Result of "ART"

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    Smart Clothes
    Smart Clothes Student’s Name Institution Smart Clothes Introduction Customers constitute the foundation of any successful business venture. Satisfaction of customer demand is also central to the development of a business strategy (Bogati, 2017). This is because businesses are set up with the primary motive of making profits through the provision of goods and services that meet market demands. Business managers who take their time to understand the psychological construct of their potential market put themselves in an excellent position to develop products that address customer demand. The objective of this research is to assess the business mentioned above through the lens of Smart Clothes. Chen et al. (2016) posit that smart clothes entail a combination of textiles and technology with the aim of creating products with functional features to satisfy daily activities. i. Need Integration of sensors in the fabric of smart clothes gives garments the ability to read the functioning of a consumer’s body (Chen et al., 2016). Manufacturers ought to base the production of smart clothes on customer needs. In this regard, the final product should satisfy the needs of customers while improving their quality of life and as well solving their problem for which it was intended at the point of manufacture. Hwang, Chung, & Sanders (2016) assert that while putting on the cloth, the consumer should be able to experience strength, safety, and confidence. From a business perspective, companies involved in the production if smart clothes should be guided by the desire to supply to the market products that guarantee consumers effectiveness with how they address their core needs. Moreover, they should carry out extensive research to establish the primary needs of the consumers putting smart clothes. In the findings of Bogati (2017), companies cannot afford to underestimate the vitality of meeting consumer needs, particularly those serving in the apparels sector. Companies that track their customer satisfaction metrics eventually succeed in deepening the loyalty of customers to their brands. Loyal customers are business treasures that businesses ought to hold onto in the hope of increasing presence of their products in the market. Customer satisfaction serves as an adequate safeguard to a company against competition in the market. In the current business environment defined by intense competition, it is crucial for businesses to keep track of their core client bases and endeavor to give them the highest quality of services. ii. Smartness Smart clothes, according to Chen et al. (2016) come with sensors which can monitor human bodies. The sensors may either form part of the core fabric of the garment or applied externally to the cloth. The sensors are designed to come to make contact with the wearer’s skin thus increasing their ability to read body signals and monitor heart and breathing rates and temperature. On this basis, therefore, customers expect that the sensors contribute to the smartness of the clothes by being accurate and reproducible (Hwang, Chung, & Sanders, 2016). Additionally, manufacturers should insert specific and reliable sensors in the clothes. Smartness of the clothes will be further enhanced when the sensors are high signal effectiveness rather than noise. Moreover, consumers expect that sensors fitted in the clothes can store power for considerable periods and are easier to recharge. Significantly, companies ought to assure consumers sensors in the clothes are capable of securing private personal information detected on the human bodies (Chen et al., 2016). In the same vein, data in the sensors should be able to read on various platforms. Companies should endeavor to ensure that consumers get the best services from the products they are offering to them. Abdelkader & Lakhdar (2015) insist that consumer perceptions on a given product determine the strength of the product in the marketplace. Importantly, smart cloth companies should work to produce apparels that meet the desires of the current consumer if they endeavor to keep a firm hold on the market. Stylish clothes, according to fashion experts, signify the future of clothing. iii. Functionality Functionality resides at the core of the production of smart clothes. From the consumers’ point of view, companies involved in the making of smart clothes should strengthen their functionality by making sure that the sensor interface is intuitive to operate. In this case, it should be able to produce intuitive and useful output that will help the customer to understand the functioning of their bodies. Hwang, Chung & Sanders (2016), stress that usability of the clothes, additionally, relies on the location of the sensors on the garments. Customers, according to studies conducted, prefer that the sensors inserted in a manner that makes them discrete. Smart clothes makers should set the prices that are affordable by the ordinary customer in a bid to expand their usability. The factors below are essential in guiding manufacturers in the determination of the costs of smart clothes while placing the customer in mind: Customers By carrying a market survey, a company will be able to understand customers’ expectations regarding smart clothes. Further, the survey will be instrumental in ascertaining the real factors that drive consumer behavior. A market survey is crucial in understanding what pricing and value of the product play in the consumer purchase decision-making process (Abdelkader & Lakhdar, 2015). In relation to smart clothes, the information gathered from the field is essential in making changes to their products with the purpose of releasing to the market goods that meet the requirements of consumers. Market Positioning Once Smart clothes companies survey to establish the exact demands of their potential consumers will embark on the process of identifying a suitable market position. It can help locate the right avenue through which they can enter the market. Knowledge acquired at this point plays an essential role in the determination of the right price to sell their smart clothes. Furthermore, according to Bogati (2017), proper market positioning will help the companies to fend off competition from potential rivals who may pose a threat to their market space. It is also important to realize that marketing position will render a particular smart clothes company as the leading player in a given market segment thus growing their profit margins. iv. Usability In the observation of Chen et al. (2016), consumers want smart clothes that fit their bodies comfortably, thus making them appear intelligent. Besides, the clothes should able to move in tandem with respective body motions like bending, stretching and compressing. Consumers expect companies to demonstrate value for their money by producing garments that satisfy are easy to wash, long-lasting and ideal weight to move around in. Studies support the understanding the clothes should be comfortable enough to allow wearers proper spacing. Abdelkader & Lakhdar (2015) place usability of the final product at the center of customer satisfaction. It, additionally, helps to attract consumers to the products offered by a given company. In this regard, smart clothes manufacturers should endeavor to produce garments that can easily be worn by people of all ages, including those with disabilities. Importantly, the clothes should contribute significantly to making the wearer look smart. This step underscores the need for manufacturers to critically consider the needs of the customers mention earlier in the study. Conclusion Smart clothes – a product of the fusion of technology and textile – represent a significant transformation in the clothing industry. Findings of several studies support to strengthen the understanding the smart clothes carry the future of clothing. Companies making smart clothes continue to churn even smarter designs. Smart clothes do not only facilitate customers in the definition their personalities, but they also contribute significantly towards getting a more profound understanding of who they are. This implies that smart clothes have the potential to shape peoples’ relationship with their bodies while improving their health. From a business viewpoint, manufacturers ought to place the customer at the heart of the business process. It can play an essential role in developing products that serve the real demands of the market.  
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    The ethics of Wal-Mart
    The ethics of Wal-Mart Student Name Institutional Affiliation The Ethics of Wal-Mart Is Wal-Mart causing the demise of the independent retailer? Wal-Mart is one of the leading brands in retail stores in America as well as around the world. Deagon (2018) refers to Wal-Mart as the largest brick and mortar retail enterprise globally. Wal-Mart is also famous for its related low prices for items on sale, which makes it the most competitive retailer in the country and abroad. As compared to Target, Wal-Mart turnover sales in two and half months equal what Target records in 12 months. Other competing retailers combined, especially those operating in physical locations, cannot beat Wal-Mart in record sales, profit margins, number of employees, number of store locations and branches. Hyken (2017) indicates that Wal-Mart has a 10% stake in the retail store market share which is the largest. The growth and success of Wal-Mart have been a threat to the other retail stores who struggle with brand performance. In August 2016, Wal-Mart introduced an online store through the acquisition of Jet.com (Deagon, 2018). This further threatened Amazon who had enjoyed dominance in online retail methods. Wal-Mart recorded in 2017 sales turnover of over 500 billion dollars which makes it the largest retail store brand both online and having physical locations. With such performance, Wal-Mart is able to control the prices of products from its suppliers so as to maintain significance in terms of the retail prices. According to Deagon (2018), Wal-Mart has threatened conventional retail stores like JC Penny, Kmart and Sears Holdings which faced a terminal end to their operations across the country. There were 7000 stores that were listed as the on-location stores that faced closure; the figure was triple the number of stores that closed in 2016. The success of Wal-Mart, which Deagon (2018) indicates is at an all-time high, is causing other retailers to go out of business. The other fact is that the wide reach of Wal-Mart store network is the largest, with 70% of Americans living within a 5-mile radius of a Wal-Mart retail store. Is Wal-Mart Good for Canada? American retailers such as Target have notably failed in their attempts to introduce their retail service brands in Canada. However, Wal-Mart has proven to have the best fit for the Canadian retail store market. There are several strategies that have enabled Wal-Mart to find an easy entry. Heller (2015) states that the entrance of Wal-Mart into Canada witnessed the American retail giant acquiring 122 Woolco location-based stores. In 1994, Woolco was performing well as compared to Zellers which were acquired by Target. According to Schafer (2015), Wal-Mart started with relatively smaller stores that had exceptional performance in terms of management systems. Wal-Mart took a considerable amount of time to gain the confidence of the Canadian customers before building up to its current stature. This move created some sort of credibility in the Canadian retail store industry. Wal-Mart has exhibited trust in the Canadian labor force by hiring all Canadian employees in their Canadian stores. Upon acquisition of WoolCo, Wal-Mart hired the entire workforce including the President of WoolCo (Schaffer, 2015). The continuation of tenure has added credibility to Wal-Mart as American brand that can perform with non-American employees. Currently, Wal-Mart treats Canadian stores as part of their international division with a large percentage having Canadian nationalities. Wal-Mart had managed to introduce the low-priced and discounted items that are associated with the Wal-Mart retail store brand. This has been welcomed in Canada. This provided consistency, in that customer who had interacted with Wal-Mart while in America are still likely to find low priced goods in Canada. According to Heller (2015), the American brands tend to take advantage of customers abroad by raising the price of retail items, probably factoring in the cost of shipping. Wal-Mart does the contrary by retailing at competitive prices, sometimes looking at beating other Canadian retail stores.  
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  • Tertiary education
    Critiquing an article
    Critiquing an article The research article entitled “Association between cardiovascular events and sodium-containing effervescent, disperable, and soluble drugs: nested case-control study” was authored by Jacob George, Waseem Majeed, Isla S. Mackenzie, Thomas M. MacDonald and Li Wei and deals about the relationship between the incidence of cardiovascular events and intake of drugs containing sodium as compared to the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients taking the same drugs but are non-sodium formulations. A report by the Institute of Medicine in 2010 suggests that a reduction of sodium intake to the recommended levels could prevent cases of hypertension, save healthcare funds and improves quality life years. The central hypothesis was: patients taking drugs containing sodium formulations could increase the risk of cardiovascular events as compared to patients taking the same drugs but with no-sodium contents. The study was performed to determine the association of sodium formulation to the incidence of cardiovascular events. Title The title of the article accurately described the content of the study, the particular aim that the authors would like to pursue and the type of study that would be used. It can also draw attraction for readers to continue reading because their interests can be stimulated by the mere title alone. Abstract The abstract was informative and clearly provided a good synopsis of the purpose, methods of study, results and the conclusion of the study. It also described what to look for if the reader decided to continue reading the article. It provided vital information of the study, including the statistical findings and the formed conclusion. Introduction The authors have provided good background information about the topic and evidences on why the topic was worth studying. It also stated evidences for the need of the study and the aims and rationale that the authors wanted to pursue. Method The research was a nested case-control study using the United Kingdom’s CPRD (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) database which contains data of primary care practices from January 1987 to December 2010. The study population was comprised of residents in the United Kingdom who were registered with their physician for more than one contact during the above-specified period. The study patients consisted of patients aged 18 years and above who had received at least two prescriptions of drugs with sodium-formulation or the matched non-sodium formulation of the same drugs. Included in the selection of drugs were drugs that had over 1000 prescriptions in the entire database. Patients included in the study were those who were prescribed with sodium-formulation or the standard formulation of the drug within the study period. Their cases were followed-up until December 2010 and those who died, had an outcome event, switched drugs or left the practice within the study period were censored. Excluded in the study were patients who were diagnosed with malignancy, salt wasting conditions, malabsorption syndromes or had history of drug and alcohol abuse prior to the entry date. The sample was big enough as it included patients from 1987 to 2010. The selection of the study sample was less biased as it concentrated on a subset of controls from the study cohorts (Sedgwick 2014) in comparing the effects of sodium-formulated against the standard formulation of the same drugs. Furthermore, the study addressed a clearly focused issue, which is the association of sodium-containing drugs to the incidence of cardiovascular events. In analysing the collected statistics, the study used conditional logistic regression which is effective in investigating the associations between an event (cardiovascular event) or a nonevent and a set of prognostic factors (sodium-containing formulation and non-sodium containing formulations of the same drugs); and in cases with small analysis strata (Pearce 2016). There were some confounding variables in the study, such as smoking and patient’s diet, which could have affected the results of the study. Results The characteristics of the study samples were significant as more have peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, were smokers, had history of angina, have chronic kidney diseases and were taking drugs for cardiovascular diseases. The results supported the hypothesis and other studies related to the effects of sodium to increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases (Burnier, Wuerzner & Bochud 2015). Although there were controversies on the association of dietary sodium and incidence of cardiovascular diseases, the study found a significant trend (P<0.01) in the dose-response relation in terms of cumulative drug dose. This finding has validated the UK’s claim that daily doses of sodium-containing drugs exceeded the recommended daily sodium allowance for an adult. The result of the study was beneficial to public health as consumption of high sodium through ingestion of drugs was not clearly labelled, and therefore, not regulated. However, the findings would have been clearer if the statistical data and comparisons were illustrated through graphs for easier viewing and stronger emphasis on the importance of the association of sodium-containing drugs to the increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases. Discussion The issue studied was relevant as it investigated a potential threat to health which was not obvious as the drugs were normally from a doctor’s prescription. The aims and objectives of the study were met as it was able to establish the association between the effects of the ingested drug with sodium formulation and cardiovascular events. There were some repetitions in the study but seemed important in validating results and comparing them to the findings of previous studies on the effects of salt intake to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The results can be generalised to a bigger and wider population as the practice of prescribing sodium-containing drugs is observed by most doctors worldwide. The study implies that greater caution should be taken by doctors in prescribing sodium-containing drugs. In addition, it also implies that government agencies should deal more with the issue and conduct further studies to confirm the results, perhaps, improve their regulations in the admissible daily sodium allowance for adults. Strengths and limitations Strengths The scope of the study was large as it used a large population database and with a mean study period and follow-up of about 7.23 years. Furthermore, nested case-control study is less biased as it is focused on a subset of controls from the study cohorts. Other strength of the study is its reliable system for selecting all the cases because it used a wide population database where incidences of contact to physicians on patient’s cardiovascular events and doctors’ prescription of sodium-containing drugs are recorded. Limitations There could be confounding variables, such as smoking and poor diets, as the patients were not confined to hospitals so the possibilities that some of the patients’ incidences of cardiovascular events were increased by their bad health behaviors like smoking, alcohol intake, and eating diets that could contribute to the risk of cardiovascular events. These unmeasured confounding variables could have affected the results of the study. Furthermore, possibilities of unreported incidences of cardiovascular events are not remote as the prescription of sodium-formulated drugs came from a general practitioner and patients may not suspect of the causal association to their cardiovascular risk. Self-medicating persons who buy sodium-containing drugs over-the-counter are also not included in the study, but could contribute to the increase of cardiovascular outcomes. Lastly, the study was observational so other possible confounding variables and potential biases cannot be totally controlled. Conclusions The study is acceptable as it is synonymous with other previous studies on the effects of sodium to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The results can also be applied to both local and wider populations as the practice of prescribing sodium-containing drugs is generally acceptable especially that the sodium content in powdered, soluble and effervescent formulations are not usually clearly labelled. However, further studies should be made to confirm and identify other drugs that have high contents of sodium formulations. Recommendations It is highly recommended that policies on prescribing drugs by general practitioners be modified. General practitioners should be more cautious in prescribing drugs and sodium-containing drugs must only be prescribed in the absence of non-sodium formulations. It is also suggested that manufacturers be required to reveal the sodium content of their medicines in their labels. The public should also be informed about the potential dangers of taking sodium-containing drugs and how they affect the effectiveness of drugs for high blood pressure. Future research on the topic is also suggested.
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  • Tertiary education
    Concept Map - Left Heart Failure
    treatment Management (7) -Patient education & self-care -Lifestyle changes -Medicines -Devices -Surgery
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  • Tertiary education
    Acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure - management
    Guided Questions: A nursing implication when caring for a person with an acute exacerbation of heart failure is the need to manage fluid volume excess. Explain the pathogenesis that leads to fluid volume excess when a person has developed an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure The pathogenesis that leads to fluid volume excess starts with sodium retention. A person may develop an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure if he has increased total body sodium resulting to a progressive ventricular dysfunction due to volume overload. Too much sodium prevents the Na+ pump/Na+-ATPase of arterial and arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells stimulating the sodium-calcium exchanger (Bart, 2009). This results to increasing intracellular calcium levels and vasoconstriction and decreasing the synthesis of nitric oxide. Further, sodium retention increases levels of asymmetrical dimenthl L-arginine, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide production (Bart, 2009). Due to the retention of sodium in the body that obligatory water accumulates, leading to increased extracellular fluid volume and increased pressures on both left and right sides of the heart. When the heart decreases its ability to pump blood to the body efficiently, it backs-up into the veins that carry blood through the lungs to the left side of the heart. When the pressure in these blood vessels increase, the fluid is pushed into the alveoli (air spaces) in the lungs, which eventually decreases the movement of oxygen through the lungs, causing shortness of breath (Mathay & Martin, 2010). Pulmonary congestion causes elevated left-sided pressures, which can be recognised with symptoms such as rales, dyspnea on exertion, cough and through radiographic findings (Bart, 2009). b) Discuss two nursing strategies used to manage pulmonary oedema, a consequence of fluid volume excess and provide evidence-based rationales for these strategies. Two nursing strategies in managing pulmonary oedema, a consequence of fluid volume excess, are (1) improving oxygenation and (2) educating patient on how to do fluid management themselves including monitoring and controlling their symptoms. The patient may be given oxygen therapy where high concentrations of oxygen are used to combat hypoxemia. Intubation and ventilator support may be needed to improve hypoxemia and prevent hypercarbia (Tilney, 2010). Further, symptom monitoring is vital in fluid management. An indication of excessive fluid retention is weight gain so patients should be encouraged to weigh regularly, usually after eating breakfast. A weight change of 2 lb in a day is significant. Weight should be evaluated in relation to nutritional status. Poor nutrition and decreased appetite may be accompanied by fluid retention though the net weight may remain the same. Monitor for bloated neck veins and ascites. Assess for changes in respiratory pattern, crackles in lungs and shortness of breath. Examine by touch any presence of edema in ankles, tibia, sacrum and feet. Monitor chest x-ray reports because when interstitial edema accrues, the x-rays show hazy white lung fields. Moreover, input and output of fluid should be monitored closely because the shifting of fluid out of the intravascular to the extravascular spaces may cause dehydration (Galanes & Gulanick, 2012). If therapy is to be given, check signs of hypovolemia. It is important that patients are educated on proper monitoring of their signs and symptoms by keeping diaries at home when discharged. An appropriate therapy (such as oxygen therapy) can be effective in improving acute pulmonary oedema within a few hours; however, if left untreated, can be life-threatening. The ability of the nurse to identify problems and decide for the right management is very vital (Baird, 2010). Intravenous furusemide (Lasix) is used in the management of an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure. c) Explain the mechanism of action of frusemide Intravenous furusemide, a sulfonamide type loop diuretic, is used in the management of hypertension and oedema related to congestive heart failure. Furosemide works by blocking the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) from the lumen of the loop of Henle into the basolateral interstitium, thereby, preventing water reabsorption in the nephron. The thick ascending limb is accountable for 25% of re-absorption of sodium in the nephron, making furusemide a very effective water pill (DrugBank, 2013). Furosemide is the most used diuretic agent in patients with heart failure and is prescribed to treat excessive accumulation of fluid. The function of furosemide follows the principle that ‘water follows salt’, thus, increased sodium in the collecting tubules mark increased water secretion from the kidneys (Josef, Cedars & Mann, 2010). Furosemide acts within one hour after oral administration and the output of urine lasts around 6 – 8 hours. When injected, the onset of action is after 5 minutes and the diuresis lasts for about 2 hours. However, the diuretic effect of the water pill can result to the depletion of body water, sodium, minerals and chloride; hence, medical supervision is deemed necessary during the treatment (Grayson & Gandy, 2012). d) Discuss the nursing implications when furusemide is given to a patient with an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure. Although furosemide is the most used diuretic agents in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure, there are studies showing that the administration of this diuretic pill provides no immediate benefit for most patients; instead, it carries the possibility of potential harm to patients. Grayson & Gandy (2012) state that since acute pulmonary edema is more of a fluid distribution problem rather than a fluid volume issue, furosemide may not provide solution and could be best saved to patients who do not respond to nitroglycerin. It could be that there is no excess accumulation of fluid that needs to be diuressed; rather, the fluid is just in the wrong place that needs to be properly distributed. Further, administration of furosemide may result to increased systematic vascular resistance and incidences of arrhythmias and hypokalemia, which are all harmful to patients with acute chronic heart failure. It could also be harmful to patients who have pneumonia and COPD.
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  • Admission
    Central Saint Martin – M.A. Innovation Management
    Central Saint Martin – M.A. Innovation Management Reflecting from a popular quote, “What’s meant to be will always find a way”, I finally understood that all along, my late mother was right in suggesting that I follow her footsteps as I got her artistic knack for designing and creating beautiful things. But the youth in me wanted to explore more of what life has to offer and went on with discovering other things. However, as my knowledge increases and I slowly gain wisdom out of my cumulative learnings and experiences on life’s intricacies, I realised the purpose of my existence: I wanted to be a creator of beautiful things, just like my mother. My mother was known for her intricately designed Hanbok, a Korean traditional dress, but the hard work that goes with each and every piece made me lose interest with the job and to the Hanbok itself. I always had this passion to bring joy and happiness to others and as much as possible, be famous and successful and to be able to use this success to affect the lives of others. Hence, I tried to associate myself to activities that will enhance my personality development and social skills. I specialised my major in English Literature at Uiduk University to increase my chances of building a career as a flight attendant because Korean university girls love to be one. But fate had its way and I got hooked to becoming a fashion and wedding model during my second year at the university. Then the following year, I had the chance to join the “Miss University” beauty pageant and went home 4th place. Unknowingly, I was already getting exposed to the world of fashion and dresses; and eventually in developing compassion to the unfortunates, especially the abandoned children in orphanages and nursing homes. Later in life, I also aspired to become a news presenter at the Korean Broadcasting Company since I had eight-month training and worked for 2 years as a reporter. Yet, I landed working at an investment management company where I learned business strategies and initiated my interest to start a business. But after 6 years of working, I found myself empty, tired of the routine and was looking for a change; perhaps, my true purpose in life. And I found the answer when my mother died and I saw her beautiful creations. I remembered all her advices and her wish of seeing me continuing her legacy. Every piece of the puzzle went into place and I realized that what I was wanting all along was the same as what my mum had wanted me to become: a creator of beautiful dresses. Only this time, it will be a sort of conjoin- the Korean culture mixed with ideas from the Western culture. I am confident that your MA Innovation Management program will provide me the expertise to properly manage my business. I am also hopeful to find talented designers as collaborators in my dream of putting into life my beautiful creations.
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  • Admission
    Boston University - Arts
    Boston University Please provide a statement that addresses your reasons for transferring and objectives you hope to achieve.  Being born in the USA but raised and educated in South Korea has stimulated my curiosity on what it is to live and study in a different culture, lifestyle and language. Both my parents went to college in the USA and this further increased my interest to take the same path as theirs. Today’s globalization has also influenced my views and inquisitiveness resulting to my eagerness to learn more about the various cultures and races in the world; and the USA is the best place to experience this as the country has the perfect mix of cultures and races. Studying at a US-based university would mean that I could have a valuable intercultural experience because these universities put high significance in respecting each’s cultural diversity. They always encourage academic freedom, which is highly critical in developing my critical thinking skills and confidence in presenting views and stands on issues. I am certain that my expectations of learning the bests on art history will be met in a US-based university as they have all the resources and the experiences of running museums and art exhibitions. As much as possible, I want to be an erudite in various fields, such as history, politics, philosophy, art, economics, management and media. As somebody aspiring to become an Art professor or an Arts administrator, studying in a US-based university would give me the perfect opportunity to interact with the best Arts professors and the chance to understand arts better in diverse perspectives. I am also looking forward to have an opportunity of internship in a world-renowned museum located in America and to collaborate with arts experts in bringing arts closer to the people. I am also ecstatic to the possibility that I can be experiencing the US educational system which is more based on open learning and sharing of knowledge through group works and discussion. Though this is different to the Korean educational system that I was used to, I am still thrilled to the fact that I will not be confined to memorizations only but can develop my critical thinking skills in acquiring knowledge and wisdom. Furthermore, studying in the United States of America will definitely provide me a global perspective of how things operate and how countries connect in making this world a better place to live in. To prepare for my entrance to the US-based universities, I went to New York and explored various arts and aesthetics such as those found in musical, movies, fashion and auction. It was overwhelming to be in New York and actually see and feel the works of arts that I only see between the pages of the books, museums and art museums. This further bolstered my enthusiasm to study in America and be there where the actions take place. I want to learn more of what I love and passionate about. I am such an inquisitive person and my inquisitiveness is not confined to just learning about a thing but goes all the way to putting to practical use my learnings. I also want to explore the possibilities of putting up a business related to art or open exhibitions that compare the eastern and western art works from the same era. Furthermore, I enriched my knowledge in Art by taking courses at the BMCC, not just to help me better understand the history of arts from the ancient down to modern times but to acclimatize on how does it really feel to actually study in the USA. At the BMCC, I took Art 102 (Survey of Art History), Art 104 (Survey of Art History 2) and Art 174 (Painting Studio) to learn more about art histories and have a peek of the perspectives of the artists. I am certain that my potentials will be further utilized in a learning environment that is committed to creativity and diversity, which most US-based universities promote. Do you wish to provide details of circumstances or qualifications not reflected in the application? You may use the space below to provide any additional information you wish to share. Min: 0 / Max: 650 Here is the additional information that was not reflected in the application but will provide you insights on how I am as a person and as a student: Was awarded BMCC Foundation Inc. scholarship of $1,600.00 for spring 2018 Included in the Dean’s list in 2017 Fall Volunteered as a researcher for Tattooed New York Exhibition 2017 where I participated in the exhibition held from Feb. 3, 2017 to Apr. 30, 2017 at the New York Historical Society
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  • Tertiary education
    Athens and Sparta
    Name: Professor: Subject: Date: According to Thucydides, what caused the war between Athens and Sparta? Explain how his claims are similar to or different from at least one of the following: the spiral model; the commitment problem (from the bargaining model); the problem of private information (from the bargaining model); and/or Gilpin’s theory of war and change Based on the accounts of Thucydides, the war between Athens and Sparta centered on the disagreements of the two city-states about their complete authority in dealing with their own allies. However, other historians believe that the main cause of the war is when Athens imposed economic sanctions against Megara, a city-state that is an ally of Sparta and implement military blockage of Potidaea which used to be an ally of Athens but revolt and sought help from Corinth, a major ally of Sparta. However, the deeper causes of their war are the ambition of the rivaling city-states for hegemony, fear for the increasing power of the other and concern for freedom from meddling by a powerful rival (Buckley, pp. 319 – 322; Martin, p. 188). This claim of Thucydides is similar to Gilpin’s theory of war and change because the argument of Gilpin states that the international system is made in the same manner that any political or social system is established; that is, actors in the political or social system enter the structure so as to promote specific sets of interests, be it political, economic or other types (Gilpin, p. 9). However, since it is inevitable that interests of some actors may conflict with the interests promoted by other actors, the particular interests that are ideally preferred by these social arrangements are most likely to mirror the relative powers of the involved actors. Political or social systems execute limitations on the behaviors of all the political or social actors and they are either punished or rewarded but these punishments or rewards coincide with the interests of the majority of the powerful members of the political or social system. Yet, overtime, individual interests of the actors change and simultaneously, the balance of power amid the actors also changes due to technological, economic and political outcomes or other developments. Consequently, those who are instrumental to effect the change will seek to change the system that favors their interests. Thus, the new changed system will reveal the new distribution of interests and power of the new dominant members (Gilpin, p. 9). The war between Athens and Sparta manifests the effect of ‘gaining power’ as the motivating factor in the aggression between the two city-states. Athens try to punish the ally of Sparta (in this case, Megara) to destroy the control of Sparta over its member in the Peloponnesian league. It also demonstrates how Sparta rewards a former ally of Athens (Potidaea) through its principal ally, Corinth, in taking revolt against Athens, therefore strengthening their force against Athens. Aside from gaining power as the prime mover of both Athens and Sparta, the two also fear the increasing power of the other because they were aware that the superiority of the other could be an offensive weapon in destroying their control over their members in their respective leagues. The interests of Athens conflict with the interests of Potidaea so even if the latter was an ally, it still took revolt and sought help from Corinth who happened to be promoting the same sets of interests with Potidaea. The shift of alliance have changed the balance of power of Athens and Sparta, and the one that benefit from the change (Sparta) imposed changes in the political system that favored their interests. At the end of the war, Athens who used to be the strongest city-state in Greece was almost devastated and Sparta turned out to be the new leading power (Fine, pp. 528 – 533). Just like Gilpin’s theory of war and change, those who are instrumental to effect the change will seek to change the system that favors their interests. Works Cited Buckley, Terry. Aspects of Greek history. New York: Routledge. 2010. Print. Fine, John. The ancient Greek. Belknap Press of Harvard University. 1985. Print. Gilpin, Robert. War and change in world politics. Cambridge University Press. 1981. Print. Martin, Thomas. An overview of classical Greek history from Mycenea to Alexander. Yale University Press. 2000. Print.
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  • Tertiary education
    Art and Material Culture of Early Imperial China 202 BC
    The rediscovery of the ruins of the Wu Family Shrine was important in the study of the art and material culture of Early Imperial China. The remnants were rediscovered by Huang Yi, a Shandong official and amateur archaeologist in 1786 and since then, the rediscovered stones have become a subject of art-historical debate and scholarly research1. The Wu Family Shrine which was excavated in Jaixiang in the Shandong Providence of China had stone architecture. The shrine was small and located at the foot of a tomb-mound. Moreover, it was decorated in the front with two stone que pillars, a stone tablet and two stone lions; a manifestation that the family cemetery was structured during the Han dynasty2. It was during the Han dynasty that the structures of tombs were changed – from a simple tomb surrounding the coffin with a frame to a more elaborate style that looked like an underground house similar to the house of the dead person when he was still alive. Due to the belief that life continues after death because of the descendants’ filial rites, a passage linking up to the ground was built in the underground house to serve as the spirits’ pathway to the outside world. Also, the Wu family shrine had pictorial carvings which were believed to have been engraved during the Han dynasty because they followed the outlines of Han historiography3. The carved decorations were repeated from shrine to shrine and two of the motifs used were omens and fusang tree. This paper will explore the two motifs used (omens and fusang). Moreover, it will discuss what these motifs tell in connection with the ideology of the Han dynasty before finally concluding. ________________ 1Cary Liu, ‘Reconfiguring the ‘Wu family shrines’: a typological study’, Recovering China: Past: Art, archeology and architecture of the ‘Wu family shrine’, (The University Art Museum, 2005), p. 1. 2Ibid. 3Uno Mizuki, ‘Rethinking ‘filial piety’ through a reinterpretation of the ‘fusang’ tomb motif’, The 3rd Beseto conference of philosophy, session 6. Omens The rediscovered ruins of the Wu Family Shrine contained reliefs depicting everyday life scenes, an indicator that the family was a follower of Confucius teachings, the official imperial philosophy during the Han dynasty4. A relief is a sculptural technique that shows the impression of a raised sculpted material above the background plane5. One relief dated 151 CD shows subjects paying respect to the emperor at his imperial residence. The relief has four horizontal divisions and in its uppermost level (the roof of the building) has carvings of a phoenix and other figures. The appearance of a phoenix, precious objects like gold and jade, unicorns, white deer and red crows signify omens or good message from Heaven to man6. Moreover, the motif of omens was used by Wu Liang to symbolize Heaven as his clear manifestations of the will of Heavens. This motif of omens as Heaven’s will was extended to his political principles and was made clear in his inscriptions as follows: “The jade horse appears when a ruler is pure and incorrupt and honors the worthy”; and “the red-mane white horse appears when a ruler employs virtuous and good officials”7. _________________ 4M. Stokstad, Art history, vol. 1 (New York: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1995), p. 405. 5’Relief’, Merriam-Webster Dictionary 6Tizina Lippiello, Auspicious omens and miracles in ancient China (University of Venice, 1995), p. 1. 7Wu Hung, The Wu Liang Shrine: the ideology of early Chinese pictorial art (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1989), p. 223. The phoenix in the relief which was depicted on the roof signifies eternal life. The Chinese believes that the phoenix’s elegant and long tail, prominent chest and short, curved beak suggest immortality8. Based on some ancient Chinese texts, the phoenix is linked to a good emperor who has received from Heaven his mandate to rule. The presence of a phoenix gives a notion that the emperor is a just ruler with good virtues. Moreover, Powers (1991) adds that the phoenix also represents Confucius; henceforth, the Han rulers are also just rulers because their authority is based on the principles of Confucius9. The relief dated 151 CE emphasizes the order and structure synonymous to the harmonious society founded on Confucian philosophy. Each of the four horizontal divisions emphasizes the building’s order and structure: the lowest level symbolizes the entrance where visitors arrive, the second represents the receiving section of the emperor (where the men gather), the third level is the section where the women connected to the emperor and his visitors gather and the top level or the roof of the building is where the phoenix and other figure carvings appear. The order and structure indicated in the relief is in line with the order and structure that Confucius emphasizes as the basis in defining a perfect society. The divisions between women and men represent wifely devotion and social order as illustrated in Confucius teachings that each person has to attend to his own proper place in the society. It also indicates the respect of the people to their ruler who possesses good virtues and proper authority from Heaven as epitomized by the omen (phoenix at the roof)10. _________________________
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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