Result of "FASHION"

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  • Admission
    London College of Fashion (MA Strategic)
    London College of Fashion (MA Strategic) What’s obvious in a globalized world is the interconnection of things through the use of technology, specifically, the internet. This is one of the reasons why it only needs one click to spread globally current events or craze in one country or community. This goes true when it comes to fashion and in marketing fashion brands. Almost everybody is connected through their mobile phones and gadgets and through this connection that fashionable items trend worldwide, catching the eyes and interests of users the world over. One click could reach millions of people and because people are becoming more stuck in their offices and line of work for longer periods of time, online shopping becomes more of a relief to a person with a hectic schedule. Though not all websites can have a huge traffic, registering or joining social websites such as twitter, Instagram, or Facebook, where your target markets are also members, can provide wider access, exposure, and most probably, sales. Hence, fashion marketing trends are very important in forecasting and planning business strategies that will adapt to the mood and buying habits of people in a given frame of season. When I was still majoring politics at Daksung Women’s University, I learned the significance of taking a multi-dimensional approach when analyzing a political issue. Same goes true in managing fashion as it needs a multi-dimensional approach in assessing what type of clothing clicks to teens or to a working mom or a business executive or for the adults. One size does not fit all and not all popular styles look good on all body structure. Further, fashion trends are heavily affected by seasons as there are specific colors appropriate to certain holidays and seasons such as red for Valentine’s, red, green and gold for Christmas, colorful polka dots for New Year and white for weddings. Even for styles and designs, jeweled colors for holidays, earthy tones for the fall season, refreshing white for summer and colorful flowers for early spring (Singh 2016). In the next five years, I presume that the two contemporary fashion marketing trends that will impact the global fashion industry are the incorporation of high computing technology into fashion, thus, wearable computing in eyeglasses, watches, other fashion accessories and even in the clothing’s fabrics will hit the global market; and secondly, the back-to-basic fashion where people will be more conscious on using organic materials in their clothing to help save Mother Earth and minimize global warming. As much as people would like to innovate and shrink computers into their fashion styles and fashion statements, they also would like to preserve the Earth to the next generations and would cooperate in using organics in their fashions. Porges (2013) states that ‘ubiquitous computing’ where fashion and high technology will be everywhere will continue to flourish in the next years to come. This is not surprising because as early as now, some designers have already started incorporating modern technology in producing intelligent materials called smart textiles, which are used in making functional clothing (Punna 2008). These smart textiles are designed to respond to the changes in the environments such as its ability to absorb heat energy, then reverts to its original state when the weather changes; anti-stress wear, deodorizing fabrics, insect killer clothing and breathable fabrics. These technologies will provide fashion designers a choice on what material to use depending on the climate or geographical location of the country of the consumer. Statistics show that the global market for smart textiles will continue to grow – from 0.71 billion US dollars in 2012 to 1.24 billion US dollars in 2015 and projected to reach 2.03 billion US dollars in 2018; its market size got hold of around 1.2 billion US dollars in 2012 (statistica 2016). Still part of incorporating high technology in fabrics, some designers such as Julia Korner, is into using the technology of body scanning and 3D-modelling to achieve a perfect fit without refitting, which is very valuable when buying clothes online (Howart 2014). This means a customized fashion in a bunch of ready-to-wear dresses that will enhance online selling as perfect fit becomes integral. The fashion marketing trends of incorporating high technology and organic are important in keeping-up with time and to the continuing interests of people to be always fashionably ‘in’. One of the basic significances of globalization is its easy connection to others irrespective of distance and space, and this easy link to others will assist fashion marketing managers in their forecasting, planning and development of new styles and materials that will meet the wants and needs of the consumers. Knowing what the market wants and their inclinations will guide managers and manufacturers in their marketing strategies and design development. However, this ever-changing technologies can be a double-sided blade as it can also pose as a big challenge to managers and manufacturers in their marketing approach considering that new models can be developed faster, and a replacement to currently new models could come in two’s or more. Another downside would be the availability of organic materials in making clothes, as well as the implementation of sustainability measures while meeting the increasing demands of the market. As fashion products will be more accessible through online selling and marketing, the demand would be higher, thus, increasing pressure to the conservation of natural resources. The challenge would be more ecological in its bout of increasing production and sales amidst diminishing natural resources. Further, if the trend of having fast replacement models to current ones continues, garbage will accumulate especially if proper ecological disposal of refuse will not be observed. However, these growing trend for high technology and organic in fashion will impact the growth of global businesses as manufacturers will be more focused in innovating as well as finding sustainable solutions to the increasing problems with Mother Earth. The accessibility that the internet provides will play a major role in getting wider scope of marketing and sales; and could also enhance trading of related products between countries. Further, these marketing trends will create demand and encourage creativity to make a difference and achieve global success. As communication technology develops, the chances of the fashion industry to reach its pinnacle would be better as marketing would be faster and easier, encouraging more creative minds to work harder and be globally competent. References Howart D 2014, ‘Technology adds on incredible advantage to fashion design’, De Zeen magazine. Porges S 2013, ‘This what fashion will look like in 5 years’, Forbes. Punna T 2008, ‘Impact of smart technology on fashion’, [online] available at:www.iffti.com. [accessed: 10 Apr 2016]. Singh D 2016, ‘Pink is out but blue is in… understanding function and trend forecasting’, [online] available at: www.fibre2fashion.com [accessed: 10 Apr 2016]. Statista 2016, ‘Global smart, intelligent, digital and interactive fabrics…’, The Statistics Portal, [online] available at www.statista.com [accessed 12 Apr 2016] Study Proposal
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  • Admission
    Fashion Institute of Technology – Art History and Museum Professions
    Fashion Institute of Technology – Art History and Museum Professions What makes you a perfect candidate for FIT? Why are you interested in the major you are applying to? The essay is also your chance to tell us more about your experiences, activities, and accomplishments. (No more than 750 words, please.) If you are a transfer student, you will be prompted to submit information about your in-progress courses, including course name and numbering and the name of the school you are currently attending. I have always believed that passion unleashes a person’s creativity and when this happens, success is within reach. My interest in art history stemmed from the cleverness of my history teacher in the elementary who creatively taught Korean history using funny stories rather than following the conventional way of narrating the events chronologically. This has caught my interest and drove me to reading more books and visiting museums and art museums, without me knowing that I was already developing my passion to arts. The work of art of Shin Yun-bok, Miindo (18C), which I saw at the Kansong Museum was a revelation of many things, such as the artist’s ingenuity as he was able to produce fantastic colors even in a period where colors were still being explored, done at a time when genre painting was becoming popular, and a manifestation of the museum curator’s great skills in keeping the artwork in good condition despite the years. I also admired how Kansong took the initiative and the risk to prevent the removal of Korean cultural properties by the Japanese during the Japanese occupation era. These observations further lured me to arts and decided to intern at Seoul Historical Museum and did curator works during my second year of high school. And these exposures finally sealed my decision on what to major and what career to pursue. To prepare for the Art History and Museum Professions major, I went to New York and explored various arts and aesthetics such as those found in musical, movies, fashion and auction. It was overwhelming to be in New York and actually see and feel the works of arts that I only see between the pages of the books, museums and art museums. This further bolstered my enthusiasm to apply to the Fashion Institute of Technology to keep abreast of the developments in the world of arts and fashion. I want to learn more of what I love and passionate about. I am ecstatic just at the thought that I will be seeing and learning more about arts once I am accepted and set foot at FIT’s museum. I am such an inquisitive person and my inquisitiveness is not confined to just learning about a work of art but goes all the way to putting to practical use my learnings. I also want to explore the possibilities of putting up a business related to art or open exhibitions that compare the eastern and western art works from the same era. I am a perfect candidate for FIT because my fascination for the work of arts motivates me to also want to collaborate with your experts in bringing arts closer to the people. At the BMCC, I took Art 102 (Survey of Art History 1) and Art 104 (Survey of Art History 2) and these courses helped me in understanding the history of arts from the ancient to modern times. However, I felt like I was yearning for more. The two courses covered the arts history in general and I was hoping to learn more of it based on the arts produced per generation and per classification of art. I also took Art 174 (Painting Studio 1) and the course gave me a peek of the perspectives of the artists. I am looking forward to getting accepted at FIT so I can take classes in Art in New York, Modern Art and History and Meaning of Museum and learn more about art history and correlate it with the experiences I would be gaining being in New York, a city that never sleeps because of its vast areas of art events and cultural shows. I have been aspiring to become a Museum Curator and an Art professor and I am positive that these aspirations will finally meet its realization through FIT. My passion in art is not limited to just learning the different art histories in all ages but also to spread its development and success to the new generations so they can better appreciate how these beautiful creations came to being. I am positive that I can best utilize my skills in a learning environment whose experts and students share the same passion as mine. With your utmost commitment to creativity and diversity, I am certain that I can achieve my visions.
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  • Tertiary education
    Fashion
    “Fashion is a key resource through which individuals in late modernity construct their identities and position themselves in relation to others”, Bennett (2005) Fashion normally refers to the distinctive trend in the mode of dressing, accessories, footwear, or body piercing. However, the term is mostly used to define the style of clothing worn by the majority of the people in a society. A particular style of clothing is initially introduced as a fashion and when it is passed from generation to generation then it becomes a custom. A fashion that does not last is termed as a fad (Bikhchandani et al 1992, p. 992). The mass production of clothing has encouraged the people to become stylish and creative, depicting one’s style of dressing and preferences. Thus, fashion becomes the easiest way to display a person’s distinct identities and position himself among his peers and to other people in the society. The statement of Bennett (2005) that “fashion is a key resource through which individuals in late modernity construct their identities and position themselves in relation to others” is true because it is through fashion that an individual expresses his distinctive personality and shows the kind of attitude and values he has. Although it can always be argued that a person cannot be judged by the way he dresses or the type of clothing he wears, still, people make assumptions as to a person’s character by simply looking at his taste of fashion. This paper will explore the many aspects of fashion and its role in the person’s development of his identities and position in relation to others. Fashion and gender As a matter of culture, fashion is classified socially via gender, whether masculine or feminine. Men are biologically different from women and vice-versa. Men are expected to have different cultural and social behavior, images and clothing from women. Before, culture dictates that women wear dresses and men wear trousers. This, according to Kidwell and Steele (1989, p. 8): “Differences in clothing have reinforced physical and social differences between men and women.” Thus, the fashion of women wearing corsets in the 19th century was highlighted though there were some difficulties in using them. Corsets which promote the S-bend silhouettes and emphasize the whistle-bait waistlines of women was a fashion and women endured the physical discomfort that went with it, including the risk of body deformation or other permanent disabilities due to the very tight lacing (Davies 1982). However, as time changes and globalisation takes in, women looked for comfort and adapted the fashion of wearing trousers whilst some men who are known to be gay cross-dressers wear dresses. Even during the 19th century, women have already attempted wearing trousers although that time it was termed as the bloomers fashion. The bloomer resembles trousers because it is a two-legged garment. However, it was not well-received by the public and women wearing bloomer fashion were usually harassed, on the perception that the act was in an effort to impersonate a man (MacDonald 1995). In addition, as a result of changing social roles assumed by both men and women such as in employment and sports, women’s clothing were no longer confined to skirts and dresses and they were seen wearing trousers, shirts and shorts. Culture and everyday fashion Fashion plays a significant role in a person’s development of his identity in the structure of his everyday life. As Storry and Childs puts it: “…the way that we dress can serve either to confirm or to subvert various facets of our identities, such as our gender, race, class and age” (1997, p. 171). Storry and Childs’ (1997) observation connotes that through dressing, mix matching or modifying one’s appearance, a late modern person can develop his own personal image which he can transmit to others as a culturally-coded communication. For instance, a person wearing a kimono could send a message that he is Japanese. Or a person wearing black suit with bow tie can confirm that he is a man. An adult who is wearing tattered and soiled clothes and his face and body full of mess can send information that he is either a mentally-challenged or a vagrant. Or a man wearing a lady’s dress and heavy make-up could confirm that he belongs to the third sex. These suggest that fashion represents a variety of symbolic values which are mutually understood across various social clusters (Bennett 2005, p. 95). Moreover, fashion institutes “a celebration of individualism” as manifested in its affordance of construction of personalised identities (Mort 1996, p. 16). Through obvious consumption, individuals use fashion in showing their uniqueness and individuality, such as in the case of celebrities like Michael Jackson, Madonna or Lady Gaga. Each of these celebrities is known for his/her distinctive style of fashion which is imitated by their respective followers. Consequently, this action forges a new form of collective identity (Bennet 2005, p. 95). With the creation of a new cultural alliance with those of the same lifestyle preferences, physical appearance and fashion play an important role in implying the perception of commonality. Thus, Langman quotes that: “…the cultural alliances formed by late modern individuals are generally the product of shared patterns of cultural consumption (including) tastes and fashion (rather than) more traditional forms of community” (1992, p. 60). For those people who want to make a statement, fashion provides the opportunity. A person can make controversial visual statements like wearing clothes that are too revealing or clothes that conceals their true identities. Some cause-oriented organisations are using this strategy, some would pose for a magazine wearing only leafy vegetables to cover their sensitive areas in order to get attention and push what they are advocating. Entwistle (2000) observes that: “…the tension between clothes as revealing and clothes as concealing of identity has been noted by theorists of fashion for a number of years. This aspect of fashion is particularly relevant with the context of the modern city where we mingle with crowds of strangers and have only fleeting moments to impress one another” (p. 112). Thus, we see on the streets people wearing Islamic dresses mingling with crowds clad in modern dresses and suits. Though they differ in their looks and in their mode of dressing, there pose no problem with this as people learn to accept the preferences, culture, and individuality of each person. The fashion in late modernity offers the root of personalised pleasure brought about by the visual appeal and the cut, fit, and feel of the clothing to the wearer. The touch of the fabric to the body of the wearer stimulates pleasure and pride of being able to wear such kind (Finkelstein 1996, p 58). However, those who are wearing differently such as the Muslims clad in their modest clothing, are tagged as wearing ‘traditionally’ and seem regarded as strangers.
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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