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    Why Terrorism and Globalization Are Interdependent To National Security and Global Security
    Why Terrorism and Globalization Are Interdependent To National Security and Global Security Name Institution Why Terrorism and Globalization Are Interdependent To National Security and Global Security Introduction The selected global policy challenges are terrorism and economic globalization. Terrorism and economic globalization have, and continue to raise great alarm on both national and international security. The two pose cumulative threat to both national and global security. The dangers posed by terrorism and the economic globalization deter the ability of any nation to protect its sovereignty, even among the superpower nations like the United States of America, China, and Russia. Thus, it is quite appreciable that terrorism and the economic globalization are global disasters and ought to be dealt with at the global context; no nation can handle them independently. Therefore, both national and international security are inseparably linked (Jones, Pascual & Stedman, 2009). Can the Leading States Cooperate on Matters Vital to All Of Humanity at Acceptable Costs to Themselves and Everyone Else? Due to the transnational challenges caused by terrorism and economic globalization, there is the need for all nations (both developed and developing nations) to come together and address these catastrophes at the international level. The national power, interests, and sovereignty of a country are measured by the ability of a country to independently protect itself. Therefore, cooperation on the transnational challenges threatens the national power, interests, and sovereignty of the United States and the competing powers China and Russia. However, the global context of expanding transnational threats that emerged after the cold world war have greatly increased the demand for cooperation among all the nation states (Makinda, 1998). The leading states have no other option, but to cooperate on matters vital to all of humanity at acceptable costs to themselves and everyone else. Why Terrorism and Economic Globalization Are Multifaceted Most people view terrorism as an isolated security threat, but it is multifaceted by economic globalization. In fact the two go hand in hand in as far as both national and international insecurity is concerned. Terrorism threatens the economy of a country by increasing the poverty level and worsening the living standards of many nations. Terrorism hinders most economic activities of a country and limit foreign investments, thus discouraging the economic globalization. The insecurity issues caused by terror attacks greatly discourages the international trade systems, and hence diminishing the economic globalization. The government spends a lot of capital in fighting the terrorists. This capital could be used in the construction of roads, industries, and other economic infrastructure, which promotes economic globalization. Terrorism increases political instability and lead to poor governance. It greatly shakes the governing institutions lowering their efficiency to provide security for the citizens. Terrorist groups use explosive weapons which release contaminants to the environment; polluting the environment and hence reducing the ability of the environment to support a good nation health and hence discouraging the national economic growth, hence the affected nations rely on the other nations for their survival. Economic globalization on the other hand affects terrorism. The desire for nations to invest in international trading systems triggers many nations to deploy their security agencies in areas affected by terrorism in order to maintain peace necessary for their investments. Therefore, terrorism and economic globalization are multifaceted policy problems. Clash between the Interests of Sovereign States and the Demands of Terrorism and Economic Globalization There is a profound clash between the interests of sovereign states and the demands of fully addressing terrorism and economic globalization. For instance, sovereign states need to protect themselves independently. However, no nation can act alone to protect its citizens, especially with the growing terrorism activities. Due to globalization and technological advancement, terror groups can harm their target states from far distances. This renders sovereign nations acting alone unable to offer enough protection to its citizens. Even the most powerful nations like United States experience national security issues; emanating from transnational terrorism and the availability of nuclear weapons, which together pose prolonged crisis to the national security. The profound truth is that, these security threats affect every country’s security, no matter how powerful it is. Therefore, for any state to preserve its sovereignty, it must sign security agreements with all neighboring states, for the purpose of countering the prolific transnational threats caused by terrorism and economic globalization. The world is fully interconnected with transnational threats; and a nation must cooperate with the other states for it to receive similar cooperation (Jones, Pascual & Stedman, 2009). Some Proposed United States Policies for Cooperation on Terrorism and Economic globalization The United States government has set in place several policies for cooperation on terrorism (Tankel, 2017). First, since the United States cannot invade every country harboring terrorist groups, it requires its partners to chip in and spearhead domestic counterterrorism operations; which may include invading and destroying the terrorists’ organizations, kill or capture their members. The partners may also burn the activities related to terrorism and put in measures of curtailing them. Second, the United States employs non-coercive methods to minimize terrorists’ recruitments. Since the United States may not stop terrorists’ recruitment nationwide, it requires its partners’ cooperation in order to achieve the goal. There is also the need for the United States to cooperate with its partners in the matters accruing to military access and intelligence gathering of terrorism information. This is only achievable with permission from the host nation. Finally, regional cooperation is essential owing to the fact that terrorist groups never recognize state boundaries. Thus there is the need for international cooperation and restructuring coherence in military coalitions for the purpose of countering terrorism attacks. On the other hand, the United States has various proposed policies for cooperation on the economic globalization. (Daalder & Lindsay, 2003). First, the United States’ leaders should limit any single state from dominating the European and the Asian strategic centers of power. Second, the U.S. policy aims at consolidating its success towards achieving a peaceful, united, and democratic Europe. This has lead to the formation of the European Union which will see all European countries in-cooperated into the union. Another proposed U.S. cooperation policy for economic globalization involves the formation of a new relationship with Russia. Furthermore, in an attempt for U.S. to stabilize its economic globalization, measures are in progress for the purpose of establishing its relations with major key regional partners, Japan and South Korea (Daalder & Lindsay, 2003). Finally, the U.S. is in progress in trying to slowly engage with China to economically surge Beijing into the global economy. Obstacles to US Leadership on the Terrorism and Economic Globalization Policy Problems In the fight against terrorism and economic globalization policy problems, the United States leadership faces significant obstacles. United States is a democratic nation, whose leaders are elected by the citizens. The ultimate measure of the U.S. leaders’ success is their ability to both protect the citizens, wherever they are, and also to maintain the United States top on the superpower. Over a long time, U.S. has been facing great threat from different terrorist groups. Thus, the United States’ fight against terrorism is becoming unending war, and therefore, the need to engage in international cooperation for a concerted fight against terrorism. Since the national power, interests, and sovereignty of a country are measured by the ability of a country to independently protect itself, the U.S. sovereignty is greatly diminished by these international cooperation, creating a sense that U.S. is no longer the super power. This comes at a time when competing nations like China and Russia engage less in the fight against terrorism. China, for example, believes that it can maintain its peace simply by keeping away from the cooperation in the fight against terrorism (Park, 2017). Instead of deploying its army in other nations to fight terrorism, China banks on protecting its nationalists at the national level, thus, faces less threat from terror groups. This makes China appear more independent than the U.S. in terms of securing her citizens. The United States would not accept to lose her sovereignty at the expense of international cooperation. The “American First” slogan has greatly influenced the U.S. leadership to start considering withdrawal from its international cooperation (Park, 2017). The slogan suggests that the United States should major on protecting its own territory, through deploying its military force for “war on terror.” This has lead to emergence of anti-U.S. sentiments, triggered by the new administration’s immigration policy. However, the U.S. is faced with a great dilemma, especially with the growing terrorism attacks, spiced by economic globalization policy problems. It would be hard for the United States to protect its people simply by concentrating on the inside boarders. In fact, the U.S. should consider involving China in the fight against powerful terror groups such as ISIS and al Qaeda. Besides, China has close political relations with the United States’ strong opponents such as Pakistan and North Korea. This implies that, U.S. can leverage its partnership with China to help influencing the two countries cease their attacks against the U.S. Unfortunately, the U.S. government fears losing its sovereignty and national power by relying on the protection from competing powers like China, and this explains the reason behind the U.S. ineffectiveness in global policy progress, simply due to great power rivalry; posed by China and Russia. Conclusion Terrorism and economic globalization policy problems are more of international disaster than the national policy problems. The two are multifaceted and pose great global policy challenges. They both lack national boundary limits and once they occur, they shake the whole world. The two monsters therefore need be dealt with at the international level for effective elimination. No nation can single-handedly deal with the two policy problems successfully. Therefore, there is the need for all nations, including the super power nations such as the United States, China and Russia, to sign international cooperation in the fight against terrorism and economic globalization policy problems. However, the fight against terrorism and the global policy problem is greatly hindered by the demands and the interests of the sovereign states to remain independent. There exists the great power rivalry among the competing nations such as the United States, China, and Russia, thus reducing the willingness of these nations to come into cooperation in the fight against the two policy problems; the terrorism and the economic globalization policy problems. It is therefore recommendable that all nations, both developed and developing nations, come into a common code and launch a concerted fight against terrorism and the economic globalization policy problems in order to eliminate them effectively.
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    globalization
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  • Tertiary education
    Globalization
    Globalisation What is globalisation? There are different definitions to describe the term globalisation but most of the time it is being linked to the internet and to the fast movement of products, services and knowledge through the modern technologies and gadgets across a borderless world. However, Held, et al. (1999 p. 2) describe the term as ‘the broad, deep and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of all aspects of current social life varying from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual.’ Meanwhile, Yoong & Huff (2007 p. 44) define globalisation as ‘representing the Internet age, with enormous extent of fiber optics and connection of satellites, allowing new structures of social representation through time and space.’ The authors also add that although it is thought that globalisation would build a global village, sociologists find it as a ‘system disconnecting the world from its national geographical divisions which is commonly termed as ‘countries’.’ Abercrombie, et al. (2000) and Castell, et al. (2000), as cited in Yoong & Huff (2007 p.44, support this claim citing that ‘this electronic network has transformed the traditional global financial centers of Tokyo, London and New York into a “global financial casino” that is open 24/7 and has the capacity to effortlessly cut across the conventional restrictions of space and time zones. However, for those who are not in the support network of these elites or hubs become marginalized in virtual environment of isolation.’ Weak national policies, infrastructures, institutions and trade barriers restrict the chance of a country to benefit from global changes and development. Sharing of services, goods, cultures and knowledge among peoples and countries become possible and the development of improved and modern technologies reduced the barriers for a faster transfer. Globalisation opens opportunities and bigger markets which in turn generates bigger profits and greater wealth and prosperity. Cohen (2004 p. 23) adds that ‘nothing is more optimistic to the transmission of knowledge and technology than a fast communication to anyone without difficulty.’ Those are just few of the many descriptions of globalisation. But the common strand among the definitions is that globalisation enables ‘interconnectedness of the different systems of business in the world such as the manufacturing of goods, creation of services, opening up of international trade, tariff removals, financial deregulations and the intensification of multinational corporations,’ (van Krieken, et al. 2006 p. 38). It is multi-dimensional and connects various components such as the interconnection of cultures, economies and technologies for global revolution. Lastly, Robertson (1992 p. 8) adds that ‘globalisation condenses and intensifies the world in its totality.’ A brief history of globalisation Contrary to common beliefs that globalisation only penetrated largely in the 80s and 90s, Sheel (2005 p. 1) states ‘that the interplay of technology, markets and countries are among the oldest human novelties dating back from the most primitive human societies.’ The old system was originally termed as ‘exchange’ where the surpluses of men are re-distributed socially in other countries. Waters (2001, as cited in van Krieken, et al., 2006 p. 38) narrates that globalisation has been existing since the daybreak of history, has developed since that time and continues to grow and increase to greater heights in the modern times; that it is in sequential with modernisation and the maturity of capitalism; and it is the current phenomenon associated with post-industrialisation and post-modenisation.’ Moreover, Robertson (2003, as cited in van Krieken, et al., 2006, p. 39) suggests ‘that globalisation is human nature as people have inherent desires for self-interestedness and cooperation which are essentials for survival.’ The author further hypothesises ‘that globalisation existed ever since interconnectedness was encouraged by economic, social, political and technological growths serving as catalysts for national and global advancements.’ :Robertson (2003, as cited in Lechner 2009, p. 21) explains that during the Middle Ages, globalisation has transpired in three waves – in 1500 to 1800 for the 1st wave, 18th to the 20th century for the 2nd wave and after World War 2 for the 3rd wave. But Sheel (2008 p. 1 and 2) has a different categorisation, stating that globalisation transpired in four phases – on the 16th century for the 1st phase, late 18th century for the 2nd phase, 19th to 20th century for the 3rd phase and end of 20th century for the 4th phase. Based on Robertson (2003) analysis, the first wave of globalisation was motivated to create interconnectedness between cultures, people and countries and initiated by trade and commerce. This period saw the rise of imperialism, colonization, invasion, the desolation of the indigenous people, the start of migration and transformations in politics, culture and economy. The second wave marked the Industrial Revolution which lasted up to the middle of the 20th century. Robertson (2003) adds that the second wave of globalisation paved the way for industrialization and increased profits, benefitting those who have the technological advancement. Manufacturers sourced their raw materials overseas; making use of the colonisation and trade routes that was created during the first wave. This was the time of massive migration, building of empires and colonisation but the interconnectedness was engulfed by the aspiration of the influential corporations to overpower and monopolise. Moreover, by the end of this wave, civil conflicts in several countries were prominent, same with the occurrence of unfortunate events such as World Wars I and II and the Great Depression. In addition, Robertson (2003) states that the third wave of globalisation happen after World War II. This was the time when European economies were in ruins and USA was enjoying a booming economy with solid industrial foundation and powerful military. During the middle of the 20th century, widespread of de-colonisation occur but Westernisation took place where the ‘West’ led by USA took the lead to those nations which were de-colonised into a new era of modernization, prosperity and democracy. However, this was challenged by the communist ideology and military force of Soviet Union causing the slowing-down of the growth of globalisation. This clash between USA and Soviet Union resulted to Cold War but was eventually ended when Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 to 1991, giving a discreet insinuation that communism lost to capitalism. In Sheel (2005 p. 2) analysis, globalisation entered the fourth phase at the end of the 20th century where the developing and developed countries become partners in cross border investment and trade, and the world converged, stimulated by the awakening of the world’s sleeping giants – India and China. The anti-globalisation movement Engler (2007 p.1) defines anti-globalisation movement as the international social movement network that protested against the World Trade Organisation in Seattle, WA in November and December of 1999 critiquing the policies of corporate globalisation (neoliberalism). Their constituents include environmentalists, trade unionists, anarchists, indigenous right activists, human rights organizations advocates and challengers of privatization. The author adds ‘that these anti-globalisation groups claim that corporate globalisation policies have worsened inequality and global poverty.’ In addition, Leiserowitz, Kates & Parris (2006, as cited in Riefler n.d.) reports ‘that people are divided when it comes to the issue of globalisation. According to the World Values Survey, 57% of its survey respondents believe globalisation is good and 17% thought otherwise.’ Majority of the respondents are optimistic that it would perk-up several things such as the workers’ rights, working conditions, global stability, human rights, economic equality and global peace. However, many also believe that globalisation would only worsen poverty, environmental quality, homelessness and the number of jobs of the country because it focuses too much in increasing investment and trade but somehow ignoring human rights and environment protections. Also, Edwards & Usher (2008 p. 89) comment that whilst the anti-globalisation protesters move from one country to another in airing their views and issues, they are also engaging in globalisation practices such as the use of mobiles, computers and internets in building and sustaining their opposition. This only shows that these protesters are not really opposing to all aspects of globalisation but only to some aspects such as capitalism and therefore, more apt to call them as anti-capitalists than being anti-globalists. Economic globalisation Shangquan (2000) defines economic globalisation as ‘the growing interdependence of the different economies of the world due to the increasing extent of cross-border trading of services and commodities, rapid spread of technologies and flow of international capital.’ The speedy globalisation of the world’s economies was prompted by the hasty development of science and technologies. Hirst & Thompson (1996 p. 67) view ‘that the center of global economy is the global economic system that includes distinctive national economies that are repeatedly expressed into a system of international transactions and processes.’ However, ‘this articulation gives the transnational corporations the leeway to develop broader financial and geographical power and mobility, causing the decrease of power of the nation-state and of the citizenry,’ (Saul 1999, as cited in van Krieken et al. 2006). In addition, Pakulski (2007 p. 72) suggests achieving global economy by ‘broadening the networks, increasing the mobility of goods and services in the global market, amalgamating financial markets and improving trade liberalization.’ But it’s the transnational capitalist class that maneuvers the global system and is considered ‘the self-interested hegemonic institutions,’ (van Krieken et al. 2006, p. 44) Globalisation and inequality: Wealth and poverty One of the issues plunged on globalisation is whether it really brings real development in the levels of wealth and standards of living of the world’s poor countries or it just brings wealth to the few whilst exploiting and amassing the wealth of the many. Holmes, et al. (2007) states ‘that there is a big discrepancy on the results of globalisation to the developed and the developing countries.’ Globalisation is stuck on mutual dependency between the countries, where the developing countries are expected to provide for resources and labor from which the developed countries make money. However, Holmes, et al. 2007) see ‘this as inequality as the donor country ends up getting more from the investment.’ Still, Tepperman & Blain (2006) reason that the ‘investment made by the developed country is the way that the North (rich countries) helps the South (poor countries) develop.’ But the United Nations Development Program data reveals that the world’s richest 10% of people get 54% of the world’s revenues and the world’s poorest 40% only get 5%.
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  • Tertiary education
    Effects of globalization to development
    Q. While some observers argue that globalization will create new prosperity and spread economic betterment, others argue that the same forces will undermine both middle class communities and poor people: How do some of the essays such as Sanchez, Kanbur and Milanovic help to analyze different views? Globalization has indeed integrated the world, increased connectivity between peoples of various countries and enhances interdependence of the global markets. The internet is a major player of this connectivity, making communication and international trading possible at a faster rate, eliminating the need for a seller and a buyer to physically travel abroad to transact business. However, while there may be countless of benefits that globalization offers, there are also some negative effects that affect other countries. This essay will discuss the different views regarding the effects of globalization and how the essays of Sanchez, Kanbur and Milanovic shed light in analyzing opposing views. Milanovic states that globalization has two faces – the positive and the negative. He further adds that globalization is compassionate in leading to the period of converging world income (such as the increase of incomes of foreign countries such as China), making democracy a universal custom and allowing the interaction of rich culture of peoples from different backgrounds (667). One of globalization’s positive affects is it enhances the improvement of the quality of products because of global competition. Domestic companies are compelled to better their products’ in order to survive the foreign competitors. Although the competition may seem “survival of the fittest”, it still helps in the sense that local companies are forced to continue on improving their technologies to be globally competitive. Moreover, globalization introduces outsourcing resulting to lower costs because companies can avail of the lower labor and raw materials that foreign countries offer. Moreover, the local poor country can still benefit further as rich countries usually improves the roads, bridges, and shipping ports of the country where they are branching out. Outsourcing brought by globalization produces more jobs, maximizes production and develops specialization. However, the downside to this is the inability of some local companies to directly compete with the foreign companies due to lack of capital and modern industrial technologies. Milanovic also notes that when multinational corporations of rich countries outsource to underdeveloped countries, they take advantage of lower labor cost to maximize product output by permitting child labor (668). Also, this action puts the labor force in the developed countries at a disadvantage as their job opportunities are decreased and transferred to the cheaper labor available elsewhere. It also loses cultural homogeneity of the capitalism system. In this sense, an advantage of the underdeveloped or developing country could be a disadvantage to the First World. Milanovic also mentions that China is one example of a country that is taking advantage of globalization. Being a communist country, China provides the basic necessities of its people. With its very huge population, they are the largest consumer market in the world (675). Though the country is still considered a developing country, its economic growth is very optimistic and has all the potentials of becoming a rich country in the future. Meanwhile, Sanchez states that globalization can be likened to imperialism and colonization on the notion that it exploits the poor labor force of the poor country by increasing their working hours but maintaining its low wages. According to Sanchez, “changes in the trade and monetary regimes bring changes to the rules of the world economy that developing nations have to take as given – i.e., they cannot influence the context in which they must undertake their development strategies. Moreover, the room for maneuver in terms of economic policy making can be small indeed”.(10). It should be noted that countries in the Third World remain poor despite the many industrial and infrastructures development and the conversion of agriculture-centered society into mining. While their natural resources lessen, poverty persists in the area and experience difficulty in jumping over “take off stage” while First World countries continue to become richer. Meanwhile, Kanbur argues that the deep divisions can be attributed in the time horizon considered, level of aggregation adopted and the assumptions made on market power and structure (1083). There are some groups who believe that the reduction of the cause of poverty can be done through rapid adjustment to fiscal imbalances, use of high interest rates, deregulation of capital controls, rapid adjustment to lower inflation, external deficits and rapid privatization of state-owned companies and lastly, major and rapid opening up of an economy to foreign and trade direct investment. The other group tends to believe the opposite. The first group or group A are called the “Finance Ministry” and the other group or group B are the “civil society”. These groups have opposing views regarding addressing poverty but these differences can be minimized if they try to understand the views of each other and engage in a more fruitful dialogue. Developing a dialogue could be a valuable attempt in reaching-out. Although Kanbur reveals that, “Over the past few years, the divide has grown and a polarization has set in. For the IFI’s, the siege of their biannual meetings is proving a traumatic experience” (1092). What kept the group from dividing is their stance of confrontation and negotiation instead of understanding and dialogue. Kanbur believes that “if the world is complex, or if the evidence is uncertain, or if legitimate differences in perspective and framework explain differences in conclusions, analysis must take these on board” (1093). Unfitting simplification or making policy messages difficult constrain the agency’s operation and is perceived as a sign of weakness that could further divide a debate and is not helpful to broad based dialogue. If the mission of an institution was to eliminate poverty, then expect that its annual meetings will be restricted by those who want to extend the cause of the powerful and the rich. Furthermore, Sanchez believes that no amount of economic isolation or assimilation to the international economy can assure economic growth as it is the consequence of a variety of complex matrix of factors (11). This may be true but it should also be taken into consideration that all countries have some needs that can be filled-up or satisfied by other countries. As much as the developing or underdeveloped countries look for jobs to sustain their needs, developed countries or the First World of the West, on the other hand, also need cheap labor and natural resources to continue their manufacturing supremacy. However, to keep this relationship working, leaders must be more open to suggestions and try to understand more the cause of the opposing others. Works Cited Kanbur, Ravi. “Economic policy, distribution and poverty: the nature of disagreements”. World Development, vol. 29 (6). 2001. 1083 – 1094. Print. Milanovic, Branko. Worlds apart: measuring international and global inequality. Princeton University. 2007.
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    The Overpowering of Technology, Troubled Identity and Globalization in Gibson’s Neuromancer
    Name Module Institution Date The Overpowering of Technology, Troubled Identity and Globalization in Gibson’s Neuromancer The fiction story about globalization came into being after a student got concerned about whether it was of the essence to study this topic. In spite of such a question looking so simple, the subject was, however, too complicated than initially thought. A lot was, therefore done to carry out a study on how the world has evolved with many nations seeking to embrace the idea of globalization. Brien & Szeman also provided a significant contribution to this topic from their research. The focus will, therefore, take an in-depth look at the question while trying to highlight several issues. Identity Culture plays an integral role in every human society and represents shared a way of life. In the past, most communities were accustomed to certain customs such as the medieval as was the case in Europe. Among the reasons why this came about was because of the established norms which were even passed on to the rest of the society over time. As a result of having no established mechanisms to deal with the growing issues, most developing nations are now struggling with Identity, therefore, likely to apply such customs (Brien & Szeman 21). On the other hand, the new age has seen many people do away with such cultures while trying to conform to the new way of life. It has as well impacted many people (Azzarita n.p). Inequality has also risen with many trying to survive owing to the high level of poverty and likely to bring about isolation. The popular culture has as well become more synonymous with many now trying to copy the trend. From a commercial kind of perspective, many businesses are likely to benefit more from it. However, this can also be quite detrimental when vices are promoted the in society owing to the kind of impact this is likely to have especially on the youth most of whom are unlikely to question whatever they see. According to Azzarita (2015), most societies did not have an adequate policy in place to help them come up with a way sufficient to ensure the community wasn’t disadvantaged or instead exploited as a result of having a policy lapse. There was thus need to provide; a policy review was done to bring about a difference when trying to avail an excellent mechanism to enhance protection. Culture Despite human being less social beings, they are, however, classified to be more cultured. It only reemphasizes on how man has learned to coexist in society while observing a given way of life. Socialization also came about as a result of culture. It is even hard for a man to coexist without maintaining such a way of life and has carried on for a long time. On the other hand, this doesn’t imply culture doesn’t change with time as seen from the way the trends keep changing. From the past, different eras were s well witnessed as was the case with the colonial and the pre-colonial period (Brien & Szeman 20). A lot can thus be lean from culture while trying to understand why things happen the way they do. As a result of such experience, one is prone to adapt to the changes taking place with ease even as the environment is modified. Culture is as well ideal when it comes to its ability to conserve knowledge. Such knowledge can thus be passed on over time to the rest of the society, as experienced in the past (Kumar n.p). One can as well make use of culture when trying to define a specific situation thus likely to as well condition one to act in a particular way. A good example is illustrated by how people are likely to behave whenever they are carrying out a given ceremony. When celebrating, many are likely to be seen drinking as a sign of happiness while sharing the love with those they love. It is, however, not limited to this but can as well be expressed in many ways and even captured by the way they dress. It is, therefore, likely to take note of the various benefits in existence thanks to culture (Azzarita n.p). Among such values are well symbolized in religion while going for worship. On the other hand, owing to the society being made up of different people many are prone to as well embrace different values as was the case with the clamor for nationalism in Europe before the idea of globalization came (Brien & Szeman n.p). It also explains why some tend to conform to immoral acts but could as well be influenced by many factors. To a great extent, a person upbringing plays a crucial role in his life and likely to shape how he chooses to live. However, such practices not highly welcomed in society and prone to as well bring about conflict with many keen on discouraging such vices. It doesn’t only apply at the societal level but still practiced right from the family level whereby the family is the critical unit of the society. As a result, families play a significant role in shaping how the society coexists which each other. Failure to embrace proper norms could cause latter on harm society as the whole. It also signifies why the traditional approach was keen to establish an outstanding culture and has carried on for a long to among other traditional societies. Apart from just governing how people coexist at the societal level, many are prone to apply culture when deciding on their future career. However, it could as well act as a limiting barrier with many rarely seeing the significance of trying to overcome their perception as a result of embracing a given mindset. It is, therefore, crucial to enhance an open kind of mentality willing to engage in new endeavors while trying to liberate oneself. As a result, culture plays a significant role while shaping how we think and to a great extent affect our personality. From a family setup, a child is more likely to find himself acting like his parents because of the established values. In other words, apart from just directing the child on what to do, a lot can be learned from how parents act (Kumar n.p). Doing is thus of significance as opposed to merely asking people to conform to a given opinion without even questioning everything. However, culture can shape how people think; some even rarely wonder why this happens yet they still adapt to it and has carried on for a long time. In the eventuality of coming across a problematic encounter, many are as well prone to apply culture as a means to solve such challenges. It, therefore, plays an essential in every society and can enhance a coordinated effort while working towards a given goal. Globalization Initially, globalization was meant to encourage capital expansion while trying to exploit the existing resources in new frontiers. However, some view it as a new form of imperialism with its headquarters in the US owing to its support for capitalism. Capitalism is also blamed to have brought about inequality with many now finding themselves in poverty as just a few people continue to control a vast portion of most of the existing resources (Brien & Szeman Pg5). The US is as well seen as a bully because of the way it has continued to propel this agenda. As a result of having a high military power which has continued to modernize has ensured it has the upper hand when dealing with other countries. The idea to globalize is also meant to enhance the United States dominance in the world as a sovereign power. It has, however, attracted a lot of opposition with some keen on ensuring they maintain their ideals but have not managed to have their way entirely. Globalization has contributed much to the development of global democracy (Brien & Szeman Pg2). Technology and modernization Different systems keep evolving from the social aspect to the many changes witnessed in technological circles. It has also led to a tremendous difference as seen from the level of growth in technology which has even changed how the world interacts, thanks to the rapid concentration of modernization. Apart from just relaying information, many can travel so fast as opposed to the past when it would take too long to move and thus enhanced the level of interaction while going about the various activities such as trade. The world is as well likely to continue witnessing a lot of developments as innovations continue to take place in the market but as well exposed to new challenges (Azzarita n.p). A good example is demonstrated by how social media has become so popular with many now keen on making use of it. Despite, having derived a lot from its use, many still abuse it with the posting of pornographic materials most of which are likely to hurt most teenagers some of who may be less exposed to adult content. It contributed to the high rise in immorality with many now likely to engage in sex at an early age as opposed to the past when traditions were used to inhibit teenagers from indulging in sex. It provides an excellent example of how despite having played a significant role in easing how people interact can as well contribute to the detriment of the society while encouraging certain vices. Invasion of technology Apart from playing an ideal role in society, many exposed to new challenges such as cybercrime. People are prone to have their information compromised or even lose a lot of unsuspecting individuals. Among the reasons leading to this is as a result of them having little knowledge on how to go about safeguarding themselves while accessing the use of these technologies. It is, therefore, essential to take a bit of precaution to avoid falling prey to such encounters (Brien & Szeman 17). Freedom/ confinement While it might be presumed to be free to share once information via such platforms, people are now more in danger of being prosecuted owing to such content monitored; this is likely to confine them in isolation making it hard for them to share their views without fear. Violence The new changes also led to the clamor for liberalism as was the case in Europe and have continued to take shape with many societies now opening up. As a result of embracing such changes, most communities are also more open. The colonialist culture had to a great extent affected many people and seen as superior to the rest; this form of colonialism has continued to carry on today (Brien & Szeman pg16). People now welcome the use of new types of technology which have become so popular in the market. Many are prone to embrace the violent culture because of aping what they see without questioning whether it is real or perhaps meant for entertainment. The youth are, however, more likely to fall prey to such kind of culture. Some even find themselves into drug addiction but blamed on the influence of the media by how it portrays the use of drugs without ever thinking about how it is likely to affect the society. A bit of precaution is, however, demanded though not easy to facilitate its facilitation owing to the new developments in technology and prone to as well reduce the level of privacy. Conclusion In conclusion, popular culture has to a great extent affected the world today; at a contemporary level, many hardly appreciate its significance and blamed for having hurt morality. At a political level, the pop culture seems to advocate for the rights of the oppressed most of whom happen to be African Americans while fighting to have their voice heard in a society that is predominantly white.
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
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Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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