Result of "NURSING"

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    Name Course Tutor Date Farmageddon Farmageddon is an intriguing movie that portrays the U.S. government as an agent that constantly attacks innocent consumers and farmers with the ill motive of safeguarding selfish corporate interests. The also portrays the irony that purchasing unhealthy commodities, such as cigarettes, is much easier than obtaining essential food stuffs, such as raw milk. Consumer interests and small agribusinesses face a great threat from government agencies that seeks to wipe out active cultivation and consumption of processed commodities from small holder farmers. In consumer sovereignty, the choice and preference of commodities lie with the customer. This means that the consumer is the ultimate body in charge of the market and hence economy. To a larger extent, the consumer can change the current market conditions since he decides what products to buy and at what cost depending on demand. Farmers, entrepreneurs, and capitalists play a vital role in market dynamics though they activities are regulated by consumers who decide make a purchasing decision. But in a move to protect themselves from consumer exploitation, enterprises collaborate with each other to have a common bargaining power, determine prices, or what to sell. This leaves consumers with little choice other than comply since they need the products. Therefore, consumers can hardly change the market. In a monopolistic economy that involves the provision of basic services, such as public schools, water, infrastructure, and others, consumers hardly have control on the market and dependency theory posits that developing economies are highly dependent on developed states for their economic progress. According to the theory, goods flow from poor underdeveloped nations to the wealthy nations, making the latter wealthier and the former poorer. For this reason, the poor nations do not have sovereignty over the goods they produce since they fear economic sanctioning by their richer trading partners, hence no consumer sovereignty in poor countries. Richer states perpetuate dependence by various strategies, such as politics, education, sporting, infrastructure development and others, to exercise absolute sovereignty over poor countries. Distributive justice is concerned with fairness in associated with distribution of resources and outcome decisions. The small farmers in the film hold the need distributive theory. This is because they require assistance from the government made stakeholders in provision of inputs, resources, and market for their goods. These farmers should receive more attention than established agribusinesses to help improve their economic viability and alleviate their status. In contrast, the government uses the power distributive theory in which it recognizes highly established agribusinesses, giving them more attention than the smaller farmers. Corporates have the responsibility of ensuring that the products they produce serve the specific needs of their clients. In addition, they should ensure that these production uses safe materials, conserve the environment. Other corporate responsibilities include job creation and involvement in socio-economic developmental activities. Corporates should involve in provision of resources, personnel, or funding for social causes that are worthwhile to spur societal progress and development. Besides, corporates should not exploit consumers by inconsistently altering prices to their advantage or production of substandard products. Consumer’s responsibilities include being aware of product quality before buying, and speaking out in case a product is not conforming to the required standard, or overpriced unnecessarily. Additionally, consumers should be ethical in their practices to ensure fair buying and selling practice, thus avoid exploitation of other consumers. They should also be responsible for their environment by properly disposing waste and protection of natural environments. Other responsibilities include speaking out in case of exploitation and gathering all information regarding a product.
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission Mobile Commerce: annotated bibliography Wu, Jen-Her, and Shu-Ching Wang. "What Drives Mobile Commerce?: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Revised Technology Acceptance Model." Information & Management 42.5 (2005): 719-729. Print. Evaluation of technology involved a research study and the confirmatory results show acceptance on the use of mobile commerce from the consumer perspective.
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    MICROSOCPIC MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Name Course Tutor Date Microsocpic Magnetic Resonance Imaging: research and new technologies Scientists much time in the laboratories and research institution in improving the efficiency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging technology (MRI). The results of the research are leading in improving MRI sensitivity in detecting glioma, tumour imaging, and breast cancer diagnosis. In addition, scientists are discovering support tools and utilizing knowledge on random motion of the molecule in increasing the speed of MRI scans. Advanced techniques in using microscopic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are classical neuroimaging sequencing that requires usage of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery in the cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequence detects signals in situations of oedema and hypertension situations. All the MRI abnormalities can get detected within three hours of scanning. In addition, the advanced techniques in using microscopic magnetic resonance imaging help in the detection of genetic attacks of the brain, heart, and nerves. Some diseases have multiple causative agents that lead to fast proliferation of the disease (University of Alberta, 2013). The multi-factorial causative agents have similar genetic codes that lead in multiple attacks. New research and the advancement in MRI techniques have led to emergence of new knowledge that allows detection of the genetic code that triggers proliferation and metastatic process of the disease. A study from the University of Alberta (2013), School of Medicine, discovered a new technique that led in improvement of diagnostic tool of treating Fabry disease. The T1 mapping technique detects severity of heart damage and detects all the microscopic changes that take place in the heart. In the previous techniques, it was difficult to differentiate the Fabry disease and other heart diseases through use of MRI technique. The doctors and consultants had to employ other techniques in determining the Fabry disease. The new technique of detecting the genetic code of Fabry disease of the heart is efficient on early stages of the disease. In some situations, individuals carrying Fabry disease may show no symptoms hence the need of T1 mapping technology (University of Alberta, 2013). Cardiologists in Alberta are employing the T1 mapping test on every patient possessing characteristics of genetic Fabry disease. Technology is leading in designing of MRI equipments differently in order to enhance patient comfort and also improve the image output (Howell, 2012). MRI with high resolution results in quality images and little exposure on radiations. The technologists in the MRI laboratory have an easy time in dealing with patient and analyzing the images of the MRI scans. The new MRI machines have the capability of scanning multiple images and giving output in chronological order. The new microscopic MRI machines are getting designs that best fit the laboratory applications. Different laboratories use the microscopic MRI machines in conducting different scans hence the manufactures designing the equipments according to the client's specifications. Research by Howell (2012) established that magnetic resonance imaging machines are shifting from 1.5T to 3.5T. The 3.5T machines have strong magnetic field strength leading in increase, in efficiency of the MRI machine. In addition, the 3.5T MRI machines are economical and save cost on the patient. The machines are produce images at a fast rate and offer good health system. The 3.5T machines are best in scanning musculoskeletal images since they have the capability of differentiating the cartilage lesions giving good details. The time of producing the scans was relatively short in comparison with the 1.5T MRI machines. Advancement from 1.5T to3.5T does not require a change of instrumentation room since the size and weight of the machine are relatively small. It is beneficial for companies and also on the clients in the installation of the 3.5T microscopic MRI machines. Patient comfort on 3.5T machine improves the quality of the output image since it reduces the noise during scanning process. In addition, the 3.5T machines can have a connection with more than one monitor and enhance real-time scanning process (Howell, 2012). Saliou et al. (2014) study established that the new MRI radiologist technology has the capability of viewing other lesions present during scanning process that were not part of the diagnostic procedure. The software running under the 3.5T MRI machines are capable of manipulating the parameters in the scan program and enhance high resolution. The 3.5T MRI machine has the capability of removing the motion artifacts leading in clear visualization of the image. The advantage of few artifacts leads in treating the high number of acute stroke cases that are common in United States. Advanced technology in MRI is leading in integrating quantitative-measurements of NeuroQuant that help in detecting images of the hippocampus (Saliou et al. 2014). The advanced microscopic MRI has capability of measuring the cognitive decline rate. The scans show decrease in hippocampus in situation of cognitive decline and the measurements are necessary for the analysis procedures. The analysis steps involve recording the measurement of the hippocampus shrinkage in comparison with the original size at the beginning of the scans alongside with time intervals. The new technology is leading in the design of MRI machines that will utilize liquid nitrogen instead of helium so that the number of machine in the radiology laboratory can reduce. Time Medical, a company in China is working towards the development of superconducting coils that can withstand high temperature liquid nitrogen under the presence of big magnets. Liquid nitrogen is inexpensive and will save the cost in running MRI scans. A liquid nitrogen MRI system is the current technological advancement that does not require much money for installation (Saliou et al. 2014). The researcher and scholars have a passion of giving the best technology to the society. The advanced technology is leading in the development of MRI machines that are fast in scanning especially in three-dimensional images. The microscopic MRI machines are essential in detecting brain tumours and the size of the tumour. Advancement in microscopic MRI is leading in production of brain scans in one and half second instead of typical two to three seconds. In addition, the MRI machines can give the scan in different magnification allowing specificity and accuracy in detecting the tumour or lesion. Neuroscience studies are advancing since the improvement of MRI machines and are leading in capturing more details in the brain scans than ordinary MRI machines. The advantages of having the three-dimensional scans are in development of a therapeutic measure that targets the tumour without injuring other brain cells. The accuracy in studying brain circuitry system is improving leading in identification of complex connection circuits that are detectable through the use of microscopic MRI. Further studies and advancement in neurology research are leading in the identification of how the brain connections work, and getting their establishment in the brain system. The importance of having MRI that has fast capturing mechanism of scans is in the detection of dynamic activities that take place in the brain. The microscopic MRI machines have the capability of detecting more than sixty images in a scan period of five seconds. Repeated images give a clear view of the dynamism taking place in the brain resolution of the MRI machine that utilizes the Schrodinger equation. The combination of the images helps in making a comprehensive conclusion and accuracy in diagnostic procedures. The MRI machines that can make a seven times faster scans than ordinary machines are helpful in framing information in the brain that would be difficult in capturing. The first mechanism of scanning is a combination of echo planar imaging (EPI) from the knowledge of intrinsic spin and proton spin (Saliou et al. 2014). Magnetic resonance imaging utilized the magnetic field and radio waves in image production (Young, 2009). The new types of microscopic MRI are utilizing functional MRI (fMRI) in image development. The oxygen property engages in neurological activity and fuels the echo planar imaging. The magnetic fields from fMRI cut through the brain developing a hydrostatic magnetic environment. The rate of movement accelerates leading in fast movement of atoms and absorbance hence fast development of images (Saliou et al. 2014). The echo planar imaging reverses the processing leading in a continuous process of developing images in chronological order. The combination of simultaneous image refocusing (SIR) and echo planar imaging (EPI) result in the development of three-dimensional images of neuro-axonal fibres (University of Alberta, 2013). The improved MRI technique results in development of images from multiband excitation of multiple coil detections. Combination of previous techniques in MRI are resulting in developed of advanced microscopic MRI machines that have the capability of running brain scans within a movement of four-hundred milliseconds (Young, 2009). Technology advancement is leading in improving the sensitivity of MRI machines. The technique of improving sensitivity of MRI involves increasing the spins of magnetic fields and aligning of radiofrequency fields. The sensitivity aspect of MRI was leading in detection of viral particles present in the body cells (Young, 2009). The physics involved in MRI functioning Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) determines the presence of hydrogen protons by passing them through a strong magnetic field so that the nuclear spins are partially polarized and excited by appropriately tuned radiations of radio frequency. As results, weak radio frequency radiation is detected from them due to the magnetic interaction (Schulz et al., 2011). The frequency of the signal from the proton is relative to the magnetic field strength it is subjected to during relaxation process. With regard to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) used in medical applications, the image of a cross-section of the scanned tissue is made by generating a well calibrated gradient of magnetic field across the tissue so as to create a certain value of magnetic field to be associated with the specific location of the tissue. Due to the fact that proton signal frequency is relative to the magnetic field, a portion of the proton signal frequency is then assigned to a given location in the tissue. This gives the information needed to map out the tissue with respect to the number of protons present. Since the density of the proton changes according to the tissue type, a certain amount of contrast is obtained to image the organs and other variations in the given tissue. MRI use proton NMR to image concentration of protons which are mostly found in water hence this makes MRI suitable for imaging of soft tissue found in the brain, eyes and other soft tissues in the body. The image obtained from an MRI scan shows dark on the background meaning the bone of the skull has fewer protons as well as the sinus cavities. References: Howell, W. (2012, October 29). MRI Advancements Improve Image Quality, Patient Comfort. Radiology News, Features, Case Studies. Diagnostic Imaging. Saliou, G., Théaudin, M., Vincent, C. J. L., & Souillard-Scemama, R. (2014). Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In Practical Guide to Neurovascular Emergencies (pp. 1-12). Paris: Springer. Schulz V, Torres-Espallardo I, Renisch S et al. (2011). Automatic, three-segment, MR-based
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    Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Kamel Jammalieh April 4, 2014 Phy 4700 Abstract For the last two decades, remarkable improvements in microscopic resolution using living organisms has been achieved in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques where extensive studies have been done through the study of animal models representing human diseases. Normal MRI procedures are used frequently in clinical studies and clinical practice of neurological diseases in humans. Therefore, there is a need to analyze major improvements in MRI technologies over the years because the MRI has been a critical tool in medical science. In 1991, it was proposed that an alternative method of detection in MRI called magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) be analyzed with the goal of achieving a single spin sensitivity and 3-D imaging. This paper seeks to explain the purpose and functioning of an MRI, the physics behind its functioning, its advantages as compared to a CT scan and improvements of MRI to MRI force microscopy (MRFM). Key words: MRI, improvements, imaging, neurological, technologies
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    MICHAEL ASUDI RESUME CURRENT ADDRESS P.O. BOX 52506-00100 NAIROBI, KENYA Mobile Phone No.: +254724511702 E-mail: michæl.asudi@gmail.com PERMANANT ADDRESS P.O BOX 12-40122 Ladhri Awasi, Kenya CAREER OBJECTIVE Work in a challenging environment that allows me to effectively utilize my skills, talents, and potential and ultimately seek to enhance the achievement of organizational goals and service to humanity. EDUCATION BACKGROUND
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    Market Structures Student’s Name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Understanding market structures Description of market structures Market structures are generally described as the number of firms in the market producing similar goods and services. Because of interrelationships and interdependency in the market, market structures greatly influence the different behaviors of individual firms in the market. They help to determine how a firm can price its goods and services. These include four basic market structures that are namely, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and the monopoly structure. In perfect competition, the market structure is characterized by existence of several players i.e. several buyers and several sellers. Since the players are very many in the market, no one seller can make a decision that can have an impact on the market. The market deals with products that are similar and undifferentiated. The industry thus has products that are homogenous in nature with pure standardization, so that all players sell identical goods and services. The market is so large that the activities of an individual buyer or seller do not affect the market. The pricing and the production levels in this market depends on the demand and supply of the market. These make all the industry players to be price takers. This market structure together with its partner market monopoly is called the extreme forms of market. In this market the products are similar and several and that is the reason why there are several substitutes in the market. This is the reason why when a single firm in the industry raises its price, customers or consumers will shift to the rivals for a better price for a similar service. Therefore the firm loses its share of the market by a slight increase of the prices (Clement, 2013). It also has free entry and exit features as no entry barrier exist. Pure/perfect market structures are generally rare in real world situation. The model is used in the analysis of industries where players exhibit pure competition. This is a very unique market structure where the producers cannot maintain spare capacity. By spare capacity the economists mean that the firms have ability to exploit the resources in the industry but not to exhaust them one hundred percent. But in the case of perfect market where profitability is critical to the firms ensure that they don’t work with spare capacity and hence utilize the resources fully. Some markets are described as pure monopoly. In this scenario, the industry has only one producer whose products lack close substitutes. These are mainly firms that offer public utilities or professional sport championships. The market thus has only one seller, making the seller to be synonymous with the industry. In monopoly, there is a single supplier in the whole market. For the purposes of regulation, for instance, in America a monopoly exists when a single firm has a control of more than twenty five percent to itself. Monopolies form due to a variety of reasons that includes; exclusive ownership of resources that are scarce is by one supplier, for instance, windows are Microsoft’s brand with which they have monopoly power. Producers may have patents and copyrights over ideas and designs that last for very many years. During this time the exclusive use of ideas and design is with the inventor. The major characteristics of monopoly are that they can be able to maintain supernormal profits in the long run. For all the firm’s profits are maximized when MC=MR. Secondly we can say that with no close substitutes the monopolists can derive super normal profits all the year (Clement, 2013).
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    Market Structures Student’s Name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Help the mayor understand market structures Description of market structures Market structures are generally described as the number of firms in the market producing similar goods and services and the market structures greatly influence the different behaviors of individual firms in the market. They help to determine how a firm can price its goods and services. These include four basic market structures that are namely, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and the monopoly structure.
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    Name Course Tutor Date Major branches of Judaism Today Judaism religion is based on Abrahamic faith, with its origin being the Middle East. The religion was founded by Moses, though the believers trace their belief to Abraham time. The religion currently has over 13 million believers, most of them being in Israel, Germany and United States. The religion is founder on firm belief in one God, with whom Abraham entered a covenant on their behalf, and worshiped in synagogues. Judaism has several branches today. The Orthodox Judaists believe that Moses was given both written and oral laws at Mount Sinai. The Torah is believed to contain 613 commandments. The believers observe the Jewish laws, but some integrate them with modernity. Some faithful’s however are too strict in their faith, dress uniquely and live in seclusion. The conservative Judaists argue that the Torah was directly transmitted to man via God (The Jewish Outreach Institute, 1). The Torah thus has human elements. While these laws should be adaptive, the true values of Judaism should not change. The Reform Judaism is based on the belief that the writing of the Torah was done by different people before being combined. As such, the Jewish Laws are not binding. The group however observes some Jewish values and ethics. The Reconstructionist Judaism is based on the argument that Judaism is a religion of civilization that is ever evolving. As such, there should be no personalization of the deity. The Torah is thus observed not because it is God given but because of its rich cultural teachings. Lastly, there is the Humanistic Judaism. This branch was founded by Rabbi Sherwin Wine in Michigan in 1960s. It is based on contemporary human life ((The Jewish Outreach Institute, 1). Religion is viewed as a way of life that is devoid of some supernatural authority. Religion should help man to achieve dignity, self-esteem and humanistic values.
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    Students Name: Professor Name: Course Number: Paper’s Date: Contract and directors duties Q1) Is ABC bound under the loan contract? The loan contract binds ABC because it’s a Limited Proprietary Company abbreviated as Pty Ltd. Under the Australian Corporations Act 2001 Section 45A (1), a proprietary company compares to a Limited Liability Company. Under this section, such a business is treated as a separate legal entity (Michael, 132). The company can be sued and also can sue. In addition, the shareholders of a Pty Ltd have limited liability. In case of debts and losses the member's accountability with their personal assets is limited. The concept of corporate entity gives the company separate liability from the owners. In this case, ABC is bound by the loan contract because Sammy the Managing Director was acting on its behalf during the loan contract with Elderado bank on 30th September 2011. Section 134 of the Corporations Act outlines that the business does not exist physically, but certain individuals act on its behalf. Sammy represented the company and thus the bank will sue the company and not Sammy. Under the Banking Act of 1933, a bank has the right to press charges if the party involved breaches the contract by failing to honor their obligation. ABC Board had denied their liability for a loan and thus breached their contract with the bank through Sammy. The bank was not aware of the contract terms between Sammy and ABC thus has no right to sue Sammy. In the bank contract terms, she was just acting on behalf of ABC and was not a personal entity, but described the business. As a shareholder, she has limited liability as provided by the Corporations Act. On the other hand, Section 516 of the Corporations Act 2001 states that the shareholders liability, especially the director, in the case of debts and losses can be unlimited (Tomasic, 23). Meaning that, under some conditions, the shareholders can be held liable in cases of debts and losses incurred by the company. Some of these conditions include; when a company is unable to pay the debt at its due date and when there is a breach of duty by the director. In this case, the company’s Board had declined liability of the loan and thus Sammy was liable. Sammy had breached her duties outlined in Section 588G of the Corporations Act 2001. The Act outlines that the director should act honestly with care and diligence and should avoid business trading when it’s unable to pay its debts and when conflict of interest occurs. In this case, Sammy did not act with diligence. Ignorantly Sammy made a contract with the bank yet her contract to work with ABC had expired. Additionally, she was only authorized to contract a loan not more than $20000 yet she contracted $30000 without the Board's approval. In the process, Sammy got entangled in the phenomena of conflict of personal and company’s interests. She led the company into a trading it cannot be able to account for thus she is liable for the debt recovery. In conclusion, despite the fact that the loan contract binds ABC, it may not be liable for the recovery. Sammy is likely to be held accountable for the loan recovery by ABC. Section 516 and 179 of the Corporations Act clearly shows that she acted against her duties and surpassed the shareholder liability protection. ABC has the legal authority to sue Sammy because her breach of the director's duties is the cause Elderado binds ABC with the loan contract. Q2 (a) Does Eric have any liability in case Plant Well becomes insolvent? According to Corporation Act 2001, Section 588G of the Australian Law, the following requirements are explored. Firstly, the role of Eric in the business and secondly, his part to the Plant Well according to section 588G. According to Corporation Act section 588G, any director major responsibility is to act and further with the company's interest as a whole (Tomasic,45). The duty of a director is to further the interests of a company, ensure that the resources are applied diligently and the interests of all stakeholders are protected. Corporate governance requires that directors are ethically proactive and focus on value based principles as opposed to narrow interests of the directors. In connection to the Act, the director should not act for an improper purpose such as acting without being careful and diligent. The directors must use the company resources as authorized by their agents- the shareholders .Their duty is to retain the peace of the business by avoiding the conflicts of interests. The actions of the director should qualify those provided by the company’s constitution by full disclosure and approval. The law also provides that a director should be liable to solvency of the company if she/he were aware of the company's debt at the time it occurred. Additionally a director can be held liable when a person holding a similar position observes that the company is insolvent without the director’s awareness. Bankruptcy of the directors show that they are not able to manage their financial affairs effectively, as such cannot be trusted to control and manage the resources of the third parties such as the shareholders. Charlie, Eric and Delta are the only directors and shareholders of Plant Well Ltd. Therefore, any decision undertaken by any of them concerning Plant Well, it should be agreement by all of them. Charlie, who manages day-to-day of the business, can make a decision and be liable for their outcome. After noticing that the business profits have deteriorated, he did not inform the others about his decision of moving to another premise. He looked for it alone and did not care about the financial ability of the business. He convinced Delta and Charlie to take the opportunity and relocate to a new premise for he was sure it was going to improve the company’s profitability. According to section 588G of the corporation Act, Charlie is responsible in the case of any misfortune that the business suffered because he acted without the consent of Eric and Delta. Acting without the consent of a party entails misrepresentation and impersonation. According to the law, such actions not only entail breach of trust, but can also be criminally chargeable if some fraud and forgery took place. In conclusion, Eric has the right to compensation even if he also acts as a director. Charlie acted irrespective of the other directors’ views thus prompting a reason to Eric's compensation. According to Section 588G, Eric and Delta are entitled to compensation for any loss due to Charlie irresponsible actions for not consulting them in deciding to acquire a new premise. Secondly, Eric has the right to sue Charlie because he took the decision to alone irrespective of their views. The suit should focus on proof of the alleged misappropriations and loss suffered. The duty and burden of proof lies with the wronged people. If the proof is not done sufficiently, with credible evidence and proof, those whole file the case may lose in a court of law. (b) i). Delta has equal responsibility to Plant Well Ltd like the other directors. Responsibility in corporate governance requires that each party owes a duty to the other. Failure to honor the agreements or misuse a privilege or trust contravenes the principle of corporate agency. She should have asked for more clarification about the relocation. It is clear that Charlie made Delta accept the idea of relocation because of his level of education. Delta was managing the nursery that was the main income generator to the business; therefore, it’s advisable that takes responsibility like any other director. Section 588G states the duty of any director thus Delta should take responsibility. b) ii). According to section 588G of the Australian corporate law, Delta is liable for compensation since Charlie who oversaw the company’s day-to-day activity did not care about Delta’s level of education. The aim of the Act is to correct a wrong done and compensate the aggrieved party. Under section 588G, it is clearly stated that, the director should be liable of any debt that a company incurs. Charlie was liable for the company’s misfortune for he did not notify other directors about his plans. Therefore, Delta can sue Charlie for compensation.
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    Name Course Tutor Date Justice: articles Murray, in the article, Typologies of young resisters and desisters, Murray (2009) looked at what makes young people resist engaging in criminal activities, and why it is necessary to rehabilitee the criminal offenders. The author argued that there are innocent’s resisters who resist crime because of negative ramifications of the act and the streetwise resisters who can engage in crime and survive because of their experience. The article focuses on how to help the reformed characters and quasi-resisters to overcome the resister identities and be reformed. I agree with Murray. Assisting the juvenile offenders grow out of their bad ways of crime should be encouraged. The role of the criminal justice is to help the offenders recover and reform. Helping the juvenile offenders becomes crime ‘desisters’ form the basis for building secure and safer neighborhoods and communities. The author argued that there should restrain and no physical force when handling juveniles. The young offenders should be treated with a less amount of force than their adult counterparts, for the obvious reason that their physical system is still fragile in a way (Steinberg, 2005). According to Murray, isolation times for juvenile offenders are also shortened in contrast to adults. Close observation and monitoring are usually encouraged in most delinquents, as opposed to the isolation that is imposed in adult offenders (Murray, 2009). In the agreement to this, I believed that juvenile crimes now encompass a significant proportion of the criminal activities in totality. The Juvenile offenders require special handling compared to their adult counterparts. This is due to the fact criminal behavior at this period is not necessarily continued into adulthood. They are considered to be in the formative period. Hence, rehabilitation is more essential for use among juvenile offenders than adults. There are variations and differences that exist in the programs utilized for juvenile and adult offenders. These differences exist in terms of staff expertise, environment, restraints and force use, education offered, work and access to inmates. I also concur with the author on the argument that the staff that handles the juvenile cases needs to be specially trained. Handling adult offenders is much different from handling delinquents. Juvenile offenders are difficult to deal with. They are volatile despite their young age. A different level of expertise is, therefore, required for those who are to deal with juvenile offenders. They should receive special training so as to be able to handle the variations in behavior that is found between the above two groups. The author called for the creation of proper environmental conditions for the young offenders to help them reform. I agree. The juveniles require sound environmental conditions. Juveniles in custody should be provided with supplies that are adequate for optimal hygiene levels. They should be given more opportunities for showering and change of clothes. This is for the obvious reasons that their immune system is highly susceptible to opportunistic infections as opposed to adults. It is in the same line of thoughts that children are usually supplied with balanced diets, and in some places, snacks at night. Food should never withhold from children because of disciplinary reasons as compared to the adult offenders. Adults wear specific uniforms when in custody, while juveniles may be allowed to wear clothes that are similar to those worn by those in the community. According to Murray (2009), all juvenile offenders have access to educational services and none should be denied. The argument is factual. The juveniles are entitled to benefit from special education than adults. They are at a stage in life where this education can be employed in later life at a significant advantage than the adults. Delinquents are usually eligible to wide range of education and related services such as evaluation and assessment. In terms of labor while in custody, the range of work that can be done by the two groups is different in most ways. Delinquents cannot be exploited for their labor, in contrast to adults where this often happens. Delinquents should also not be made to work for the personal benefit of any staff member. Simpler tasks are usually issued to juvenile offenders such as cleaning up their cells. Article 2: Disagree In the article, The Biological Basis of Crime the author argued that there are somewhat possible links to criminal behaviors and genetic inheritance. The argument is that the organization of the human nervous system plays a role in the genetic inheritance. These inheritances may affect human behavior. Consequently, genes may have an influence on human criminal behavior. A disagree with the author. I believe that criminal behaviors cannot be inherited by acquired. These are individualistic acts that are controlled by psychological and environmental factors. Crime relate to the development of an individual through the early childhood. I believed that criminal acts result from the lack of sufficient personality. It is on this basis why criminal correction programs under the justice process, psychological counseling is employed so as to correct the erratic behavior. I tend to agree with criminologists who base their arguments on the free will notion. This means that one makes the choice to commit a crime. In this school of thought, the individuals are believed to commit a crime after they have weighed the pros and cons of committing a crime. This theory is closely related to the expected utility principle which upholds that individual act to increase their benefits while reducing their losses. The author argued that biological criminology explains criminal behavior as a result of an individual’s genetic composition. The theory argues that criminal behavior results from inborn genetic errors and abnormalities. In the 19th century Lombroso argued that the born criminals could be identified by their characteristics which were dictated by their genes (Cottle, 2001). In my view, criminality results adoption of behavior from those whom we interact with. Criminal ideas and behaviors are transmitted from one person to another. I believe that criminal behavior is learned from another individual. I concur with the learning theorists who advocate for punishment that eliminates the rewards for this behavior while increasing the consequences of the same. In the justice systems and programs various aspects are employed that are related to this theory this include segregation of the child from the society and limited access to various entertainment facilities. The aim of justice system is to right a wrong and not isolate criminals based on their genetic compositions. A core principle justice is the deterrence which stipulates that crime can be controlled by use of punishment that has a precise combination of celerity, severity and certainty. Punishment in the justice system is aimed as rehabilitation of these individuals by helping them make better choices. They are also based on the fact that these individuals are in their formative stage and thus if corrected crime will not continue to adulthood. The article is closely related to the evolutionary view in which criminal behavior is genetically inherited from one generation to another. The author thus advocates for punishment that aims at correcting the genetic abnormality so as to correct the crime. These forms of punishment include medications, segregation, and elimination of the gene so that it is not passed on to another person. Such arguments are not valid. Crime is an interactive and evolving phenomenon that can be learned and unlearned. The authorities thus need to come up with better strategies to deal with environmentally induced crimes to ensure effective justice system.
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    It if was not used at trial, explain why you believe it was not introduced into evidence, whether you believe it would have been admissible if introduced and why or why not, and what effect you believe it would have had on the jury’s verdict if the jury had seen it. The shoe evidence was not used as an exhibit by the court during the trail. Simpson was photographed putting on Bruno Magli’s pair of shoes. The evidence was not considered initially as it was not available. This evidence could have been admissible as it linked the accused to the murder case. Had been introduced initially, it could have affected the trial outcome by offering proof needed to pin down the accused as the real perpetrator of the crimes. It formed new evidence that was viewed as incriminating by the jury. This set of evidence among others was enough proof of Simpson’s culpability for the killings of Brown and Ronald. There was evidence about Simpson’s alleged confession about the murders. It was argued that Simpson had confessed to Rosie Grier while in jailhouse. He informed Rosie Grier that he had actually killed the two. However, this evidence was not taken into account by the court. However, this evidence was not taken into account during the trial. The jury leading the trial was not allowed look into this or to hear the testimony about the confession. I believe that this evidence would have not been admissible if introduced in the court. The argument is that the jailhouse confession was a mere rumor that could not be verified and tested for proof in a criminal case proceeding. During the trial, this evidence could have no effect on the jury’s verdict if the jury had seen it. Verification of the claims from one person could have not stood the higher requirements of burden of proof from the prosecutor’s side.
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission IST 120: Final Exam Part 1: Appendix A - George Washington’s 110 Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation Every action done in company ought to be with some sign of respect to those that are present Every action in a company should show respect on the people present. Respect is greater than love and breeds love. It is difficult to establish the complete history of colleagues in the workplace. Life will be good upon implementing the rule of showing respect since the colleagues will reciprocate the action. 15. Keep your nails clean and short, also your hands and teeth clean yet without showing any great concern for them I have practices the rule of keeping nails clean and short, cleaning hands and teeth. It pays a lot especially in the working environment. The clients will show respect from personal appearance making one feel important. I have received additional duties that uplift my personal standards through looking at the aspect of cleanliness. 22. Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another thought he were your enemy It is not good to be happy upon misfortunes of another person in the company. An idiom that “every dog has its day” will be real when the misfortune reciprocates. Life is good upon remaining calm when a colleague has misfortune in the workplace. 23. When you see a crime punished, you may be inwardly pleased; but always show pity to the suffering offender Delightful emotions occur on visualizing a crime being punished. Inwardly, I was happy to see my colleague receiving heavy punishment towards a crime in the workplace but I never expressed it since she was my friend. She appreciated the pity I showed her hence maintain the friendship. 24. Do not laugh too loud or too much at any public spectacle A striking performance may be hilarious depending on the level of interpretation. Different human beings have different interpretation mechanism. One will save face upon getting the wrong interpretation of the public spectacle. It is helpful not to laugh loudly as people will have difficulties in learning what is in one’s thoughts. 39. In writing or speaking, give to every person his due title according to his degree and the custom of the place It happened that I called a professor, “sir” and I almost ruined my course grades. Nowadays I give the every person their title and it has helped in prospering my education and relation with my seniors. In writing, also I give due titles so that I maintain good relationship boundaries. 40. Strive not with your superior in argument, but always submit your judgement to others with modesty Respecting superiors is helpful according to rule forty. An individual will gain extra knowledge from superiors upon submitting their thoughts in a modest manner. Human thought may lie that one has more knowledge that seniors especially in the academic field.
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    Is it possible to prove the existence of God? Name Course Professor Date Is it possible to prove the existence of God? Every religion is based on a belief in a supreme being that is deemed omnipresent and all powerful. The Christians, Muslims, Hindu and Jews, among other religions are founded on the firm belief of existence of God. However, need not to rely on religious teachings only as authoritative sources to prove existence of God (Hughes, 2005). A proper proof of existence of God should be based on evidence and not mere focus on belief. While some scholars who believe in nature and scientific evolution of the universe have argued that God may not exist, it researches by many scholars in different fields have proved that God exist. This makes it practical and possible to offer proof on God’s existence. First proof of God’s existence is on the perfection of the earth. The earth has perfect size that makes it possible to hold oxygen and gases. The earth has the perfect distance between it and the sun, making it have the best temperature among other planets. To have such perfections, God must have made the earth to its perfection. Water can be used in explaining the existence of God. Water has a unique color, odor and taste, and has a perfect environment for survival of many animals, plants and other organisms. Being a universal solvent, it enables the human body to carry minerals and other nutrients in the body perfectly. Its surface tension allows aquatic plants to flow against gravity. The way water system sustains life prove God’s magnificent work (Quine, 1960). While nearly two thirds of water is found on oceans and seas, there is a natural system that allow water flow and rain leading to the existence of fresh water that is used to sustain life. Without a super being, such processes would not have been possible. The mystery surrounding the origin of the universe explains the existence of God. Many scientists s have argued that the universe came about as a result of huge explosion, the Big Bang. Scholars such as Robert Jastrow had argued that the universe did not exist before, but came about as a result of some cosmic explosion. No scientific explanation has been given to clarify the cause of the explosion (Hughes, 2005). Evidently, the universe did not exist. Since scientists have failed to explain the origin of such explosions, it can be deduced God created the universe. The uniformity of laws of nature also serves as pointers to the existence of God. Life appears uncertain, but order of nature does not change. For example, hot coffee left in a cup will always get cold; the rotation of the earth is constantly 24 hours while the speed of light never changes. The orderly nature of the universe and its reliability show that there is invisible programing of the systems. Richard Feynman, electrodynamics scholars once argued that nature demonstrates a mathematical mystery with unique rules that never go astray. The uniqueness of the universe laws and ability of nature to remain constant remain a mystery (Quine, 1960). The concept of motion where things seem to be on perfect motion and being set in such motions by another ting show that God exists. The perfect shape of the universe that lead to balance of atmospheric pressure, oceanic water and objects show that these things were perfectly put in place by something. Coupled with mystery surrounding the exact origin of the universe or explosions that created, evidence proves that God exists. These facts make it possible to offer solid proof on God’s existence.
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    Name Course Tutor Date When is Irredentist Movements Justified? Irredentist movements refer to the process of advocating for recovery of a territory that historically, culturally, or ethnically related or affiliated to a particular nation. Usually the belief is that a particular territory previously belonged to another country and should thus be annexed for ethnic, cultural, or historical reasons. Ambrosio indicates that the justification of irredentist claims is usually because a particular ethnic group or territory historically formed a significant part of the claiming nation (23). It may also be because at a particular time in history, a given portion of the irredentist nation was part of the larger country. Irredentism is distinguishable from expansionism. Expansionism involves territorial claims and annexation irrespective of whether a particular territory or ethnic group belonged to the nation in the first instance. Irredentism involves the reclamation of a territory or ethnic region that initially rightfully belonged to a particular nation. Irredentist movements may be justified in several scenarios. A given ethnic group or territory may currently be or historically was rightfully under a particular nation, at a certain point, and formed a significant proportion of the particular reclaiming nation. In this case, the goal is usually to exist as a unified nation that shares particular ethnic, cultural, or political background, as well as integrate or assimilate different groups that live in the particular country. Most nations historically engaged in the assimilation of other smaller related ethnic or territorial regions to form larger boundaries (Ambrosio 69). Usually, the irredentist nations acquire the prefix ‘greater’ after a given annexation or successful reclamation of a particular regions, hence, for example, Greater Russia, Greater Greece, Greater Albania, Greater Serbia and others (Kornprobst 42). Formation of a single nation under one boundary is an important justification for irredentist movements. Some nations even seek to expand their historical boundaries irrespective of whether the particular claimed ethnic group formed a significant majority or not. An example is the irredentist claims by the former USSR conservatives, including Vladimir Putin, to reclaim Ukraine, Finland, Poland, and the Baltic States, which formed the larger Soviet region. Another example is the Hungarian right wing extremists who claimed territorial boundaries extending to whole of Pannonian Basin (Herb & Kaplan 86). Another justification is that nations may launch irredentist claims following a mistreatment, violence, or sidelining in political, sociocultural, or economic developments as the minority group. This often results from a majority leading the minority ethnic group unequally, because they initially belonged to a different nation. It may also culminate when the minority ethnic group is in control of government business, leading the majority who historically belong to a different nation (Herb & Kaplan 78). These scenarios prompt the irredentist nations to raise claim of their historical ethnic groups. Often, they also contribute by supporting the activities of their ethnic groupings, known as external involvement. It usually involves a neighboring state getting involved in the row and openly declares that its intent is to protect the rights of its historical ethnic minority within the particular region. In most cases, the minority in the given country is the majority ethnic group in the supporting nation. Strong ethnic ties create emotional bonding that closely binds the two supporting groups. Often the neighboring nations involvement, whether explicit, suspected, or implied, is radical than simply protecting and supporting the minority interests under the umbrella of solving disputes (Kornprobst 485). Some irredentist nations propel their intents by using language as their defense (Priestly 48). Works Cited Ambrosio Thomas. Irredentism: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics. Westport, Connecticut, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. 2001. Print. Herb Guntram, H. & Kaplan David, H. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2008. Print Kornprobst Markus. "Dejustification and Dispute Settlement: Irredentism in European Politics." European Journal of International Relations (2007): 459-487. Print. Kornprobst Markus. Irredentism in European Politics: Argumentation, Compromise, and Norms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2008. Print Priestly Tom. "Linguistic propaganda against perceived irredentism." International Journal of Applied Linguistics 9.1 (1999):37–75
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    Involvement in Nursing/Healthcare Issues and Politics Name: Institution: Involvement in Nursing/Healthcare Issues and Politics Why Nurses are Interested in Political Processes Related to Nursing Nurses have continued to increase their interest in political process relating to their profession to take charge of affairs that affect their daily activities. As individuals who handle patients and their families, nurses can explain better the problems, they face (Russell, &Fawcett, 2005). Nurses have also realized that legislative processes touching on healthcare, directly affects them, hence a need to be involved in all the relevant processes. It is also imprudent to overlook the primary people involved in healthcare management when formulating healthcare policies. Nurses also want to establish a powerful body that can influence legislators to formulate sound policies based on their numbers, influence, expertise, and sensitive occupation (Phillips, 2003). Why Nurses are Generally Reluctant to Become Politically Involved In nursing profession, decision-making and ethical dilemmas are a common and difficult situation. Nurses can sometimes feel an obligation to go out of their way to assist patients in whatever ways, for example, attending to patients who have not paid their bills in full because their lives could be in extreme danger (Sylvia & Janice, 2004). Consequently, many nurses feel they should dedicate their lives, work, and time to caring for patients rather than waste time politicking (Smith, 2003). In addition, nurses may feel reluctant hoping that their representatives will address their issues on their behalf; hence, they should concentrate on addressing patient concerns. Nursing Profession’s Responsibility to Politics Nurses are obliged to take key roles in shaping the politics entailed in legislating healthcare policies because they are the primary people who understand the problems faced by their patients, families, and the profession. Smith (2003) therefore, advices that nurses seek all relevant information pertaining to their profession in regards to politics, to be able to contribute positively to the country’s development. For example, issues of nurses’ shortage directly affects nurses negatively as well as quality of services offered. It is the nurses’ responsibility to lobby, through their representatives, for reasonable staff numbers, working conditions, as well as better terms regarding their professions (Sylvia & Janice, 2004; Phillips, 2003). In addition, nurses have the responsibility of proposing policies that will enhance patient care, including insurance covers and Medicare plans, since they understand patient concerns better. Necessary Strategies to Increase Nurses’ Involvement It is imperative to influence nurses’ perspectives on political affairs positively to initiate thought processes aimed at changing views. According to Smith (2003), it is important to educate and demonstrate to nurses the crucial roles they play in shaping the healthcare policies. It is also imperative to ensure that nurses know their legislators, senators, and representatives. Moreover, nurses need in defining their position on political affairs, as well as explain how they can get involved in positive contributions to increase their involvement (Smith, 2003). Discuss the importance of The Future of Nursing (the IOM Report) for the advanced practice nurses’ role in the political process related to health care policy. According to the IOM report, the U.S. has the opportunity of transforming the health care system, with nurses playing an important role in this area (IOM, 2010). That notwithstanding, the power needed to improve the healthcare policy should be the duty of all relevant stakeholders including professional associations, government, businesses, the insurance industry, as well as the government. Consequently, this will lead into the provision of affordable, seamless, and quality healthcare accessible to all individuals coupled with positive outcomes. The IOM report provided four important messages worth deliberation (IOM, 2010). One, nurses should have the opportunity to practice their education and training to the full extent. Secondly, they should achieve high education and training standards following an improved system of education. Thirdly, nurses need to become full partners with other healthcare physicians and professionals in redesigning and transforming healthcare in the U.S. Lastly is that policy making and workforce planning need better data collection techniques following improved information infrastructure (IOM, 2010). References Phillips, R. (2003). Health Care Policy: The Nurse's Crucial Role.Viewpoint, 25(3), 3-4. Russell, G.E., & Fawcett, J. (2005). The Conceptual Model for Nursing and Health Policy Revisited. Policy Politics Nursing Practice, 6(4), 319-326. Smith, K. (2003). Health Care Policy: The Nurse's Crucial Role.2003 Nurse in Washington Internship (NIWI) workshop sponsored by the Nursing Organizations Alliance (NOA). Retrieved from: www.aaacn.org/health-care-policy-nurses-crucial-role Sylvia, D., & Janice, L. (2004). Light at the End of the Tunnel: A Vision for an Empowered Nursing Profession across the Continuum of Care. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 212–216 Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2010). The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Retrieved from: http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health.aspx
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission Synthesis Essay Educational programs present in UTA are very relevant to careers present in Texas after successful completion of the program. Political science is a booming program in the recent years, in UTA and successful graduates are participating in government duties. Student under the political science program should be efficient in their articulation and explain prevailing ideas in a simple language that even a non-scholar can understand the situation. To obtain simplicity of the complex data requires integration of many academic fields including English-literature concepts (Mead 1). The challenging career of a political scientist is leading in a new turn for scholars and consultants in the political field. Political Science is diverse and has many fields of study that are essential in the efficient implementation of duties. Mead (2) argues that, integrating English and literature in political science will be helpful in aspects of correct articulation, analysis, summarizing and connecting historical features with the current political situation. The duties present in political science career include political advisors, political analyst, diplomacy duties, participating in State dues, representing the president or the country in international functions, and being the government spokesperson. In addition, a political scientist has the ability in representing the country or the president in a Court of Law. English and literature courses teach on the semantics, phonology, articulation, syntax and theoretical linguistics. According to Horowitz (1), a political scientist needs the English knowledge background especially in making press briefing statements or clarifying a contentious issue that is affecting the government liabilities. It will be difficult for a political scientist to make an analysis of a government manifesto without prior knowledge on English semantics. In many situations, a political scientist collaborates with a linguistic person in order to assist in making comprehensive statements. UTA administration and students would not like to have a situation of its political science graduates being incompetent in the assigned duties due to poor grammar and presentation of work (Horowitz 2). The political science program in UTA needs to be admirable and meet the requirements of the available careers. Prestigious scholarships on political sciences should be beneficial in research and career development. Political scientists should remain relevant in the market and create avenues of prosperity on the clients they represent. A good political scientist should save revenue of the country and the employing institution. This is because a political scientist has the necessary qualifications of efficiently representing the institution. In some situations, some companies employ a linguistic, a lawyer, public relations agent, a sociologist and political scientist. Many employees in an institution doing similar job are an indication of incompetent political analyst. English and literature will help in making a competent political analyst since it will eliminate the duties of a linguist, lawyer, and diplomacy department (Hu and Kuh 325). Personal observation on political science students in UTA is that they are proud of their program and they practice the new concept learnt on a daily basis. For example, political science student observing a fight between two students will stop the fight and solve the differences among the students in a diplomatic manner. This is an indication that an additional course on English and literature will results to students gaining skills in language development in the diplomatic activities (Horowitz 2). The political science students will have a good morphology and phonology of word structure in the daily communication after successful completion of English-literature classes. Language is essential especial for UTA students that come from non-English speaking countries. The students from the non-English speaking countries will have a significant benefit since they will be integrated into the Texas community and also in the Unites States (Horowitz 5). The advantage of advancing in the literature classes as a political scientist student is gaining skills of relating the historical events with the current events. The UTA students from native English speaking countries have a clear concept of English but minimal literature knowledge and application. Literature plays a significant role in mastering the concepts within the historical events and the current events within the political setting. The political science students have an ease in identifying the similarities and differences on two different scenes after successful completion of literature classes. The literature knowledge is equally efficient for a political scientist in studying law books and interpretation of the law. Political scientists may take the roles of a lawyer and represent an institution. References from the past events and knowledge of past scholars is necessary for political scientists in order to have the winning power (Hu and Kuh 329). Majority of UTA students get frustrated after consecutive failure of literature classes. Failure of the course does not mean it is difficult but the level of understanding varies among students. It is a challenge on political Science students to consider taking literature lessons and considering the lessons as a boost in the career advancement. In addition, grammar, tenses, and assimilative studies are part of advancement in literature classes. The political science students and professionals will sharpen knowledge on correct grammar, develop insightful thoughts, and above all develop a passionate feeling towards political science careers. Personal thoughts and ideas are necessary for political science career; they enhance growth and development of large concepts within the institution. Some judgments within the political science career do not rely on experience but personal thoughts and ideas. Prior knowledge of literature analysis will be helpful in making appropriate judgment. Media companies and giant technological companies have positions of political scientist. Proper articulation of words, auditory phonetics, syntax, and semantics are among the requirements for a political scientist in the available vacancies. According to Hu and Kuh (332), the duties of political scientist in the media and technological companies involve giving press briefing on the country’s political situation and current status of the technology in technological companies. The speech should be articulate in that the words are audible and the sound should depict what audience will hear. The English and literature classes will perfect these requirements. The learning process is not easy; it requires dedication and a lot of time in mastering the main concepts of English-literature that are relevant in the political science career. The process of policy making requires presentation of different thoughts, ideas, and integrating them into a comprehensive article. A political scientist should have ease in integrating the essential ideas without further consulting after studying English and literature (Hu and Kuh 333). In conclusion, intelligent diversity is essential in the current competitive market. The available careers and employers aim at saving costs through creation of positions that combine more than one speciality. A good example is a political science position in media stations. Political scientists with prior knowledge of linguistics, diplomacy and political behaviour have a high chance of getting a job than an individual with knowledge on political behaviour alone. The graduates of political science from UTA have advantage of getting careers abroad and in other States within the United States of America (Mead 4). Work Cited: Horowitz, David. "In Defense Of Intellectual Diversity." Chronicle of Higher Education 50.23 (2004): 1-5. Print. Hu, Shouping, and George D. Kuh. "Diversity Experiences And College Student Learning And Personal Development." Journal of College Student Development 44.3 (2003): 320-334. Print. Mead, Rebecca. “Learning by Degrees.” New Yorker. New Yorker, 7 June 2010. Web. 11 July 2011.
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    Name Professor Course 12 march 2014 1. Insider trading is a situation where someone makes an investment decision basing on information that is hidden to the general public. This information is perceived to allow them profit in most cases while in rare cases it allows them to avoid an incoming loss. In the twentieth century this was not illegal until around 1920’s when it was banned with serious penalties on offenders. However, this varies from country to country where in some it is accepted while in others it’s not legal. A company’s senior management, brokers and bankers are example of insiders. The risks of insider trading include of a monetary penalty and jail term. Lately, there has been a move by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to ban insider trading violators from serving as an executive at any publicly traded company. If Joan in this case would be found guilty of insider trading her status as the CEO of the Pharma Heal corporation would be compromised and subsequent prosecution and jail term of not less than 10 years would befall her. She will in addition be asked to give back her profits and in other cases be compelled to give back three times of profit realized. There are also risks associated with lost reputation of the firm. This risk will make the company lose some clients and credibility. The share prices will also fall in the stock exchange as the market interprets the information negatively. 2. In order for her to avoid breaking the law whether international or local, in case she buys stocks and sells it within six months, she is obliged by the law to direct all of the profits to the company. This will help eliminate any temptation of gaining from the small moves of selling and buying. She will also be required to disclose any existing changes in the ownership of her position including all purchases and dispositions of her shares. Management of the insider issue would require her to be cautious on sharing material information with anyone who is not an insider. In addition, all insiders should know and understand what responsibilities this places on them. 2.b Martha Stewart’s conviction was correct. This is due to the fact that she went against the law on insider trading by avoiding a loss caused by rejection by Food and Drug Administration. She was briefed of this before it happened by her friend Sam Waksal who then advised her and her broker sold all her shares before this information was passed to the public hence justifies her conviction. Insider trading hurts other investors in the sector who buy the stock from such a person. Her ethical and moral values re degraded in the society and leads to lack of public confidence in such business ventures (Lewis, 2011). 3. Expropriation refers to the compulsory seizure or order to surrender private party for the state’s purpose with little compensation to the owner. This is mostly done through change of legal codes or regulations for the benefit of the public. The international law recognizes this but puts emphasis that booth citizens and aliens be given a fair treat. Compensation issues differ from one country to the other (Kelly, 2012). In this situation, Joan has to surrender for the moment according to the laws of Brazil. She should then get a legal counsel who should be tasked to identify free trade agreements and international policies on expropriation that would cover her grievances to check on cause of the incident. This should happen if the government has refused to compensate her for the losses. This however takes time to resolve and if she loses the case will be obliged to pay the state’s legal costs. She should then try and be acquainted with investment treaties of the said country. The various problems brought by the change in government affect investors. These include losses incurred from stagnation of business, lack of compensation, competitors being given pertinent rights that were previously yours, legal costs burden in trying to pursue cases against the said government. These problems could however been avoided by taking insurance policies against political risk insurance that will protect one from breach of contract, political upheaval, repossession or outright expropriation. A few facts would help Joan make a decision by using the following analysis. The first one is whether the measure in question involves EU law. Secondly, does the measure breach EU law for instance: does it discriminate on nationality ground; does it dissuade a tax payer from shifting to another member state for business and moving capital between member states? Hence she should consider these facts and see whether the tax rate is as a result of her non-residence nature (Kelly, 2012) Any time USA has a problem in opinion difference with a country; it declares it as an enemy. As a result of this its investments in these countries begin to close down due to the enemity. Another problem is when it is at war with a country, the sympathizers of the country’s being fought tend to fight back by harassing and frustrating its companies in foreign direct investments. This then leads to closure or low profit record hence bring negative implications as a result of its political pressures hence affect its citizens. 4. The question tries to look into the complexity of the tax system when it comes to the taxing of expatriates. Individuals who visit the UK from the United States for a period of less than 30days should not be taxed any way. Any visiting employee for an American company visiting the United States should be able to pay the withholding PAYE to the UK authorities if the stay is from 31-90 days (Marcus, 1977) An individual working in UK in permanent terms is said to be in the domicile of the United Kingdom and therefore they are legible to face the UK tax system in terms of income taxation. An American working permanently in UK therefore will be subjected to the tax regime of UK. In terms of contribution to the national insurance from the income, an employee who is American but employed permanently by a British company should b able to remit the national insurance contribution. US citizens assigned to the UK temporarily are under FICA for the time period that they are posted in UK. The employee is only required to get a certificate of Coverage from the United States (Marcus, 19777)
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    INFLUENCE IN BUSINESS Name Course Tutor Date Influence in Business Part 1 Enchantment faces resistance in the society. Chapter six of the Mr. Guy Kawasaki talks on how to overcome resistance. The video talk on eWeek highlights the steps to consider in overcoming resistance on enchantment. A good product or service will gain public market and demand. Competitors will not be happy to see a new business venture taking over the business. The competitors will find ways of failing the new business venture and kill its prospects. The management team of the new business venture should have capabilities of identifying the bottlenecks and loopholes in the market place. Kawasaki video gives a lesson that competitors are not happy to see a new business making decisions on the market price. The good products in the business will receive the best price and market investors should aim to achieve a good price in the market. Competition is healthy and may encounter resistance in some situations. The resistance from the competitors purpose in changing the conditions present in the market due to the presence of a new business venture. The management team should have the stamina to resist change and unhealthy competition. Overcoming resistance will be helpful in understanding the business partners' thoughts and prospects. The business partners may have an impact in changing situations in the market making it difficult for a new business venture to prosper. The business management team will manage to overcome the prevailing resistance through provision of social proof and ways of agreement among business partners. The ways of agreement should enchant the business influencers towards a common goal. Part 2 Enchantment occurs in everyday activities. An example of enchantment process is on the Chief Executive Officer of a carpet company. The CEO has a tendency speaking for too long in business meetings and focused group discussions. On the other hand, the CEO manages to manipulate people to his way of thinking hence creating enthusiasm among the workers. The employees get bored and do not concentrate on the talk. At the end of the report the employees end-up doubting the leadership characters of the Chief Executive Officer. The good traits about the CEO are that he leads through example and makes suggestive corrections in humility. The CEO enchants the employees in the daily activities and wins them to his way of thinking. The positive traits have made the CEO remain in power for more than five years. The diversity in leadership styles are necessary and have enabled cooperation of the carpet company with other similar companies. The enchantment process triggers enthusiasm among the workers and innovative ideas during the focused group discussions. Diversity in business professionals allows fast integration in the business sector and rise in the career ladder. The topic on enchantment and ways of overcoming resistance is helpful in career growth, in business management. The attitude of dealing with people in business management get basis on winning method and creating enthusiasm. The business challenges will be easy to solve after going through the enchantment process and reviewing the enchantment book by Guy Kawasaki. The challenge strengthens personal characteristics and ways of building business relationships. The business management team has the capabilities of turning hostile people into cooperative people in the business transactions. The enchantment session helps in creating short speeches that are simple, workable and acceptable by the junior staff and the international market. Business managers will encounter resistance and the best way to handle resistance is to identify areas of agreement and influence the members towards social agreement (Kawasaki, 2012). References: Kawasaki, G. (2012). Enchantment: The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds and Actions. London: Penguin UK.
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission Industrial Structure And Work Workplace structures in the social-historical time were less complex than the workplace structures today. Technological changes are resulting in simplified working conditions to usage of computerized machines. The workers in the transition process from the historical era to the modern era are undergoing advanced classes to get knowledge on the latest technology. Cognitive complexity is the ultimate goal of advancement in the workplace and working structures (Freeman 32). The success in of completion of a job in the historical time relied on team work and collaborative with other similar organizations. Technological advancement is resulting in companies being self-reliant and competent in the completion process of the final product. The time of competition of a task is short in the current working structures and environment. The pressure builds from the management team that requires high work output from the junior staff. Other pressures present in the society include geographical location and working space (Goldberg 57). The final products may not reach the market due to the difficulties in accessing the market. According to Steven Greenhouse clip on “The Big Squeeze”, severe wage expenses in America is one of the big squeezes in American economy. Some companies are increasing the profit due to increase in the work output, but the workers are not developing. The workers live in low standard conditions and cannot manage to increase their living standards. The American nation was undergoing economic recovery from the year 2001 to 2007 resulting in the decline of household income. The American nation had no money to pay the working class result to reduction of income among the working individuals (Freeman 34). Greenhouse advocates for an increase in the number of economist in order to help in predicting the future economic status of American economy from the current economic trends (Greenhouse 1). Economists are also necessary in identifying errors in the current economic trend and helping in correcting the error in order to have improvement in the economy in future analysis. Health benefits are necessary for every worker and results in economic recovery. Accessibility to health insurance is necessary since it leads in economic growth (Greenhouse 1). The American nation is trending among the developed countries on decrease in the number of people without health insurance covers. Approximately one in every six Americans lacks health insurance plan. A challenging situation occurs upon the increase in health insurance premium on workers in order to cater for the sixteen percent Americans without health insurance plan. The above big squeezes in the American economy are the major challenges facing the financial and economic sectors. The American government is allocating fund in ensuring the working structures and environment favours all the workers (Freeman 37). Financial analysts in America are working closely with work labour democracy and stock exchange market to help solve the existing job crisis. The crisis in workers within the American states is not happy in the trend of their working conditions. Although the corporate profit is growing and the country records a five percent economic increase yearly, the typical worker in America is not improving. The measure of checking economic growth is not favouring the typical worker (Freeman 93). The American country is recording a more that thirty percent jog los and high rate of unemployment on the American youths that are finishing the college education. The workers organizations are presenting their grievances on the countries' news media, but the grievances do not get an air-play. The grievances involve stagnant growth of typical American worker, worsening of the health benefits and people facing stress in the workplace (Greenhouse 1). In comparison of the prevailing economic crisis in America with other countries, it is typically similar in India. For example, Indian factories got shutdown due to the economic crisis. The American nation is far ahead in managing the economic crisis because it is not shutting down the business premises. The American nation is decreasing the benefits workers receive in order to manage the economic crisis. America is undergoing a period of expansion and the profits from the corporate work do not reach the workers in the American nation (Greenhouse 1). The economic squeeze is affecting the workers because of the current inflation and slow process of economic recovery. The American government has hopes that the workers will be in a better shape during economic recovery period than during the period of economic crisis. The American government should consider the health of every citizen and develop a universal health plan (Freeman 95). Some individual cannot manage to health insurance plan and rely on little earning in managing medical bills. Retirement security system is a squeeze among the American workers. The retirement time in most American companies is between fifty-five and sixty-four years. During this time, the retirement account has approximately forty-four thousand dollars; that means the retiree has to use approximately eight thousand dollars yearly for a period of five to seven years (Greenhouse 1). Some workers opt to extend the retirement time in order to earn extra in a retirement account with the aim of increasing the security funds. Many workers get involved in part-time jobs so that they act as securities after retirement from corporate jobs. During the social-historical working conditions in the past era, the workers would get traditional retirement plan in many companies. The workers would receive monthly pensions for the entire time after retirement (Freeman 96). The today’s retirement plan allows only one or three people in the company to enjoy the typical pensions of the old. Poverty levels are still high in the current developed American nation. Statistics reveals that one in every eight American lives below the poverty line; one in every five children under the age of eighteen years lives in poverty. Many Americans do the right thing in finding finance, but the States government is still taxing highly on the individuals below the poverty line (Greenhouse 1). American nation is losing many manufacturing companies to developing countries resulting in a reduction of country's wealth and nation's prosperity. Presence of manufacturing companies would lead in creating of middle class jobs that are essential for people out of colleges. The manufacturing jobs have good wages and benefits; therefore, eliminates the poverty levels and decreases the rate of unemployment. Time squeeze in America is high; this means that wages of American workers are stagnant (Greenhouse 1). The average time of workers is eighteen thousand hours per year. The number of working hours of the American worker is higher than other developed countries. For example, a middle class couple works more than a similar couple in the historical period of American workers. The current working couple has little time with kids and the entire family leading to deterioration of moral values in children. The unique attributes of the American workers are need of pay vacations for every worker. Developed countries like New Zealand and some European nations do offer a pay on more than ten days vacation time for corporate workers (Freeman 98). The American worker lacks pay for sick days and also need of pay for maternity leaves. The federal government has no policies that are workers friendly. The American employees claim that they have many mandates and cannot afford in payment of workers that are off-duty. The huge economic growth in the American nation is due to inflation of the workers’ salary. The inflation levels vary among the economic levels of the American worker. The middle class worker may receive an increase in income and also increase in inflation levels. For example, an increase in income of middle-class worker would results in high government taxation and increase in premium rates. In the ancient times, the working conditions of American worker was good, the workers did not have economic classes as they exist in the current working class. The earnings of Chief Executive Officer in the time of 1970's were similar to the middle class worker. In the current working environment, the Chief Executive Officer earns more than six times the wages of the middle class worker resulting in the development of economic classes (Freeman 111). The average economic worker in America does not exist in the economic scale since the ancient working environment. The average economic worker makes little investment on the development of the country's economic growth. The economic class warfare in America is resulting in a detrimental effect of the low class levels. The rich class levels trigger the war by stimulating bulging of the inflation. The winner of the class warfare is the low class because they trigger increase in poverty levels. Income equality level is not changing since the ancient working environment. Middle class workers are increasing the borrowing rate of loans in order to provide for family expenses. The high borrowing rate results in the economic depression of the country. The State experiences trade deficit and budget deficit. The government borrows loans from World Bank and other financial institutions in order to provide the increasing need of houses of American corporate workers (Goldberg 63). On the other, lack of increase of salary of American workers results in a decrease of borrowing resulting in solving the problem due to high economic depression. The American workers are living in an economic jungle full of economic expenses (Goldberg 65). The young generation - below thirty years, have difficulties in understanding the economic strain present in the American nation. The financial and economic analysts are encouraging the young generation to find mechanisms of making workers life better than the current prevailing situation. The American workers are experiencing an economic strain of twelve percent higher than strain present in the ancient American workers. The financial analyst predicts a better working condition of the current working generation than the previous working generation, but it is not the case. The current working generation always has more working difficulties than the previous generation due to changes in the working environment. The American workers under thirty years of age cannot access health insurance benefits and retirement plan. The American government has no policies and laws that fight for the rights of young entrepreneurs and corporate workers under the age of thirty years. During the ancient working period, the college and high school graduate would get good jobs with benefits of health insurance and retirement plan (Freeman 112). The jobs in ancient times would pay a twenty percent wage higher than the current pay on fresh graduates in the job market. In the current American economy, it is difficult to get a job that relates in the degree of the job applicant (Goldberg 67). Many fresh graduates end up in secretarial jobs earning ten percent less than the amount the graduate would get if they had jobs tallying with the college qualifications. The employees in major factories and businesses are breaking the employment laws leading in widespread of job scarcity. The American companies deny workers the agreed breaks and instead compensate the time hours with an increase in wages pay. Breaks are necessary for every worker since they give workers time to rejuvenate their energy and give the mind a break. Workers use timecards in order to ensure efficiency in the working environment and ensuring authenticity of the workers. The managers are not fair with the workers because some company managers erase the records of hours from the computer on worker's timecard. Reduction in working hours is illegal and inhumane resulting in a reduction of salary (Freeman 116). The illegalities of some of the managers' results in reaping off the efforts of junior workers denying them a chance of financial prosperity. Other examples of illegal acts in the American companies are overworking of hours, some workers work for eleven hours in a day and sixty hours in a week without receiving extra payment on the extra hours (Goldberg 72). Some workers get locked up in the factory for overnight, and it is against the worker's law. The workers that complain over the illegal acts face job firing and lack of pay. In addition, the management of some companies violates safety measures of the workers. The American laws on safety of workers allow all workers to have safety insurance covers. The immigrant workers face discrimination in obtaining safety covers and participate in risky jobs like digging of trenches. The management of companies reaps the investors huge among of money for individual support. The cheating trend of manager in American companies is making the employees have difficulties in meeting the financial demands. The employees' end-up finding part-time jobs in order to compensate for the time lost in the full-time working environment (Goldberg 74). The American workers in the current generation receive less respect than the workers in the past generations. According to Elizabeth Warren on her Jefferson memorial lectures, she describes the devastating working conditions of women in her presentation on "The Coming Collapse Of The Middle Class: Higher Risks, Lower Rewards, And A Shrinking Safety Net." The single economic shift in the workplace is resulting in with a less than six months old child going to work. The ancient workforce in the 1970's did not allow women with children less than six month to attend work. A married couple in the shift transition period would receive high wages due to double pay on the monthly income. The family would share the expenses, gain wealth, and reduce poverty levels. The number of debts within the family would also decrease due to the availability of money. After the transition period is the modern era of workforce. The males in the current workforce do not receive a rise in pay resulting in constraints in managing family expenses (Warren 1). The current pay of male in the workforce is approximately eight thousand dollars less than the forefather earned during the workforce period of their generation. The ancient families had a likelihood of getting rich due to generation of income overtime. The savings portion was approximately eleven percent of the total salary, therefore, eliminating debts. In the current workforce, the savings are below zero percent and the families are resulting in debt. Debt is increasing in the current workforce mainly due to the introduction of credit and debit cards (Warren 1). Work Cited: Goldberg, Beverly. Age works: What Corporate America Must Do To Survive The Graying Of The Workforce. New York: Free Press, 2000. Print.
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    Name Professor Course Date of Submission Identifying Reliable Authorities & Central Ethical Issue The central ethical issue is surrogacy business that is financially exploiting the participants. The Indian surrogate mothers get financially exploited by the westernized families that have no ability of getting babies. The families in USA and UK visit India seeking for surrogate mothers. The Indian surrogate mothers get paid between United States $ 2,500 and US $ 6,500 which is much less than the surrogate mothers in UK and USA. Legal issues are also a central ethical issue in the Indian surrogate mothers. The surrogacy process requires agreement between the person getting induced and the family requiring a baby. The legal issues give protection to the surrogate mother, the child and the entire period of nine months. The entire payment period involves implantation of the embryo, conception, and delivery (Drabiak and Wegner 309). The groups involved in surrogacy business are agents, surrogate mothers, legal bodies, and the biological parents of the embryo. The legal body is essential to give protection on the surrogate mother from exploitation by the biological parents and agents. The surrogate mother should be willing to participate in the surrogacy process. The surrogate process is emotional and has consequences of belonging and failure. The legal body ensures surrogate mothers get the complete payment even after failure of fertilization or miscarriage. The biological parents should be willing to handle the surrogate mother with intensive care ready to offer emotional and psychological support. The agents participate in connecting a willing Indian surrogate mother and a willing biological parent from USA and UK. The surrogacy business is a mutual process that ensures both parties benefit. The surrogacy business is incomplete without these four major groups (Palattiyil, George and Geeta Balakrishnan 689). The organizations in the surrogacy business ‘ought to ' give the appropriate environment in conduction of surrogacy. The hospitals ought to provide private wards and special charges of surrogate mothers. The community ‘ought to’ accept the surrogacy business and allow surrogate mothers to practice the business with no fear. The community ‘ought to’ support the surrogate mothers and encourage them emotionally. The legal bodies ‘ought to’ provide regulations and rules that favour the biological parents and the surrogate mothers. The surrogate mothers should not face any exploitation from the biological parents and should receive full payment. The biological parents ‘ought to’ provide full payment to the agents and surrogate mother. The signing process should be in the presence of a legal lawyer or the judiciary offices. The groups in the surrogacy ‘ought to' work in unison and offer fair services and charges (Deonandan and Amanda 743). The values underpinning the organizations in surrogate responsibilities are the international transfers. It is not easy to transfer surrogate mothers from countries like India to USA or UK. The surrogate mothers are also demanding a pay rise for the services and the biological parents are not willing to increase the charges. Minimal infrastructural facilities in the Indian hospitals are limiting the surrogacy business since it requires modernized hospitals and advanced technology (Gentleman 1). The medical doctors in India are undergoing training on surrogate implantation and fertilization for the purpose of boosting the surrogacy business. Cases of spontaneous abortion, failure in implantation, emotional disturbances and psychological problems are the major hindrances for proliferation of surrogacy business. The major concerns are on the effects of surrogate mothers after handling back the baby to the biological parents. Poverty levels in India are the major concern for increasing rate of surrogacy in the country hence leading to exploitation (The Associated Press 1). Work Cited: Deonandan, Raywat, Samantha Green, and Amanda van Beinum. "Ethical Concerns For Maternal Surrogacy And Reproductive Tourism." Journal of Medical Ethics 38.12 (2012): 742-745. Drabiak, Katherine and Carole Wegner. "Ethics, Law, And Commercial Surrogacy: A Call For Uniformity." The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35.2 (2007): 300-309. Gentleman, Amelia. "India Nurtures Business Of Surrogate Motherhood." The New York Times. Web. 10 October 2008. The Associated Press. “India’s Surrogate Mother Business Raises Questions Of Global Ethics.” Daily News. Web. 30 December 2007. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/india-surrogate-mother-business-raises-questions-global-ethics-article-1.276982. Palattiyil, George and Geeta Balakrishnan "Globalization And Cross-Border Reproductive Services: Ethical Implications Of Surrogacy In India For Social Work." International Social Work 53.5 (2010): 686-700.
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    Insert Name Course Tutor Date Introduction Jan Van Eyck also called Johannes de Eyck was a Flemish painter dynamic in Bruges and regarded as one of the perfect Northern European painters of the 15th century. Jan Van Eyck was the utmost painter of the early Netherlands institution. He held supreme status all through his career, involving court artist and envoy in Bruges. So exceptional was his technique as an oil painter that the creation of the intermediate was at one time accredited to him, with his brother Hubert, also a painter. Van Eyck utilized the traits of oil as by no means prior, constructing up layers of transparent glazes, hence offering him a surface on which to confine objects in the diminutive aspect and permitting for the conservation of his colors. Nowhere is this well exhibited than in the portrayal of Giovanni di Arrigo Arnolfini, a businessman from Lucca and a common visitor to Bruges, and his wife Giovanna Cenami. Origins and Demise of Van Eyck Van Eyck was born someplace around 1390 in the village of Maaseyck close to Maastricht. He was hired as a painter in 1422 and 1424 by john of Bavaria, Bishop of Liege. 1425 his famed association with Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy started. As court painter and equerry, he lived in Philip’s court at Lille. Less such scenarios of common coincidence embellish the past of Renaissance backing: in place of treating his artist as something between a jongleur and an artisan, as the Medici in their off periods were quick to do, Philip was compelled to state that he would never get a man much to his preference, or such an archetype of science and art. Jan Van Eyck worked for eleven years in an environment of stylishly shared esteem (Herbert 2). He worked, not only for Philip, but for rich Italians inhabitants in the Netherlands for example Giovanni Arnolfini; his reputation extended quickly to Italy His relationship with Philip the Good is noticeably pointed out by the diplomatic missions that Van Eyck assumed on his behalf: to Spain in 1427, Portugal and England in 1428 and probably to Prague in 1436. There was one thing, different from his public place and professional contacts, which this widespread travel must have advantaged: his phenomenal visual memory. Van Eyck was approximately exclusive among northern- or, for that case, Italian artists of the predominant quattrocento for his intelligence as a recorder of historical technique. The stained glass window and niello pavement inlays in the Washington Annunciation precisely preserve what must have hit him as their ancient crudeness. Jan Van Eyck passed away in June 1441 and was buried with great respect at the Church of St Donat. Philip the Good grieved him genuinely and reimbursed his 16 years of devoted work by seeing to it that his widow and children were well-catered for (Herbert 2). Artistic Style and Reasons That Led To Their Choice Jan van Eyck is attributed with pioneering a style of painting symbolized by diminutively practical representations of surface impacts and natural light. This was made probable by utilizing oil medium, which permitted the construction up of paint in translucent layers, or glazes. He was a man of fictional traditions. His paintings portray more than a usual acquaintance of geometry, astronomy, song, divinity, remedy and antique record (Wood 174-180). In all of van Eyck’s paintings he put much concentration to aspect, lighting affects, imagery and viewpoint forming an innovative naturalistic, illusionistic style of painting. Van Eyck’s practical innovations in the oil medium made an art that put the customary for an age and that have on no account been exceeded. For numerous years he was falsely credited with reinventing the prehistoric art of oil painting. In actuality, oil painting was by now in existence, employed to paint statues and to finish over tempera paintings. His true accomplishment was the formation, following much testing, of a firm varnish that would dry at a dependable pace. This was formed with linseed as well as nut oils, and assorted with resins. Van Eyck was the original to constantly employ slim pigmented oil glazes and varnishes invented by ways of chemistry (Wood 174-180). The step forward came when Jan assorted the oil into the definite paints he was using, in place of the egg mixture that was employed for tempera paint. This style formed a gleaming translucent strong color as the coloring was perched in a layer of oil that also trapped light. The before level, boring surface of tempera was altered by the utilizing of oil into a jewel like mixture. This was absolutely matched to the demonstration of valuable metals, gems and light. In van Eyck’s paintings the colors are so gleaming and comprehensible that the course of five hundred years has not lessened them (Osmond 96). The Eyckian style was founded on a tough undercurrent of practicality that involved a significant part of the enhancement of late medieval art. Exceptional attainments of this reasonable trend that might have predisposed the art of Jan van Eyck involve the frescoes of Tommaso da Modena in Tresiso and the group paintings of Melchior Broederlam and Robert Campin. At the works of Van Eyck trials with practicality led to a shocking minuteness of element in addition to an uncommonly well distinction between traits of texture and those of atmospheric light (Ward 196). It is perceived that his cautious demarcation of each detail of life was meant to mirror the magnificence of God’s making. A huge part of Jan van Eyck’s artwork did not persist over the years and cannot be currently traced. Contrary, not all is lost and those that are found are all remarkable for their astounding sense of actuality, extraordinary style, and perfect color sense and standpoint- one could almost tread into his paintings and blend with the reasonable characters peopling them. He did not come up with oil painting as numerous individuals guess, but he definitely did invent on the manner oils were utilized then, he deduced a smooth wooden façade and painted in an obscure style, with numerous overlays of transparent color glazes (Ward 196). Jan Van Eyck was also one of the initial artists to depict faces in three-quarter dimension and pay in depth concentration to light as well as shade. Patronage, Commissions, Family Life and Success As a painter and valet de chamber to the Duke, Eyck was remarkably well paid. His yearly earning was rather much when he was initially engaged, but it became two times in the initial two years, and was frequently complemented by particular extras. His earning solely makes him an extraordinary stature among ancient Netherlander painters, because majority of them relied on personal commissions, a show that Eyck’s art and individual were placed in exceptional great gaze (Wood 174-180). Jan fitted in to the Van Eyck family unit of painters and was a smaller brother of Hubert van Eyck. Not much is said of his family other than he got married soon after the Duke. The Duke also acted as godfather to one of Van Eyck’s children, sustained his widow when Eyck passed away and later assisted one of his daughters with the money needed to join a convent. As was usual performance at the period, Van Eyck had a workshop in Bruges with workers that made precise copies, pastiches as well as disparities of his finished panel paintings for the market. He was named the pioneering painter of his time, besides Antonio di Puccio Pisano and Rogier van der Weyden. He influenced a making of Flemish artists and following his passing away, his huge masses of works went on to impact artists all through Europe. Jan Van Eyck’s Art Work and Function
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    Insert name Tutor Course Date Community Ecology An ecological community can be described as a cluster of essentially or potentially interrelating species inhabiting the same environment. Any given community is tied by the system of control that species pose to one another. Undeniably, intrinsic in this perception is the ideology that whatever influences one organism also affects several others. This notion is referred to as the balance of life. A deep sense of communities is understood by evaluating the two-way dependencies, before multi-way interdependence actions, which involve two or several species. The chosen site is both terrestrial and aquatic; therefore, both the species inhabiting terrestrial and freshwater habitats are encompassed. Such species include; green plants; herbivores, such as antelopes and cattle, omnivores such as birds and pigs; small animals, for example, flies, ants, and the ladybird and crustaceans; mammals for example, bat; carnivores such as hawk, wild cat and fox and leopard. Competitive interaction in the ecosystem The sun energy enters the grass plants that form producer species; the producers are predated upon by primary consumers which in this case are the antelopes and cattle. The omnivore species feed on dead antelopes and cattle, and also on the grass. The small animals feed on the dead organisms and enhance their decomposition and also rely on plants that are still alive. Such small organisms include; bacteria, flies, ants and the ladybird. In this scenario, antelopes and cattle are competing for grass. Notably, in order to reduce competition between the two herbivores, antelopes or cattle can substitute limited access to grass; say during drought, by feeding on other green plants (Cavender-Bares et al 693-715). Mutualistic Interactions A mutualism entails an interaction whereby both sides enjoy gains. In this site, pollination is the noted mutualistic interaction. The green plants benefit pollen transfer which enhances fertilization while the flies get nectar and pollen as food. Nonetheless, a facultative mutualism is beneficial, though it is not essential to the continued existence and reproduction of both species; for instance, ants and bigger animals in this ecosystem. On the other hand, an obligate mutualism involves dependence that is imperative for the existence of one or both species; for instance, the antelope and grass. In this scenario, the antelope feeds on grass leaves that cannot effectively trap the sunlight energy. The ecosystem in 20 years time In 20 years time, more organism species will migrate into the ecosystem because of less competition occasioned by few existing species. This development will result to more species population owing to high rate of reproduction due to favorable living conditions. Nevertheless, eventually, increased species population will pose stiff competition for limited food and space, hence causing deaths of many species, before the population can rise again. Shannon-Wiener Index of diversity The forest is more diverse owing to the fact that it has more organism species. The site is also top in terms of species richness recorded at six. Notably, more species richness can either be beneficial, courtesy of immense options for food which reduces competition among organisms; and disadvantageous, as this could pose challenges to achieving optimum conditions for life. Quite unclear, was the relationship between species diversity and species richness. The plants for recitation include; mushrooms, toadstools, Norwood, and Griggstown. Conclusion Species interactions in an ecosystem encompass four main categories of two-way interdependence: mutualism, competition, commensalism, and predation. Owing to the many connections among species in a habitat, alterations to one organism species can result to extensive ecological changes. A proper ecosystem ensures balance in terms of predation and production as this is indispensable to the survival of all species, hence checking the extinction of some species from the ecosystem.
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    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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