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    Topic: LinkedIn Passwords Theft Student: Course: Date: Professor: Synopsis LinkedIn is a social network that is business focused and until the recent hack, it had around 161 million users that had been registered by the thirty first of March this year. Suspicions about the heinous crime were rife within the social network’s circle of security professionals until the breach on the network went public. During the security breach, a file that had around 6.5 million hashed passwords surfaced in a Russian based forum. The social network did admit that there had been a hack on the website and outlined some steps that the company was undertaking to deal with the situation. It is not every day that there are thefts of clients’ passwords because they are supposed to be kept secure. The incidence comes hot in the heels of other similar heist activities that have happened in the same network. A reprieve to this heist of passwords from LinkedIn network is that the passwords were in a file that was encrypted using the SHA-1 algorithm. In this form or algorithm, the passwords are not accompanied by any other crucial data such as logging addresses. Despite the fact that only passwords were stolen, the breach is still very serious by any standards and all account holders of LinkedIn have been advised to change their passwords. Currently, it is not known how such a sensitive file could have surfaced in a Russian public forum or from where (site) the file containing the passwords originated. What is known so far is that, a vast of the cracked passwords appearing in the public forum have the word ‘LinkedIn’ in common. The inclusion of the word ‘LinkedIn’ in the cracked passwords serves to affirm that those passwords are indeed from LinkedIn accounts. Many people usually create passwords for different sites through adding the sites name into the passphrase. This is quite simple and it guarantees that one is unlikely to forget the password for example 1234LinkedIn. The downside of this method of password creation is that it is easy to be cracked and when cracked other passwords created in similar fashion will be cracked. A further confirmation that the leaked passwords were from LinkedIn was a confirmation by twelve known members of the LinkedIn network who found their passwords among the displayed passwords in the public forum. The SHA-1 algorithm is usually used to convert passwords into distinct alphanumeric codes. These codes usually make it hard for random back conversion of codes into passwords without the algorithm that created the codes. As the case may be, similar passwords are usually hashed into same alphanumeric codes and this usually happens in passwords created through addition of sites’ names into the passphrase. To make the codes harder to crack or guess, salting or addition of random bits to the hash is usually carried out. However, the leaked passwords appear to have no salting done which complicates the issue further because that is quite odd. Moreover, the leaked database of passwords has entirely distinct passwords which suggest that the people involved in the breach may other files that they have posted online. If indeed this is the case, then the hackers are trying to crowd source so that they may crack more and difficult passwords. The most worrying issue is whether matching of the stolen passwords with actual accounts has been done by the hackers.
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    Acquisition of Government Allies Student’s name Course/Number Date Instructor’s name
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    Obesity Student: Course: Date: Professor: Obesity The reason for choosing this topic for my research is because obesity is increasingly becoming a big health problem worldwide and especially in the US. Although many of the industrialized nations are plagued with this health issue, the US has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world. According to WHO (2000), the obesity rates in US are increasing steadily from 19.4% rate in 1997 to 26.6% in 2007. In 2010, the rates went high with 17% of children and 35.7% adults being declared obese. Obesity over stretches healthcare system puts strain on economic resources besides having far reaching social consequences on the obese individuals. In terms of health, the disease is closely associated with more serious diseases such as type II diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure and some types of cancer (McTigue, Harris, Hemphill, et al. 2003; Wabitsch, 2000). Consequently, obesity has been identified as a risk factor for diseases like heart failure, hemia, arthritis sleep apnea and hypoxia. However, the most negative aspect of this disease is emotional suffering of the obese people due to societal prejudice. The American society idolizes slim bodies especially in women and therefore such projection may be devastating to people have over weight problems. Many of the persons that are obese are known to have low esteem and suffer from depression due to rejection (Orzano & Scott, 2004; Wellman & Friedberg, 2002). Symptoms Gallbladder disease Breathing disorders
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    Topic: Euthanasia Student: Course: Date: Professor: Introduction Every human has the right to life, which is prescribed in The Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948). One of the biggest and controversial debates now and in the last few decades has been euthanasia, which is interpreted to as good death by its proponents (Bamgbose, 2004). The definition of euthanasia or assisted suicide from the Oxford Dictionary is “the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or is an incurable coma.” It is true that terminally ill patients undergo a lot of suffering both physically and psychologically, but terminating people’s life with professional assistance before it ends naturally is another way of killing. This debate has proponents and opponents in equal measure, which has made it a global dilemma (Emanuel, Fairclough & Emanuel, 2000). Owing to the fact that, euthanasia lowers the human dignity by breaking both moral and legal principles, I argue that euthanasia should not be a legal option for terminally ill patients. People who support euthanasia are of the opinion that it improves care giving to patients. There has been a dramatic increase in life expectance of man due to technological advancements but the same technology has become destructive because of euthanasia. Terminally ill patients usually consume a lot of resources like time, space and financial resources. This perceived consumption of resources by terminally ill patients is usually brought about to support termination of patients’ lives. Resources, consumed by people who may never recover is usually suggested that they be channeled to patients who will recover. Such an argument demeans the dignity of the terminally ill patients (Materstvedt, et al. (2003). Moreover, the dignity of the patients and health staff that engages in the process is lowered to the level of innate things that are not living. Sometimes staff that takes care of the patient suggests euthanasia as the solution to the relatives of the patient. In such instances, the patient is usually not in a position to decide and the relatives together with medical staff make that decision on behalf of the patient. In worst scenarios, involuntary euthanasia is carried out which reflects negatively on the health staff dignity (Bamgbose, 2004). Since time immemorial, it has been believed that doctors or physicians have an obligation to a patient. In this regards, their concerns should be directed towards prolonging the lives of their patients and not terminating them prematurely. This premature termination of life is thinly veiled under the guise of providing quality palliative care. Quality palliative care, on the contrary, entails taking care of patients till their natural death beckons. All these arguments therefore, do not hold, and as such they should be discarded (Emanuel, Fairclough & Emanuel, 2000). Some people argue that euthanasia has overcome moral and ethical problems, and therefore, it should be legalized. Such an argument is predicated upon the perceived alleviation of a patient’s suffering. As much as that view is proposed in good faith, there are moral and ethical principles of medical practice that should not be overlooked. Medical practitioners are not morally inclined to execute their mandate with regards to patients in their care in a manner that may jeopardize their patients’ well being. On the contrary, practitioners are bound by their professional code of conduct and purpose of their practice to use their skills to their patients’ benefit (Materstvedt, et al. (2003). This mandate arises from Hippocrates’ oath, which always elevates the life of a patient above everything. In part, the oath directs doctors and physicians not to use harmful chemical substances (poison) which may harm the patient. In view of this oath, euthanasia is in total disregard of it and health practitioners supporting euthanasia have completely misplaced their obligations and allegiance. Indeed, it is astonishing that practitioners in total disregard of their oath usually suggest and come up with suggestions to prematurely end the lives of their terminally ill patients. Consequently, It is hard to reconcile the idea of patients’ well being with that of terminating their lives. Since the two ideas cannot be reconciled under moral or legal philosophies, it follows then that termination of patients’ lives is a gross violation of their well being. Patients’ well being entails doing anything humanly possible to make their lives comfortable while alive until their deaths come naturally. Carrying out euthanasia can be equated with taking advantage of a situation to deprive an individual of the basic right to live (Bamgbose, 2004; Emanuel, Fairclough & Emanuel, 2000). Supporters of euthanasia are of the view that when euthanasia is carried out, it helps terminally ill people to die with dignity. This view is a total fallacy because as the saying goes ‘there is no dignity in death’. Consequently, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) enshrines right to live as right that should be upheld by all. The reason why suicide is treason under law is because no one is allowed to take his or her own life. Although euthanasia is usually baptized as assisted suicide, the bottom line is that euthanasia is a crime which can be regarded as murder. There have been many judicial cases in courts in which patients sue for not allowed undergo the process of assisted suicide. In the end, the courts render a verdict that bars them from undergoing assisted suicide. According to Lavery & Singer (1997), the Supreme Court of Canada in 1993 voted to uphold the Criminal Code that prohibits against assisted although the margin was narrow 5-to-4. Legal doubt not only plagues the issue of euthanasia but also by difficult and insoluble questions bordering on moral philosophy. In vast penal codes throughout world, a person that undertakes euthanasia or assisted suicide is liable for charges on murder on the ground that consent is not a defense. However, this is usually overlooked in assisted suicide done in quest for suicidal where practitioners use drugs to alleviate a patient’s suffering but ends life. In common law, euthanasia is not legal because it questions the power and ability to control aspects of a person’s life which are fundamental to the autonomy of a person. Regardless of how assisted suicide is undertaken; it can never a legal issue because it violates the fundamental right to life (Bamgbose, 2004). Conclusion Accordingly, euthanasia lowers the human dignity by breaking both moral and legal principles of life but, euthanasia should not be a legal option for terminally ill patients. Assisted suicide does not add worth or value to the people who are terminally ill because ethical and fundamental rights are broken. Consequently, it cannot also be an option for that people who seem to be close to their natural death. Moreover, assisted suicide cannot be legalized because it can become an excuse to end individuals’ lives, which are considered a problem for the society.
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    Obesity & RN Profession Student: Course: Date: Professor: Obesity The reason for choosing this topic for my research is because obesity is increasingly becoming a big health problem worldwide and especially in the US. Although many of the industrialized nations are plagued with this health issue, the US has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world. According to WHO (2000), the obesity rates in US are increasing steadily from 19.4% rate in 1997 to 26.6% in 2007. In 2010, the rates went high with 17% of children and 35.7% adults being declared obese. Obesity over stretches healthcare system puts strain on economic resources besides having far reaching social consequences on the obese individuals. In terms of health, the disease is closely associated with more serious diseases such as type II diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure and some types of cancer (McTigue, Harris, Hemphill, et al. 2003; Wabitsch, 2000). Consequently, obesity has been identified as a risk factor for diseases like heart failure, hemia, arthritis sleep apnea and hypoxia. However, the most negative aspect of this disease is emotional suffering of the obese people due to societal prejudice. The American society idolizes slim bodies especially in women and therefore such projection may be devastating to people have over weight problems. Many of the persons that are obese are known to have low esteem and suffer from depression due to rejection (Orzano & Scott, 2004; Wellman & Friedberg, 2002). Symptoms Gallbladder disease Breathing disorders
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    Response to Discussion Student’s Name Course Name/Number Date Instructor’s Name Q1. What is the power of the group over that of the individual? How much do others influence our behavior? The power of the group over that of the individual lies with the way the group is able to create, regulate, and manipulate social realities. The awareness of this force that operates in the group is what makes each individual to first consider the position of the group before entering into a situation, and how each participant in the group reacts to the same social situation. In most cases, individuals will identify with the group and behave according to how other members of the group are behaving. Even if an individual knows something different needs to be done, he/she will simply follow the group norms so that he/she does not appear different. However, there are few individuals who would want to maintain their autonomy, moral values, and dignity and stand out against the group norm. Nevertheless, largely, the group will continue to influence the behavior of individuals as long as individuals submit to the power of the group. Q2. Now that we have looked at the center and the margins, the next question I have on this exercise is what is "the social structure?" Where do I fit in the social structure and why? The social structure is generally the established patterns of social behavior and interaction. It is a set of shared and accepted values in the society. This means that people subscribe to the common values of their social location and agree to abide by them. As an individual, I fit in the social structure by the very fact that I have chosen to be in that particular location and not the other. My presence inevitably indicates that I have subscribed to the values and norms of that locality, and therefore, I am assumed to be a member of the social structure. Research finds that your social location influences your beliefs about society. Is this so in your case? Why or why not? It is very true. My social location largely influences my beliefs about the society, since it is the forces that operate in the social location, which set the social realities of the day, and thus influences how I approach the social situations. Besides, the social structure gives priority to the group over that of an individual for the good of the society. This means that individuals have to sacrifice and align their values with those of their social location. While I may maintain my dignity and autonomy concerning certain values, there are other values that I would have to sacrifice for the sake of my social location.
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    Student’s name Tutor Course Date Fine art and television Television impacts the presentation of different Fine Art skills to the audience. By watching television programs, the audience stands to gain more cognitive skills. This suggestion is premised on the sleeper curve theory. The theory depicts how television viewers have to gain more skills each passing day, in order to understand the ever evolving content presented on television. The widespread development of reality television in the current world has also impacted the propagation of websites that are open for applicants willing to join and enjoy the content. Even though, these Internet sites mostly show how simple it is to enjoy the reality television programs, this is not the case in actual sense. Additionally, most television programs, however, tend to favor the male gender. Males are depicted more positively, and made to appear to be on a higher social and economic pedestal compared to women. Where female are highlighted, although being progressively more depicted as autonomous and free regarding the decisions they deem fit, stereotypes carried from the previous century continue to play out. Ethnic stereotypes are also portrayed on television programs, with “lesser” communities shown to be the cause of misfortune facing the society. In light of the negative portrayals of some communities as weaker, television content should not be adopted as symbolic of or the gospel truth of what takes place in society. Fine art and technology Rich and modern technological innovation has impacted fine art in different ways: innovation, development, and sharing of the content. In the recent past, technology has changed the manner in which humans relate and go about their businesses. Modern technology tools have been impacting evolution of ideas and values such as the definition and handling of individual privacy in the current society. Technology has taken people’s lifestyles and social life a notch higher, thanks to the development and spread of online communities, courtesy of social networking sites (Khazan 1). Languages, expressions and vocabulary found technology tools and gadgets such as cell phones, computer systems are now part of modern cultures as well. The online medium has presented a new arena upon which people try out what they cannot accomplish by physical presence. Whereas, Facebook, and other social networking sites provide for sharing of information online, most of the users tend to give away their private information, which might be detrimental to them. These practices often present major challenges, prompting technology experts to issue warning that human beings should use technology more positively for their own benefit. Advertising and Fine art Fine art impacts advertising. It influences consumers to consider opting for a particular good or service. It enhances a society that is based on parochial interests and in which persons decide what is appropriate for their consumption. Some researchers chide critics who suggest that promotions work up consumers to purchase items they would not otherwise want to use. Advertising provides consumers various alternatives from among market rivals dealing in a specific commodity: advertising provides free consumer choice of a commodity based on the quality, cost, and satisfaction. Most ads are accompanied by striking images, good melody, and celebrities. Advertisements enable consumers make decisions in a competitive industry. Ads only offer the first attraction of the consumer to a given commodity, the value and cost of the item serves to retain the consumer on subsequent purchases. Conversely, through portraying that items are of a higher priority to human persons and the historical archives of society and by prompting people to rely more on an item than fellow humans, ads create temporary needs. Sports and Fine art Fine Art manifests in pop culture. It influences the lifestyle of various sportsmen, especially those taking part in athletics. The female sportsmen whose actions catch the eye of the cameramen are mainly covered due to their looks. Even though, most athletes today identify with certain appearances, the ultimate picture does not encompass what makes them athletes; rather, it is their new lifestyle that contributes to their fame. Most of the popular female sportspersons in the field are attractive to their fans. Gender plays out significantly in this respect. Notably, the mainstream society rarely concentrates on female sports, largely because of the negative perception that women participants should in actually take the spectator benches, and leaves the performance to males. Steroids also surfaces in different sports, especially in athletics for behavioral attitudes of the sportspersons. Males who consume anabolic steroids, will behave in feminine way, whether the substance was developed from masculine genetic substances. These may include difficulty playing the sexual roles of males. Females undergo the reverse experience; with weird and deadly health complications. Music and fine art Fine Art affects music. For almost one century, the content of hip-hop genre in the music industry was created and spread hatred among musicians and the audience. In the late 20th century, hip-hop music pointed to hooliganism and various murder cases targeting rap music icons. Additionally, hip-hop developed into a music genre that encompasses a different lifestyle, especially for the younger population. The growing popularity of the music genre can be viewed in various aspects of life such as media, sports and marketing, among others. Many young populations, from different ethnicities, have accepted the music genre because it is distinct from other music styles in the industry. The genre witnesses the use of modern musical instruments, its free-style sense, and the feeling of unity it offers the youth. Conversely, critics point out that the music genre uses disrespectful language in its message to the fans and the society in general. Fine art in out-of-school life In the general society, Fine Art contributes immensely to the growth of cognitive skills developed from television watching. These vital skills eventually are not just important for the act of following and understanding the various television programs, but they are applied in other areas as well. Understanding human actions and going about them is one of the significant areas where the skills come in handy. Technology enables the general society to connect and share their experiences across the world regardless of territorial borders. Through the Internet tool, artists can easily develop their items, promote and sell them to clients from anywhere in the world. Technology, however, calls for caution in how users handle their privacy, especially on the Internet. Misuse and or haphazard posting of private information on Internet have led to detrimental effects including loss of reputation and even death. Conclusion Fine art enables people to choose the right item from the market as different market rivals try to outdo each other on an item. The subject enables consumers to carefully choose their items from a competitive market; they tend to look for the positive attributes of certain commodities and settle for the best. In sports, people learn the substances they should use and those that they should shun, in order to live positively and enjoy fruitful sporting. In the entertainment industry, the subject advocates the development of creativity and the shunning of disrespectful messages in music. This class offered a valuable experience to me because I learned that the general society is premised upon fine art: for instance, the five major areas I would remember from this class include; television promotes the development of cognitive skills; technology promotes Fine Art; advertising helps consumers to make tough decisions; sportspersons should play the natural way; and music should be educational and be able to promote peace. Work Cited Khazan, Olga. "In the Era of ‘Google Effects,” Why Memory Matters ." Web, 11 July 2011). ForbesWoman. Retrieved <http://blogs.forbes.com/olgakhazan/2011/07/20/in-the-era-of-google-effects-why-memory-matters/>.
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    Children at risk of bullying and teasing Student’s name Course/Number Date Instructor’s name
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    Student: Professor: Course: Date: How to Cook a Turkey for Thanksgiving at Home By: Name /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQEASABIAAD/2wBDAAYEBAQFBAYFBQYJBgUGCQsIBgYICwwKCgsKCgwQ DAwMDAwMEAwODxAPDgwTExQUExMcGxsbHCAgICAgICAgICD/2wBDAQcHBw0MDRgQEBgaFREV GiAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICAgICD/wAAR CACWAJYDAREAAhEBAxEB/8QAHAAAAgIDAQEAAAAAAAAAAAAABQYEBwACAwEI/8QAQBAAAQMD AgQCCAQEBQIHAAAAAQIDBAAFERIhBhMxQSJRBxQjMmFxgZEVQlKxM3Kh0SRDYoLBNJIIFhdE ouHx/8QAGwEAAgMBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAQBAwUCBgf/xAA1EQACAQMDAgQEBAYCAwAAAAAA AQIDBBESITFBUQUTImEUMnGBFZGh8CNCUrHB0eHxJDNi/9oADAMBAAIRAxEAPwD6eXMZT0Oo /CpODxD63Om1SB6shIypVAGrT7yuiMp86AJNQSZQBlAGUAZQBlAGUAZQBlAGUAZQB5UgZQBz 6KI+1SQe5oATU3+epzQ1aJR/mAT/AM1n/EzztCQ58NDrOIfhSpPJ1SGeUs/kzk/WnIOWN9hW aSe251QVPOeLcmuzgIpSEpwKg6PaAMoAygALxBxjw5YEH8SmobexkRUeN856YbTlW/xqmrXh Dll9G2nU+VCJO9OkfCvw+34x7nrStJV/tT/esyp4t/SjVp+Cv+Zg1r0zcQBQ5vqgK1eBotqB x5e+fvVK8UqdkWy8Jp92GmPTE7j2tuQ4B/EU27px9watXi/eJT+DZ4l+hq/6dbWg4Ztjr5T/ ABQl1Ix8sjerPxaPZkfgk+6MtH/iC4Klvhi5NybOT/nyEamM+RcRkp/3JApyleQl7Cdbw+pD 3RYsC5QLjERMt8lqXEc/hyGFhxB+Sk5FNIRZIzUkGHpQBgNAGq/MdqAMoAgqNBBxUaABD3HX CVreWJtzZDqAfYNnmOeXuoz/AFpepdU4csao2dWfEWRLT6aOA7jcvw/1pcN1RCWly0httaj2 C8kD64quF7CXsXVfDqsFnkd+anUkA51DKT2NNiJvQBVfpA9J03Q7bOF16FBXLkXbGrGdlerD CtWDsV4+XnWbdXuNo8mxZeG59U+O3+yn3n0NOLQkGTMdUFSHytalqX31rVknfzNYNWbZ6elS UUL13mz29MWBEBmunwqb6Dxb9MCr7eEeZPYXuXLiK3JFvceiTS/LKSncqccytf8AXb7bVzUn
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    Student: Professor: Course: Date: Stem Cell Research Stem cell research which is also known as human embryonic stem cell (ESC) research is juxtaposed in different worlds of ethical, legal, cultural, scientific and political realms with no point of consensus. According to Fry-Revere and Elgin (5), the controversial debate surrounding ESH has been around for the last decades and revolves around ethical, legal and moral basis of the research bearing in mind that it touches on the sanctity of human life. Embryonic stem cells have the capability to regenerate continuously besides being able to develop into virtually all body cells as opposed to adult human cells. From this unique trait of regeneration, stem cells can be very helpful in understanding and treatment of degenerative diseases and other chronic ailments (Hall 2). When this fact was discovered, massive federal funding was directed towards ESC research at the expense of moral, ethical and legal issues underlying the research. Much of the debate or controversy on the issue has been revolving on ethical and moral authority of the research neglecting the more fundamental issue of sensibility in expenditure of taxpayer’s money (Fry-Revere and Elgin 14; Termini 254). This paper will tackle the legal and political issues in relation to stem cell research. Legal and Political Analysis of Stem Cell Research The debates and controversies plaguing ESC research are a true reflection of the deep rooted moral divide in the American society. ESC research debate has generated more public interest in the public more than any recent development in the biomedicine or bioscience spheres owing to its promising nature. All sorts of advocacy groups and organizations have joined this band wagon like religious groups and scientific organizations which all aim at questioning scientific legislations and propose initiatives (Termini 260). The raging debate is an indication of public awareness of the contentious issues surrounding the research which presents problems to democratic politics of communication. In the advent of presidential ban on ESC research federal funding in 2001, proponents of the research launched public campaigns in its support by using prominent American people and companies. This campaign saw the passing of constitutional amendments such as the 2006 Missouri Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative (Constitutional Amendment 2) and the 2004 Californian Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative (Proposition 71). In more recent times, there was a wide Congress bipartisan support for the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2007 (S.5) although it was sufficient to override a presidential veto (Hall 7; Wolinsky 923). The presidential ban on ESC research in 2001 was directed at development of new lines of ESC research lines which was as a result guidelines published by National Institutes of Health (NIH). These guidelines were published in August 2000 after the Clinton led administration recognized potential benefits of ESC research. In essence, the guidelines provided modalities for identifying research that was eligible to receive federal funding. After publishing of the guidelines, American politics joined the debate which exposed ideological divisions in the American conceptualization of culture. Owing to the fact that ESC research involves destruction of human embryos, Christian organizations vehemently joined in campaigns to cut and abolish federal funding to the research. The framing of ESC research in the controversial abortion context led to polarization of the issue and eventual increase of media coverage. The polarization of the debate happened in all fronts including the political and academic circles (Termini 271). After the guidelines on federal funding for research were published by NIH, researchers who focused on normal adult cells research felt sidelined. These aggrieved researchers with support of religious and pro-life groups sought to address their grievances in the courts. They sued NIH and its guidelines by questioning their legality. In their argument, these scientists said that their research was unfairly shadowed by ESC research in terms of funding despite the fact that it was equally important. The court’s initial ruling was confounding because it found no grounds for the plaintiffs to sue which led to an appeal. However, this ruling was overturned by the appellate court on the grounds that the published guidelines led to heightened competition for fixed and limited federal grants. Due to these controversial nature of the debate, confusion reigns supreme in the US public because the three branches of government (executive, legislature and judiciary) all depend on the legal system which is not firm on the matter (Wolinsky 922). There is a contention among conservative bioethicists that there is a failure in the contemporary US public sphere to come up with a legitimate discourse with regards to the ESC research debate. Discussion on fundamental biological issues have been ignored by the largely secular American public by avoiding discussions on the legitimacy of embryo’s ontological status. This issue is often overshadowed by religious arguments that go beyond legitimate public debates. Proponents of ESC research have been able to woo public support by using persuasive campaigns that appeal to human ethos and pathos such as human suffrage which can be alleviated by this research. On the contrary, opponents of the research usually use rational arguments that are against the use of human embryos in research. While the proponents of the research do not regard embryos as human beings, their philosophical arguments have failed to articulate the moral dividing line between human beings and fertilized eggs. Although the proponents of ESC research have well reasoned articulation of embryonic life defenses, they have miserably failed in mobilizing support from the public against the research. This failure is in total contrast to performance of pro-life movements before it who were able to mobilize the public (Fry-Revere and Elgin 9; Termini 254). Advocates of ESC research have been relentless in their efforts to exploit image politics to sway the public on their course. Regardless of this fact, the crucial issue is federal funding which needs support from other quarters such as institutional and civil society spheres so as to sway policy making. However, these advocates have been very effective in presenting constructive and persuasive arguments that fit perfectly in the ethical calculus. One of these arguments is research imperative that argues for the need and obligation for medical research to be afforded the chance to save lives and alleviate human suffering. In regard of this argument, a debate ensues that pits protection of human embryos against saving millions of suffering lives. The key bioethical issue emanating from such a perspective in policy formulation is balancing or moderation of moral value of embryos with the benefits that can be gotten from ESC research. Proponents of ESC research have raised two important logical arguments that revolve around the moral conservative assumptions with regards to people and embryos (Richey 1; Termini 287). The first argument opposes the belief that all human embryos usually develop into human life because in actual sense, about half of all embryos do not usually develop into human beings. As such, an embryo only becomes a person when placed within the uterus because the uterine wall forms a special time for providing potentials to develop into a human being. On the other hand, embryos used in ESC research are gotten from discarded embryos after failure in-vitro fertilization. It follows then that these discarded embryos have zero chances of developing into human life (Hall 3). The second argument presented by ESC proponents resonates better with the American public owing to its logic. While opponents of this research condemn ESC research on moral grounds of embryo destruction, they are oblivious of the fact that the destruction may sometimes be avoidable which often occurs naturally during sexual procreation process. The rate of spontaneous miscarriages remains phenomenally high and around half of fertilized ova do not develop into human life due to implantation problems. Perception of natural embryo loss by people is usually not equivalent with religious or moral perceptions of tragic infant deaths that occur sometimes. Destruction of embryos is a reality that occurs continuously in fertility clinics which begs the question why oppose ESC research which uses those embryos earmarked for destruction. It becomes therefore ironical when there is consensus for destruction of embryos in fertility clinics and at the same time opposes destruction of the embryos in research for the common good of humanity. In that case, if pre-implantation embryos are to be accorded the same moral and dignity as human beings, then fertility clinics and their IVF technologies should also be opposed. In the light of defending the moral argument by the proponents of ESC research, the banning of embryo destruction in research should also have been followed by federal funding prohibition. These two arguments by proponents of ESC research are accredited with the famous constitutional amendments in Missouri and California as well as the Stem Cell Enhancement Act of 2007 (S.5) through bipartisan Congress support (Fry-Revere and Elgin 21; Wolinsky 920). The medical benefits that can be realized from ESC research have been stifled by association of the research with abortion which quenches public’s interest in advancement of the associated technologies. In the near future, ESC research and other related biotechnologies are expected to define global healthcare issues and therefore their bio-political implications should be subject to open public debate. The public interest and curiosity in ESC research is based on its potential to avail solutions that so far have not been realized using conventional medical research. These solutions have far reaching implications especially to the established global politics of nation-states (Fry-Revere and Elgin 21). A current problem has been difficulties in establishing the culture of voluntary organ donation although in the industrialized world such problems have been partially addressed. The available programs are still plagued with problems especially the demand surpassing the supply of organs or tissues. In theory, the promises of ESC research can come in handy to address the problem of shortages in tissues or organs. Besides the bio-political problem of organ and tissues shortages, there is the incessant problem of changing demographics especially in the developed world. The western world is faced with a fast aging population which presents a myriad of problems especially in policy making economical challenges in relation to health complications. Regenerative medicine and ESC research have potential solutions to the development of cure for degenerative diseases that develop with age and usually over burden healthcare systems. All these foreseen benefits of ESC research usually provide the impetus of continued development in the provision of significant bio-value in the future. These possible benefits are usually riddled with challenges because they only hypothetical. However, despite the fact that the benefits are hypothetical, many industrialized developed nations have debated on this issue and have agreed to try the research. Even then, the ESC research in such countries is closely controlled and monitored especially in matters relating to funding (Termini 264). Conclusion Stem cell research which is also known as human embryonic stem cell (ESC) research is juxtaposed in different worlds of ethical, legal, cultural, scientific and political realms with no point of consensus. The controversies plaguing ESC research have been prominent in the last two decades which revolve around the benefits that can be realized from it and the moral, legal and political issues involving how the research is carried out. Stem cells are pluripotent in that they are able to regenerate and can virtually develop into any kind of body cell. Such a characteristic is not found within normal mature body cells. In order to exploit this pluripotency of stem cells, embryos have to be used because their cells have not differentiated organs or tissues. The use of embryos then brings all controversies and debates which divide the public in the middle. In the center of the debate, the fundamental issue of funding this research is usually overlooked although it underlies the problem. Many opponents of the research have realized the importance of federal funding of the projects and have moved first to mobilize the public to oppose the use of taxpayer’s money in funding the research. The underlying issue or point of contention is the morals and respect with regards to the embryo and human life that pits pro-life groups and proponents of the research against each other. The US has seen turbulent time with regards to this debate and among the most notable legal intonation and contribution to the controversy are the constitutional amendments in Missouri and California as well as the Stem Cell Enhancement Act of 2007 (S.5) through bipartisan Congress support. Works Cited Fry-Revere Sigrid and Elgin Molly. Public Stem Cell Research Funding Boon or Boondoggle? Accessed 29th June 2012. Web 2008 from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&ved=0CGQQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcei.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2FSigrid%2520Fry-Revere%2520and%2520Molly%2520Elgin%2520-%2520Public%2520Stem%2520Cell%2520Research%2520Funding.pdf&ei=-kL0T_fCBMOh0QWg34W_Bw&usg=AFQjCNGAIiCUImfJShXQG2FL8twYrMMHqg&sig2=mezu1vZEMtn4DkThG53mrQ
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    Conceptual models and Theories Student’s name Course/Number Date Instructor’s name Effects of conceptual models and theories on research practice Conceptual models and theories usually impact research practice by offering probable reasons behind proposed ideologies (Cornelissen, & Durand, 2012). On the one hand, conceptual models are forms of perceptions, which are promoted by ideas or notions, which are developed after an integration and evaluation of ideas in the mind. By representing human behavior, conceptual models enable researchers to understand human responses to certain stimuli, during research practice. Conceptualization from scrutiny of material existence and conceptual modeling offer practical solutions for researchers by injecting more to their thinking and search for remedies. Concepts are employed to express semantics during communication. Owing to the possible mapping of different semantics out of an issue, a precise formalization is normally important for recognizing, and appreciating the intended perceptions from different candidates to prevent misunderstandings and contradictions, as it would impact the lack of authenticity in any given research practice. On the other hand, theories offer a way of ventilating on, and predicting the repercussions of certain causes during research practice. In light of this, theories present interventions meant to deter or demystify any harm that may arise. According to Cornelissen and Durand (2012), theories from different disciplines are relevant to the general research practice: for instance, theory can be employed in research to clarify clinical and administrative behavior, to support organizational culture, and in examining implementation programs and making timely interventions. Conceptual models and theories offer researchers an enormous field to try out different research approaches, and descriptions of given tasks as well as their impacts for easy implementation of the stated goals. Although, in most cases, the line between conceptual models and theories may be blurred, both contribute to the development of credible research, which is exhaustive, balanced and clear.
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    Jesse Student’s Name Course Name/Number Date Instructor’s Name Introduction Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood, mainly characterized by psychological intrigues. Although it may be a luxurious stage in one’s life, given that it is an exploratory stage and one is neither an adult nor a child, it is also a delicate stage filled with many challenges. Adolescents experience new societal demands, complex social relations, maturational changes, and identity conflicts. Both Erickson and Mead look at it as a period when both parents and older generation are no longer role models. Even if they are, the adolescents are still largely influenced by their peers and vocational role models aired in the mass media like movie heroes, musicians, and world stars. This paper analyzes those who are responsible for Mark’s death, and to what extent, in the following story set within the context of adolescence. “17 year-old Jesse’s parents went out of town and left Jesse in charge of their house near the beach. He decided to have a party and more than 15 of his teenage neighbors and friends showed up. They built a fire pit on the beach and began a night of drinking and partying. Around three in the morning, a neighbor called the police because of excessive noise. Upon arriving, the police found a 17 year-old male named Mark dead on the ground about 100 yards away from the fire pit. The medical examiner said the teenager had died from hypothermia and alcohol poisoning—he had a blood alcohol level more than four times the legal limit. Although the other teens stated they knew Mark had been drinking, they stated that they had been partying and had lost track of Mark around 1 a.m. Who is responsible for Mark’s death?” Mark’s part in his death Looking at the story, Mark is not solely responsible for his death, but he played major part in his death. Mark made all the major decisions leading to his death. Even though Jesse invited him for a party, it was his own choice to attend. And again, supposing Jesse had provided the drinks at the party, it was Mark’s personal choice to choose to drink, and do it excessively. According to the Theory of Adolescent Defense Mechanism by Anne Freud, Mark failed to balance his ego and the id, thus allowing the id to override his ego when he chose to drink himself to death (Freud, 2011). Mark’s parents Mark’s parents were equally responsible for his death, and can be held responsible on several counts. First, Mark being a minor is legally assumed to be under his parents’ watch. Sadly, he left home in the evening, spent the night outside home, and his parents never bothered to look for him or even care about his whereabouts (Taylor & Daniel, 2005). Were they keen on him, they would have saved their son. Second, they can be accused of parental emotional neglect. This is easily reasoned from the fact that drinking being an emotional act, would have been reversed by Mark’s parents had they cared for his emotional well-being. And lastly, they will be held responsible for failing to take action against Mark’s drinking habit, as he must have shown some signs of poor drinking (Iwaniec, 2003). Jesse’s parents
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    E-Commerce: Questions and a small project Student’s name Course Date Instructor’s name
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    Privacy, Security, and Information Sharing Student’s Name Course Name/Number Date Instructor’s Name Introduction The world today can be described in one simple word – information. Everything is information-based, and all activities are moving online. Information has actually become the source of power and a tool in economic growth. With the rise of the Internet and other technologies, new paths of spreading information have emerged, and millions of people can be reached simultaneously. They are also fresh ways of collecting, processing, and storing information. Not many people would be willing to deny the place of IT in the society or even prepared to do away with it. In reality, electronic technology has spread into all spheres of life, to the extent that even those who do not have access to it are significantly affected in many positive ways (Brennan & Johnson, 2004). However, there are also increasing concerns that some people are misusing and abusing the very advantages of IT. Some of these unethical behaviors pose real threats to the society. The most serious risks involve issues of privacy, security, freedom, and computer crimes. This paper examines both the ethical and legal considerations of IT in the practices of privacy, security, and information sharing. Privacy and security practices in IT, in the context of legal and ethical values in IT The revolution in IT has entirely changed how information is gathered, processed, and stored. Although there is a consistent assurance that data placed over the Internet is safe and secure, new ways are being discovered to illegally and unethically, disseminate the supposedly secure information. With the current computer systems, all communications via the Internet are stored in history files, and most websites do collect this information and the identity of the browser. Other sites, like the e-commerce, actually use cookies to monitor the trend of customers and buying habits. Some businesses electronically monitor their workers, read their private messages, and collect their personal information through data-banking. As of today, a wealth of citizens’ private information lies in the hands of both the government and business agencies. The ethical concern arises when this information falls in the hands of people without legal access. To control an unauthorized access to private information, usually ethical rules are formulated and approved by the government (Brennan & Johnson, 2004). Security issues arise when unauthorized persons hack into others’ computers and websites and unlawfully draw the information from them. The Internet has made it easy to manipulate data, steal intellectual property, change digital signatures, transact frauds, and hack into sensitive accounts. Usually these issues of security are dealt with legally, and there are measures that have been taken to reduce them. Ethical dilemmas arise when people begin to abuse these systems and use the data drawn from them against an individual, persons, or even an entire population. Ethical practices, thus, call for people to make sound choices that arise in IT (Goldstein, 2010). The legislation and case law related to security practices and criminal liability in information sharing The legal framework for protecting information sharing consists of laws that are aimed at discouraging people from practicing certain online conducts. Currently, the US has two legislations that regulate its security networks; the National Security Legislation (NSL), and the Civil Privacy Legislation (CPL). Under the NSL, there is the USA-PATRIOT Act and the Homeland Security Act (HSA). The former was passed in 2001, and was mainly prompted by three events. One, it was to allow governments (federal and states) to share access restricted information; two, to enhance surveillance and allow private bodies to share information with the various governments by lifting legal liability; and three, to define and expand the existing criminal laws, including death penalties for computer abuse and frauds (General Accounting Office Washington DC, 2001). HSA was passed in 2002 to allow government agencies to access information on one’s emails and visited sites. The Acts under CPL include: FERPA, FISMA, and HIPAA. These are mainly security measures to protect privacy.
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    American Popular Music Student: Course: Date: Professor: Introduction Before I delve into American popular music, it would be good to attempt to clear the air about some misconceptions concerning popular music and pop music which are used interchangeably. On the one hand, popular music refers to a kind of music that appeals to the majority of people and as such it has many styles and forms. Conversely, pop music specifically alludes to rock and roll kind of music which came into prominence in the 1950’s and its name is derived from popular. For the sake of this discussion, I am concerned about popular music in the contemporary times that I am living in with regards to the influences and how it has shaped the American society. Music is one of the instruments that shape the society through its appeal to the youth who make a vast majority of the community. The influence of music in the society is so profound because music communicates to the soul and brings out the best in terms of what different people aspire to be or become in the future. Owing to the multicultural diversity of the modern American society, many people especially the young would want to ape their favorite artists. Such coping is undertaken on the premise that the fans are expressing themselves and able to fit into the socially accepted global norms. Popular music is usually defined and seen in a narrowed perspective of clothing and fashion besides adopting a specific way of speaking and doing things. All these are seeing as a projection of a ‘cool image’ which is admirable to peers especially among the young people and quite detestable in people of older generations. In the contemporary times, one of the most profound popular music cultures is the Hip-Hop which has been embraced by the American society as a whole. One of the important of music in general is that it heals and bridges societal stratifications which are inherent due to socio-economic and racial differences. In the current generation of young people, racism and social class differences are not prominent as they used to be specifically in social interaction. This can all be attributed to popular music which has revolutionalized the way we perceive and appreciate people that are different from us. One would assume that since a particular music star comes from a humble beginning or from a minority race in US would have a little following. While such a notion may be true among the people of older generations, the young notions are driven by the desire of being popular and fashionable with regards to national and global trends that every young person is embracing. As such, popular music has become a unifying factor and bringing about the desired societal bridging platform. In my own opinion, I am convinced that popular music is about the outward projection of oneself, which is based on the need to rise above traditional perceptions. These traditional perceptions are based on race, education and class which have for a long time been used by the elite to segregate the nation. However, the young people are hungry for a new perception of themselves not based on who or what they are but what unites them. As such, popular music comes in handy as tool that serves to unite them into a family. The only other thing that comes second to music in uniting people is sport (soccer) which transcends all human imposed boundaries and brings people together. In this regards, the fashion industry is very much influenced by popular music based on what those people that are musically idolized wear or endorse as fashionable. Apart from clothing or fashion, popular music also influences the way people talk and what interests them especially, among young enthusiastic fans. When I talk how people talk, I mean the rise of slang among American young people which comes from popular musicians. It is interesting to note that these slangs do not necessarily come from popular musicians from the white race but all idolized musicians. Besides this, most of these popular musicians usually rise from nothing to fame, which makes them the more attractive and adorable to their fans. The beauty of popular music lies in the premise that it makes light of the nationally conceived matters for instance the word ‘nigga’ or ‘dawg’ commonly refer to people of African American descent. Many popular Hip-Hop musicians allude to them and other similar terms in a comical manner which diffuses tension among people of different races. In this manner, a new language has developed which only makes sense to the young people as a way of identifying with the popular culture which is alienated to the conventional or official culture. Conclusion In my own opinion, I am convinced that popular music is about the outward projection of oneself which is based on the need to rise above traditional perceptions. It follows then that popular music influences the way we talk, what we eat and what we wear. On top of these, popular music provides a unifying platform where young people can express themselves irrespective of their racial or socio-economic status in the society. Despite of these positive contributions of popular music especially Hip-Hop to the American society, people of the older generations are of the opinion that it has brought moral decadency in the society. This view has been voiced due to scanty dressing being fronted as fashion and low comprehension of the English language in academic settings.
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    Insert name Tutor Course Date Technology and ethics Technology and ethics are two issues that go hand in hand. Whereas, modern technologies such as chemotherapy and those that revolve around reproductive health point to an improved quality of care, unanticipated ethical issues, including the probable abuse arises. One major question is whether technologies will ever be affordable for the general society. Another ethical concern involves the uncertainty behind the use of technology for philanthropy or profit. Relatively new technologies such as stem-cell development, which could be undertaken to create a wide range of different cells, raises ethical questions. Embryonic stem-cells, which are better than placental cells, spark controversy among people who are against abortion, who argue that life begins at conception (Krutikov 298-306). The use of nuclear energy also presents ethical issues over the possible development of nuclear weapons. The legalization of nuclear power production, for instance, should be monitored by a global body that carries regular independent audits on the possible misuse of the technology. Law and Crime In Law and Crime, technology has been in use in form of computer services, communications, crime scene substantiation, whistle-blowing, fingerprinting, documentation, and crime analysis among others (Krutikov 299-302). On the one hand, technology is a positive phenomenon that impacts better law enforcement initiatives, by offering better crime mapping net. Through Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology, police is able to detect crime early enough for deterrence. On the other hand, technology is very expensive to install and maintain, hence the rising number of outdated security equipment in criminal justice. Moreover, latest tech-savvy criminals are using technology to hack computer systems, distribute porn material, and perpetuate white-collar crimes and infoterrorism. To some extent, however, technology through eavesdropping equipment may be used to infringe on social freedoms such as individual privacy. Technology has also increased the commission of minor crimes, as downloadable material is available online. Identity and Experience The impact of technology on the modern life of people is still debatable. Whereas some believe technology improves the value of life, others view the tool negatively; pointing out that it has spiraled out of control, with people becoming more concerned about their online identities than their real lives. With friends and relatives at the click of the mouse, courtesy of social networking sites, the real life of meeting people in person for discussion has been fading (Krutikov 303-304). Online education programs have also rendered the physical attendance of classes irrelevant. Most education institutions have gone online, posting course modules, notes and even exams. Additionally, many students use the online resources for research. Human persons are only able to experience life if the reactions of it are shared with others. The sharing provides room for corrections and improvement. Technology takes sharing to the next level by connecting people of different cultures from across the world. Public vs. Private Whereas, the difference between private and public life is common to contemporary societies, the development of new communication technologies such as radio, television, mobile phone and the Internet-based social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter, has transformed the very structure of the public vs. private debate within society. Both the quarters have been restructured as mediums of information (Krutikov 305). Today, emblematic material that are mainly detached from real environments increasingly intertwine with developing communication technologies, to create a mixed-up situation in which the distinction between private and public is unclear, porous, debatable, and subject to unending overlap and struggle. Notably, the confusion, between public and private life has presented new contests in contemporary social settings. The end result is a situation where various parties fight information wars, an environment where strong relations of influence can be transformed, and lives lost and names of participant soiled.
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    ACL Sport Injuries Student: Course: Date: Professor: Introduction The knee joint is tasked with the arduous task of weight bearing besides being quite complex, which makes it prone to injuries. It is composed of the patella, tibia and femur, which are connected or stabilized by several ligaments like medial and lateral collateral ligaments and posterior and anterior cruciate ligaments (Cimino, Volk & Setter, 2010). The lateral and medial menisci distribute weight evenly within the knee with each movement by acting as shock absorbers. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the main structure that is involved with stabilizing the knee. Its origins can be traced from posterior side of the femur and travels medially and enters into the tibia on the anterior aspect. This ligament is found away from the synovial fluid, although it is intracapsular. The ACL therefore, functions as the main controller of tibia’s anterior translation as well as its internal rotation (Myer, Ford & Hewett, 2004; Shelbourne & Klotz, 2006). Common Mechanisms of Injury Athletes or people fall to ACL injuries usually describe hearing a popping sound from their knee, which followed by immediate swelling and pain in the affected knee. Although there is pain involved in ACL injury, the imbalance associated with this injury, sidelines patients from taking part in competitive play. Most patients usually have instability moments, especially with ‘double first sign,’ which is an awkward moment experienced when fists face each other rotate in a grinding motion (Lam, M., Fong, & et al., 2009). ACL injuries can happen through two ways whereby on the one side contact may be required whereas on the other hand, there may be no contact involved. On the cases where contact is required, the lower part of the leg must be firmly planted on the ground where there is torque and enough force to tear ligaments. ACL injuries occurring through contact account for approximately 30% of all ACL injuries. It is then a common sense that the rest of 70% of all ACL injuries occur through non-contact way, which arises during the process of deceleration. This deceleration occurs at the lower part of the leg whereas, the quadriceps maximally contract, and the knee is still at its maximal extension. In such a scenario, the tension within the ACL can only be described as knee’s internal collision. At the knee’s full extension, contraction of the quadriceps usually leads to an increase in the tensile force of the ACL. When the non-contact injury occurs, the hamstrings are usually contracted minimally (hamstrings stabilize ACL posteriorly) especially when the hip is extended, and much of the body’s weight is exerted on the heel, which allow for excessive surge of the femur to overlay the tibia (Myer, Ford & Hewett, 2004). Non contact ACL injuries occur in snowboarders or skiers who have their knees locked when they fall back on snow. Football players in the habit of sudden turning and cutting maneuvers as well as basketball players who without full flexion land on rotated knees (Cimino, Volk & Setter, 2010). ACL Incidence Rates Generally, the overall incidence of ACL injuries within the US population is unknown although a study carried out in New Zealand put the incidence for that country at 36.9 injuries in 100,000 people per year. The current estimates suggest that there are between 80,000 and 100,000 ACL surgery repairs that are routinely carried in US. The relatively young athletes usually are plagued with avulsion fractures found mainly on the growth plates. This is opposed to ligament based injuries due to the relative cartilage weakness within the epiphyseal plate in comparison with the ACL (Cimino, Volk & Setter, 2010). Current studies show that there is an approximately 1.4 to 9.5 increase in ACL tear risk in women. Varying theories have been formulated to explain this and extenuating factor that could cause these injuries in women. The intensity of play has also been shown to be a contributory factor in many studies with a higher risk of between three and five of ACL injuries occurring during play or game time as opposed to practicing sessions (Lam, M., Fong, & et al., 2009; Shelbourne & Klotz, 2006). Recovery and Rehabilitation Process The evaluation of ACL injuries should be undertaken immediately when the injury occurs although it is in most cases limited due to pain and swelling. The process of evaluation begins with examining the gait of the patient and the most comfortable position on the examination table. It is important for the examining doctor to note asymmetry such as effusion which is an indication of peripatel­lar groove loss, hemarthrosis (swelling and pain) or both. In a previously carried out study among 132 athletes indicated that 77% of the injuries involved either complete or partial ACL tear. When ACL injury is suspected to be present after the preliminary evaluation, it is always advisable to recommend immediate physical therapy in order to keep and maintain motion range besides developing quadriceps strength. At this point in time, there is no need for knee immobilizers (Cimino, Volk & Setter, 2010; Myer, Ford & Hewett, 2004). The use of crutches should only be allowed for a short while when the patient is experiencing discomfort during ambulation. A further recommendation of the patient to an orthopedic surgeon is primarily based on patient’s level of activity and preference. Many young and active injury patients are usually in favor of surgical repair as opposed to conservative management. Those patients that are involved in games or events that involve rapid pivoting, maneuver cutting and acceleration and deceleration are evaluated for surgery. For those patients with recurrent episodes of collateral ligament damage and/or concomitant menis­cal, referral is highly recommended. In case a patient decides to undergo a surgery as an intervention measure for ACL, he or she should be ready for an extensive rehabilitation process. During this rehabilitation, crutches are a must and there should be an intense schedule of between ten and twelve weeks of activities geared towards strength building. All these are necessitated by the intense movement requirement of sport in which players are involved and when this intense schedule is not undertaken, ACL injuries may be recurring more often (Shelbourne& Klotz, 2006). Many athletes that are not prone to ACL injuries are able to fully indulge in pre injury activities without necessarily undergoing surgery. Possible methodologies of carrying out conservative management of ACL injuries include; little motions in the strong quadriceps femoris, knee extension and checking levels of difficulties in performing crossover hop test. The success rate of rehabilitating ACL injuries through conservative management vary due to the underlying causes of the injuries and activities involved (Myer, Ford & Hewett, 2004). In a study that involved 72 patients treated with ACL conservative management, the results of their healing processes were followed for 38 months. The results showed that about 31% of the patients had recovered completely whereas a further 5.5% had regained their 100% performance before the injury occurred. In another different study, it was found that more than 30% of the patients required surgery after conservative management failed to yield the required results. In this new study, 86% of the patients endured sporadic episodes of giving way although there were no reports of chronic swellings or pain. A Cochrane review pitting surgical treatment against conservative interventions for ACL injuries came up with two studies that were in tandem with inclusion criteria. These two studies were both done in Sweden. The studies were carried in the 1980’s before the introduction of MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) when rehabilitation was carried out by using plaster casts and surgical techniques. However, both studies failed to significant difference with regard to returning to sporting activities after injuries. In a more randomized trial recently, structured rehabilitation and early ACL reconstruction was compared to structured rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL reconstruction in a sample of 121 adults with ages ranging between 18 and 35 years. After two years of the study, there was no significant difference in sports function, symptoms and pain, or quality of life in relation to the knee (Cimino, Volk & Setter, 2010; Lam, M., Fong, & et al., 2009). Conservative Rehabilitation: The Dynamic Movement
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    Wal-Mart Technology Leverage Student: Course: Date: Professor:
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    Topic: The Environmental Impact of Bottled Water Student: Course: Date: Professor: Introduction The relationship between man and his environment is intricately interwoven and deeply entrenched in the Christian theological and philosophical perceptions which can only be understood in a discourse analysis along a time continuum. According to Minteer (2008), a clear understanding of this relationship revolves around the Christian’s fundamental believe that the world and all that is found within it belongs to God. From this belief, it follows that man should take care of nature which means being mindful of the environment for continued sustenance if life. Since time immemorial, man has been dependent on the environment for daily provision which involves exploitation of nature to get food and other related basic needs. With the advent of industrialization, things have changed for worse and have led to pollution because man is over exploiting the environment (Biel & Nilsson, 2005). It is the aim of this paper to discuss the Christian perspective on the environmental impact of bottled water. Christianity's historical and modern relationship with the environment is plagued with controversies especially when the two tried to be reconciled. On the one hand, the historical relationship of the environment with Christianity believes is a cordial one based on mutualism where both parties (environment and man) benefit each other. Such an understanding can only be based on a theological basis where man exploited the environment but in turn took care of it since it forms an innate part of him. On the other hand, in the modern context, things seem to have taken a different turn for worse with more exploitation. This is largely blamed on industrialization and globalization which predicated upon technology which leads to churning of toxic waste. Water is the natural resource that is on the receiving end owing to the fact that most of the technologies that have been invented by man require a lot of water to operate them safely (Bakken, Engel & Engel, 1995). Western civilization has always viewed with skeptism by Christian fundamentalists in relation to environmental matters. However, this view is totally disregarded by cotemporary and liberal views which are more concerned about economical development. Consequentially, economical development is more tasked with employment issues at the expense of morals that underpin ecology. The aftermath is evident in industrial developments that overshadow various raised concerns with regards to ecological footprints that such projects leave on planet earth. It is increasingly becoming difficult to erase these footprints which lead to over burdening of the capacity of nature to regenerate itself. Although nature is special in recreating itself afresh, it has to be special attention so that it does not undergo complete breakdown. Irrespective of technological advancements and inventions, nature provides the best way deal with natural resources such as water (Biel & Nilsson, 2005; Minteer, 2008). Although man has always looked to the environment for his livelihood, he is increasingly becoming aloof of the reality and relying more on technology. Take for instance water which has always been seen purest when taken from springs and rivers. This view was taken on sacred grounds of Christian belief that water is the source of life. As much as this view still holds the truth on theological grounds, Christians need to be in touch with reality about the harmful effects of industrialization which are inherently reflected on the environment. Gone are the times when people used to rely on water from nature in its untreated form. This unpalatable truth arises from the irreconcilable views and goals of both industrialization and Christian perspectives on the environment. Whereas the Christian perspective is aimed at moderate and beneficial exploitation of the environment, the modern perspective is aimed at all possible environmental exploitation with minimal regard for it. Religious perceptions and values always play a key role in determining how important issues in life with regards to quality of life are handled. This is the reason why many environmental activists usually base their arguments on religious grounds as argued against destroying God’s creation (Bakken, Engel & Engel, 1995; Biel & Nilsson, 2005). Modern society’s reorientations of the ecological limits in this planet are simply unattainable owing to misplacement of priorities. Man’s existence is based and predicated upon the environment according to fundamental Christian philosophies which to some extend is true. In such a logical view, the exploitation of the environment should be wary of the hazardous consequences which may rise when the environment is disregarded and laden with toxic substances. At the start of civilization when man was environmental conscious, the waste which was being produced was quite harmless to nature and easily regenerated (Minteer, 2008). However, at the height of globalization, these wastes are increasingly becoming toxic and threatening the existence of the man who has produced them. Important projects of modernization should therefore be based on ecological repristination of pivotal Christian traditions which regard the environment as sacred. The sacredness of the environment according to philosophical and Christian theology is firmly entrenched in laws of nature and traditional ethics of exclusivity according to the bible (Northcott, 1996). The quest by man to refine and atone for his past mistakes has led to rise of capitalization and commercialization of the natural elements that are supposed to be free. In the recent past, it has become virtually impossible to drink untreated water. This has led to the rise of bottled water which is commercially sold to willing buyers. In this quest, Christian critics are arguing that it has become expensive to buy bottled water at the same price as other artificial drinks like soda. Essentially, water should be free which is a natural resource is but it has become a business venture for many multinational companies. The rise in the cost of water comes about through the added energy consumption which is incurred during preparation packaging. The resultant effect is that it highly contributes to global warming and more water pollution. Consequentially, the bottles used usually lead to environmental pollution since they are made of plastic which is not biodegradable. Besides all these, bottled water contains no added ingredients except carbon gas for preservation purposes and therefore it is no better than municipal water (Bakken, Engel & Engel, 1995; Biel & Nilsson, 2005). Conclusion The connection between man and his environment is indeed, intricately intermingled and profoundly ingrained in the Christian theological and philosophical acuity, which can only be realized in a dialogue scrutiny alongside a time continuum. The historical theological and philosophical perspective on the environment by man was from a sacred point of view for self sustenance. However, this view is constantly is fast changing and man has totally immersed himself in environmental exploitation for economical gains with little disregard for the environment. This has led to commercialization of the basic natural resource through bottling water. There has to be a voice of reason, which in most cases is availed by environmental activists who oppose environmental destruction by basing their petitions on religious grounds of conservation. In attempts by the contemporary Christian groups to redeem their image and beliefs, they have come out to oppose this practice by challenging the authenticity and benefits of bottled water. Bottled water contributes indirectly to global warming and environmental pollution. Moreover, it has no nutritional advantage over municipal water.
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    Arts and Architecture
    Name Instructor’s Name Subject Date Terrorism 1. Yes, there can be no definition of terrorism that is universally acceptable. Terrorism is a term that is largely used by various groups thus making it difficult to agree on a single definition. Scholars in various fields such as psychology, law, criminology, political science, and theology have found it difficult to settle for one definition which can be used in law (Williamson 38). Despite the major elements of terrorism like violence, political aims, intent to spread fear and noncombatant targets being obvious, a common definition for terrorism remains far-fetched. For instance, the US agencies of government use different definitions. The State department holds the position that sub-national groups are the only category that can engage in terrorism and not states. On the other hand, the Federal Emergency Management incorporates the use of violence or illegal force as a way of promoting coercion, intimidation, and ransom as part of its definition. The Federal Regulations code also has its own definition which advocates for the unlawfully using force and perpetrating violence against property and persons to intimidate civilians, the government and other segments as its definition therefore showing that no one definition is agreeable. 2.The radicalization process is one where a person or group ends up embracing ideals that are extremely political, religious or social. Radicalization begins with transgression where individual breaks the rules that they deem important. During the transgression the person who is supposed to be radicalized may undergo mistreatment so they can become hardened. Alternatively, one may commit immoral acts that results in breaking the social rules. It then culminates into an organization more like a movement that evolves into action. Usually, the organization aims to establish a focus or core message through which their activities can develop. After that some of the members are recruited and converted to with the goal of seeking revenge or fighting for a certain cause. Polarization often takes center stage in dehumanizing the ‘enemy’ and thus those who qualify for recruitment are individuals capable of bypassing the value of not subjecting others to bodily harm. Action then becomes rampant and this results in terrorism. A promise becomes an important part of action because the radicalized groups are promised glory for indulging in acts of terror. Narcoterrorism does exist as it refers to any group that supports drug trafficking as a way financing its activities with a political motive. Some of the groups are such as the Taliban in Afghanistan and Colombian FARC. Narcoterrorism is in no way equated with criminals because the activity of drug trafficking in most cases is not autonomous as it is accompanied with a political agenda. To emphasize on this position, studies have indicated that Pablor Escobar was a leading drug-lord in the 1980s (Williamson par.3). Furthermore, the attack in Monterrey Casino in 2011 affirms the existence of Narco-terrorists. In most cases narco-terrorism can emerge from ‘narco’ or ‘terrorism.’ As such, drug lords have the capacity to become politically active. Alternatively, Political personalities are able to use their finances to have control of drugs. The force of terrorism is extremely tactical and being political it has the immense ability to create a drug route that is very profitable. Overall, narco-terrorism exists and it is a instrument that can intensely be used to threaten the masses due to its political inclination. Works Cited Booty, Harry. Defining Narco-terrorism. New York: IPF. 2012. Internet source. http://internationalpoliticalforum.com/defining-narco-terrorism/ Williamson, M. Terrorism, War, and International Law: The Legality of the Use of Force Against Afghanistan in 2001. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. 2013. Print.
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    art
    Controversial Medical Research Name Course Tutor Date Introduction Holocaust, a term that defines the persecution and the inhuman treatment perpetrated by the Nazi regime, remains one of the biggest inhuman actions of man on fellow man to date. The Jews in Germany were subjected to intense and inhumane treatment prior to being killed in masses. The Germany force under the leadership of the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler had established concentration camps where the Jews were kept and used as a source of slave labor. Only death as a result of diseases or exhaustion could end their sufferings. The concentrations camps were overcrowded ghettos where the Jewish as well as the Romans were kept before being taken for the extermination or experimentation. Along the journey some died while others survived. The survivors were killed in the gas chambers. A lot of human lives were lots of human lives were lost and to date holocaust is remembered as the worst form of insult to humanity ever to happen.
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    art
    Running head: EATING HEALTHY Eating Healthy Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: Among the major 21st century problems facing almost every household in the United States and increasingly in the rest of the world are eating disorders resulting as a result of bad feeding behaviors. Researchers have established that while it may be possible to engage in positive feeding behaviors to avoid medical complications, the brain is responsible for some of these complications. This paper provides a thorough analysis of the brain structures and functions associated with the motivation to engage in eating behaviors. The physiological aspects have also been clearly discussed. Also included in the paper is the influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors, as well as heredity and the environment, on the motivation to engage in eating behaviors. The brain is vital in the motivation to engage in eating healthy. So as to sustain the energy needs of an organism, the brain effectively reads the metabolic rate of the organism and responds accordingly. It is imperative henceforth to understand the various brain structures and functions associated with the motivation to eating healthy. The entire brain is active in motivating an individual to engage in eating, as was discovered in a study conducted by scientists from the United States and Portugal. The study, which involved studying the brain activity of rats for the period of a feeding cycle, established that it is the pooled activity of the structures in the brain that activate the mechanism associated with the feeding motivation. However, there are structures in the brain that are specifically associated with feeding motivation, namely: the lateral hypothalamus, the orbitofrontal cortex, the insular cortex and the basolateral amygdala (Physorg, 2006). According to the researchers; Ivan E. de Araujo, Sidney A. Simon and assistants at Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina, US as well as at Porto University, Portugal, by analyzing the entire activity of each of the four bran areas, established that the mechanism responsible for feeding motivation is distributed among various brain structures that from a connected circuit composed of numerous neurons. Araujo and colleagues also found that the lateral hypothalamus appeared to be the principal structure for eating motivation, because of its neural activity, which showed a premier association with the changes observed in the feeding cycle. Previous case studies by scientists have indicated that single lesions in the lateral hypothalamus can mechanically lead to drastic changes in appetite resulting to an abnormal high food intake, hyperphagia, or hypophagia, reduced food intake (Physorg, 2006). Because of its vital importance in the body, the Hypothalamus has been referred to as the ‘brain of the brain’. It is the area that manages ingestive behaviors, sensory processing maintains endocrine hormonal levels and organizes body metabolism. The Hypothalamus, given its rich blood supply and its contact with cerebrospinal fluid (hence access to various chemical signals), control over neural connections with visceral afferent information such as taste and olfaction is able to conduct motivation. It is from this view that the notion of mutually inhibitory centers for hunger and satiety of feeding. In this mechanism, the brain, through the hypothalamus, maintains feeding reflexes, as well as other related functions such as pituitary gland regulation, metabolism, hydration, thirst, hunger and cravings such as salt cravings (Physorg, 2006).
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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