent for anything as he lacked the mental capacity to do so. Stubblefield is a professor of ethics needed to show the place of consent in her actions but failed as she acted unprofessionally towards her victim. The fact that John Roe was unable to testify in court according to some people should mean that Stubblefield lacks a case to answer. This may be true, but in this case, this should form no basis as there are enough tests to show that John Roe could not speak in the first place. His disability should not deny him the right to justice and the ability to access the same through the judicial system. Facilitated communication in the first place did not help him communicate, and so those who demand his testimony should be liable of fraud since their method is denying people with disability their legitimate access to proper methods of communication. Facilitated Communication At the onset of the 1990s, the people that did work with children having autism and other disabilities did experience a breakthrough method in handling the children. This method did involve a facilitator providing some physical support on the hand, wrist, finger, or even at the arm on the disabled child whom according to those advancing the method was the one typing his or her thoughts. This was an alleged unlocking of children from the unresponsive body prison and revealing their average and in some cases, the superior intelligence thus advancing their skills in literacy and offering profound insight into their experiences. The facilitator is the speaker or the author according to the critics of facilitated communication. Many studies allude to the fact that the technique lacks validity and thus is a pseudoscience with no scientific logic and is unreliable. There are however very few research studies that support this kind of approach to communication, and in many instances, they lack control and as such cannot pass for any reliability and replicability as well as validity. Those who support facilitated communication are believers and have an evangelical attachment to the method. These people are most common on social media and not in any peer-reviewed journal or any other systematic scientific review. Funnily, this technique is a fad to some, but despite the same, it has had longevity beyond a fad. The argument against facilitated communication has nothing to do with people speaking against the rights of the people with disability, but instead, the argument is that it takes away legitimate methods of handling the communication methods of people with disability. Deej the movie is one of the movies that try to address facilitated communication although nowhere in the movie is the word facilitated communication found. Deej essentially does no communication in the movie at least at face value as per the audience. The manner in which the facilitator's act is likely to suggest that in one way or the other they are simply influencing what Deej should do in the movie in his quest to communicate. Deej according to the movie communicates through assistants who hold the pencil and the board for him as well as guide his hands on the various machines as he hits the tabs and types. Everything that Deej does in the movie is subject to some assistance, and there is no initiative from him in any way as the assistants, or the mother has to offer some prompt or place the hands under his to help him write. The one who writes in such a case is not Deej who has a disability but rather the assistants led by the mother. In fact, it is interesting to note that Deej seems very active while with the mother than any other person in the movie. There are numerous worrying signs in the movie which point to a well-choreographed manner of doing things to try and convince people of the influence of a facilitator helping a child with autism. There is so much stimulus control and in one-way ideomotor effect on Deej which means that whatever he does is not subjective to him but rather emanates from the facilitators. It is possible because facilitated communication lacks a scientific basis, the movie deliberately chose to avoid the wording to keep off controversies of the method, but in totality, this movie offers worrying signs with the facilitators doing the communication at the expense of Deej. In fact, this movie denies Deej and other children with a disability an opportunity to access legitimate methods of assistance towards improving their communication. Perhaps one of the most recent cases that continue to baffle many in regards to facilitated communication is that of Marjorie Ann Stubblefield. Ann Marjorie Stubblefield was a scholar of disability studies at Rutgers University and was also the chair of Philosophy at the same institution. Anna Stubblefield as she is famously known right now was a facilitated communication professional who met the victim at his home in New Jersey at the Cerebral Palsy Center at the university. She made the family believe that she could elicit responsive communication from the victim and as such, they gave her the opportunity to spend as much time as possible with him. Stubblefield was a married woman, and so many of the acts did occur in her private office. Stubblefield was a professor of ethics something that does many wonders about her ethical knowledge and practice. Professionally her job was pure to ensure that she maintains all professional boundaries but all the while Stubblefield shunned all ethics and decided to use the victim to satisfy her sexual desires. John Roe was the victim in this case and was suffering from cerebral palsy and was at Cerebral Palsy Center at the Rutgers University. John Roe lived with his guardians at the time was mentally and physically incapacitated and was part of the Rutgers university human research. He lived with his mother and brother at the university. John Roe was unable to eat by himself, wears a diaper, cannot bathe on his own and requires assistance in walking. Stubblefield said that John Roe was progressing in his communication skills and that although he had an intellectual disability, the two were equal intellectually. John Roe's family was people who did believe in the rule of law and did everything humanly possible to prove their case. They were also ignorant of issues of disability and more especially on facilitated communication. They had faith in Stubblefield, and anything she said was the gospel truth such that even when they complained that John Roe could not respond to their queries, Stubblefield told them to try hard and it didn't mean anything to them. Stubblefield met John Roe in various places including taking him to the conference to do a presentation, but mostly the sexual ordeals did take place in her office which according to her was private. This is significant in the fact that it was not a public place and in Stubblefield's view it was appropriate. According to Stubblefield, John Roe gave his consent to the sexual advances, and in fact, in her letter, she states that it John Roe that made the advances through facilitated communication. According to the family, the boy was unable to give consent for anything as he lacked the mental capacity to do so. Stubblefield is a professor of ethics needed to show the place of consent in her actions but failed as she acted unprofessionally towards her victim. The fact that John Roe was unable to testify in court according to some people should mean that Stubblefield lacks a case to answer. This may be true, but in this case, this should form no basis as there are enough tests to show that John Roe could not speak in the first place. His disability should not deny him the right to justice and the ability to access the same through the judicial system. Facilitated communication in the first place did not help him communicate, and so those who demand his testimony should be liable of fraud since their method is denying people with disability their legitimate access to proper methods of communication.
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  • Business
    Johnston Power Index
    Johnston Power Index Name Institution Johnston Power Index is a power index which is derived using the probability of a varying result of a vote the voting rights are not equal since they separated among the existing stakeholders (Lorenzo-Freire, et al, 2007). The Johnston power index forms a similar method of finding the power a coalition index. However, under Johnston power index, power is rewarded depending on the critical number significance in every coalition, instead of considering the critical number winning similar power amount in the case of Banzhaf. For instance: Banzhaf coalition given as: [8: 5, 4, 1], in this case, the winning coalitions consists of: {5,4} and {5,4,1} 5: 2.5/10 = 50% 4: 2.5/5 = 50% 1: 0/5 = 00% However, Johnston coalition [8: 5, 4, 1] provide similar winning coalitions including {5,4} and {5, 4, 1} On the other hand, {5, 4} gives 5 = ½ and 4 = ½ {5, 4, 1} gives 5 = 1/3, 4 = 1/3 and 1 = 0/3 5: ½ + 1/3 = 5/6
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