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    Running head: ZAIBATSU Zaibatsu Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: The rise of Japanese militarism and nationalism has been blamed on factors such as hardships that led to a worldwide depression, the effects of the anti-Japanese responses in China, frequent scandals and the failures of the Meiji constitution that resulted to the military’s rise to power. This paper however seeks to focus on the role played by the zaibatsu economy in the rise of militarism and nationalism during the World War II. One of the zaibatsu companies has also been analyzed and its role in modern Japan. The end of the Meiji government marked an important revolution in Japan. The Meiji model of administration encouraged the setting up and integration of manufacturing processes in a single enterprise, known as the zaibatsu, which means “a financial clique”. Some of these enterprises were trade companies such as Mitsui and Sumimoto that had the capital to be involved in new opportunities while others were formed by enterprising samurai who used their experience in management to establish the companies. The companies steadily developed, with encouragement from the government, into large conglomerates that took over control of a large sector of the Japanese economy. They were soon established and by 1937, the leading zaibatsu (Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumimoto and Yasuda) were in command of 21% of the banking industry, 26% of mining, 38% of commercial shipping, and over 60% of paper manufacture and insurance (Chaurasia, 2003). Although the end of the Meiji period seemed to be an important season for Japan to establish a normal parliamentary government, the concentration of power and wealth in the zaibatsu created problems in the society, and led to growing economic inequalities. This resulted to a loss of confidence in political parties, paving the way for right-wing militarists and nationalists to take control of the government. Under these militarists and nationalists, Japan grew into a major industrial-military power. Factories in Japan started producing aircraft carries, and during World War Two, Japan had the best equipped air force in the world. Japan’s zaibatsu capitalists were responsible for igniting militarism and nationalism and holding back democracy to make money (Chaurasia, 2003). According to historian Ian Buruma in his book: Starting in the late 19th century “an official attempt was made to bring all Japanese under one spiritual roof. The nation was taught to follow the imperial cult, called State Shinto: the belief that Japanese Emperor is divine, that the Japanese are descended from their ancient gods, and that any order from a superior—in the government, in the army, at school—must be obeyed without question.” As a result, says Buruma, State Shinto made the Japanese state to become a cult that reached its most severe from at the beginning of the Second World War, and did not die until the end of the war (Hays, 2009). Militarism was the order of the day; the militant leaders rode white horses, and wore impressive uniforms in their religious ceremonies whereby they communicated with the Sun Goddess wearing robes of a Shinto priest. In classrooms, there were shrines with pictures of the Emperor while teachers lectured about the divine origin of the Emperor in the context of it being a historical fact. Imprisonment was common to anyone who opposed “state Shinto” by secret police. As written by Buruma in Inventing Japan: 1853-1964, “When governments rule without popular representation or even consent, one form of rebellion is to be more nationalist that the rulers. If the rulers are traitors to the nation, they should be overthrown” (Hays, 2009). The growth of Mitsubishi Company over time has been represented in the chart below. The chart shows Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, a member of the Mitsubishi Group of Companies (BDTOnline, 2010). iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAbMAAALkCAIAAAAK7EwCAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAmlBJREFU eF7tvQm4FNW1960yeJiPh5nDFDgSiQNEkDC8ryIKn5L7qp9GI4k3MSbG3CjmMTfX3MSrvmpw TOKN8xQ0BkOi0U98E/STqEg+kCDHCUcCKkaiDCKzqBC/X7vItqyedldXd1d3/+upp5/qqrXX Xvu/q/619lB77bl81dt7aBMCQkAICIEAAnsJDSEgBISAEAghIGbULSEEhIAQCCMgZtQ9IQSE gBAQM+oeEAJCQAjkQ0A+Yz6EdF0ICIH6Q0DMWH91rhILASGQDwExYz6EdF0ICIH6Q0DMWH91
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    UNIVERSITY THE BALANCE OF POWER AND WWI NAME Department Course Course No. Date Balance of power The expression balance of power refers to the stability or uniformity that exits between competing powers. It expresses the intention to avert any one state from becoming adequately strong in a manner that will enable it to impose its interests upon the other nations. The assumption of a balance of Power is based on two key characteristics that have been established over time. Firstly, the main intention of nations is to ensure their own security based on the Balance of Power theory which is founded on political realism. Secondly, nations normally attain equilibrium as a result of the intention to achieve self-preservation. As such, nations will try to avoid the domination of one nation over the others by allying themselves with other nations with the expectation of creating equilibrium. The creation of equilibrium between nations is necessary for international law as well as good international relations to exist. This creates the capability of the nations to keep each other in check. A balance of power is important since in its absence, there shall be nothing that could turn away any nation that is adequately dominant and powerful from paying no attention to the law and acting exclusively to its interests and convenience. Francesco Sforza, who was the Duke of Milan, was the earliest ruler to aggressively pursue a balance of power policy. The term achieved importance following the Treaty of Utrecht that was made in 1713, since it was mentioned in the treaty. The balance of power principle was devised as an essential theory of diplomacy soon after in the 17th century. The expression was later used to refer to the power relationships that existed among European nations since the winding up of the Napoleonic Wars up to the First World War Balance of power and the First World War The balance of Power between nations was one of the largest contributing factors to the outbreak of WWI. The First World War was a military conflict that took place in Europe involving the great powers of the time that were grouped in to two differing alliances1
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    Running head: HYBRID CARS Hybrid Cars Name: Institution Date: Introduction Hybrid cars derive their name from their ability to use two or more diverse sources of power for mobility. This term loosely refers to those cars that are efficient in fuel consumption containing two motors that are driven by gasoline and electric powers. The gasoline derived power necessitates the presence of an internal combustion engine (ICE) although it is smaller than the ones found in the conventional vehicles. The electric motor complements the ICE when high amounts of energy are required although this is not the best kind of association that many manufacturers would want. However, these Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are fast gaining popularity and preference among the leading automobile makers despite their inherent problems. The technology behind the vehicles has been on revolution for sometime although being overshadowed by ICE vehicles that have been on the threshold of excellence for a long time (Dunn, 2006). In many other types of machinery that use high propulsion force for mobility, the hybrid source of power has not been in use due to incompatibility problems that arise between the phases of the energy sources. It is a basic principle within the science arena that the more complex a system is, the harder it is to keep it together running. That is the reason why innovations are being done to reduce size and technology that drives any particular system. The good thing with the hybrid system in hybrid system of automobile is that complementation happens and leads to efficiency. Any technology that is promising in terms of efficiency and promises on continuity has always been adopted for usage by man and to some large extend, HEVs are very promising with many avenues of exploitation. Going by the history of the automobile industry, both the conventional and HEV vehicles are products of technology that is dictated by time and natural resources (Granovskii, Dincer and Rosen, 2006). The current HEVs are a culmination of technology and revolution that transverses through several centuries that started in the 18th century. However, the most notable hybrid car that fully utilized an electric power and gasoline was made in Belgium in 1900. The inventor was Pieper and used an electric motor that was tucked under the seats to supplement ICE and give an out put of 3.5 horse power. The electric motor found its use when the car was experiencing some difficulties like going uphill where a lot of energy is required. It used to switch itself automatically and provide the extra energy and when the stressing phase of the journey was over, it would go off. It is rumored that the patent rights of the car were sold in America in 1905 but there are no records of constructed HEV in US at that time (Urry, 2004). The search for the perfect HEV continued and a gas engine that used four cylinders was made in 1910 by Commercial Built Trucks Company. These cylinders pumped or passed their power to a generator and successfully eliminated the need for batteries. Much is not known about what led to the demise of this vibrant company which stopped manufacturing automobiles in 1918. The euphoria subsidized for a long period till around 1969 when a car by the name of General Motors 512 was invented to run using interactive phases of both ICE and electric power. When the car was moving at slow speeds generally below 10 MPH, it utilized electric power with no complementation. Between 10 and 13 MPH the electric power was supplemented with gas combustion. Any speed over this, the car would switch automatically to ICE and stop the electric motors (Urry, 2004).
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    Running head: INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS Information Systems and Software Applications Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: Companies are increasingly using information systems and software applications to ensure streamlines business processes and maximum efficiency of every organizational department. Currently, there are numerous different applications that ensure success in financial management. This paper seeks to focus on three principal organizational departments: accounting, human resource and marketing. Various applications and systems have been provided, and a brief discussion of how the applications relate to the organizational departments has also been provided. Information technology has ushered the accounting department into a new platform in the administration of organizations. Accounting software applications are diverse, and are generally divided into three categories. The first category entails industry-specific applications which range from automated tellers to applications for construction projects. The second category involves the management style of the organization, and they include modeling, budgeting and financial reporting. The third category takes care of general accounting functions. These applications are flexible enough to be used by any business and do not need modification (Stair et al, 2009). While a small business would require just a general ledger module, large corporations would need a number of modules such as accounts receivable module, accounts payable module, fixed asset management module, inventory control module and the payroll software module. The accounts payable module involves more than writing checks; it helps drive down costs, increase productivity, improve cash management and improve vendor relations. The applications drive down costs when for example, the information obtained from reports is used to show how much the company is buying hence negotiations with vendors for better payment terms can be made. Human resources applications maintain the facilities required to manage, schedule, pretest, hire, train and promote employees. Currently, software applications are available to automate every sort of routine human resources activity. The recruitment process, for instance, is largely supported by information systems in various ways such as online C.V. databases, applicant management systems, information systems supported workflows, and different forms of electronic applications. Other functions include applicant data administration, benefits administration, and payroll and personnel development planning (Stair et al, 2009). So as to make effective marketing decisions in any organization, the accessibility and use of accurate and well-timed information are critical. One of the general ways of obtaining a wealth of marketing information is through a marketing information system. This system stores and processes data from various sources fed into the system. For instance, data from internal sources such as sales figures, inventory levels, and product and marketing costs as well as data from external sources which relates to the organization’s competitors’ marketing activities, suppliers and customers. The output of the marketing information system is a flow of information in a means that is most effective in making marketing decisions. Marketing software applications encompasses modules such as sales order management; credit checking configuration, forecasting and order management; billing and rebate processing. The marketing and sales process is now effectively manageable by making use of these applications (Stair et al, 2009). The benefits of information systems and software applications in departmental organizations are many. In accounting, they forecast business activity determine the best use of funds hence increasing productivity and driving down costs. Human resource managers use them in screening applicants, hire and monitor employee productivity. Marketing uses information systems and software applications product analysis, place or site analysis, and price analysis. Other departments such as finance and management have invested heavily as well in information systems and software applications. Success in global business today demands the best use of information technology for strategic purposes. Organizations that have learnt this secret will continue leading as technology advances.
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    Insert name: Tutor: Course: Date: Speyer Cathedral The Speyer Cathedral, commonly known as the imperial Cathedral of Speyer, is considered one of the finest Romanesque Cathedrals in Europe and indeed one of the largest and most significant Romanesque edifices in Germany (speyer.de, par. 4). The Cathedral is dedicated to St. Mary, patron saint of Speyer and St. Stephen, and has a spectacular foundation; in the form of a Latin cross. Located in Germany’s city of Speyer, the magnificent cathedral is also a famous landmark because it can be viewed from many miles away. It is a leading architectural monument in the world, being the first known structure to be built with a gallery which goes around the whole building. Architectures globally have made case studies of the system of arcatures added in the numerous renovations made throughout the Cathedral’s history, which are revolutionary in the history of architecture. The Cathedral’s total length (from the steps at the entry to the outer wall of the east apse) is 134 m, with a nave 37.62 meters wide and 33 meters high. The eastern spires are 71.20 m high while the western spires are 65.60 meters high (speyer.de, par. 13). Speyer Cathedral has a fundamental history to Germany, having been built by the emperors and chosen as their last burial place as a mark of their power. Construction of Speyer cathedral in the German Rhineland began in 1030, after the commissioning of Conrad II. Conrad II intended the Cathedral to be the Christian Western world’s largest church as well as his last resting place, although he died in 1039, when the Cathedral was still under construction. The foundation was made above the site of an earlier basilica which stood a grand plateau at the side of the Rhine (Jeep, p.727). iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAPoAAACmCAIAAAB8wgXmAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAA/8pJREFU eF50/WmwbFty34fVPA+nznzuPXe+981jD2iggQa6ATYIkAAiGOAgUiAghhQMf5AcZoT9UR/t D4qwJTEUQcmkbTHCNG1LJiSRQYAEARAECQIP3ejpjXeezjzUqXmu8u+fufeufe97qj59Xt06 VbvWXitXrsx//jMz+f/5L341mUym/JHgaTKRSCwWi1Ta/mH/9Ad/1zsXy3/yAX+R9/M+fz/P /cH7+Od8PvXr+29/UV8xnfkXzedzXk+n0/zm+Wg04nn0vf6R2Wy2SOj9/hXRIPXx6Yz38Aa/ jn3jPPzqeTQM/5MuNZ34l0b35aNNzhKZTMY/6BfkoW9K6dt9qP4Kw+Pjs6kubvcZfB23rluY BQOI7s6nzj8bDSP69ukimJDopvyDCd1QcGUu4Dei6yc1ny8Nnr9mGGg4P9Ek6xuzmfiKRB+c T3SdaDKjz04SCb43mrfoDUkbp6+vv8HfM19ElwlGFf5J4/H3+MOfzxa6qejj/qKuae+J35p/ Kp3ORR+P38g4Nm/R6zwZjSaaOM0dMilBWqQ0MB9z+q/9+bciWZRERA+X/Rcf+vpk8C6/heg2 4hPn4w52UEJCEL9McBv292iWXZgYk8v9S++3WYjNa0xueCsfCacm2Cdx0eFP0QVtXpZLFf8i Xze/TvS6aQDNVDTjfl9aJFtHZD02VPtsMhhM9BF/4h+MviKSA1btpWUO/rSY6UsCcQn+q48j dzGx8Avq4uE4/Ouib2fVI9mK/ymbzsTvdzlFsUHGhS+dWq5LfH2jb45f3MbyBTerD9pAI5GL 5ISXIhHyJ+F0vbSLwluLvT8+1ZkM4pBZqm5kfs5UShVK3P+DX3g7urp/YTiU5TpGc8F1sxld K3wlWEhbZj0kAeGGjt4TE4ilWmJULljR1XwSUbHREvIkUjNxcX9hP8TWPj7OlwQ0JmdLcY9u Vn+NiXs0YNuQkpbo1pZLYmLqowoXxt+ZjsQrfp3ouU/RUu0h7yby+m0//NlE2ndmJLhsORci tJUmmh+eSCnxJFRN0fxHCs+XxN8TvN++znVENL3L+0ql2VJ2fe2t6CcSUF81v2tdxNRWNL2+ iPbXF7Z9tBmW+zIuFrzf1Fx8z4SXkgqLRCK6fjCI2MbWn2xstijhEBkaryFXbNdEUuK+VGax sbBD4mIXDcXFnfs0k2OpCGXl2HJJJXG+2wKyGizZS+IejD6VZM+xmgyMGYqeMywXL/9GXzaN
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    Name:xxxxxxxxxxx Institution:xxxxxxxxxxxx Title:US AND UK FOREIGN POLICY Tutor: xxxxxxxxxxx Course : xxxxxxxxxxxx Introduction and Research Question Despite the growing interest in the 21st century of Muammar al-Qaddafi’s domination over Libya, there exists limited literature that focuses on the foreign policies of the US and the UK towards Libya, the two principal nations that have directly impacted the running of Libya since the Qaddafi coup in 1969. Majority of experts in international relations have analyzed the impact of Qaddafi’s rule in Libya, while others such as Bruce St. John (2002) and El-Kikhia (1998) have focused on the ironical effect of the foreign policies of confrontation from the US as well as the UK, which have facilitated Qaddafi’s continued power over Libya. Using a foreign relations view from America as a hegemonic power, while carefully considering the foreign relations view from Libya as one of the richest nations in Africa, despite al-Qaddafi’s dictatorship, I examine the reaction of the US and UK government officials in the early period of Qadaffi’s coup 1969and compare that to the more recent pro-western period 2004-2009. Specifically, the project will address the following research question: How has US and UK foreign policy towards Libya been affected by Qadaffi’s rise to power since 1969? This research question will be explored in the following ways; firstly, the project will examine the trade/economic relations between the US, UK and Libya. For example, the amounts of investments in Libya after the UN sanctions were lifted at the turn of the century, in relations to when the sanctioned were imposed. Secondly, the project will also look at the political relations over foreign policy. Such relations include the support of terrorism by al-Qaddafi in the period following the 1969 coup, his weapons of mass destruction program, and the change in co-operation between the western world and his nation. In the 1950s, the US and the UK signed an agreement under which the US and the UK obtained military base rights, in return for economic aid to Libya, considered a strategically valuable installation. The destruction of these bases soon after Qadaffi took power is a significant demonstration of the negative trend of western political relations with the rise of Qaddafi (St. John 2002 p. 68). Thirdly, a comparison will be made in the investment carried out in Libya in the last 10 years with that done during Qadaffi first 10 years in charge. The recent pro-western views portrayed by Qaddafi have resulted to UK companies have been invited over to bid for Libya contracts. In addition to archival information, press releases and secondary sources, interviews will be carried out focusing on the research question. Libya’s economy is of massive significance in analyzing al-Qaddafi’s rule in the nation; hence interviews will concentrate on business interests. The arguments raised in the interviews will be of invaluable use to the research projects, and it will be established if they are supporting the existing arguments or the interviewees are raising new arguments. Justification (Why have I chosen the UK and the US) The UK and the US are arguably the most influential nations in the policies of Libya; a fact that can be effortlessly confirmed by the recent controversial debates following the freeing of Abdel Baset Ali al-Megrahi, the man convicted of planting bombs that blew up Pan Am 103 over the Scottish town of Lockerbie in December, 1988, killing 270 people. The release of Ali al-Megrahi, as written by Bolton (2009) in “Was the Lockerbie release bad diplomacy, or good business?” posted in Telegraph, was a highly controversial move that directly affected both the UK and the US, who together with Libya, had agreed upon the trial of Ali al-Megrahi. According to Bolton “Secretary of State Hillary Clinton worked “for weeks and months” to persuade Britain not to release the murderer. Both Washington and London all but begged Gaddafi not to hold public celebrations on Megrahi’s arrival in Tripoli. Yet Britain, the other half of the “special relationship”, ignored Clinton's efforts, as did Libya, which only recently resumed full diplomatic relations with America”(Bolton 2009 par. 4).
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    Running head: HUMAN POPULATION/BIOMES AND BIODIVERSITY Human Population/Biomes and Biodiversity Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: Write 150 words on human population, why does it appear that the human population does not follow the logistic growth curve that most other populations or organisms follow? Please give your opinion what is the best way to deal with human population growth. Please cite one source. Human population does not follow the logistic growth curve that most other populations or organisms follow because the growth in humans is unrestricted, also known as exponential growth, while that of other populations is restricted, or logistic. Naturally, populations are expected to follow a logistic growth pattern, which involves an initial period of exponential growth followed by limits such as food supply and space. As a result of these limits, the population enters a slow growth phase, which eventually stabilizes in an illustration referred to as the logistic growth curve. The human population, however, has been growing exponentially, that is, without limitations affecting other populations. This is because new technologies for farming and hunting have favored the human species (Farabee, 2007). In my opinion, the best way to deal with human population growth is to ensure that people around the world can gain access to family planning services and reforming tax laws to encourage couples to have two children. Write 150 words on the following: Extinction is a natural selection process. Should humans strive to preserve a representative sample of all biomes or aquatic zones? Why should humans be concerned with the extinction rate? Provide two references to support your position Environmental changes have been associated with the decline and the ultimate extinction of species. Such changes include fluctuations in food sources and climate variations. Humans, however, are currently the major extinction contributors. They are responsible for the loss of a fifth of the world’s agricultural land and a quarter of its topsoil. Other human effects include the profound altering of the composition of the atmosphere and the destruction of forests and other natural habitats without replacement, resulting to high extinction levels never witnessed before. Hence, so as to save the ecosystem from extinction, we should strive to preserve small representative samples of all biomes or aquatic zones (Chiras, 2009). Humans should be concerned with the extinction rate today because although extinction has occurred since the world begun, modern extinctions are occurring at an alarming rate, faster than is biologically sustainable According to conservation biologists, human activities such as habitat loss and global warming will have an effective increase in the extinction rate by 10-100 times in this century (Miller et al, 2008).
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    Running head: IS GLOBAL WARMING CAUSED BY HUMAN OR NATURAL FACTORS? Is Global Warming Caused By Human Or Natural Factors? Name of the Institution Course Tutor Date Is Global Warming Caused By Human Activities or Natural Factors? Global warming is the gradual rise in the average temperature near the earth surface causing thawing of polar and mountains glaciers. The process causes a rise in the sea level among other effects. Global warming is a topic that has caused controversy from different quarters but mainly with respect to scientific, political and economical point of views. The dispute does not centre on the temperature increase but revolves around the causes of this increase; whether it is natural, human or the combination of the two causes (DiPuccio, 2009). Theories have been advanced in attempts to explain the causes of the global warming. Such theories include the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory. This theory was advanced by the IPPC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), a United Nations Policy maker. The AGW theory on the human-induced climate change has been the subject of the controversy. Despite the controversy the major scientific bodies that includes the Royal Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Joint Science Academies, American Meteorological Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and American Geophysical Union agreed that for the last fifty years the increase in the global temperatures can be largely attributed to the human activities that results to the increase in the greenhouse gas concentration. Nevertheless a portion of scientists disagree with this view. This essay attempts to looks at both sides of the arguments in attempts to determine the real cause of the global warming. Despite all the evidences of the global warming, irrespective of the causes, there are scholars who are yet to accept the existence of the problem in the world. Such people are the one referred as the global warming skeptics. They are in total disagreement with the IPCC reports that prove the existence of the global warming and portray global warming as serious environmental problem that needs immediate address. These skeptics argue that there is no conclusive evidence that can be linked to the global warming. Secondly they state that the change in temperatures experienced is a part of the natural cycle. The are of the opinion that the information on the global warming are based on a computer model which fails to include highly correlated data like global changes in temperature as well as the sun spots. Nevertheless there are two major arguments as pertaining to the causes of the global warming; those that state that global warming is caused by human activities and those of the opinion that the process is attributable to the natural causes.
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    Name Course Tutor Date Introduction Gulf Arabic comprises the various dialects of Arabic language that are spoken by people of the Arab origin who live along the shores of the Persian Gulf in the state of Kuwait, the kingdom of Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the state of Qatar, southern parts of Iraq and parts of sultanate of Oman (Gulf Arabic par. 1). The main characteristics of this language are that it is a colloquial language that is spoken and not written, secondly the Gulf Arabic language has many loanwords mainly borrowed from Persia. The Arabic language that is used in the press and by the government is called the modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and is a formal language in all Arab nations. This implies that the daily communications among the Arabs is the Gulf Arabic while the Modern Standard Arabic is the official language used in schools and by the government. In Kuwait the local dialect of the Gulf Arabic also referred to as the Khaliji al-lahjat al-khalijiya Arabic or simply the Kuwaiti Hadari Arabic. Genetic Language Family Classifications A language family is a set of languages that are derived from a common ancestry. Such languages have significant common features in morphology, lexicology, phonology and syntax due to their common ancestry (Thom 12). Any language can be regarded as a cultural artifact because languages just like culture are unique from one region to another and can be learned irrespective of the genetic background of the learner. This implies that a specific language is learnt by a child due to his/her immediate society and culture but is independent on the child’s genetics. The ability to compare different languages arises from the fact that a language is a fairly finite and has some stable entities; the words and the grammatical syntaxes are systematically organized and therefore can be compared directly unlike culture where every entity is distinct is any given society (Thom 50). The words and the grammatical syntaxes form the basis for the evaluation of the relationship of one language to another. The modern genetic classifications of language show the morphemes inventories that have been borrowed from other related languages or other languages which are outside their immediate taxonomical unit. A good example of this observation is the English language which is classified as a Germanic Language but on the other hand its morphine inventory originates from the Greek and the Italic. The process of studying the interrelationship of languages genetically leads the linguists into the studying the generation transmission of the language structures. For instance English emerged from the linguistic traditions of mainly the Germans and the Dutch. On the other hand classification of languages as belonging to a common taxonomical group may imply that some morpho-syntactic features have been passed on from the mother language to the daughter language. Languages within a common taxonomical units are either mixed or a hybrid of one another (Noonan par. 317). The hybrid language is a collection of entities like the grammatical structures and morphemes with different sources. To some languages the extent of the hybridism is such high that the language is assigned a higher taxonomical level. This gives rise to true mixed languages but without any specifically defined genetic line as a result of heavy borrowing from different languages. The geographical location of the area where a specific language is used is a significant in determining the grammatical structure expected of such a language. However classifications of languages by regions do not exist to the extent that can be comparable with the genetic classifications. These genetic classifications are the sources of theories which explaining the evolvement of the languages. The genetic classifications are used by the typologists in comparisons of languages and also for making cross-linguistic samples. The genetic language classification uses a biological structure to study the lineage of languages just as if it were a living organism. In linguistics two languages are classified as genetically related if they their descent can be traced from one ancestor. However since all languages originated from possibly the same ancestor then the relatedness of any language is established via a comparative method that relates the syntaxes and the words. The components of the comparative models include terms like mother or ancestor language, daughter language, language birth and language death. The various models used for the comparison, includes the family tree model, the unitary organism model and the population model. According to Greenberg (121) the models defines that:- By unitary organism analogy languages are unitary systems. By parthenogenesis analogy two languages are genetically related if their ancestry is common. By parthenogenesis analogy new languages are created by splitting off from an existing language. By Parthenogenesis analogy linguistic splits are final and produce independent linguistic systems. By unitary organism analogy no linguistic feature or set of features is required for genetic relationships to exist between two languages.
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    Running head: CIVIL WAR IN TEXAS Civil War in Texas Insert Name Institution Date: The state of Texas affirmed its plan to secede from the rest of the American states on February 1, 1861. It then joined the previously formed Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861. The Texas Ordinance of Secession outlined the reasons as to why the state was seceding such as the failure by the federal government to avert the increasing Indian assaults and intensified slave-stealing raids. It also blamed the Northern politicians as well as abolitionists of a range of offences upon Texans (Bell, 2005). The state supported slavery as well as white supremacy which the northern states were opposed to. In addition, most Texans believed the voting of the republican Abraham Lincoln as the president in the presidential elections of November 1860 as a risk to slavery (Wooster, 1999). This was because Abraham Lincoln was against the further expansion of slavery in to the northern states that did not have slavery but it should stay in the states that it only existed. The Texans urged their Governor Sam Houston to declare a convention in which the people would determine the route of action that the state needed to take. Houston, who was a supporter of the Union, paid little attention to these wishes and failed to initiate any action that could have led to secession. Secessionist leaders such as John S. Ford, William P. Rogers, and George M. Flournoy called for the appointment of delegates to attend a Secession conference in early January of 1861 (Wooster, 1999).
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    RUNNING HEAD:FBI MANAGEMENT CONTROLLING MEASURES Title: FBI Management Controlling Measures Name: Address: Institution: Course Title: Tutor: Date: Abstract
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    Annotated Bibliography of the Irish Potato Famine Name: Course title Tutor’s name: Date: Boyce, David George and O'Day, Alan. The Making of Modern Irish History: Revisionism and the Revisionist controversy. London: Rutledge, 1996. David George Boyce is Research Professor, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Wales, while Alan O'Day is Professor in History at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, and also is Senior Lecturer in History at the University of North London. This book offers a review and analysis of the major works published on the Irish famine and related events that took place in modern Ireland. By presenting the Great famine in light of the enormous controversy in Ireland; the revisionist controversy, authors David George Boyce and Alan O’Day discuss the Famine and its impacts to policies and ideas adopted ever since the end of the event. Boyce and O’Day’s book compares the Great Famine to present day problems found in Ireland. The book also concentrates on the magnitude of the Great Famine and events surrounding it, as well as the long-term economic impact caused by the event. The authors have adequately explored the government responsibilities at the time of the Famine, contending that responsibility for the immediate as well as the long-term causes of the event rested in the political as opposed to the economic sphere. The unjust treatment of the Irish by England and the failure on the part of the British government to close the ports, for example, are critical issues that Boyce and O’Day have analyzed in the book. The authors have also various works of historiography related to the Famine emigration. In addition, they have thoroughly reviewed works by authoritative figures in the Irish Famine, published works of for example Woodham-Smith Margaret Crawford, J. C. Beckett, and Dudley Edwards. The book has also analyzed British Policies during the Irish Famine, evaluating issues such as the Union of Ireland and Britain. Some of the ideas discussed revolve around the Act of Union in 1800 and the impact of the Act of Union on the Irish people. The Act of Union was disastrous to the Irish people, considering that throughout the Famine, up to 1921, all major decisions on Irish policies were made by the parliament in London and the British cabinet, with insignificant Irish influence. The British government is condemned for not adequately assisting the Irish during the Irish Famine. One of the causes of this, according to Boyce and O’Day, was that the Union was a source of oppression to the Anglo-Protestant ascendancy, which consisted of about 15 percent of the Irish Population. Another reason for the British’ failure was by abolishing the Irish government. Boyce and O’Day provide the impact of the famine crisis on research and historical thinking, a complex exercise that facilitates the understanding of modern Irish modern History. Most importantly, the textbook examines the historiography of the Irish Famine in reference to other events that took place in Ireland in the 18th century. By offering an interpretation on the strengths and weaknesses of revisionist ideas in the Great Famine and the events that took place after the Famine, Boyce and O’Day provide a valuable guide to understanding the situations in Ireland before and after the Famine. Revisionism has been a critical issue in Irish history, as various partisan accounts of the Irish past have been rewritten by journalists and historians of different political backgrounds. The book features eminent historians of Ireland, as they tackle key issues in Irish history before and after the Famine. The Great Famine has been discussed and events that followed, such as the 1916 Easter rising, the violent rebellion against the English. The book is a valuable guide to the Irish history because it presents the Famine in light of the events that happened before and after. Kinealy, Christine. A Death-Dealing Famine: The Great Hunger in Ireland. London: Pluto Press, 1997. Christine Kinealy, BA (Essex) PhD (TCD), is Professor of History at the University of Central Lancashire and an authority in Irish History. She lectures in modern Irish history, and has lectured widely in Ireland and America. Professor Kinealy has numerous publications among which have been nominated for the Irish Times Literary Award and to mention a few: This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine 1845-52 (Dublin, 1994), The famine in Ulster: the regional impact (Belfast 1997); the great hunger in Ireland (London 1997) and ‘The Poor Law during the Great Famine: an administration in crisis’ in Margaret E. Crawford (ed) Famine: the Irish experience. In A Death-Dealing Famine: the Great Hunger in Ireland, Christine Kenealy provides a thoughtful reflection of the key factors that were instrumental in fostering the policies made before and after the Irish Famine. Professor Kenealy writes about the various ideological struggles and debates that have led to the relative deficiency of academic research regarding the Irish famine, despite the event being central to the legacy of modern Ireland. The author refers to a variety of revisionist interpretations of the Famine, and their impact in understanding the scale of the catastrophe. The author has also featured a diverse choice of renowned writers such as Cecil Woodham-Smith and their views concerning the Irish Famine in relation to the British government, and how the government mishandled their responsibility to Ireland. Policies such as the Irish Poor Law had limitations in providing relief, propelled by the inefficiency of the government and a Laissiez-faire attitude. The relationship of Ireland to England before the Irish Famine had a vital impact at the time of the Famine. For instance, the rapid industrialization in many parts of Britain after 1800 compared to the deindustrialization that was taking place in much of Ireland, caused by the concentration of factory production only in the Belfast region, are important factors that had adverse effects to the economy of Ireland. Kenealy illustrates such policies and practices of relief, in Chapters 2 and 3, as the potato blight led to crop failures not experienced in famines before. The contributions of charitable persons as well as organizations to relief during the Famine are provided in detail. Most importantly, Kinealy discusses the philosophy behind the organizations and how they were pressured and influenced by the British government. An account of the government response to the famine is also provided, and the significance of the food shortages in highlighting the role of the state in welfare provision.
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    Running head: HEALTH CARE INSURANCE PLAN IN UNITED STATES Health care insurance plans in United States Name Tutor Course Date The Development of Health Care Insurance Plans in the United States The development of health care in the United States covers both the private and the public sector. The cost of health care in United States has sky rocketed forcing the health care insurance to go up. For instance in the preceding eight years the health insurance premiums are twice higher while the wages have remained constant. This has threatened the access to health care among most Americans necessitating reforms in this sector that provides the health insurance funds such that the insurance cover is affordable to all Americans. The insurance plans currently available covers only a portion of workers like doctors thereby exposing their families to financial liabilities. This causes widespread bankruptcies, for instance nearly half of all personal bankruptcies in Unites States have been originated from medical bills. Statistics indicate that almost forty five million Americans, among them, eight million children are uninsured because of the soaring cost of health cover. Those lucky enough to have some sort of insurance cover struggle a lot to offset the high medical costs through paying of premiums. The high cost of health insurance in the United States is making it inaccessible for imminent business establishments to provide a comprehensive health insurance cover to the employees. Even as the health costs continue to spiral up, some diseases continue to become more widespread for instance cancer. A great number of the Americans do net get the preventive services and immunizations of diseases like pneumonia, flu or cancer. Other conditions like obesity are epidemic in the United States, currently there also new threats of bioterrorism and prevalent pneumonia. In spite of all these health conditions, no more than four percent of the health care budget allocations are spent on the preventive measures and public health. In fact the health care system of the United States now has become a disease care system and the time for change is already tardy (Thorpe, 2004).
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    Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Marketing Plan for the Silent Pencil Sharpener Introduction Necessity it is said is the mother of invention. After holding some talk with teachers of elementary school teachers, it becomes quite obvious that the environment in which they operate is rather noisy. Among the culprits for causing this noise are pencil sharpeners that go whirring from time to time. One way to help alleviate this situation is by producing a silent pencil sharpener that will not cause so much commotion, sometimes disrupting lessons and exams. This concept of a silent pencil sharpener is motivated by the new movement towards green, in which noise is classified as pollution. Moreover, there is the new concept of green marketing that has become quite popular as well.1 Phillip Kotler. Principles of Marketing. New York: Prentice Hall. 1998. p 112. This advocates for marketing of environmentally friendly products. With all this in mind, the silent pencil idea is a modern and timely method that may enable all those who are interested to join hands in reducing the din in the classroom. This paper sets out to describe just how this noble venture of propelling the new product into the market shall be carried out. In addition, it points out just the kind of problems that the venture may encounter considering that we are dealing with some very tough customers here. Among them are toddlers who may have just grown used or even addicted to the whirring sounds, parents who have other costs like breakages caused to pay for, and teachers who have seen all sorts of innovative and revolutionary new merchandize come and go without bringing much of a change to their professional lives. Marketing Research To help understand the extent of need and the market available for the new product, it was necessary carry out market research. This refers to a structured survey that enables a marketer to establish how people would respond to a new product.2 Phillip Kotler. Principles of Marketing. New York: Prentice Hall. 1998. p 16. The targets of this research were mainly teachers from elementary schools since they are the ones in a central decision making position on matters of education. 3 Rasoul Nejadmehr. Education, Science and Truth. New Jersey: Routledge. 2009. p 3. Since there was no guarantee that the busy teachers would not toss a pesky questionnaire into the bin and forget all about it, it was important to ensure that a method was used that achieved some kind of response. In such situations it is better to employ face-to-face interviews4 Babbie, Earl R. Survey Research Methods. New York: Wordsworth. 1990. p 20 . This approach ensures that the interviewer not only gets maximum information but it is also easy gauge the emotions of the respondents on the issues surveyed. The method chosen, it was now time to prepare the questions to be asked so as to guide the interviews. The questions formulated were centered on whether there was a need to have a silent sharpener; the extent of the problem posed by a noisy sharpener during lessons and exams; how regularly sharpeners were needed in the class-room; and whether or not the teacher was wiling to try out the new sharpener. All these questions were structured with simple responses such as yes/no answers and responses of scale. An example of responses was as follows: How often do pupils need to use sharpeners in class? never, rarely, frequently, always. Yes/No answers are easier to interpret and represent quantitatively where percentages need to be worked out. Using responses of scale also limit the range of responses for easier classification when posting results5 Babbie, Earl R. Survey Research Methods. New York: Wordsworth. 1990. p 26 .
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    Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Mechanical Engineering Career Introduction People choose different careers based on different circumstances that are delineated by personal preferences and academic qualifications. My career aspiration is to be a mechanical engineer because engineering has many connotations in life. Mechanical engineering is a career that is scientific in nature and its mode of application is based on physics and chemistry. There are core principles that are imperative for one to posses like kinematics, kinesiology, thermodynamics which inadvertently find their use in this career (Career par 1). The field of engineering is one of the oldest in the history of man which has seen changes and diversification that has culminated into distinct engineering fields. All these fields find their use in the complex and fast evolving world that depends on technology for innovations. Mechanical engineering field is one of the entities of engineering that has evolved and today it is a main driving force of globalization (Norman; interview). Reasons for Choosing This Career There is an intricate interplay of reasons that interact for someone to end up in a particular career and for me; the underlying factor is wide applicability of mechanical engineering. The availability of jobs in this field is limitless as jobs are everywhere because most of the gadgets that are in use today are designed in this field. With this kind of bright prospects, landing a job is easy as many firms that are engaged in manufacturing need engineers. The ambiguity that comes with good qualifications in engineering makes it possible for one to apply skills learned in many areas of expertise (Laffargue 8). The current global economic crisis has hit the job market hard but the vitality of mechanical engineers has shielded professionals in this field which is a real comfort. All the prospecting engineers find comfort in the security that comes with the job as the world can rarely survive without engineers (Career par. 3). Excellence in certain subjects predisposes one to particular careers which need good performance in the subjects as a prerequisite. I have always been a good performer in science subjects and mathematics which coincidentally I enjoy and therefore, the instinct to join engineering comes naturally. One good thing about engineering is that it is a dynamic career that keeps one engrossed through offering real time challenges in a world that requires innovations on a daily basis. The world population is increasing at an alarming rate especially in the developing world and this requires innovations that will be able to handle the inherent problems that come with it. It is these challenges that give this career an exciting edge over many other available careers that are sort of a daily routine where a schedule is fixed from January to January the next year (Norman; interview). I have a first hand experience of engineers in my family where my uncle and brother are engineers. My uncle has traveled and transverses the entire globe in his job as a mechanical engineer with an international firm. They are involved in designing and building bridges that are complex and able to withstand external stresses like adverse whether conditions. Conversely, my brother works as an engineer in a local medical facility where they design different apparatus for manufacturing and dispensing drugs. These two people have been my role models who have inspired me with their achievements and the impacts that they are making in people’s lives. Much of my good performance in sciences is through their encouragement and wise counsels that are geared towards bringing the best out of me. They also seem to be contended with life as their good pay packages seem to be taking care of their living expenses. The fast lane life which has become the hallmark of the 21st century necessitates regeneration and innovations that should be in tandem with passage of time. This thought then ties technology, engineering and way of life together as man seeks to advance his way of life. Technology is a tool that changes the dynamics of life to accommodate the good pleasantries that man searches for everyday. Conversely, technology and innovation are like synonyms and their applications are deeply entrenched in technology which employs them to advance itself. All other professional fields that man finds work in depend on engineering to come up with new technologies and equipments for use. This underscores the importance of engineering to man’s life because technology surrounds him in all aspects of life and globalization is aptly depended on it. When someone joins this noble profession, the economy is kept alive and vibrant as more innovations are made which drive the world economy (laffargue 4). Challenges in the Career Advancement in technology and interdependency among the countries of the world has led to close association and sharing of resources which has ushered in tremendous benefits economy wise. This in turn has led to globalization and some risks that are a constant threat to the engineering profession. These threats are actually as a result of imbalances that result when mechanical engineers tend to innovate. One such problem is population explosion which is proving somehow a problem to handle with the available technology. While the population is growing alarmingly, an imbalance in natural resources is quickly catching up. This means that some technologies cannot be applied in some areas due to these disparities for example a persistent problem is water shortage that is hitting major cities of the world. Those innovations that require a lot of water would therefore be applied discriminately because water scarcity and availability dictates how they would be applied and used (Norman; interview). The importance of mechanical engineering necessitates cooperation between engineers from different countries. Working together encompasses many aspects of engineering which may involve sharing of intelligence and resources or both. This working together in engineering is kicking in a new challenge where the final product in this field may be expensive because of many developmental stages. A case in example is in infrastructure projects of mechanical engineering where an original idea may be conceived by someone in a country different from where the project takes place. For completion of a project, several stages of development must be followed which may include design and manufacture. During the time of design, one or several countries may be involved with the resources definitely coming from diverse places. These stages present challenges to the practice of mechanical engineering which makes it to be complex. The increasing number of collaborative engineering projects is proving quite hard to carry out but there are no such things like insurmountable challenges in engineering (laffargue 7). Mechanical engineering is a very wide career which has many areas of specialization and a novel source of knowledge on the part of the engineers. The problems and challenges that arise everyday in this field force people to have basic skills that can be effective in solving different issues that emanate from the engineering profession. A pragmatic process is slowly taking place from the domestic engineering (within a country) to international associations that are complex and only add more challenges. This challenge comes in terms of the level of education that a mechanical engineer should have for practice in different countries. The high diversification in the field requires professionals to identify particular fields and major there so that they can be more useful to the profession. Working in different regions of the globe requires that engineers learn how to adapt to different cultures and working environments which sometimes present conflicts with ones way of life (laffargue 12). The wide scope of application in mechanical engineering predisposes the engineers to varying degrees of danger that may culminate in ill health. The design of these complex machineries is complicated and sometimes during testing things may go awry wrong resulting in bodily harm to the scientists. Conversely, the international duties or projects involve literally transversing the globe in order to complete an assignment. The world has varying climatic and whether conditions which affect these engineers differently. Many engineers are known to have died in line of duty due to strange illnesses that they contracted when working in foreign countries. Political instabilities in many developing countries hamper the work of engineers in such countries due to wars that are endemic and ironically, these nations need these engineers the most (Norman; interview). Achieving Career Goal Achieving a goal of entering and achieving success in mechanical engineering profession requires dedication and a lot of investment. There are those things that should be my concern like putting in place a modality on how to go about it because those things that are not put down may experience difficulties in implementing them. The first step is affirming that this career is what I want to do because once a person settles on a choice, changing later is hard due to the investments that are involved in developing a career. After establishing this is your final choice then the next logical step is to consult with specialists in this field. This is a thing that I have been doing periodically since my brother and uncle are engineers and have been quite helpful in guiding me so far. Planning here involves considering both short and long term goals that may define engineering (Jacowski par. 1). Success in anything in the world requires dedication and a having a positive mentality that all challenges are surmountable despite the prevailing circumstances. Mechanical engineering being in the scientific discipline, presents bigger problems than other arts based careers. Assertion of supremacy in the field can be identified early in life during high school days through good performance in sciences and mathematics. This is a feat that I have achieved and adds weight to my plans to join the engineering field. On top, staying focused is instrumental in achieving career goals because many held dreams are lost midway as one tries to balances issues in life. An intricate balance should be struck between developing a career and family that sometimes can be demanding. Both are important in one’s life and cannot be dismissed at face value though they tend to take different phases of life unless one is furthering education or marries early (Norman; interview). Tenacity is a trait that is highly pronounced among high achievers because a small difference exists between winners and losers. These two categories of people face the same types of challenges but the winners are persistent and do not give up easily which is seen in their tenacious approach to issues of life. An important aspect of tenacity is hard work which requires a large input into ones study and concentrating on those things that help push you towards your career goals. While being tenacious is vital for success, it is also wise to recognize that success does not come over night. It is achieved in a continuum of time with the process of achieving the goals being fragmented into steps so that the process may be perceived to be easy. It is easy to concentrate on individual steps that make a process than tackling a process head on a large scale (Jacowski par. 5). Conclusion Mechanical engineering is my career of choice due to its important part that it plays in the life of man. The profession of mechanical engineering involves developing and designing tools and equipments that are used in other many professions. The wide scope of application of this field makes it an attractive career to many with me included in that bracket. In my family, there are two engineers that have been a source of constant inspiration and exacerbate further my dreams of joining this career. Every career has got it challenges and certainly mechanical engineering has its fair share which every professional must surmount for effective career. Some of them include high academic excellence which requires specialization, interdependency among countries and predisposition of engineers to likely hood of contracting diseases and bodily harm. Achieving the goals in this career require a lot of input from the prospective candidates. This input comes inform of hard work, being tenacious, balancing between family and career and being positive minded.
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    Running head: CIRCUMSTANCES AND RESPONSES TO THE LONDON BOMBINGS OF 2005. Circumstances and Responses to the London Bombings of 2005. Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: Memories of the worst terrorist attacks ever to hit British history, the July 7, 2005 London attacks, commonly referred to as the 7/7 attacks or ‘Britain’s 9/11’ will remain fresh in the minds of many people across the world. As reported by various Professors, (Harvey, 2005) the bombings impacted worldwide economy; having adverse economic consequences throughout Europe, Asia and the United States. This paper seeks to describe the circumstances and response to the London bombings of 2005. Also included is the comparison and contrast of the London bombings with the 1995 Oklahoma City bombings and the 1996 Olympics bombings. In addition, the handling of the event has been considered, in light of reports that there were errors in the response of the 7/7 attacks. On July 7, 2005, less than a day after London was celebrating its successful bid to host the 2012 Olympic games, 52 people lost their lives and more than 700 were injured in the commonly referred to as the 7/7 attacks, after four suicide bombers struck in Central London attacked the transport system. These were the deadliest attacks ever to hit London ever since World War II (CBC, 2006). Three bombs blew up towards the close of the morning rush hour on underground trains just outside Liverpool Street and Edgware Road stations, along with another one travelling between King's Cross and Russell Square. There was yet a final explosion about an hour later on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square, a near distance from King's Cross. The devastating attacks have been compared to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, because of the overwhelming impact of the attacks as well as the suicidal manner through which they were carried out (Guardian, 2005). However, much debate has been in the offing in light of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombings and the 1996 Olympics bombings, with many responses being diverted to the way the London bombings were handled. There have been reports from experts and acclaimed researchers since the attacks, detailing why the bombings could not have been prevented in the first place and how efficient the situation was handled. Others have found various departments inefficient on how they handled the attacks, presenting an interesting as well as informative view on terrorism. A look at the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing can provide a clear insight on the way the London bombings were handled. April 19, 1995 will be remembered for many years to come by the people of Oklahoma City as well as America as a day when the most destructive event of domestic terrorism rocked the nation until the September 11 attacks (Caruso, 1996). The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah federal building (Murrah building) shocked many people across the world. The north face of the building was reduced to rubble, killing 168 men, women and children (19 of who were in a second floor daycare center) and injuring more than 853 others, according to an analysis by the Oklahoma Department of Mental health and Substance Abuse Services (ojp.com, 2008). Various similarities can be found between the Oklahoma City bombings and the 2005 London attacks, although they (London) have been referred to as Britain’s 9/11. On the basis of timing, both of the attacks occurred on relatively related times, at the height of rush hour; the Oklahoma City attack struck at 9:02 a.m, Wednesday, April 19, 1995; the London bombings struck at 8:50 a.m and 9:47 am, Thursday, July 2005. This timing, compared to that of the 1996 Olympics bombing, 1:20 am, might indicate that the Oklahoma and London bombings were much more related, a fact that was revealed when Eric Robert Rudolph, the perpetrator of the attack, was identified(Linenthal, 2003). This was an important revelation, ruling out the possibility of Islamic extremists responsible for the Oklahoma and London attacks. The scale of the Olympics bombing, killing 2 persons and injuring 111 others can also be featured to contrast the massive fatalities recorded in the Oklahoma and London bombings. This should however not be a chief comparative viewpoint, considering the fact that the bombing occurred in an area populated with more than 100, 000, hence had the potential to cause large-scale damages (BBC, 1996). Another significant similarity is that both Oklahoma City and London attacks were a revelation that radical Islamist terrorists were capable of developing extensive support networks inside major cities. The Murrah building was located at the centre of the country, “The Heartland”, the last of possible locations for terrorists to venture. London, the largest city and capital of the United Kingdom, was also an unlikely location for terrorists to consider (ojp.com, 2008). A unique difference between the Oklahoma and the London attacks was the occurrence of the bombings; one police jurisdiction in Oklahoma City while in the case with the London bombings, three different police jurisdictions. This was a chief contribution to coordination-related problems, a major concern raised on the handling of the London attacks. This was demonstrated when for instance, the City of London Police, in charge of the Square Mile in the center of London, limited cell phone network access to specific users as a measure meant to reduce network traffic and get better first responder access. This strategy, however, had the unplanned consequence of bring to an end access for many responding agencies, such as the London Ambulance Service. Although no major damage resulted from the limitation, and the London Ambulance Service was able to use alternate means to communicate, this experience was an eye opener for the need for planning among agencies (Gardiner and Phillips, 2008). The London terrorism event is also a one of its kind given the nature of the attacks, the simultaneous way the bombs detonated, as opposed to Oklahoma City and Olympics bombings. The various bombs, in different attack sites, made the London bombing a unique experience not experienced in Oklahoma or in Atlanta, Georgia. Debates about how the London bombing incident was handled were on the rise after the attacks, with the departments involved being disparaged as well as commended. Given the responsibility, I would have handled the incident differently. There are various issues that occurred that call for attention. Firstly, the inefficiency of telecoms in the response to the bombings is one aspect that should have been prevented. According to a report published on September 2006 “Addressing lessons from the emergency response to the 7 July 2005 London bombings”, the emergency response to the London bombings was great, and there were unbelievable acts of heroism by the emergency services, voluntary organizations as well as members of the public. However the report also emphasized areas which could have been handled differently, especially how victims were supported (Publictechnology.net, 2006). Responding to terrorism is a considerable challenge in any environment, incident management and resolution may become a more complicated exercise in the transit environment. The exceptional challenges caused by the transit setting contribute to the enhanced density. Usually, transit agencies carry large numbers of people in a comparatively small, condensed space (Watts, 2005). Transit agencies, in many cases, also carry out their operations across public boundaries, calling for emergency response from several jurisdictions (Boyd and Sullivan, 1997). Considering the unique risks of high-voltage traction power, elevated structures in the rail setting, like in the case of the London attacks, there are multiple challenges involved. According to reports obtained from site visits and interviews with transit police officials, there is undue emphasis placed on day-to-day operations, provided with the believe that such routine skills can be put to practice when managing disasters. The transit personnel, hence, portray reluctance in embracing emergency planning, which to a large extent may be because of their comparative inexperience in managing extreme violence and acts of terrorism (Ronczkowski, 2006). In general, the response to the London bombings confirmed the strength of the emergency response arrangements in the UK, and the telecommunications equipment employed by the emergency services was competent. However, the older systems, according to the report “Errors cited in response to London bombings”, was not efficient. The report also called for better share information, and the need to provide realistic and emotional support to the bereaved and survivors (nytimes.com, 2006). Just like other victims of violent crime, terrorism victims need help in handling the predicament created by an attack, in obtaining a stable life, as well as dealing with the criminal justice process. Because of the unique coping abilities and support systems of each victim, there is a possibility to have varying needs. For this reason, I would put into play a process to help victims assess their specific needs as well as obtain suitable sources of help and support.
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    Running head: MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION Multicultural Education Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: In the wake of the horrific September 11, there have been concerns about the security in the United States, with security measures being revamped, particularly the screening of those who enter the country. This has negatively influenced foreign students seeking higher education in the United States, particularly Muslim youth. There are those who still believe that prejudice is still prevalent in the United States Institutions, while it is almost a decade since the terrible September events. This paper seeks to focus on the impact of my experience as a Muslim international student at Towson University in shaping my view of international education. Special attention is given to the courses done such as EDUC-203. Also provided is the impact of my coursework in understanding diversity issues in the United States. Strenuous screening procedures have been detrimental to many foreign students and scholars, especially in the Islamic world, where it is more complicated for students to obtain visas. In ensuring protection against terrorist threats, the American society has, amidst all their security responsibilities, welcomed international students to their various institutions of higher learning. Being a Muslim international student at Towson University is a great experience that has already taught me numerous themes about international education. There are various Muslim students here at Towson, and the presence of an active division of the Muslim Students' Association [MSA] completes my religious needs. One of the greatest aspects of Towson University is meeting and having conversations with other students. The students here are very understanding and very interested in our culture sharing about their diverse cultures too. I received a superb welcome from the hospitable administration. As an international student, I was also provided with a tour of the impressive facilities. Through interesting and intelligent enquiries made by the students I have met, I have learnt a lot about the diverse community here ate the University. We have also learnt a lot from each other, hence understanding and appreciating each other’s cultures and values. Academically, the institution is highly equipped with a broad number of choices and supreme facilities. The staff, for instance, is very kind and accommodative to international students, and ensures that we feel at home. The staff maintains communication with the students by associating freely and replying to email as soon as possible. The linguistically diverse population in the institution demands a system that ensures that the needs of the students are met. The lecturers are very supportive in all its departments, particularly with international students. One of the ways that the lecturers have influenced my view of international education has been when lecturers ensure that international students are involved in class activities. This has personally been beneficial to me since it has improved my confidence in classroom activities as well as my competence skills. The coursework has been extremely fundamental in understanding and appreciating diversity issues in the United States. By paying a significant attention to multicultural issues that are prevalent in an environment of students and staff of different nationalities, the coursework has been very beneficial. It, for example, introduced us to the different cultures from all over the world, getting closer to diverse students was not a problem at all. In addition, the coursework has been useful in helping me understand a common misconception about diversity issues in the United States, that people who come from the same nation or geographic region, otherwise those speaking the same language, usually share a common culture. This, I have learnt, is not correct since there are quite a number of disctinct dialects and cultures in the United States. Most Americans share a common language, just like Latinos in South America, but it would be incorrect to say that the Latin Americans are one ethnic group sharing the same culture. It is important to acknowledge remarkable historical, racial, as well as cultural differences. Countries such as Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico share a similar language, while their cultures are markedly different from one another. The coursework has also helped me understand that it is inappropriate to view nations or regions as if they were monocultural. This is particularly so because such a perspective may hold back the understanding of the fact that it is through the active participation of various cultures that the establishment of an efficient multicultural community has been achieved. A vital concept that the coursework has instilled in me is that multicultural education is much more than just ethnic or racial issues. Even though ethnic and racial matters make up a significant portion of multicultural education, issues such as gender and socioeconomic diversity are also of crucial importance. The coursework has made me understand that children come from various types of homes, some consisting of those headed by gay or lesbian parents. Moreover, people from lower socioeconomic situations time and again share much more with one another as opposed to that which they share with those of similar racial or ethnic heritage from privileged income positions. One top goal given special emphasis through the coursework has been encouraging the potency and value of cultural diversity. Another key goal emphasized in the coursework promotion of human rights and respect for everyone, regardless of racial, religious, gender, or cultural background. The institution, through the coursework, has successfully been able to promote social justice and equality for all students, as well as equal distribution of power and income amongst student groups. Among the numerous benefits gained in the coursework was an understanding of the diverse life experiences and an introduction to foreign cultures and languages. The course was also influential in understanding the perspectives of the United States and its role in the world. After September 11, the American people were suddenly showered with an unbelievably negative view of Islam. People had terrible stereotypes that all Muslims were terrorists that were against the United States, forgetting that American Muslims were as horrified the rest of the world on 9/11. The challenge posed after that horrific event was felt in international education, with the exchange program being seen as part of the problem.
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    Running head: STATE OF FRANCE State of France Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: France is the largest state in the European Union by area and the third largest in Europe after Russia and Ukraine. Economically, France is ranked among the most successful countries in the world. It is the government of France that is of immense interest to policy makers, with a presidency, for example, that is unusually powerful for Europe (State.gov, 2009). This paper seeks to focus on the State of France in regard to the form of governance. The powers of the executive, legislative as well as judicial branches of government have also been analyzed. Based on the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, which the State of France has been under since 1958, the government of France is a semi-presidential system. France is an electoral democracy, a democracy which is currently one of the strongest in the world. Democracy in France took a significant rise in the 18th century, after the National Assembly of France approved the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August 26, 1789. At the time, the term ‘democracy’ was used with regards to the ancient world. At the start of the French Revolution, the adoption of the Rights of Man and of the citizen declared the universal character of human rights, encouraging the establishment of the Universal male suffrage meant for the appointment of the national Convention in 1792 (Schwartz, 2006). It was in the 19th century, with the rise of political parties in Europe, that focus was diverted towards democratic constitutions. The French revolution of 1848 resulted in democratic constitutions in France, as well as other European countries that had their revolutions at the time, such as the Netherlands and Denmark. Montesquieu set up the foundation of a democratic government system, which was later polished by Rousseau, a critic of Enlightenment. These were fundamental contributions to ideas such as majority rule, legislative supremacy, constitutionalism and equality that ushered in modern democracy in France (Schwartz, 2006). Just like the government of the United States, the national government of France is composed of a legislature, an executive and a judicial branch. There is a clear definition of the functions of each of these branches, together with their powers, as is commanded by the Supreme Court, that “all powers entrusted to government and the functions appropriate to each of the three branches shall be vested in a separate body f public servants, and that the perfection of the system requires that the lines which separate and divide these departments shall be broadly and clearly defined”. In France, the policy of separation of powers forms a foundation stone of constitutionalism. The President appoints the Prime Minister, with whom he shares executive power. The President is head of state and the commander in chief of the armed forces while the Prime Minister is head of government, as leader of the Council of Ministers. In addition to appointing the Prime Minister, the President also appoints the Council of Ministers as well as presiding over council meetings (State.gov, 2009). One of the highly significant powers of the president is the right to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections. According to Article 16 of the constitution, the president can assume special emergency powers in a national crisis, after which he must consult the Constitutional Council. The president also has powers to present certain policy issues to the people in national referenda, for example the Treaty on European Union. Generally, the president works with the government to define and achieve policy goals under the help of a parliamentary majority. The government is largely responsible to parliament, and members of parliament can check balances and organize investigative committees. In the case of a strong support of the president to a parliamentary majority, the prime minister is inclined to serve as a deputy of the president. There exists a power-sharing arrangement, referred to as cohabitation, where the president and prime minister may differ about policy goals and work to limit the influence of each other (Schwartz, 2006). Parliament is the legislative branch of government, and is made up of the National Assembly and the Senate. Parliament’s role is basically to debate and adopt laws, and to manage the government’s implementation of executive authority. The members of the National Assembly are directly elected by majority vote in single-member electoral districts, while the members of the Senate are elected indirectly by an electoral college. The National Assembly and the Senate share equal legislative power, although the legislative authority is skewed towards the National Assembly, because the Senate may delay the passage of legislation. The National Assembly can also, according to the constitution, censure the government in a motion passed by a total greater part of members (State.gov, 2009). The 1958 Constitution strengthened the relative place of the judiciary in the scheme of government, giving the Judiciary powers which are exercised by a Superior Judicial Council composed of 16 members, many of whom are elected by the judges. The judiciary henceforth has the powers to nominate senior judges and approve the nomination of all other judges. The judiciary also decides upon punitive measures to be taken against judges. In addition, the judiciary offers advice on draft laws and monitors laws in force. The Constitutional Council also has powers to review the constitutionality of legislative and executive acts and ensure protection of individual rights (McKillop, 2009). References McKillop, B. (2009). The Judiciary in France — Reconstructing Lost Independence. Retrieved Jan 1, 2009 from http://www.judcom.nsw.gov.au/publications/education-monographs-1/monograph1/fbmckill.htm Schwartz, B. (2006). French Administrative Law and the Common-law World‎. New Jersey: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
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    Running head: TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND Twentieth Century and Beyond Insert name: Institution: Tutor: Date: The most influential accomplishment of the 20th century is arguably the 12-second powered flight made by the Wright brothers on December 17, 1903. Despite making history, many people did not realize the impact of that feat, until much later; in only a century that flight of 120 feet has transformed to a huge technological system of air transportation that is a fundamental factor of industrial civilization. This essay seeks to focus on: the Wright Brothers and Science & Technology. A comparison has been made of their accomplishments with current technological advancements such as the Internet and cell phones. Orville and Wilbur Wright had been inventing since their young age in doing printing and building new bicycles, besides various experiments such as the first pair of “balloon” tires ever to be installed on a vehicle made in 1893 and the 1895 new invention of a calculating machine capable of additions as well as multiplications. However, it was their 1903 flight that led to numerous accomplishments, beginning in 1908, when passengers started flying with the Flyer model planes. A year later, on July 30, the United States Government bought the nation’s first airplane from the Wright Brothers for $25, 000 and an additional $5,000 because it exceeded 40 mph. Upon learning of the phenomenal 1903 flight, Europe showed greater interest in the invention than even the homeland America. The impact of the invention came to be felt later on, when, for example, in December 1906, Flint and Company made an offer of half a million dollars to the Wright brothers for all the rights to the manufacture of the Flyer outside the United States (McClellan and Dorn, 2006). The accomplishments of the Wrights’ invention during the World Wars and on the 20th century are indeed beyond measure. Orville and Wilbur Wright not only solved a long-studied scientific problem, but contributed greatly in creating an entirely new world. However, despite their revolutionary success, the Wright brothers were slow to discard the early designs for more modern designs. It was other innovators particularly in the United States and Europe that came up with adjustments that created the modern airplane, such as moving the propellers to the front of the plane where they pull the plane forward, as opposed to pushing it from behind. This is unlike today’s technological advancements such as the Internet. The Internet was invented in 1989 and one year later, the World Wide Web followed. The early 1990s saw the Internet commercially developed and two decades later, the Internet has developed tremendously from the use of governments, scientists and university teachers to people in all walks of life, allover the world (McClellan and Dorn, 2006). The cell phone is also a good illustration of current invention that contrasts the Wright brother’s invention in the perspective of design and accessibility. Presently, just over three decades after their invention, there are thousands of models of cell phones as well as sophisticated models that can run thousands of applications available. Currently, the majority of the world’s population considers the phone a part of their daily lives. The plane, on the other hand, despite making the first flight more than a century ago, only a small part of the world’s population that can gain access to it, let alone take a flight. From reading the first pages of the text Twentieth Century and Beyond, I was introduced to events in science and technology as well as cultural trends that had an impact to the world in the 20th Century, changing the world to what it is today. I found the text student-friendly while reading and I intend to finish the text so that I can understand as well as appreciate this important era in global history. References McClellan, J. E., & Dorn, E. H. (2006). Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. 2nd Ed. Maryland: JHU Press.
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    Federal Funding of the Arts
    Federal Funding of the Arts Name Institutional Affiliation 1. Statement of the Problem Currently, State administrative governments encounter colossal tests: record-breaking economical deficits, rising joblessness, and extensive home foreclosures as well as escalating necessities for public assistance. These authorities are struggling with these direct burdens while also attempting to tackle long-term apprehensions regarding education, fiscal competitiveness and affordable health care. Similarly, all categories of expenditure—including the arts—are scrutinized heavily. Policymakers may query whether state administrations have a genuine role to cement the arts category or provide reasons why they should receive financial backing when citizens are also facing numerous other pressing needs. The half a century existence of state arts organizations shows that when legislators apprehend how the arts profit government and populaces, they institute ways of continued support, even in tough financial times. Policy makers need to ponder on ways to keep scholars engaged, and integrate arts in the lecture theaters in schools. In a fiscal downturn, cuts to or underfunding arts programs is often a quick deliberation to budget creators in civic schools. Despite a rising mountain of proof to the advantages of arts programs, state funding sources have tightened purse strings in the last decade. Scholars who completed an arts education accomplished better in both reading and math examinations, had improved grade point medians, and were more likely to finish school (Gioia, 2004). Numerous arts programs subscribe to a variety of occupations such as marketing, printing, video and multimedia design as well as architecture, which can never be disregarded. Continuing budget slices for art programs are harmful to scholars. Therefore, schools at every grade level are obliged to fund art programs and courses to guarantee that low-income artistic scholars are capable of expressing themselves ingeniously and enhance their learning capacities. This development will not only generate more openings for more scholars, but it will increase the diversity in the subjects and inspire innovation as well as experimentation in artistic realms. Truly, the arts are an imperative policy asset and wealth generator for U.S. states. According to Gioia (2004), besides their inherent worth to society, the arts provide a unique blend of profits. Art programs are a vibrant supplier to start ups and the small business segment. The creative businesses are covered with many talented employees who are independent, freelancers or hired by micro-enterprises. Nonprofit administrations, too, are intrinsic small productions and play a significant role in preparing creative employees and nurturing artistic enterprises. As such, the arts are a trademark of state modernization and creative capacity, spurring invention and generating distinctive merchandises and sites that appeal to tourists, productions and residents alike. Basically, creativity is an integral part of any nation’s competitive advantage in a contemporary market where distinguishing design and operative communications can propel the realization or failure of an industry or policy venture (Gioia, 2004). 2. Statement of Leadership and Beliefs Life is an expedition of tentative learning and an ever-evolving, incessant sequence of attaining knowledge through dynamic contribution, trial and error, as well as scholarly reflective refinement developments. Therefore, endowing students with the ability to scrutinize, comprehend, and rectify their behavior so as to advance their actions, abilities, and comprehension is a primary characteristic of an educational curriculum. Integrity, devotion, empathy, tolerance, and adoration are at the essential of my ethics declaration. These indispensable personalities shape my charisma, personality, and behavior. As such, they are my basis, which give me the courage to serve as a decent, constructive, and knowledgeable leader, family adherent, companion, co-worker, and acquaintance, whom others can rely upon to make moral decisions. Through addition of my external schedules and my internal values, I have a thoughtful capacity and discretion to lead others. Carefully cultivating these physiognomies is my lasting purpose. I stand for public education as being a responsibility to both the individual and the entire American community. Besides sharing knowledge with scholars, public education needs to address the needs and inequalities in the modern society. Faculty and learners are required to be linked to the external world through obliging undertakings such as groundbreaking community organizations and service-learning. My role as a leader is to set up a plainly defined administrative structure which comprises of structural plan delineating the authority of command as well as procedures for operative communication. The meaning of leadership is to “motivate, inspire and direct others to partake in a common determination.” Outstanding frontrunners enclose themselves with proactive individuals in the appropriate positions. This phenomenon enables being capable to lead others as opposed to managing people. Similarly, I believe that effective time management skills are essential rudiments of being an effective leader. Key Beliefs about Leadership Successful leaders trust in diversity as an essential asset to build extremely adaptive groups who can rapidly create partnerships with other corporations, clienteles and even challengers. Such leaders trust in setting common direction, obtaining the resources required and empowering their subjects to deliver. This allows policymaking to flow downhill empowering their staffs. Successful frontrunners believe in putting every individual like they the most valuable asset on the team. Consequently, this procedure of accountability and recognition helps others to take control and perform. Fruitful leaders trust in showing others a better future as well as give them a picture of their importance in it. This phenomenon inspires others to put in more effort, and provide reassurances that they will have an equal share of forthcoming rewards. Positive leaders believe that change is inevitable. Even though value is not created from change alone, success comes from the capacity to embrace new philosophies and fresh traditions of doing business. 3. Literature Review According to Lawrence (2018), the “realm” of arts and philosophy is a relatively fresh idea, driven to completion during the 1970s and 1980s by an innovative set of founders who seized the importance of shared education and organization and eventually helped to create Grantmakers in the Arts (GIA) (Lawrence, 2018). These benevolent leaders also alleged that their shared success in backing up the arts required information of funding patterns that touched well past their discrete grant making portfolios. In addition, they believed that that this category of exploration would assist to outline the field. The apparition of GIA’s frontrunners along with the Foundation Center exploration team brought about a resource, which went well over simply adding up grant dollars as well as offering static data figures and charts. During the mid-1970s, a significant mass of arts capital specialists in foundations, businesses, and management agencies began to materialize in New York and consequently in the Twin Metropolises, Chicago, and Los Angeles,” who would eventually form the center of a synchronized arts funding society. Kalbfleisch (2013) explains that just after the mid-1930s, the U.S. federal administration developed an organization accountable exclusively for the financing of art. The Federal Venture number one (better referred to as Federal One) under the renowned Works Progress Administration (WPA) delivered this backing from 1935 all through to 1943 (Kalbfleisch, 2013). The developments of Federal One centered on supplying performers, and art teachers, as well as art administration specialists with employments. During the 1940s, the WPA’s agendas were concluding as emphasis shifted from employments to war struggles. This carried on until mid-sixties when a new centralized art intervention to back the arts was formed. Correspondingly, The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) intended to craft a cultural uniqueness for America, to reserve the arts, as well as to expand imagination in the realm of arts (Kalbfleisch, 2013). Whereas other federal interventions have formed projects that brought about the formation of art, both WPA and NEA have had noteworthy achievements. Surprising comparisons can be established between the two centralized agencies along with their agendas/grants. Federal control arts programs seem to diverge from the regulation that legislative conduct closely trails public partialities. Ever since the 1970s, public judgement reviews have found constant if modest masses supporting centralized assistance to the arts. Thus far, during that instance, the NEA, the intervention accountable for federal arts funding, has faced instable legislative action: great indulgence until 1978, financial immobility through the Carter as well as Reagan administrations, and congressional discredit, ending in sharp financial plan cuts and organization restructuring, after 1989. According to DiMaggio and Pettit (1999). Americans adore the arts: greater parts of up to 90 percent habitually approve that the arts are dynamic to the decent life, that these subjects are vital to the growth of families as they improve the quality of societies. Furthermore, stable if modest masses have recommended government funding for artistic subjects for the past thirty years. Various political researchers and radical sociologists have contended persuasively that judicial accomplishment tends to imitate the views of the citizens that representatives are elected to characterize, and that variations in policy are inclined to reflect tendencies in public opinion (DiMaggio & Pettit, 1999). Gioia (2004) proclaims that the function of a federal organization in financing the arts is frequently misinterpreted—and for very upright explanations. The American organization of arts altruism is multifaceted and ever changing. As the head of NEA, Gioia (2004) has constantly been awestruck by the resourceful diversity and infinite creativity of means in which the “so called arts” are financed in the U.S. He believed it might be valuable to offer—for both Americans as well as a global audience—a succinct indication of how America’s exclusive system of arts patronage works. 4. Action Plan Further than any fiscal matters involved, my plan is to engage the government in activities that “shapes culture” or enforce an aesthetic environment. I will set personal characteristics that connect with strong feelings regarding the arts. I will amass samples of public judgement that paint general representations of the enthusiasts and challengers of this funding and present them to the senate. Even though few studies have endeavored carefully to analyze the separate inspirations of different physiognomies in predicting beliefs, I will use reactions to the 1998 Universal Social Survey to convince legislators to improve their fiscal backing on the arts. It takes a combination of both civic and private monies to fund the arts. Even though many citizens and businesses contribute to educational activities, the advantages of the arts can never be fully understood without the exclusive charities of state. In the society or among specific philanthropists, several motivations (comprising of personal objectives and marketing exposure) determine funding resolutions. In contrast, federal administrative backing serves the public concern and confirms that all expanses of a state obtain the profits of the arts. I hope to accomplish increased funding for every category of the arts and make sure that arts programs are a vibrant supplier to start ups and the small business segment. I will rally both NEA and WPA to create a cultural uniqueness for America and reserve the arts. This approach makes sense because in countries such as France, Germany, and China, most financial backing of the arts comes from the centralized administration—either at a national or confined level. These organizations have a tendency to be simple, static, and centralized, habitually focused in a huge organization of culture. These administrations are also characteristically political, as arts employees are typically affiliates of civil service or party-political nominees from the reigning party. These arrangements provide charming and stable preparation for arts administrations, but they also gulf the cultural ecosphere into both insiders as well as outsiders. With this plan, the sensible outcomes that I might expect include scholar improved grades in both reading and math examinations. This approach will: o provide accountability, guaranteeing that monies are disseminated in line with public interest; o reduce obstacles to public contribution in the arts, for instance those related to poverty, topographical isolation, restricted education, incapacity, age or background; • o safeguard federal Partnership Contract dollars that primarily state arts organizations are qualified to collect in support of a state. References Gioia, D. (2004). How the United States Funds the Arts? The Role of a Federal Arts Agency. Retrieved from: https://www.americansforthearts.org/sites/default/files/how_0.pdf Kalbfleisch, A. (2013). Federally funded art in the United States: Government actions in response to controversy. Retrieved from: https://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1826&context=theses Lawrence, S. (2018). Arts Funding at Twenty-Five: What Data and Analysis Continue to Tell Funders about the Field. GIA Reader, Volume 29, No. 1. Retrieved from: https://www.giarts.org/sites/default/files/29-1-arts-funding-at-twenty-five.pdf DiMaggio, P. & Pettit, B. (1999). Public Opinion and Political Vulnerability: Why has the National Endowment for the Arts Been Such an Attractive Target? Sociology Department and Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP07%20-%20DiMaggio%20and%20Petit.pdf
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cloning Name: Institution Affiliation: Cloning The biology of cloning involves combination of genetic material to produce an offspring that exactly resembles the parent organism. This science employs the use of deoxyribonucleic acid to manufacture a replica. Cloning can occur naturally or artificially. For instance, identical twins are natural clones since they share the same DNA pattern. Artificial cloning occurs when fertilization occurs via isolation of genetic material from a parent organism and combination of the same in a test tube. This paper seeks to explore the process of cloning and the various applications of cloning. The paper will also discuss the ethical issues surrounding the technology of cloning. The process of reproductive cloning occurs via one of two major methods. These are the use of the nucleus from somatic cells and embryo splitting. These methods are applicable in the production of clones of the mammalian kingdom. The major similarity in both of these techniques is that they make use of a uterus of a surrogate mother to bring up the offspring. Another distinct type of cloning uses bacteria as the vectors of genetic content to manufacture useful proteins such as hormones for medical use. Regardless of the method used, the intention of cloning is to create organisms with genetic material that is a replica of the donor organism. The process of production of clones from somatic cell nuclear transfer is a complex procedure that requires tight regulation of the stages of the cell cycle. During this technique, removal of nucleus of an ovum occurs. This renders makes the cell devoid of the chromosomal material that exists in the nucleus. Replacement of the nuclear material with that of a somatic cell and stimulation of cell division produces an embryo. The somatic is usually a product of cell culture or direct harvesting from individuals (Lund, Lodge, Minchin, 2007). Once the embryo forms, continued proliferation of the cells leads to formation of a morula and ultimately a blastocyst that the technicians transfer into the uterus of a surrogate mother. Growth and development occurs within the uterine environment of the mother until the offspring becomes mature. The progeny that results from this process therefore bears the same genes as the contributor of the nucleus (Weismann, 2000). At times, when the donor of the nucleus is the same animal that offers the egg, the resultant organism is thus an exact copy of the parent. Several clones are reproducible from the same organism depending on the number of viable eggs of the donor. Clones are also reproducible via the method of embryo splitting. In this technique, artificial fertilization occurs outside the body of the female species. This type of insemination bears the name in vitro fertilization. Once the nuclear material fuse, cell division occurs exponentially to produce a zygote, then an embryo. After this, the embryo is separated symmetrically to provide two identical groups of cells. These cells are then stimulated to proliferate separately and produce duplicate blastocysts. Implantation of the blastocysts into the uteruses of different mothers offers these early life forms the physiological conditions necessary for growth. The limitation of the number of splits that can be effectively split from the embryo number of clones that are obtainable via this technique (Lund, Lodge, Minchin, 2007). In conclusion, cloning produces organism identical to the parent in terms of the composition of the DNA. The common methods in this science include the transfer of nuclear material from a somatic cell to an enucleated reproductive cell and embryo splitting after in vitro fertilization. The technique of cloning has attracted a lot of criticism from the religious community that finds it unethical to take on the work of God of creation by scientists. The field thus requires extensive research on the safety of cloning and the viability of such a project to humans. References Lund, P., Lodge, J. & Minchin, S. (2007). Gene Cloning. Chicago: Garland Science Weismann, I. (2000). Translating Stem and Progenitor Cell Biology to the Clinic: Barriers and Opportunities. Science. 287(5457): 1442-6 Walker, J & Rapley R. (2009). Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. London: Royal Society of Chemistry
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    CLONING Name Institution Affiliation Cloning Introduction The advancement in the field of biotechnology and molecular engineering has led to the production of organisms that resemble their parent regarding genetic make-up. These plants are referred to as clones. The science of cloning is traceable back in the early 1950s when Robert Briggs and Thomas King successfully produced a frog clone via the technology of in vitro fertilization. This opened up the pathway towards the development of many other genetic creations including the infamous Dolly sheep in 1997. Such scientific achievements stirred up debates regarding the legality and ethics of animal cloning. This paper discusses cloning as a science that has created significant global controversies from the ethical point of view. Arguments for Cloning Cloning has developed to achieve human control of almost all processes, including reproduction. As science gains this control, cloning has become extensive in the production of medical products including vaccines, as well as a significant supplemental technology in the field of agriculture. As much as these have evidently improved human manipulation of the environment and offered solutions to some of the problems that humanity faces today, different civil society groups and scientists continue to disapprove application of this technology (In Valla & In Lale, 2014). Protagonists to the technology of cloning argue that the science has boosted the field of medicine in many aspects. Cloning has created a way for regrowth of donor organs. Through this, cultures of progenitor cells from organisms can produce whole organs. The growth of such organs in a controlled environment has provided a method through which individuals can acquire grafts for organ donation. The importance of this is that it offers a way in which people can obtain autografts, which have to suffer less immunological rejection as compared to allografts and xenografts. It goes without say that cloning has made the vaccine production a reality. DNA harvesting technologies have allowed large-scale production of preparations for immunization against polio, measles, rabies and other life-threatening diseases (In Valla & In Lale, 2014). In the field of crop production and animal husbandry, cloning has increased production. This has helped in curtailing the global food shortages in particular through the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Supplemental sources of nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids have been possible via modification of pig clones (In Valla & In Lale, 2014). Arguments against Cloning Cloning has met a lot of antagonism from the moral, social and legal points of view. The ethical viability of the use of animals in testing of technologies and experimentation is a concern that needs the address. For instance, from a religious point of view, all humans are equal creations. Creation of human clones in the future is a violation of this moral standpoint. Important not to overlook is the question of whether clones pose a threat in the emergence of new diseases because of DNA mutations that may occur during the cloning process (Gaskell & Bauer, 2013). The world is facing a population crisis; hence, the creation of new organisms via cloning would only extrapolate the predicaments of overpopulation. Integration of the human clones into the society would eminently lead to further social issues concerning the identity of clones, their parents, and social rights (Ayala, 2015). Legal discussions on cloning consider the cost of production of whole organisms by national firms by use of the taxpayers’ money. The expensive nature of the venture already implicates hugely on the national budgetary allocation (Gaskell & Bauer, 2013). In another instance, issues related to patent rights of cloned organisms stir major worries. Would whole organisms created via cloning have the rights of independent animals or would they exist as property owned by the scientists and companies that created them? To establish the science of cloning would also require a consideration of the rights of the clones. As such, the lawmakers would have to address issues regarding whether human clones would enjoy the rights that the rest of humans do. Such brings in the question as to if appropriate legal frameworks exist for mitigating the disparities that would exist been human clones and the rest of human population. This is one of the many drawbacks facing the growth of the technology. Use of technology to make human clones also poses the risk of creating aberrant genomes, and individuals who may lack the inbuilt humane instincts and emotions. In case of this, clones could turn out to be emotionally unstable beings who would not exhibit desirable social values. This could turn into a crisis in a setting where humans and clones would contravene each other (Gaskell & Bauer, 2013).  Conclusion In summation, cloning as a science has sufficed as a way of solving human problems such as disease control via vaccination and treatment through organ donation. It has also helped bridging the gaps in food production. However, ethical and legal disputes concerning cloning, and particularly of human beings have caused huge debates. The cost of production of replica organisms is also high, meaning the industry calls for heavy investment. Whether harmonization of the differences that exist between antagonists and protagonists of cloning is achievable remains a question of the future.
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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