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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cloning Name Institution Cloning Introduction Cloning is a process that makes use of scientific methods, procedures and skills enabling scientists to duplicate genetic e characters of an animal or plant thus creating at least one living replica. Cloning has a long history; however, it was not until twenty years ago in 1996 that Scottish scientists set up with astonishing success the first ever cloned mammal from an adult cell- a sheep named ‘’Dolly’’. Cloning in plants started a long time ago, probably with the invention of agriculture. It entails very simple methods and procedures like cutting a part of a plant and planting the role in the soil. The cloned part sprouts and flourishes bearing similar traits with the parent plant. Since Dolly was successfully cloned, scientists have ventured in cloning other animals including cows and rodents. The tremendous success enjoyed by experts in the field of cloning in recent years has raised tough ethical questions by religious groups, politicians, and the general public. Besides, there have been heated debates even among scientists and all stakeholders on the morality of the entire subject of cloning especially when there is an obvious possibility of human cloning. The article discusses cloning, how it works and its possible uses. In cloning, scientists destroy the nucleus of a viable an unfertilized egg in the animal host and replace it with another nucleus of a body cell from another animal. At this end, the host animal’s egg is taken as fertilized, and the egg is planted into its womb. The developing baby depicts the same genetic traits as those of the animal whose nucleus was used in the fertilization of the host’s egg. Perhaps we can take the example of Dolly the sheep to better understand how cloning works. The creation of Dolly was not in the ordinary way we know. Naturally, a young sheep is the result of natural reproduction of a sperm from an adult male, and an egg (oocyte) comprising two germ cells combine at fertilization (McLaren, 2012). Each of these germ cells (the oocyte and the sperm) contributes half of the chromosomal number that is required in creating a new individual. Chromosomes are located in the nucleus of the cell, and they carry the cell’s DNA. The DNA is the genetic outline of a person (McLaren, 2012). The process used to produce Dolly is different from normal reproduction in two main ways. First, somatic cells (cells of the body) from a fully developed ewe’s udder (the donor) were cultured in a dish and permitted to grow. There was the subsequent removal of the nutrients from the culture. The removal of the nutrients stopped the growth of the cell. One of the non-growing cells from the culture was fused (by use of electric jolts) with the ewe’s oocyte whose nucleus had been previously removed (Mckinnell, 2005). The procedure is identified as ‘somatic cell nuclear transfer.' Fused cells started dividing in the elegant dish within a day. There was a transmission of the early embryo to the surrogate mother’s after several divisions and permitted to develop fully. Secondly, unlike the egg and the sperm, each of which donates half the chromosomal number at fertilization, each cell of the body contains two times the chromosomal number in every germ cell. Therefore, a fusion of an egg and a sperm creates an individual with a full genetic makeup that is unique to them. However, the cloned embryo from somatic cell nuclear transfer starts development with double (diploid) number of chromosomes, all taken from one somatic (body) cell (adult udder) of a solitary individual. The resultant embryo has an identical nuclear genetic composition as those of that who donated (donor) the somatic cell (Fairbanks, 2004). Cloning can be used in many areas of scientific research. For example, in genetic reprogramming where scientists discovered how cloning could restore a cell to its earlier undifferentiated state. Cloning can also be used to boost agricultural produce by improving the quality of the plants and animals and preventing certain endangered species from becoming extinct.
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cloning Name Institution Affiliation Cloning Cloning is the science of production of organisms with identical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A cloned animal resembles the parents in all aspects. Clones are produced through artificial fertilization so that the combination of both male and the female gametes occurs in a human controlled environment. The basic science of cloning lies with the fact that the DNA of an organism is the template through which protein synthesis occurs. In the advent of new knowledge in biotechnology, artificial production of life forms has met many arguments due to ethical issues and the risks associated with it. This essay discusses the science of cloning and the challenges that this discipline faces in its growth towards full adoption as a universally acceptable science. In artificial cloning, biotechnologists harvest the genetic material from the parent organism in a well-ordered environment. This is the basis of test-tube babies. Organisms of the mammalian kingdom have been made by the use of this technology. In its initial steps, artificial reproduction occurs by obtaining an ovum from a female species. Such is achievable by monitoring the ovulatory cycles of the animal and getting a mature reproductive cell. One of the methods of doing this is through laparoscopic techniques, which employ video guided visualization of the internal structures. In the quest of achieving a sterile egg, the reproductive component that harbors the maternal chromosomes is enucleated. Once isolation of the ova occurs, somatic cells, which contain the DNA of a donor organism, are introduced into the egg. In vitro fertilization occurs via this means, and cellular division ensues culminating in the formation of a viable offspring that appears as the donor organism (Donovan, 2010). Cloning continues to gain applications in many fields of modern science. For instance, production of vaccines via recombinant DNA technology is a form of cloning. In the production of antibodies and antigenic components that are essential in vaccine development, the principles off cloning have been of great significance. This technique has also facilitated the manufacture of resistant types of agricultural strains of crops that can survive in adverse climatic changes such as drought. Important to mention is also its applicability in animal husbandry through methods of artificial insemination (Minchin, 2011). The science of cloning has not existed without challenges. People from various beliefs, cultures and backgrounds continue to debate on the ethicality of the use of this science. Antagonists to the use of cloning argue that cloning disregards the natural methods of reproduction. Most religions in the world do not believe in the power of human control over life. Another argument is that the process of DNA recombination and use of artificial means to produce life forms comes with the risk of human errors. This could result in the formation of aberrant DNA patterns that could lead to the emergence of new diseases. Cloning can also lead to increase in DNA replication errors, a formation of undesirable tandem repeats that could act as disease entry points. The diversity that exists within animal species may suffer the risk of extinction of clones of all organisms were to occur (Robert, 2009). In conclusion, the creation of human clones has been controversial over the years. The question of whether human clones would exhibit similar behavioral characteristics as the regular people remains a puzzle. For example, would the science lead to the formation of paranormal beings or would it result in the creation of emotionless zombies? Would the clones have the same legal rights other normal humans? Science has not answered these issues of concern, which makes cloning a precarious venture. Massive investments in cloning and extensive scientific research are therefore necessary before humanity rushes to actualize the dream of human cloning. References Donovan, L. (2010).Applied of Molecular Biology. New York: Springer Minchin, S. (2011). Gene Cloning. Chicago: Garland Science Robert, R. (2009). Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. London: Royal Society of Chemistry
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cloning Name: Institution Affiliation: Cloning Cloning refers to the science of use of the deoxyribonucleic (DNA) material of an organism to develop a replica of an organism. Both the donor of the DNA and the biological copy contain similar genetic makeup. The process of cloning can result in the formation of new cells or a whole organism. There are several types of naturally occurring clones such as bacterial copies and identical twins. These occur by the natural means of cellular division, which results in the formation of copies of organisms with the analogous genetic material. The discussion in this paper elucidates the types of cloning, exemplifies some of the products of cloning and explains some of the applications of cloning. The paper also explicates some of the complications and challenges facing cloning. Genetic cloning involves the technique of harvesting the DNA content from a donor. Injection of this DNA material into the cells of a “vector” organism then occurs. This component becomes an integrated constituent and part of the genome of the carrier organism. Through nuclear material replication, transcription, and translation, synthesis of proteins identical to the ones of the donor organism then occurs (Lund, Lodge, Minchin, 2007). This leads to the formation of the desired traits that resemble those of the DNA donor. An application of this technique has been in the manufacture of human hormones such as insulin for therapeutic purposes. The types of cloning that exist hence include gene, stem cell and reproductive cloning depending on the product of the procedure and its desired use. Cloning of whole organisms require a surrogate mother. This implies that once in vitro fertilization of an empty ovum with nuclear material occurs first. The surrogate mother then receives the embryo that yields from injection of donor nuclear material with mature somatic cell DNA. Development of the new organism formed occurs inside the uterus of the surrogate mother until term. Once reproduced, the new organism gains the name of a clone. An example of a clone is the famous Dolly sheep cloned in 1996. Researchers have been able to clone other animals such as cows, mules and oxen by use of groundbreaking technology. However, this has met uproar from the international community in consideration to ethical concerns and the legitimacy of the technology (Pense, 2006). Human cloning has raised the biggest controversies in the present past. Arguments against this technology have their basis on faith, which provides that God is the sole creator. Those opposed to cloning further explain that it poses an ethical dispute to the fact that human beings should use knowledge to assume the role of God. A major drawback to this technology is the fact that there occurs many errors in the production of clones (Sheppard, Ruse, 2010). This means that genetic alterations could increase the rate of occurrence of congenital malformations and gene aberrations, which could work to the disadvantage of the cloned species. The value attached to life hence faces an imminent risk in case mistakes occur during the process. In conclusion, cloning is the use of the genetic make-up from a donor to create an organism identical to the original one. Several types of cloning exist which include, genetic cloning, reproductive cloning and stem cell cloning for transplantation. Whether the use of this technique to create new lives or save lives is acceptable has been a matter of great debate. To solve this difference of opinion, deeper research into this field is required to increase efficiency and minimize the drawbacks. Given this, humanity faces many challenges such as cancer, which could get a solution if advancements of this technology suffice. References Lund, P., Lodge, J. & Minchin, S. (2007). Gene Cloning. Chicago: Garland Science Pense, G. E. (2006). Cloning After Dolly: Who's Still Afraid? New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield. Sheppard, A. & Ruse, M. (2010). Cloning: Responsible Science or Techno madness? Michigan: Prometheus Books.
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cloning Name: Institution Affiliation: Cloning The biology of cloning involves a combination of genetic material to produce an offspring that exactly resembles the parent organism. This science employs the use of deoxyribonucleic acid to manufacture a replica. Cloning can occur naturally or artificially. For instance, identical twins are natural clones since they share the same DNA pattern. Artificial cloning takes place when fertilization occurs via isolation of genetic material from a parent organism and combination of the same in a test tube. This work explores the process of cloning and the various applications of cloning and discusses the ethical issues surrounding the technology of cloning. The process of reproductive cloning occurs via one of two primary methods. These are the use of the nucleus from somatic cells and embryo splitting. These methods apply to the production of clones of the mammalian kingdom. The significant similarity in both of these techniques is that they make use of a uterus of a surrogate mother to bring up the offspring. Another distinct type of cloning uses bacteria as the vectors of genetic content to manufacture useful proteins such as hormones for medical purposes. Regardless of the method used, the intention of cloning is to create organisms with genetic material that is a replica of the donor organism. The process of production of clones from the somatic cell nuclear transfer is a complicated procedure that requires tight regulation of the stages of the cell cycle. During this technique, removal of the nucleus of an ovum occurs. This render makes the cell devoid of the chromosomal material that exists in the nucleus. Replacement of the nuclear material with that of a somatic cell and stimulation of cell division produces an embryo. The somatic is usually a product of cell culture or direct harvesting from individuals (Lund, Lodge, Minchin, 2007). Once the embryo forms, continued proliferation of the cells leads to the formation of a morula and ultimately a blastocyst that the technicians transfer into the uterus of a surrogate mother. Growth and development occur within the uterine environment of the mother until the offspring becomes mature. The progeny that results from this process, therefore, bears the same genes as the contributor of the nucleus (Weismann, 2000). When the donor of the nucleus is the same animal that offers the egg, the resultant organism is thus an exact copy of the parent. Several clones are reproducible from the same organism depending on the number of viable eggs of the donor. Clones are also reproducible via the method of embryo splitting. In this technique, artificial fertilization occurs outside the body of the female species. This type of insemination bears the name in vitro fertilization. Once the nuclear material fuse, cell division occurs exponentially to produce a zygote, then an embryo. After this, the embryo is separated symmetrically to provide two identical groups of cells. These cells are then stimulated to proliferate separately and produce duplicate blastocysts. Implantation of the blastocysts into the uteruses of different mothers offers these early life forms the physiological conditions necessary for growth. The limitation of the number of splits that can be cut from the embryo number of clones obtainable via this technique (Lund, Lodge, Minchin, 2007). In conclusion, cloning produces organism identical to the parent regarding the composition of the DNA. The conventional methods of this science include the transfer of nuclear material from a somatic cell to an enucleated reproductive cell and embryo splitting after in vitro fertilization. The technique of cloning has attracted a lot of criticism from the religious community that finds it unethical to take on the work of God of creation by scientists. The field thus requires extensive research on the safety of cloning and the viability of such a project to humans References Lund, P., Lodge, J. & Minchin, S. (2007). Gene Cloning. Chicago: Garland Science Walker, J & Rapley R. (2009). Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. London: Royal Society of Chemistry Weismann, I. (2000). Translating Stem and Progenitor Cell Biology to the Clinic: Barriers and Opportunities. Science. 287(5457): 1442-6
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    1) Wasting money – explaining what students go thru – compare international to native students Universities have always been a really important part of the society in United States. Generations have graduated from it, in the same time separating people in two different class levels 2) Students lose time during taking GE classes - they could possibly start a business; buy a car; save up; etc.. At the same time, poor students’ education level always not as high as rich students, because of area, economy and other factors. 3) What if you take them and fail? –GPA goes down - effects These classes can lower student’s confidence. Some support the prices as to them it shows and separates the classes. The person taking engineering cannot be compared to the person taking another science, who, in turn, cannot be compared to someone taking a business course, then a social source, and so on. Examples: famous people who left college – their life (Who could those students be?) ----4) On the other hand – GE classes should form proper citizens, but why in college and for such big amount of $, it was suppose to be done in school. The tuition mania has also taken grip of the parents. The more their child goes for tuition, the more they feel proud. It may be agreed that, these days, competition has increased diversity and without extra coaching children may not fare as well as they can.With tuition increase has also helped pay the academic officials good salaries with this economic crisis – but what if you pay, - but nothing gets better and teachers aren’t paid enough. Example: Class division 5) Sometimes there are cases when students change their major after taking GE classes – they open something new for themselves. 6) Suggest that GE classes should be free or cost less. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324549004579068992834736138#:XvWUeugSJ56NHA https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/09/study-increased-student-aid-not-faculty-salaries-drives-tuition
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Charismatic Leadership and the Theory of Attribution Name Institution Charismatic Leadership and the Theory of Attribution The idea of charismatic leadership originated from the ancient Greece. Charismatic leadership of the attribution theory states that charisma or grace and charm are that is needed to create loyal followers. Leaders need to have self-belief as a fundamental feature of leadership. The theory of charismatic leadership is based on attribution phenomenal. According to the attribution theory of leadership, charismatic leadership is an attribution theory. Similarly, charismatic leaders have different behaviour that shapes their leadership styles. For example, they are likely to advocate visions that are very discrepant from the normal status quo but still lie within the frame woks of the acceptance tenets by the leader’s followers. On the other hand, charismatic leadership style of the attribution theory also looks at factor such as the behaviours of leaders, the facilitating conditions, and influencing processes. Some of the leadership behaviours of the charismatic leadership include the ability to be a novel a d appealing visionary (Jude & Robbins, 2010). This means that the leaders must be able to come u with age das that are acceptable to the people he or she leads to appealing. On the same note, he must be a visionary leader who can create and achieve goals. He should be able to drive and bring about positive change in her area of leadership. A charisma tic leader also needs to be confident and optimistic during his work. This means that they should be able to set effective goals or take the right directions of actions as they show optimism that they will achieve their goals. Another study also indicates that charismatic leaders must show unconventional behaviours. The attribution theory reveals that a charismatic leader must have an emotional appeal to values (Jude & Robbins, 2010). For example, a charismatic leader may develop a stun stand on factor s that affects his or her people; however, he or she must also give emotional appeals to values. For example, they need to be able to critically analyze all the social and leadership values and how they affect their citizens they leads. The leader should then emotionally appeal to the people they lead to be able to think critically before they take any action that might affect their lives and the lives of those around them. Such emotional appeals arise in case when war is involved (Jude & Robbins, 2010). These appeals also take place in cases where there are political upheavals that affect the lives of their followers. On the same note, a charismatic leader must make self-sacrifices, which aim to maintain the goodness and values of the people under their leadership. A charismatic leader is also a person who is appealing to processes. For example, he or she is a person who has a personal identification. For example, the people under his or her leadership can refer to the leader as a person who is intimate and appealing to the people, he serves. On the same note, the leader should be able to take part in internationalization processes. He should be able to critically select the processes that add value to his or her leadership activities as well to the value of the country they lead (Jude & Robbins, 2010). The leader should be able to adhere to new values and beliefs but be able to adopt only the values and believes that are in line with their national and societal values. This means that a charismatic leader should not be a victim of circumstances.
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cartography Name Institution Cartography Cartography is both an art and science. It entails the use of graphs to represent a geographical area, typically on a level surface such as a chart or a map. It is an old discipline dating from the prehistoric representation of fishing and hunting territories. The Babylonians were arguably the earliest people to map the world representing the world as flat and shaped like a disk. It is the work of Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) in the 2nd century CE in an eight-volume publication popularly known as Geōgraphikē hyphēgēsis (Guide to Geography) surfaced that the representation of the world as spherical on the map started. Subsequent plans throughout the middle ages borrowed a lot from the publications of Ptolemy using Jerusalem as the central feature and placing East at the top. The representations of the time are usually called T-maps since they featured only three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe) (Bagrow & Skelton, 2010). The ‘’T’’ that results from the association of the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea separates the continents. More accurate and reliable representation of the world geography started with the compilation of portolan (seamen's) charts in the 14th century for navigation. As the Europeans discovered the New World, there was more necessity for new cartographical techniques, and it led to tremendous improvements in cartography. Maps with improved accuracy and sophistication were printed throughout the 17th and 18th centuries (Talbert & Unger, 2008). There were efficient surveys which involved triangulation that were undertaken that significantly improved the reliability of maps and their precision. Later, there was the introduction of the telescope that was used to determine the span of a degree of longitude. Modern cartography makes use of satellite and aerial photographs as the basis for any preferred map or chart. The principles of photogrammetry govern the procedures during the translation of data from photographs into maps. The principles of photogrammetry yield unprecedented accuracy in cartography. The creation of numerous databases available online including Google Earth is large because of the tremendous strides made in the use of satellites to take photographs at least from the late 20th century and the wide-ranging accessibility on the Internet of images taken by satellites (Whitaker, 2003). Pictures taken with the use of satellites have improved our understanding of the solar system as much detailed pictures and maps of the moon and numerous planets in our solar system has been created. Also, the deployment and use of geographic information systems (GIS) have significantly improved in widening the scope of subjects under cartography. Modern cartography and geography have a symbiotic association that is a vital foundation for various other specialties of science and many other professions (Whitaker, 2003). Geography gives analysis and explanations of environmental and human phenomena and the processes that take place on the surface of the earth; it thus improves our present understanding of the world in general (Bagrow & Skelton, 2010). Cartography deals with the development of the concepts, skills, and theories for description and visualization of the events and things or processes and patterns from geography, expressing this understanding. In Geography, there is involvement of a broad set of concepts, skills, and theories undergoing steady development and refinement. Cartography similarly changes and develops current skills and approaches as a culture, technology, and knowledge change. Due to their worth, cartography and geography form parts of an utter continuous integer of human activities. Soldiers, biologists, architects, doctors, geneticists, planners and advertisers are just a small number of the professionals and scientists that make use of geography and cartography. However; since cartography and geography sound so ordinary it’s easy to ignore them. All those who would like to have a better understanding and use of information from geography and maps need to have a closer examination of both geography and cartography. In conclusion, a better understanding of cartography’s and geography’s mapping’s essential concepts offers an edge in working in any field.
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Name Instructor Course Date Cartography From a definitional perspective, cartography refers to the discipline, which deals with conceptualization, production, dissemination, and exploration of maps. Similarly, the concept of cartography relates to the representation through maps. Evidently, cartography refers to the entire process of mapping. It refers to the study, as well as the practice of making maps. Maps are valuable concepts in the modern society. For instance, maps affect natural resources distribution, disaster relief, and urban planning. From this perspective, cartography is one of the most crucial concepts, which enables a human being to study, as well as analyze the spatial relationships while making ideal decisions by the identified relationships. The essay explores and examines the concept of cartography by the presented definition in the introductory paragraph. Cartography comes out as a complex field, which is ever changing in the midst of the entire mapping process. From a broader perspective, mapping incorporates every concept relating to gathering, evaluating, and processing source data through intellectual, as well as the graphical design of the map. The concept also integrates the drawing and reproduction of the final document (Cartwright, Gartner and Lehn 12). From this illustration, cartography is unique through its incorporation of science, technology, and art, thus, the platform to advocate for in-depth knowledge and skills from the cartographers. In some cases, one person engages in directing this entire sequence regarding the cartographic activities. Nevertheless, this only occurs in the simple cases of mapping. According to the numerous geographical practitioners, cartography is more than map-making. It comes out as an academic discipline in its context because of the presence of professional associations in the regional, national, and international levels. Similarly, the discipline has its journals, educational programs, identity, and conferences. From this perspective, cartography engages in embracing the cartographers making maps and practitioners teaching and researching about the maps. In the modern context, maps are complex intellectual images aiming at offering rich potential for the scientific investigation (Jones, 219). It is ideal to note that cartographers are aiming at the exploration of this potential to the fullest in the midst of the cognitive, historical, perceptual, and technological advancements in the discipline. In the modern context, cartography tends to have two critical characteristics. In the first instance, cartography is important. In this regard, it is valuable to demonstrate the essence of maps and implications of executing fundamental and indispensable role as one of the underpinnings of civilization. Various activities relating to the earth’s surface such as land use planning, property ownership, weather forecasting, road construction, and locational analysis, as well as emergency response and mineral prospecting, would not be practice in the absence of maps (Koláčný 78). This role has never been more vital than in the contemporary society. Human beings tend to face diverse problems most of which are environmental in nature. From this illustration, the effective mapping is crucial for the generation of the solutions to the problems. Practitioners have the ability and potentiality to use GIS to generate solutions. The second overriding characteristic is the dynamic nature of the concept. Conclusively, the essay sought to explore and examine the concept of cartography by the presented definition in the introductory paragraph. According to the findings of the article, cartography refers to the conceptualization, production, dissemination, and exploration of maps, as well as eventual representation through the entire mapping process. Cartography proves to be an essential component in the modern society. This is because of the influence of the concept of enabling human beings to facilitate overcoming of the potential issues affecting the society such as the continuous environmental issues.
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Cartography Name Institution Affiliation Cartography Cartography is the discipline of creation and interpretation of maps. It involves the processes of information gathering, analysis, and synthesizing data to create graphical representations of places. The discipline combines both scientific knowledge and expertise in art and technology to provide outlines of geographical and human-made structures with accuracy. Over the years, kill requirements in this field have evolved given that the conventional paper and pen representation has shifted to the use of the computer interface. This, therefore, means that cartographers need to have vast knowledge in a manipulation of digital data and use of the same to create images. This paper discusses cartography as a field of geography and its application in real life situations. To create maps, cartographers have to figure out some elements. Map production may be an activity of creation of maps from scratch or modification of pre-existing ones to include new features. In the modern era, almost all places are planned, which then means that a huge load of the work of today’s designers is updating information and addition of details. To transform huge volumes of geographical data into images requires the use of scales, mathematical calculations, and extreme computer modeling. The mapper also has to consider the question of how to convert features that exist on a spherical earth onto a flat screen or a piece of paper. This process encompasses the use of different shapes and colors to offer both aesthetic appeal and distinction of detail (Michael, 2010). The format of presentation of maps is of much importance to the cartographer as it is to users. Methods of presentation have evolved over the time due to the demands of technology and the widespread use of computers. Nevertheless, some maps end up as paper printouts or as products of lithography. The design has to be made in a way that allows for adequate visualization of the features according to specific needs of the user. There has been an increased use of Geographical Information Systems to display maps onto cell phones, virtual computer games and online diagramming programs. Cartography has a broad range of applications in the day-to-day living. Apart from the orthodox use of mapping to display roads and boundary demarcations, maps of much significance in weather forecasting illustrations, navigation and natural resource management. Interventions targeted to environmental conservation such as global warming, hurricanes, forest preservation and exploitation of minerals are possible with the use of maps. Cartography has also enabled rescue and resettling missions in places affected by natural calamities such as tsunamis. Accuracy determination of geographical terrains in topological maps and depths of the sea has facilitated navigation in an air and sea (Martin, Rob & Chris, 2011). Specialized types of plans have helped in many other fields of human activity and interaction with the environment. For instance, thematic maps have allowed identification of fertile soils for agriculture and description of human characteristics such as population. Geo-visualization, which involves the creation of image-centered maps in 3D orientation help in city planning, video gaming and tracking objects by use of satellite relay of data. With these applications, cartography has expanded human understanding of geographical phenomena (Martin, 2011). In conclusion, cartography has offered not only an additional career in the field of geography but also unveiled a new platform for appreciation of earth’s features. Despite the strides that have occurred in this discipline, it is still growing, and new methods of manipulation of maps continue to emerge. There is, therefore, an increasing need to invest in the study of maps to increase knowledge in this discipline and widen its applicability in solving problems that affect humanity.
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    Cloning and CARTOGRAPHY
    Basics of Statistics Name Institution Affiliation Basics of Statistics Statistics is a branch of science that involves the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Statisticians employ a variety of scientific methods to get a deeper understanding of data. Statistics aims at presenting data in such a way that it gives an immediate overall image of the data irrespective of the amount of data such as providing summarizations, predicting relationships of variables and making inferences. There are two types of statistical methods; the descriptive methods and the inferential methods. Illustrative methods entail collecting data through observational and case study methods. On the other hand, inferential statistical methods are used when we want to infer from the selected sample to represent the whole population (Barman, 2010). Data is broadly be classified into numerical and categorical data. Statistical data is quantifiable while categorical data describes observations that can only be sorted into groups but cannot be quantified. Numerical set of data is described by variability, shape, and center while the categorical set of data is described by use of frequency, proportion or percentages of each category. A variable refers to any characteristic of an entity or individual. It can be either quantitative or categorical. Nominal variables are categorical variables that do not have any inherent order or ranking for example names like of gender. The value may be numerical but have no numerical value, for instance, I, II. The only operation that can be attributed to this variable is the enumeration. Ordinal variables can be ranked or arranged for example good, better, best. They can be compared for equality but we are unable to know how much greater or less (Weiss, 2013). In interval variables, differences between the values are meaningful but not anchored. Examples are temperature and calendar dates. The only calculations that can be done on these values are addition and subtraction. In ratio presentation of data, variables possess properties of non-arbitrary zero point and interval for example age and weight. Distribution of a variable tells us what values the variable has and how often it takes those values. Distribution can be unimodal, bimodal or symmetric. Unimodal distribution has a single peak while bimodal has two peaks. In symmetric distribution the left and right, half are like mirror images (Weiss, 2013). Frequency distribution refers to a table that represents or shows the frequency or number of appearance of various outcomes in a sample. Every entry in that table has the count of occurrence of values in a given interval or group thus representing the distribution of the values in that sample. Frequency distribution accounts for a way of showing random data in summarized grouping of data put into mutually exclusive classes and the number of occurrences in each class. In cumulative frequency, frequencies are summed; it is a running summation of successive frequencies (David, E., 2011). Statisticians present data by use of two methods, either graphically or numerically. The graphical presentation uses pictorial ways to demonstrate the overall pattern and deviations such as shape, spread and the center of data. Outliers refer to the values that lie outside the overall pattern. Bar and pie charts are used to represent categorical variables while histograms, box plots, stem and leaf diagrams are used for numerical variables (Barman, 2010). In summary statistics, we use a central value for a given set of observations and to what level that median value represents the whole set of data. Measures of central tendency include the mean, the mode, and the median. In the calculation of the mean, all observations are summed and then the amount divided by the number of views. The median refers to the middle value when all the observations are ordered in a sequence.
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    Basics of Statistics Name Institution Affiliation Basics of Statistics Statistics is a branch of science that deals with the collection, analysis and description of data. This discipline is of great importance to mathematicians and scientific researchers. Statistics enables derivation of relationships between variables since causal relationships are inferred by use of analytical methods. The application of statistics goes beyond the field of science to cover other aspects such as determination of market trends, stock analysis and industrial production procedures. Therefore, statistics is an integral part of everyday operations of businesses and organizations. A discussion of the types of statistics, methods of data analysis, interpretation, and presentation, is discussed in this paper. Data is made up of raw facts collected and recorded for analysis. There are two main types of data, qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative data is that which exists in textual form. It contains the description of events, objects and places in word form. Quantitative data exists in numerical form and thus is measurable by use of statistical tools. The analytical approach for these two data types is different. For instance, inferential statistics, which mainly deal with the determination of causal relationships between quantifiable variables, use the quantitative form of data. Descriptive statistics, on the other hand, use qualitative data to define variables and establish facts about them. Data collection methods include interviews, use of questionnaires, observation, and experimentation. A collection of data occurs in simultaneously with recording. Recording techniques include the use of tables, tallying and filling in of questionnaires (Weiss, 2013). Statistics is a process rather than one-step procedure. The conventional procedure involves a series of processes whose result is the findings, which the researcher reports for further interpretation. In its initial stage, the scientist or mathematician identifies the problem or a gap in knowledge that exists in a given field. Once this occurs, the researcher chooses the population sample from which to collect data. Descriptive, analytical procedures are then carried out to define the characteristics of the variables and the findings from this analysis are applied in the solution of the research problem (Moore, 2010). Analysis of data gives more meaning to the raw facts. Analytical methods involve calculation of measures of central tendency, determination of data skewness and calculation of dispersion. Measures of central tendency are mean, mode and median. The mean gives an average of the number of occurrence of events. The mean is calculated by dividing the total value of the data entries by the cumulative frequency of these values. A centrally placed mean gives a symmetrical picture of distribution while a mean far off the central value gives an asymmetrical distribution, which can be skewed to the left, or the right depending on the value frequency. The median is the central value of data in a given variable while the mode is the value that exists with the most frequency in a data table. Measures of dispersion include variance and standard deviation. Variance shows the deviation of the data from the mean (Moore & McCabe, 2011). Presentation of data is a crucial part of the statistical process. This is so because the method used in presentation has an overall effect in determining the quality of the research. Methods of data presentation include the use of bar graphs, pie charts, and stem and leaf diagrams and the scatter plots. The type of method employed depends on the type data and the specifications of the research. Aesthetic appeal and simplicity of the presentation technique are important points of consideration in choosing one method over the other. For instance, it is more appropriate to present percentages of populations in a pie chart or a bar graph as compared to using a line graph. The intended purpose of the whole process of statistical analysis and data presentation is to influence decision-making and expand knowledge.
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    Atlántida Name Institution Atlántida Atlántida is the resort town located at the Cost de Oro found within the Canelones Department of Uruguay. The city is also located 45 kilometers east of Montevideo. Similarly, Atlántida is the same name for the municipality to which the town belongs. It also contains some few resorts to the east and to the north of the district where the city is found. Some of these resorts include Villa Argentina, City Golf, and Estacion Atlántida among others. Historical research reports that Atlántida was started during the commencement of the 20th century as a resort frequented and used by the elite class of Montevideo. The resort remained for that use until mid-1950 when other categories of people started using it. Further students reveal that the modern day Atlántida is a middle-class resort with a population of 4600 permanent residence. The leaders of Atlántida come up with the first plans for a resort in the municipality in 1911. They then started parceling and selling of lots in the following year. The first hotel called Hotel Las Tacos was built in 1913, and in 1915, the Hotel took over the name Atlántida. The development at the resort and it beaches developed tremendously from 1939 onwards when a wealthy Italian business person bought, prepared and sold the unsold pieces of land left in the region. The modern day Atlántida is a beach resort, which is popular and frequented by the tourist of all occupations. The region has a high turnover of visitors during summer and other seasons. However, the beaches remain deserted during winter because of the cold nature of the period. The website hosted by the leaders of the region defines Atlántida as a paradise composed of a unique gastronomy and a welcoming place. Similarly, Atlántida is described as a place with rich tradition, Garifuna culture and abundant nature (visitatlantida.com, 2016). The area also boasts of fun adventures in beautiful beaches located in protected areas. Tourist destinations include beautiful white sand beach resorts such as Tela and La Ceiba. Another region frequented by visitors is the Cangrejal River Valley (visitatlantida.com, 2016). Similarly, all the tourists who are seeking adventurous activities can enjoy extreme sports in La Ceiba. Some of the adventures include deep sea diving in the Cayos Cochinos in this area. The divers have the opportunity to enjoy beautiful sceneries such as colorful coral reefs growing at the seabed. They can also enjoy Sambo Creek Canopy Tour at the same venue. The Cangrejal River Valley also provides it tourist with the ability to enjoy a canopy tour as well (Atlántida, 2016). On the same note, the tourist who would like to enjoy sandy beaches while relaxing under the sun can do so by visiting Tela and La Ceiba beaches. At Tela Beach, visitors are assured of beautiful beaches coupled with other activities such as horseback riding (Bonsignore, 2012). While still visiting Tela, the tourist can also visit the Punta Sal Nation l Park to experience an incredible view of nature best. The tourists who love nature can enjoy a variety of activity such as hiking Pico Bonito, canopy tour and watching animals and birds at the Nombre de Dios National Park all at the Cangrejal River Valley. Other nature lovers can also visit the Cacao Lagoon, Punta Izopo National Park, Cueroy Salado Wildlife Refuge, Eco-tourism firm in Atlántida, Los Micos Lagoon, and Lancetilla Botanical Gardens among others. (visitatlantida.com, 2016).
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    Assignment 1: Network Consultation for DesignITDue Week 10 and worth 200 points This assignment contains two (2) Sections: Network Consultation Proposal and Network Consultation Presentation. You must submit both sections as separate files in order to complete this assignment. The owners of DesignIT, who recently purchased 56'x36' space for their expanding business, have asked you to place a bid on a consulting job. DesignIT is a graphic arts company that, up until now, had contracted work out to temporary design services. The new space will allow them to hire two (2) full time designers and a receptionist. Description of space purchased: 4 Cubicles 1 Office 1 Server room 1 Reception desk 1 Conference room Below is the design of the space purchased: iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAIAAAACCAIAAAD91JpzAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAAlwSFlz AAAOvgAADr4B6kKxwAAAABNJREFUGFdj/P//PwMDAxMQAwEAJAYDAYOuHGIAAAAASUVORK5C YII=
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    Assessment Tools Name Institution Assessment Tools Nurses are the medical professionals who take part in caring for patients. They spend more time with patients more than any other medical professionals do. To do their work efficiently, they should be able to assess and evaluate their clients at different stages of life health illnesses and stress stages and states. In the same note for them to be able to conduct such assessments, they need to use different tools for assessments. In so doing the nurses ensure that, they choose an assessment tool that is suitable for each patient age group and a group of patients. Therefore, this paper is an analysis of different assessment tools that nurses can use to help them achieve practical assessments with their patients. Adult Life Stress Measurement Research shows that many adults o through different stress factors that affect their lives differently. Some element that brings massive stress in adult’s lives includes family stress such as failed marriages, single parenthood to some extent, relationships between young adults, underachievement, joblessness, inadequate resources to bring up their children and support their families fully among others (Harknness & Monroe, 2016). Therefore, nurses usually need to refer to adult life stress measurement inventories to know the steps to take when helping parents or adults with anxiety disorders. The list helps the nurses to effective address the levels and types of stress for every patient because they each person goes through life differently hence they encounter different factors that lead to stress in their lives. One such inventory in the adult stress management tool id Becks depression inventory that is an assessment tool that nurses used to assess the levels of stress in their patients. This tool is applicable in various nursing procedures for stress management because it is cheap and easy to use. Many health organizations have allowed their nurse to make use of the adult life stress management tool as a method of managing stress because it is easy to understand. By using this tool, nurses are able to work together with their patients to come u with the right methods of intervention. On the same note, nurses understand that some of the tools for addressing stress-based issues have different financial impacts on their organizations, therefore, they help their managers to choose the best procedure that are affordable and helps them to ensure patient safety. Therefore, this tool is one that helps nurse to achieve these priorities. On the same note, the tool makes it possible for the nurse to provide adequate metal health procedures for the patients (Harknness & Monroe, 2016). The adult stress management tool is suitable for people from the age of 18 years and above because this is the bracket when a person is considered an adult. The adult stress management tool is valuable in helping the nurse because it gives criteria for the nurse to assess the levels of stress in each patient. The tool is important in helping the nurse to make effective conclusions that will get them come up with effective intervention procedures as well as resources that are suitable for each patient. On the same note, it makes it possible for a nurse to ensure that they do not rely on hearsay and past medical records only to help the patient. Similarly, the adult life stress management tool is also valuable in assisting the nurse in choosing the right medication for managing all the symptoms and other medical and life threatening conditions brought about by stress (Harknness & Monroe, 2016). Perceived stress scale This is an assessment tool that nurses use to determine the levels at which their patients perceive stress. Research has shown that different patients understand stress at different levels. Hence, nurses need an assessment tool that can help them to investigate such levels of stress perceptions. A perceived stress scale is an evaluation tools that s suitable for both young and old adults. The apparatus is appropriate for young adults because the nurse can use it to assess levels of stress perception among school goers (Matheny, Aycock, Curlette, & Junker, 1993). They can also use the tool the tool to find out the best resources that they can use to help the young adults deal with the issues that stress their lives. The perceived stress scale is a tool that nurse can use to help adults deal with stress issues. As stated before, adults experience stress at different levels. On the same note, various factors make adults experience stress. Nurse, therefore, need a tool that they can use to help the identification the levels to which adults experience stress (Matheny, Aycock, Curlette, & Junker, 1993). Nurse have also found the tool be readily applicable in the lives of various adult patients they encounter on a daily basis. On the same note, the cost of using this tool is bearable to the health organizations. Hence, their nurse finds it appropriate to take advantage of it.
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    Argumentative Essay Name Institution Bullying as True Drama The article titled “Bullying as True Drama” tells the story of how different teenagers get bullied in various parts of the nation. One thing that is true about the story is that many youths experience bullying in various points in their lives. One place where this form of abuse occurs is usually in school settings. Many of them get bullied at school by their fellow teenagers. The worst thing is those most of the teens who get bullied fail to report the same. In fact, many teens indeed view bullying as a form of drama that goes on in their daily lives. They feel that bullying is a method used by weaker people who want to seek attention and appear dominant over others. They fail to recognize the adverse effects that such abuse could have in their lives. Similarly just as the article points out, many teenagers tend to downplay the existence and the effects of bullying in their daily lives (Marwick & Boyd). On the same note, the students who bully others also fear being recognized as abusers because of the emotional conflicts that such recognition would spur in their lives. The same case goes for students who are bullied. A greater percentage of them fail to come out as victims of abuse because they fear to be on the spot for victimization circumstances. Such teenagers are the ones who also aid the need to downplay the existence of bullying in schools. They fear being seen as being weak sand defeated. The bullying story reported in the article is one example of the adverse and extreme nature of bullying in schools. Just lie the victim in the article many teenagers suffer harmful effects of bullying. Those who encounter such abuses report them to necessary authorities but no action is taken to deal with the reported cases (Marwick & Boyd). Research studies reveal that most teenagers experience bullying and take the initiative to report the same either to their parents or the necessary authorities. However, the authorities lack the necessary means and resources to handle cases of bullying among teenagers. In fact, studies have revealed that most complaints of harassment by student go unpunished. The systems of education do not have the most appropriate methods of handling such cases of abuse in schools. Most perpetrators in schools walk scot free because of lack of necessary means for solving such cases. Schools lack adequate methods of handling such cases because of the way the public, as well as the law, expect them to deal with children. Most schools are expected to address the children delicately and not punish them since the citizens view punishments as methods of harassing the children (Marwick & Boyd). In many cases, bullying is neither classified as a criminal or civil offense. Therefore, it is hard to the law enforcement officers to deal with such issues. On the same not, parents cannot also use different rules to help the authorities in school and in public to solve such problems. The same parents also lack the necessary resources, laws, and means of dealing with cases of bullying as reported by their children. Many parents usually report bullying cases back to the schools in which their children attend hoping that the administration with handle abusive situations efficiently. To their dismay, school authorities do nothing in an attempt to solve such problems. The escalating cases of bullying in schools are due to lack of the necessary method of resolving them. One can effectively argue that the law has played a role in the existence of bullying because they have not formulated legislation to help teachers and parents handle such cases efficiently. It is true that both parents and educators would want to help teenager tackle bullying issues. However, they lack the necessary platforms to help them solve the cases.
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    Alter Ego Name Instructor Alter Ego Many psychology professionals who deal with the aspects of personality have states that each person can have two or more different character. Apparently, the various character characters that exist in people can manifest themselves different at different points. On the same note, the various personality types also exhibit different characteristics. For example, one can be calm; the other can be destructive while another can be less temperamental. Psychologists have given this phenomenon the name alter ego. Alter ego is defined as the other self, which can be destructive in nature. Some analyst reports that the alter ego presents different personality traits to those that a person has. For example, is a person is destructive, the alter ego will be polite and calm. The vice versa is also true for people with gentle personality traits. Its means their alter egos will be destructive. Research shows that alter ego cannot be acquired by changing one's personality. However, it starts from birth and ends at death. The ability to portray two different sides of a person is also called split personality (Robert, 2006). The people who show split personality are said to have the split personality disorder. This type if ego is distinctively different from a person’s normal personality. Further studies reveal that the term alters ego was first used in the 19th century when psychologists first described numerous reported cases of dissociative identity disorders. On the other hand, a psychology named Cisco also used the term in his work and described it as a second self who is a trusted friend. Other studies also reveal that the existence of a different personality within the same person was made evident by the psychologist separated the different characteristics in 1730. The psychologist named Anton Mesmer used hypnosis to separate the slit or alter ego that existed in his client. While doing the experiment, Anton realized that the other egos had different personality types under hypnosis which were distinct from the ones that the person had before being hypnotized (Wang, 2013). Furthermore, the experiment also showed that the individual exhibited different behaviors under hypnosis from that he had in the waking state. The results of the research revealed that a different character had evolved into the same person when he was in an altered state. Therefore, it showed the existence of the alter ego or the existence of a second personality that exist within the same body. Another existence of an alter ego is found in different literary works of art where the author have aimed to explain the fact that people can have two different personalities. One example is a book written by Daniele Steel titled “Tell me Your Dreams”. The main character in the story had three distinct personality traits. In her usual self, she was a polite and quiet person. However, at some point, she could be a serial killer and identify herself with another named. Another literary piece of art that aimed to explain the existence of alter ego or split personality in the same body was the thriller titled “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” written by Robert Louise Stevenson. This play aimed to reveal the existence of two different personalities in one person. It also intended to indicate that a person could be good and evil or destructive at the same time. Similarly, the author aimed to bring out the concept of good and wrong existing n the same person. He explained that these two opposing personality traits are always at war with one another. One character trait always aims to overtake the other, and the predominant one will always win under different situations. In the play, Edward Hyde is the alter ego of the doctor. Mr. Hyde is the complete opposite of the physician. A psychopath cannot be restrained by the conventions and circumstances of the society and shares the same body with the excellent doctor (Cooer, 2007). Other pieces of literary work that also aim to show the existence of an alter ego are the comic books about superheroes. These books reveal that superheroes possess other identities that are more humane and do what normal humans do A psychologist has come up with a different method of treating helping people with alter egos. They also refer to the condition as split personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder. The major method that has been used for a long time is hypnosis. However, some psychologists have used other conventional methods such as medication. Research reveals that counselors need to be careful in using the best method to help people with split personality disorders. It is vital for psychologists to use a combination of treatment methods to identify the other self that might be destructive in nature. Some people also aim to states that psychotherapy is the best method of identifying and if possible isolating the destructive identities that exist in the same person.
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    1.lsichangi16@gmail.com2.lwanjoya14@gmail.com3.rtanumwetr17@gmail.com4.jkipsitet18@gmail.com5.jsomboror19@gmail.com6.jwanjala21@gmail.com7.gnyongesa67@gmail.com8.gmasika59@gmail.com9.fmasika95@gmail.com10.bkironget34@gmail.com11.fsakong74@gmail.com12.dkimtai55@gmail.com13.btemuko93@gmail.com14.rkuboi76@gmail.com15.dtanimwet83@gmail.com16.ssiyoi80@gmail.com17.lkipkaria21@gmail.com18.imakesi54@gmail.com19.dkhalayi41@gmail.com20.rnekesa87@gmail.com21.rnamacha19@gmail.com22.imasaai63@gmail.com23.mtemnai54@gmail.com24.gsichei81@gmail.com25.mchemayek81@gmail.com26.cpsitet76@gmail.com27.kmatui98@gmail.com.      28.moyiela49@gmail.com29.amasaai56@gmail.com30.snasimiyu67@gmail.com31.pchepkwemoi59@gmail.com32.dchemoss43@gmail.com33.wndiwa14@gmail.com34.dwangila31@gmail.com35.jjeremiah342@gmail.com36.hkirua19@gmail.com37.elumbasi89@gmail.com38.pchesiro54@gmail.com39.rchengun65@gmail.com40.pkipande43@gmail.com41.nsaiwa51@gmail.com42.lpsitet@gmail.com44.echesebe57@gmail.com45.akimtai27@gmail.com46.fbarasa25@gmail.com47.kmaiba98@gmail.com48.lchesomek23@gmail.com
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    Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Labor rights for Mexicans and Mexican Americans After the World War II, Mexicans had a significant history since many of the Mexicans and Mexicans Americans experienced a shift in the lives. The transition of mention in this essay is the fact that they acquired rights to live and work in America. The development of such conditional positions developed from the fact that they had the unique opportunity to joining Americans in the war that had just ended (Rodolfo 300). This essay is a presentation of the unique labor rights that such a population enjoyed between the years of 1940-1960. Additionally, a discussion is formulated around the Bracero program and the immigration and organization during the Cold War / Red Scare Era. The expansion of the American government to acquire the Mexican territories resulted in an economic depression for many Mexico-American populations. The case to argue is that the inconsiderate American government had grabbed their lands. As a result, many f the people located near the American territories wanted a source of income to support their basic needs. In this view, there was the consideration to accommodate the poor Mexican American population. As a result, they were accommodated into the American soils with conditions that they were to follow to the later. In simple terms would agree that they were not conditions but rules to follow. Genuinely, there is the intuition that developed during the same period (Vicki 198). This is that: - the more desperate a worker seemed, the cheaper their labor would become. Thus, they adopted the term the foreign laborer given the fact that they worked more productively for fewer wages. In light of the discussion presented by the Mexican American workers, there is need to discuss the foreign policy that allowed the Mexican laborers to work in American. Signed in the year 1943, the Bracero Agreement was a program that targeted to permit the Mexican communities to work in the United States of America. The agreement was signed between the American and the Mexican government. Importantly, the agreement was in the interests of the American government given the fact that it targeted to boost the American economy (Vicki 294). Notably, it worked to establish agricultural production for the lands acquired in the Mexican territory. In this view, it is important to mention that the Bracero Program defined the Mexican American labor rights. A good way to justify such an argument develops from the fact that Mexicans who were allowed to work in the United States of America were not permitted to engage in the military services of any kind. This meant that such persons were only workers who participated in other activities and sectors of production in America. As a result, the groups of employees were not to be subjected to any form of discrimination. This means that the Mexican American populations were entitled to enjoy equal rights with the American citizens in the USA. Additionally, the American government gave provision that enhanced obligatory fulfillment by the employers of these people (Vicki 184). For instance, there were the provisions that the employers would have to provide transport for the workers from their place of work to their residency. In simple terms, it was the responsibility of the employer to make sure that his workers arrived to work on time. Another essential element of the provision in the Bracero Program was that the Mexican American workers would be catered for regarding clothing and medical services. On the same note, they were accorded the right to proper shelter that includes clean lodgings. The issue of wages was included in the agreement as justified by the fact that workers were to be paid in full of the agreed amount. The provision warned against the deductions of the agreed amount whatsoever the case. A significant segment of the agreements was that it supported contract writing in Spanish for effective comprehension by the worker populations (Rodolfo 176). Importantly, the Bracero Program also addressed the issue of a minor laborer in the sense that it prohibited allocation of work to children under the age of 14years. On the contrary, it supported educational programs for such children. The other important matter of discussion is the fact that the Bracero Program secured and protected Mexicans and Mexican Americans significantly. The segments provided in the program enhanced the level of education for both the groups. Notably, there was no room for racial segregation or discriminative acts. Importantly, the labor rights that were granted by the program also protected the laborers from the Red Scare Era. A point to note, it was a period that was characterized by major suspicion and brutality from law enforcement agencies who wanted to eliminate the possibility of disloyalty to the American government. Thus, there were increased surveillance from the American government on foreign laborers given the fact that they feared that communists would overthrow their government. Works Cited Rodolfo, Acuña. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos, Pearson, 8th edition. New Jersey: Person, 2014. Print. Vicki, Ruiz. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.
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  • Tertiary education
    Much photojournalism is not art
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Subject DD MM YYYY Much photojournalism is not art. According to Arthur Danto's views, artwork refers to a symbolic expression that relates to the transfiguration of a commonplace. The traditional artwork was characterized by capturing the culture and social activities. Based on Danto's views, the art world involved reading and interpreting concerns regarding how they appeared. It contained hidden meaning that criticized political, economic, social or environmental issues. . Art is a critical analysis of events to figure out the actual meaning. Danto defined artwork as the aspect that focuses on design that triggers criticism and establishment of art theory. The second view of art is describing it as a window of viewing culture and its daily activities (Whitney 30). Arthur Danto explains that photography is a full art because it involves the transformation of change over time. The only difference between art and photos is that photographing does not include technical work such as painting. Photography traces everything in nature clearly as the artwork. Both photography and painting have the potential of exposing bits, pieces and instances between moments thus making the visual and optic truth derive similar or related meaning. Since the camera freezes events that happen faster than eyes could see it gives complete truth that includes small bits and series (Whitney 37). The painting portrays the same in essence of visible moments thus making the image progressive. According to Arthur Danto, a photographer presents what is thereby capturing reality (Whitney 35). A painter can present similar events as well as use imaginations to reveal things other than how they were. Conclusively, Danto's views cannot apply since current technologies on photography have taken much of human issues such as marriage, revealing the purpose of life and meaning of various events in real life such as sports. Both photography as good as art and both mean the same in presentations. Current photography is an imitation of beautiful scenes as well as significant designs, and Arthur Danto's views cannot apply.
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  • Tertiary education
    Much photojournalism is not art
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Subject Date of Submission Much Photojournalism is not Art Art and photojournalism are closely related elements that need an expert to differentiate. Many philosophers before him postulated many definitions on what art is and how to differentiate it from photography. However, Danto defines art as embodied meanings. He argues works of art prompts in viewers’ acts of elucidation premeditated at grasping the envisioned implication the works embody. The work of art is therefore, placeless and timeless, its status as an embodied meaning calling for interpretation depends on established way of conceiving art. Photojournalism on the hand is the practice and process of communicating news via photographs particularly in magazines and newspapers. This practice is often mistaken for artwork. However, with Danto’s views, it becomes easy to differentiate what a photograph is against an art. Unlike arts of work, photographs are not timeless or placeless (Danto 573). Unless one is aware of the place a photograph is taken, it may not be easy to decipher meaning from them. Photographs just like news become after with time. Decision on what constitute an art is therefore mainly based on placeless and timelessness according to Danto’s views. Much photojournalism therefore does not qualify to be regarded as art since understanding the message from a photograph often requires caption unlike in artworks. Even though photographs can be produced mechanically, Danto’s views still apply. Unlike in arts, photojournalism should portray the truth via image at the moment it is taken. This truth is however is however boosted much to the doubt of real truth (Evans 34). Conclusively, ability of truth to be enhanced in photojournalism is a corroboration of Danto’s views since truth in artworks cannot be boosted by all means. Works Cited Danto, Arthur. “The artworld.” The journal of philosophy, 61.19 (1964): 571-584
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  • Tertiary education
    Much photojournalism is not art
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Subject DD MM YYYY Much photojournalism is not art Arthur Danto's views claim that artwork is not only a matter of photo taking. It provides qualities of artwork to enable anyone decide on distinguishing most artworks and the photographs. Any other definition of art must meet the set criteria, including artifacts and performances or intentional endowment by the artists, with a substantial level of aesthetic interest. There is a great assumption that of most objects, that any unique presentation of a two or three-dimensional object is artwork (Athur 67). The second criterion is that the object must be partially but not fully logical to cultural outsiders (Athur 77). This means they are almost completely transparent in the sight of viewers. Mechanical production of photographs provide opportunities for adding artistic features to it, hence, it becomes non-comprehensible to outsiders. Artworks also have non-aesthetic or religious functions. Any piece of image that is easily recognizable and conceivable is a photograph, not an art. Most of the objects seen in the normal life are in principle noticeable and comprehensible (Stern 78). This means that what is literally viewed by the naked eye cannot b vividly felt through a photograph .When proper interpretation of a photograph is carried out, the final determinant is usually the observer since the feelings invocated by the same photograph may vary. In most cases, what is presented by photography may not clearly capture the true definition of art whereas artistically painters get true feeling as they paint. Traditionally, a normal artwork is purposely artistic and equipped by their designers with special properties, every so often, sensory. Artworks have a substantial level of aesthetic interest, normally superior to many objects. With the possibility of photographs being mechanically reproduced, Danto's views still apply. The mechanical process simply generates art rather than photograph when maker knows the hidden meaning of the object. Works Cited Athur, Danto. What Art Is Art. Yale: Yale University Press, 2013. Stern, Laurent. Interpretive Reasoning. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2018.
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    The Film Artist and Ideology & Race and Gender
    Name Instructor Course Date The Film Artist and Ideology & Race and Gender Film Artist Sarris breaks down the auteur theory into three main aspects. That an auteur should know the technical aspects of film-making, express his personality in the film, and express some interior meaning in some of the interactions or events of the film. On the other hand, Wollen posits that a director who can be described as an auteur is one that uses a particular style when directing movies; hence it is very easy to tell movies of a particular director because of the unique style. On the same note, Wollen says that a little-known director may make quality movies because of adopting unique and personal styles, which may not follow the convention. From these two descriptions, I think Wollen explains the auteur theory best because he tries to explain why Hollywood gained prominence over the French film industry, which was at one point led the cinema industry. The reason given is that the French mainly adhered to particular themes and discouraged individual freedom to express themselves or adopt personal styles. On the contrary, Hollywood did not limit film directors from being creative and trying out personal styles and ideas. I believe that there is a relationship between quality film and the director’s freedom and limitation. Specifically, when a director is limited, it means that they cannot try out new ideas or concepts. Rather, they are confined to a particular way of doing things. Therefore, the quality of film may never improve. On the other hand, if directors have more freedom, they tend to be creative, use their imagination, and consequently, the quality of film may improve. To a large extent, I agree with Christensen that movies are symbols of certain events, ideas, or concepts. However, I disagree with the idea that all films are corporate art, meant to generate profit. Most films are meant to entertain and act as tools where people express themselves or show their imagination. The symbolism can be real or abstract. Nevertheless, movies cannot be solely viewed as money-minting pieces of art. Race and Gender Diawara’s “Black Spectatorship” article is a reaction on how black people feel about the representation of characters in films. He observes that in most movies, black people are portrayed as wrongdoers while the whites are always presented as heroes, and that it is appalling that black people are expected to watch and learn from the themes presented in the movies. According to Diawara, that is racial stereotyping and he represents how many black people feel about the roles black actors are given in films. “The Oppositional Gaze: Black Female Spectators” also delves into the issue of race, and specifically narrows down on the issue of black women representation in the film industry. Hooks laments that black women are not represented enough in the film industry. Although there are efforts to address equality, white women are seemingly preferred more than black women because of the existing racial stereotypes. “Lighting for Whiteness” elicits an interesting conversation in regard to lighting and shooting films. Dyer says that photographers and film-makers often suggest that cameras were invented with white people in mind; hence photographing non-white people is a problem. This is seemingly the reason, which is given to exclude black people from the cinema or some scenes from movies. According to Dyer, this reason is not strong enough, and it is evident that there are insidious strategies to limit the number of black people in the film industry. The Moonlight film was shot with the aim of challenging the stereotypes against black people. The movie has an all-black cast, both male and female actors, and there is no problem with the lighting. The movie has won several awards, underpinning the argument that black people may be unfairly discriminated against in the film industry.
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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