Result of "NURSING"

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    Running head: SUBSTANCE ABUSE INTERVENTION The significance of Substance Abuse Intervention Institution Name
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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date Introduction The British suffered an economic setback after emerging victorious in the clashes of France and India in 1763 and they were in dire need of financial support. At the end of the battle, King George the III with his administration decided to tax the American protectorates as a way of recovering their losses. They also had to come up with an immediate decision on how to regain power over colonial administrators that had gained much control due to the attention, which was channeled to the war. The Royal incompetence compounded several troubles which led to a sequence of events such as the Stamp Act of 1765; Townsend Acts of 1767 as well as the Boston Massacre 1770. These annoyed the settlers and as a result, created tension between them and the mother country. But the Crown's request to tax tea forced the colonists to take action and organize the foundation for the American rebellion. The colonies declined to disburse the charges requested by the Townsend Acts declaring that they have no responsibility to abide to levies imposed by a legislature that don’t represent their interests. In reaction, Parliament waved the taxes with an exemption of a tax on tea, an evidence of the legislature’s capability as well as right to levy taxes on the protectorates. In May, 1773, Parliament invented an intelligent plan, by giving the East India Company domination on the tea transportation to America. Moreover, Parliament abridged the tax that was to be paid by the colonies for the importation of tea. The Americans at the end would have their tea at a lower price than before. But if the protectorates pay the levy tax for tea importation, they would be admitting Parliament’s request to tax them. Tea was rated as a very vital commodity for the colonial life and the parliament thought that the settlers would rather accept to pay tax instead of denying themselves the priority of taking tea. The legislatures plan failed to trick the colonialists and when the East India Corporation sent the tea shipments to Philadelphia as well as New York, the residents did not allow the ships to land. And in Charleston, the loaded ships were allowed to land but the tea was consigned to a store where it was stored for the following three years until when the patriots sold it to fund their rebellion. The Boston tea party The Boston Tea Party was a move by the colonists in Boston, a township of the British settlement of Massachusetts, opposed to the British government as well as the East India Company which was in charge of the tea importation on the protectorate. It was on December 16, 1773 when three tea loaded ships docked in the Boston harbor and thousands of residents reacted by organizing a mass meeting and decided that the ships should depart the ports. But the port authorities refused to release the ships without paying the duty charges. The crowd received the news of the stalemate and reacted by assembling around two hundred men who descended on the shipments and destroyed the tea cargos by dumping them on water (Furstinger 28-30). The event has remained a memorable incident in the American history and is often referred to by the politicians. Most of the colonists applauded the action, but the response in London was rapid and vigorous. Parliament approved the Intolerable Acts in March 1774, which led to the closure of the Boston harbor among other actions ordered by the act. This led to direct detonation of violence and the urge of the Americans to fight for independence. Reasons why the colonialists resisted the tea act The residents thought that the act dishonored their right of paying tax which according to them, was supposed to be designated by their representatives only. Other colonies also succeeded in preventing the delivery of the tea shipments in their territories and this ignited them to act after their governor, Hutchinson snub the request to turn the tea shipments back to Britain. Creation of the Coercive Acts also recommended that the Boston port remained closed until damages the British East India Company suffered are settled. Colonists in revolve, reacted to the Coercive Acts by calling for more protests, and by summoning the First Continental assembly, which formally requested the British monarch for an abolishment of the act. The crisis erupted in 1775 which marked the commencement of the American Revolutionary War that started around Boston. The Boston Tea Party was caused mainly by two issues that the British Empire experienced in 1773: the first one was the financial difficulty that the British East India Corporation was facing, and the ongoing argument about extending the Parliament's mandate over the American colonies without undergoing any election process. The effort to solve these issues resulted in a showdown that finally resulted in a revolution. The Tea trade The routine of drinking tea was first developed by the Europeans. And the Dutch around the mid-seventeenth-century in New Amsterdam were the first group in Northern America to take tea. The practice developed on slowly among the British settlers whom took over from the Dutch. The first official permission to sell tea in Boston was authorized in 1690 and the habit gained publicity from 1720 when tea consumption increased in British North America. And by 1774, the Great Britain and the North American region were the leading tea consumers in the world. About 90 percent of the wealthy homes in Massachusetts possessed items related to tea like teacups along with teapots. About 50 percent of the middle group families and the unfortunate people also possessed tea-making items on the approach of the American independence. By 1760, tea was rated the third, after textiles plus iron-ware, along with other commodities the colonists were trading in from the Great Britain. Tea was rooted in the British commercial organization of trade just like the other main goods. The East India industry, which apprehended a monopoly on the business, distributed tea from China via London where it was bought at public sale and then dispersed within or exported. The British administration raised profits through towering import taxes in addition to heavy excise levy on tea. The British administration invented several acts because of the tea smuggling problems around 1723 and 1745 while the duties levied on tea were at the peak. The exact quantity of tea taken by the North American colonies cannot be determined. The illegal trade of tea, mostly from Holland, could have been substantial, given the fact that approximately each ship that the British officers held or scrutinized for smuggling incorporated tea in its consignment. The tea business developed into a main focus of argument involving Britain with its American protectorates in 1767, after tea was included in the Townsend act. The non-importation association, which was formed in reaction to the new laws, radically reduced the capacity of tea imported to the colonies. Townshend Revenue Act that negatively affected the tea party was passed in1767, by the legislature to levy new excise together with the one on tea in the protectorates. And this instead of resolving the smuggling crisis, it converted to a debate about the Parliament's power to levy taxes on the colonies. Townshend duty crisis Townshend Acts developed a crisis involving Great Britain with its American colonies in the 1760s when legislature opted for the first moment, to openly levy tax on the colonies with a target of raising income. A group of colonists referred to as the Whigs, opposed the tax plan terming it as a breach of the British charter. Britons as well as British Americans argues that British citizen’s cannot be taxed without the approval of their elected legislatures. Colonists also did not select the leaders by ballot and therefore rejected the law, and the Whig group also disagreed on the basis that the colonies cannot abide to such bodies. The act led to several protests that resulted in the cancelling of the Stamp Act in 1765, and the formation of the Declaratory Act, in 1766 after the legislature insisted that they have power to regulate the colonies. The new revenue law was introduced by the parliament and was faced by a double resistant headed by the Whigs and included mass actions and boycotts of British enterprises and non-importation policy. Parliament lastly reacted to the demonstration by abolishing the Townshend taxes in 1770, apart from the tea tax, which was retained to emphasize the right of levying tax on the Americans. The repeal reversed the non-importation policy around October 1770. The Tea Act The protection Act of 1767, which restricted tea transportation only to East India Company ended in 1772 and the assembly approved a new one that bridged the restriction, effectively parting a 10% commission of tea transported to Britain. It also reinstated tea taxes in Britain that was abolished in 1767. This costs a serious financial crisis to the East India Company due to the decline in tea sales. The funds raised by the Townshend act were used in settling wages of colonial governors plus judges. Formerly they were paid by the colonial legislative body, but the Parliament wanted the sector to be independence. The Tea Act was turned into a law on May 10, 1773 and re-established East India Company's compensation on duty for taking tea into Britain, as well as permitting the company to export tea to the colonies independently. The Americans discovered the terms of the Tea Act while the East India Company were expecting seven shipments of tea in the colonies: four were heading to Boston, and the other three to New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston respectively. And the Whigs started mobilizing the public to resist the tea act and forced the tea distributors to resign. Colonial merchants as well as smugglers participated actively in the demonstration since the Tea Act lowered the tea prices and re-monopolizes the importation of tea to one company hence was going to render them jobless. Initially other states managed to turn back the ships except Massachusetts; which later preferred to dump the shipments into water at the Boston port hence the name “the Boston Tea party”
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    Running head: ETHICS IN ACCOUNTING Ethics in Accounting Name: Institution: Date: ETHICS IN ACCOUNTING Introduction
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    Name: Tutor: Course: Date: FIRST PLAY Mountain Language written by Harold Pinter Mountain language is a play which was written by Harold Pinter in year 2005. Minority discrimination and oppression actions which were conducted against Kurds living in Turkey by Turks, comprising the majority, inspired Harold Pinter to write the play. Being the minority in Turkey, Kurds had their own unique language and cultural practices from the Turks. Their contributions to the Turkey’s economy were insignificantly recognized by the government of Turkey. In addition, the government which was purposed to protect them offered a blind eye and opted for total assimilation of Kurds by Turks or a complete disintegration. The play is dividend into four main episodes with all set around a prison environment and it demonstrates coercion and oppression actions against minority a societal group which spoke the Mountain language. The play has a political theme where mightier and dominant individuals oppress people who spoke the Mountain language. These discrimination actions have spread their roots even to governmental organization like rehabilitation centres. For example, the Mountain language is considered outlawed and illegal hence people are not supposed to utilize it in any institution. In the first episode, in a chilly snowing weather, a long queue of women is seen in front of a prison gate. All of these women are from a minority group and are denied freedom to visit their husbands and sons because they are using an outlawed Mountain language. Levels of oppression emerge where an elderly woman who has been attacked by dogs is requested to issue the dog’s name. She cannot be assisted since she uses the outlawed language as her only language. Another elderly woman cannot visit her husband in prison since she cannot express herself in the acceptable legal language. She gets a physical assault as she gets driven out of the premises of the prison. In a separate episode, a woman had to offer herself as a sexual object to a prison warder as a way of pleasing him so that her husband can be discharges from torture processes he was undergoing through. All these forms of oppression and discrimination against people who spoke Mountain language were politically driven by mightier and influential people from the dominating societal groups. This is because; they believed that adoption of a common language creates a less resistance or opposing environment in time of political issues. Men from this minority group are being imprisoned and tormented because of their political stand. In addition, oppressors believed that a common language create a positive and a lovely link among society members unlike when disintegrated. SECOND PLAY Seven Jewish Children: A Play for Gaza written by Caryl Churchill This is a play which was written by Churchill and released in February 2009. Churchill was inspired by conflicting issues, which had faced Israel since the commencement of the twentieth century. Though the title of the play is Seven Jewish Children, there are no children who appear in the seven episodes of the play. The play is composed of argumentative talks between adults who want to arrive at a decision on how to tell their absent child about history of Israel. Being formed of Jewish, Israel has been opposed by many neighbouring nations such as Palestine and Germany. This has led to massive deaths of Israelites as witnessed in persistence wars between Israel and Palestine. These adults are at a cross road, on how to deliver sensitive information concerning history of Israel to the girl child. In addition, the seven Jewish children as represented by the seven scenes in the play are the historical events which have occurred in approximately seventy years ago. They include creation of Israel, migration of Jewish to Palestine, Palestinian Arab expulsion, water based quarrels in the region, West Bank barrier creation, suicide attacks by Palestinians and rocket based attacks from Hamas group. As the scenes uncover, each historic events represented by a scene in the play analyses the events which took place and how questions from the absent child will be tackled. For example, they agree to tell the child that history of Holocaust in Germany was just a story and never existed. Various issues are addressed in this play. For instance, being in desert place, Israel had has a scarcity of water but they rely on unconventional sources of water especially through reclaiming of water bodies and sources. This has brought controversial issues since Palestinians are restrained from using these reclaimed water bodies which are scarce. These adults agree to tell the child that reclaimed water bodies is part of their rights. In addition, they agree to tell the child that Israel is building new cities in wilderness thus hiding information concerning destruction of Palestinian buildings. A number of deaths had occurred in Israel as a result of Hamas rocket attacks. To conceal and settle the issue on how to tell the child, these adults agree to restrict the child from watching her favourite programs since encompass attacks in Israel. Jewish are in their promised land which is Israel and cannot be evacuated by their neighbouring nations forms one of the answer to be given to this child. In addition, no information will be given to the child for any unasked questions.
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    Running head: IMPERIALISM IN CHINA, INDIA AND JAPAN The Indian, Chinese and Japan’s Response to Imperialism Name: Institution: Date: Thesis Statement The general dominance of the European countries, forming the western bloc has been extended the world over. The imperialism spearheaded by the western civilization, which since the start had been ahead of any other civilization on several fronts ranging from economic status, military power, education and discoveries docked in every potential region they thought would provide an excellent source of raw materials for their industries. The western imperialism though swift and mighty, encountered resistances among the natives who lived in the prospective gold mines. For instance, as they made their way into the Asian territory they introduced and cultivated the western cultural practices in China, Japan and India, which was partially allowed by the natives. The paper explores the response of the three Eastern giants to western imperialism.
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    Running head: ISSUES IN NURSING
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    Running head:  POLICE AND USE OF FORCE Police and use of force  Name  Institution         Date     Introduction Officers mandated with the task of law enforcement are most of the time authorized to apply force in special circumstances. The police officers receive comprehensive training on combat as they are faced with a lot of challenges in dispensation of duty. Use of force is considered viable for example in calming rowdy combatants, making some arrests, or even controlling a violent demonstration. The activities of police officers come under public barometer when the magnitude of force application goes beyond the level considered justifiable under the prevailing conditions. Cases that involve the use of a lot of force by the police often receive media attention, civil rights organizations, criminal courts and legislators. The condemnation of the use of force by the police officers is received from every quarter as public opinion and laws of the land whether it is a norm within the law enforcement agency or just uncouth behavior of some individual policemen. Police brutality forms one of the most significant divisive and serious violations of human rights in the United States. The excessive application of force by law enforcement officers persists due a lot of barriers to officers’ accountability. This makes it easy for officers who are victims of human rights violations to slip off punishment and in most cases often to repeat their offenses. Police and government officials meet every new report of police brutality with a lot of denials or explanations that it is an act of aberration, while the criminal systems and administrative justice which should come out strongly on the issue just grant them immunity thus encouraging impunity (Toch, 1999). Investigations have found that brutality in the police force is very persistent in all American cities, and the abuse reduction systems set up to curb the vice are almost the similar and have same magnitude of failure in the each city. It has also been found that complainants are most of the time faced with a huge task in seeking criminal prosecution of police officers and administrative punishment or who are involved in violations of human rights. Causes of Police brutality Police officers are legally permitted to use force, and their seniors and the public at large expect them to exercise that when deemed necessary. In most of the instances when dealing with disorderly characters of the community, some individuals working in law enforcement may in the course of duty develop a sense of authority over society, more so under common reaction-based models of policing; in some of the instances the police have the belief that they are above the law. A comprehensive report by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on the real causes of misconduct in the police force put to task the organization and senior authorities for shifting the blame game to individual faults that can be traced from background, behavioral and psychological factors, instead of tackling the systemic causes. The report discusses the systemic factors at length, which include pressures to adhere to some aspects of police culture, such as the Blue Code of Silence, which can sustain and condone an oppositional criminal culture by giving protection to police officers who violate the law and . Control and command structures with a very rigid hierarchical foundation with the results indicating that the more rigid the system of hierarchy, the lower the magnitude of scores of ethical decision-making measure and deficiencies in the mechanisms of internal accountability including processes of internal investigations. Most people may in fact view the use of too much force by the police as inappropriate even in conditions that calls for it. Use of violence by the police is put under control in many of the jurisdictions by the provision of a force continuum. A force continuum defines and describes levels of force deemed appropriate in response to behavior of a subject. Civil government grants the power with a set of limits as stipulated in the statutory law and also the common law (Skolnick, 2002). Chronology of Police Abuse Throughout history, attempts to have effective policing of societies have been met with a lot of brutality. In the ancient world, policing authorities actively cultivated and nurtured an environment of terror, and orthodox treatment was applied to achieve desirable control of the population.
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    One Man’s Terrorism Customer’s Name Customer’s Grade Course Customer tutor’s Name 22nd February, 2010 Outline Terrorism has been an issue of global discussion from the last years of the previous century. Different people have held diverse views when it comes to terrorism. Because of this, it has become quite hard to effectively define the term and come up with a globally accepted definition. Basing terrorism on the saying, one man’s terrorism is another man’s freedom fighter, it will be realized that there is some sense of truth in it. In this paper, we give a detailed explanation of the saying through use of elaborative examples so that we may understand why it has been hard to come up with an internationally acceptable definition for terrorism.
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    Running head: SOCIOLOGICAL ISSUES Sociological Issues Name: Institution Date
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    Running head: GUN CONTROL             Gun Control       Name:     Institution                                        Date      Abstract There has been a clash between the rights of the citizens of the United States of America of owning and carrying firearms as provided by the 2nd amendment of the US constitution and the government duty to control crime through regulation of fire arms. Indeed this has further borne a serious debate in the United States of America that revolves around gun control by the government. This is part of the gun politics and rights to firearms which has been one of the issues that has been controversial in the politics of the United States of America. This paper will address the raging Gun debate in the USA with an objective of finding ways to strike a middle ground.
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    Running head: MEDIA, VIOLENCE AND VIDEO GAMES Media, Violence and Video Games Name: Institution: Date: Abstract Human entertainment has been evolving at an exponential rate over the last two decades. This has given birth to video games that have been seen by many to responsible for violence dispositions on our societies. In this paper, we undertake to discuss some of the researches and studies that have suggested that the consumption of media and video games will result in violence, and comparing the results with the information obtained from sources that argue the opposite. In order to have a wide study in the research, we tool a keener look in American and Japanese’s cultures and how video games connect with violence in the two cultures.
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    Running head: A CASE OF PLEA BARGAINING
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    Name Tutor Course Date Global Business Strategies Brazil is among the world’s largest and populous countries. It has the largest economy in the region of the Latin America (Barman 4). It is also one of the promising markets alongside India and China and most multinationals that are franchising are finding Brazil as a viable destination to conduct their businesses. There are some macro environmental aspects that influence the viability of Brazil as a global business hub. These factors include the political atmosphere, the legal systems, business protocol, communication, natural environment and culture. Politically, Brazil is a democracy that has been stable for decades. The country has a presidential system of governance with the president restricted to a maximum of two –four years terms. The current president is Inacio Lula da Silva whose eight year term that started in 2002, has seen an exponential growth of the Brazilian economy due to the political and economic policies that have encouraged foreign investments. The Brazilian parliament is a bicameral national congress that consists of the federal senate and the chamber of deputies. There are three political entities in Brazil that are distinct and indissoluble. These include, the states, the federal districts and the municipalities and they are built on the five principles that include citizenship, dignity of human rights, sovereignty, political pluralism and freedom of enterprise. Legal Environment The Brazilian legal environment is controlled by the Germanic- Roman mores plus the Civil Law which prevails above the practices of the common law. The legal system in Brazil is codified; however there are some non codified ones that play a complimentary function. Interpretative guidelines are set out by court decisions which on the other hand may not be binding on particular cases. Legal jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary. However, the Brazilian constitution permits the federal senate to execute judgments in some specific cases. Conversely, the Brazilian legal systems are slow in decision making and sometimes decades go without completion of definitive cases. Natural Environment Brazil has a diverse topography complete with mountains, plains scrublands and highlands. The world’s second largest river, The Amazon, is found in Brazil among many others that all draw off into the Atlantic Ocean. There are different ecosystems in Brazil. The heaviest biological biodiversity globally is the Amazon Rainfall in Brazil. The country’s variety of natural habitats is reflected in the rich wildlife which has more than four million species of animals and plants. There are very unique animals in the Brazilian natural habitat and these include Ocelots, peccaries, tapirs, opossums, Pumas, deer, Jaguars and armadillos. However, widespread agriculture and ranching activities are threats to the natural heritage that Brazil has. Other threats include development, extraction of gas and poaching. Communication Communication is one of the powerful tenets of the unity of Brazil as a nation. The unitary Language of Brazil is Portuguese which is the national language spoken by 100 percent of the inhabitants, though there are other languages like the Tupi and Arawak (Calmon 98). Communicative technology is well developed in Brazil and the country boasts one of the most expansive and state of the art communication networks in Latin America and this has been one of the factors that have attracted foreign investors into the country because business and communication go hand in hand. Culture Brazil has a mixture of ethnicities and races creating a rich cultural diversity. There are also several races including the young Mestizos, formed after the Portuguese settlers married the natives and the mulatoes, a race formed from the intermarriage of Portuguese and Africans (Boxer 67). Despite the mixture of ethnicities in the Brazilian culture, there exists a class system in the country. There is mild racial discrimination in the country but social prejudice on the basis of economic standards is widely evident in Brazil. There is mild or little interaction between the middle, the upper and the lower classes. Though the women make two fifth of the population, they occupy the lower cadre jobs, but there is a law that forbids female discrimination. Despite the existence of such a regulation, gender inequity is still prevalent in the Brazilian culture. Business Protocol   Brazil has very many cities and the business protocol varies according to the cities. There are places where it is easier to do business more than others because of the variations in business protocol. Looking at the major cities, it is easier to do business in Brasilia more than Rio de Janeiro because of the relaxed regulations in the city. In fact, most global investors prefer Brasilia to Rio Janeiro, not only because of the variations in business protocol, but also because of the strategic positioning of the city. Generally, Brazil is a business friendly nation with relaxed business regulations and this one factor that attracts franchisors into the country. Some of the multinationals that have been favored by the friendly business protocol include Wal-Mart, Coca cola and Shell. In conclusion, the macro environment in Brazil is very friendly for international business making the country one of the most viable emerging markets.
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    Name: Institution: Tutor: Date: Young, Gay and Murdered In college we are trained how to write a good quality paper. This involves reading the assignment and understanding what is expected from you. It’s always important that one goes through the hand out carefully in order to identify the assignment instructions and this will assist you to come up with a good essay that analyses the question at hand. The young gay and murdered, is a story that unfolds the events that led to the death of Larry king. Larry king was killed early last year by his fellow classmate at the age of 15 years. This article was not fairly written because it favored the killer Brandon and not the victim. This is well illustrated in the way Larry has been described as a harasser and a distractor.He is said to have mocked his fellow classmates and struggled hard to draw attention to him with the way he dressed. On several occasions he came to school dressed on make up and women’s garments which I believe in any school there are rules and regulations that should be observed by each student. Since he was a man we expected him to wear men’s uniform strictly but this was not the case. We therefore put the blame on the teachers who never took any action but instead encouraged his behavior and for this reason the school failed to educate Larry on the issue. We cannot blame Larry for his death whether he dressed girls or boys clothes or taunted the girls and boys in his class. Secondly, the students grumbled that Larry was harassing them and was at one point detached from the physical education class but in this article we are not told how students who had intimidated Larry were handled. It’s true that his fellow classmates terrorized and made fun about his situation, either at home, in the locker room and also at the movie. Thirdly, the fact that Larry had said he was gay could not have been the main reasons for his death. I believe teachers and the students failed to understand him. Larry was only a kid demanding to discover his identity as he told one of his teachers that he had never kissed anyone. To him he used the word gay to express his innermost feelings and affection and he only shared this with his friends in order to seek attention. Unfortunately his fellow classmates were not acquainted with how to handle kids like Larry who explored their sexuality. At the end Larry faced rejection and most of his classmates considered him an outcast. Since nobody both at home and in school appeared to understand him, he worked so hard to get noticed and win the attention of most students. Conclusion I strongly blame the teachers for letting their school run out of control. How did they allow Brandon to access lessons with a gun and they also encouraged Larry to wear women’s attires in school. Brandon did wrong to kill Larry and should be held responsible. Works Cited Setoodeh.Ramin. Young, Gay and Murdered: News Week. 2008.
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    Running head: ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Ethical Principles Student Name Student Identification Number Course Number and Title Assignment Number and Title
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    Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Explain the five important elements in the American view of the political system. There are many elements in the American political system; the following are the five significant ones: democracy, equality, liberty, individual responsibility and civic duty. Democracy is whereby government officials are held responsible to political policies by the people. This is realized through, for example, public opinion polls, which are held to indicate the views of the general public in regard to policies and issues concerning the nation. Equality is the equal chance given to every citizen in the nation, regardless of their gender, race, cultural or religious alienation to participate in the public affairs of the nation. This is illustrated in every citizen’s right to vote. Liberty is another important element; it entails the freedom of one to do what one wills as long as it respects and does not infringe on the rights of others. Liberty is linked to the concept of individual responsibility, also referred to as personal responsibility, which states that it is the responsibility for every individual to respect the human rights of others, in addition to the responsibility for own actions. Finally, is the element of civic duty, which focuses on the importance of taking government seriously, and participating in government duties such as paying taxes, serving in the military when required and being active in community activities. How does the American political culture differ from the political culture in other constitutional democracies? The American political culture differs from the political culture in other constitutional democracies on various fronts. Significantly, the American political culture encourages democratic values of equality, constitutionalism, liberalism, optimism, idealism, the rule of law and nationalism. These widespread beliefs in the American political culture are different from the political culture of for example, Germany. Following the First World War and the Second World War which left Germany divided and in ruins, the political culture of the country is uncomfortable with values such as nationalism and militarism. Moreover, constitutional democracies that historically lived inside the area of Soviet authority are not well familiar with values such as constitutionalism and the rule of law, which makes their political culture different from that of the United States. What are the ways in which Americans can politically participate? There are numerous ways through which Americans can participate in the politics of the nation. One of these is ensuring that everyone who is eligible to vote learns about candidates and issues at hand, considers the needs and important values, ensures that she or he is registered and votes for the best candidate during elections. Besides voting, Americans can also volunteer to help with a voter registration exercises such as door-to-door campaigns or at community information tables. Americans can also participate outside the election season by participating in activities such as for example, joining environmental groups responsible for clean water and air, and wise use of natural resources. In addition, they can join labor unions working on improvement of working conditions as well as political issues.
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    Running head: STEREOTYPES Stereotypes Name Institution Date: Introduction Stereotyping is the process of grouping and building assumptions towards a particular group especially because of their association to the group. These assumptions are either positive or negative but generally they are mostly negative. Stereotyping prevents people from lacking interest in the desire to know each other. The assumptions made hinder interaction hence resulting to superficial relationships rather than an understanding relationship. It can also create shyness and often one will prefer to stay away from others simply because of the differences in age, gender, position or even educational level. Stereotyping is everywhere and actually everybody does it. People’s lives are improperly judged according to their looks or perspective. Most of the stereotypes emerge in the media as result of the bias of directors, reporters among others. This paper will focus on stereotypes associated with various groups (what is stereotyping). Politicians Politicians stereotype each other for the purpose of creating influence in voting. This stereotyping is not frequently done independently but is accompanied by fallacies like, “personal attack”. The term democrat must be accompanied with “tax and spend” every time it is used by politicians. The analogues and rhetoric definitions increases as the debate becomes more serious or the situation of uncontrollable frustrations. Many arguments are traditional and same hyperboles and phrases are used for the purpose of inculcating a negative view to the opposing side. The mainly outstanding stereotype attributed to them is “double-standard”, resulting from their slandering. Examples of slanted hyperbole are “pork barrel politics” and “wasteful spending” and are used to depict opposition’s behavior that is undesirable. The Indiana State Bar Association handout of 2008 referred politicians as “cigar-smoking, bombastic, self-serving, untrustworthy individuals”. Stereotyping can be sometimes beneficial. This was outlined in US during the 2008 elections. Most people wanted a change in the color of the president. In essence they wanted a change; they needed a black president (Green, 2009). Tattooed Persons
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    Running head: WHITE COLLAR CRIME White Collar Crime Name: Institution: Date: Abstract Criminology is one of the areas of law which have been progressing at a fast pace in recent years. This has been as a result of the manner in which there have been increases in the number of crimes which are applying different methods and strategies other than the old school attacks and physical assaults. A good example here is the white collar crime which has been taking different shapes each and every day. This research paper, seeks to look into details on the facts surrounding white collar crime, define this form of crime, look at the laws that regulate this form of crime, and the overall impacts on the society.
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    Insert Name Tutor Course Date The First National Bank of the United States Introduction There was no existence of commercial banks among the American colonies before 1775. There were no colonial institutions, either private or public which were carrying out bank functions. Most of the institutions were completely different from the modern day known commercial banks that when Alexander Hamilton, Robert Morris, and other pioneers in the financial sector wrote a proposal for the construction of the Bank of North America in 1781, every detail of banking had to be repeatedly discussed. The First Bank of the US refers to a financial institution which was given a chartered by Congress on February 25, 1791. The charter was for a period of twenty years. It was initiated to handle the financial requirements and needs of the central government of the relatively new United States, which had previously been thirteen independent colonies with their own banks, currencies, financial institutions and policies (Perkins 318-319). The need for the First Bank of the United States was necessitated by the debts accrued by the state from the Revolutionary War, and the fact that every state had its own form of currency. The bank was constructed when the country’s capital was in Philadelphia. Alexander Hamilton pioneered the idea of establishing the bank to create a standard and unitary currency to handle the huge debts incurred during the period of war (Cowen 1791-1797). Formulation and collapse of the Bank The Bank’s concept had both its genesis and support from the merchants of the North and most of the governments of the New England state. It was, however, viewed with a lot of suspicion by Southern States representatives who considered themselves as not in dire need of centrally concentrated banks as their core industry revolved around agriculture. They did not also trust the motives of the Southern states. Before the time of the bank's charter, bills and coins issued by state banks were the common forms of currency for the nation. The charter of the First Bank was drafted by the Congress in 1791 and signed by the then president, George Washington. The charter of the bank expired in 1811 when James Madison was the president and the bill to give it another lease of operation failed by one vote, 65 nays to 64 yeas, on January 24, 1811, however, President Madison revived its structure and operations in the form of the Second Bank of the United States (Redlich 314). The bank was at first carrying out its operations in Carpenters' Hall from the period of 1791 to 1795. The neo-classical aspect of the bank design was intended to bring to memory the splendor and democracy of ancient Greece. The eagle crowned the house and at the time the bank was being constructed, the bird was for a period of fourteen years a national symbol (Klubes 10). A lot of issues came into fore, for example the constitutionality in the new government in establishing the bank. The then Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton reasoned that the Bank offered an appropriate way of utilizing the legal powers of the government as stipulated in constitutional law, but Thomas Jefferson, the then Secretary of State opposed the argument by saying that the establishment of the Bank violated fundamental property laws. The decision on the legality of the Bank finally fell to President George Washington, who was compelled to seek for a written opinion from the members of his cabinet and more so from Hamilton. Attorney General of the time, Edmund Randolph who hailed from Virginia had an opinion about unconstitutionality of the bill which was shared by Jefferson, also from Virginia, saying that the proposal by Hamilton was against both the good spirit and letter of the Constitution (Markham 296). The forces against the establishment of the Bank remained vocal and united since its inception in 1791. The federalists had lost control of the bank by the time the debate emerged again in the congress. The Democrats were the majority and were prepared to shoot down any revival attempts by the federalists. The opponents of the operations of the Bank included William Branch Giles, Henry Clay, and Vice-President George Clinton. The Federalists were joined by two popular Democrats in their renewal attempts; Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin, who believed that the institution was very useful, and President Madison (Dewey 403). The opponents were infuriated by the fact that more than half of the stock was owned by foreigners exposing the control of the Bank to be under their influence though the allegation was unfounded as foreigners did not have the mandate to elect Bank directors. The opponents also argued that the Bank was not coming out clear about its profits, thus operating in a strange and unconstitutional manner making it a government kitty for obtaining funds. Conclusion The reason why the Bank lost its charter had nothing to do with banking operations as banking industry was experiencing tremendous growth when the renewal of the charter was before the congress in 1811. The Bank can then be said to have eventually collapsed as a result of politics. The Bank is recognized for bringing safe and secure paper money into the American economy, stimulation of business and support to the credit of the nation and the central government. The chartering of a national economic institution was a huge step in the history of the Federal financial revolution that started earlier with Constitution making.
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    Insert name Tutor Course Date Disney films and Racism Introduction Memories of great films have come forth from Walt Disney movies. There are a variety of animated movies, channel movies and popular classics. Several movies from Disney are raising issues of racism. After producing the first movie “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” in 1937 many more movies have come up since then. This movies have become adorable entertainment and more so to children. However the children learn about ethnicity, disabilities, race and gender at a very young age of 2 and 5 years from the movies they watch (Linn & Poussaint 50). Disney Company Giroux is in the forth front criticizing the Disney Company. The company possess unending quest of dominating the U.S media and soon will do so to the entire world. In his book,” The Mouse That Roared”, Giroux puts a blame on Disney especially Walt Disney Company under Michael Eisner. His major focus is on the effect of Disney’s movies and the Children Culture. It is good to appreciate the works of Disney but it is time to reclaim back the children. Disney does not regard the self- reflection and autonomy principles. Disney is on a mission to construct children mind through the movies so that they can be consumers of the products produced by Disney. Disney movies are full of simple stupidity, misogyny, racism and sexism. This is what children seem to love most. Most of the films portray absent fathers, racial stereotypes and weak and foolish fathers. The children incorporate these in their mind and develop attitudes towards other people especially their parents (Giroux 1) The animated films encourage fantasy and imagination and build up an innocence feeling and a good adventure to kids. The movies are highly regarded as amusing vehicles to children and bring lots of joy in them. The films teach children about themselves, society and the importance of building a world of play in the adult environment. The Disney animated films has raised crisis of vision and motivation in public sites like schools. The kids place themselves in dreamlike emotional lives because of the fantasy world they watch in the films. Kids have been learning a lot from Disney films and hence it is the high time for educators and parents draw close attention to what the films are teaching. Although there is increasing violence in the streets, the films depict a harmonious environment portraying social messages that needs close scrutiny. This increases the popularity of the films because of the innocence trademark that protect it from facing interrogation critics. The Disney films generates a seditious and anti- Christ ideology which the media has evaded from publishing. The Disney films show racism especially to the Arabs as exhibited in the film “Aladdin” (Giroux 83 -88). Some animated films produced by Disney since 1989 are of great significance since they have been praised by the press hence getting a blockbuster status. Moreover the critics as well as the audiences have been willingly suspending judgment about children films. Animated fantasy created by these films does not appear in the world of values and knowledge associated with adults. As a result of the Disney ideology directed to children, it is important that parents and other adults understand the effect of children values as they continue to watch them. The debate concerning Disney productions should be spread in homes, schools and other public sites However it is important to avoid condemning Disney in addressing the ideology of Disney’s animated films (Giroux 85). Conclusion Disney is an educational institution that needs to be accountable of the effect it has on children cultures and the creation of different social formation. The innocence portrayed by Disney and its paranoid attitude gives reasons why it needs to be challenged and critically engaged. It not easy to tell whether the Disney’s animated films is good for the children. However as a multibillion dollar company, it has enormous influence in culture and hence should not define itself as just an innocence and entertainment company. Children ought to be taught how to accept persons from diverse cultures, races and ethnicities by parents and teachers (Brunette et al 3).
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    Name: Tutor: Course Date: Outline This is a paper presenting a research proposal that will be done in gathering information on how the media houses and corporations in Turkey and other countries of the west have been depicting the issues of PKK terrorism and the overall problem of the Kurdish society in Turkey. This paper gives a preface and background of the problem, then going ahead to describe the framework through which the study will be carried out. There is also the statement of problem which gives us the necessities for the study. Once the study has been effectively concluded, we will come up with the final paper which gives detailed information on the findings of the study. Introduction The Kurds belong to a small ethnic minority in Turkey. They speak the Indo-European kind of language that is absolutely dissimilar from that of the Turks; and live in the entire divisions of the country with the majority living in the south-east and east of Turkey, which is known to be their origin. There have been increasing negative manner in which the government has been known to treat these individuals and several offensive measures being carried out against them (Ozbek 1). Going by history, the Turkish government as early as in 1930s came up with a policy aimed in the dissimilation of these Kurds. Later in the 1980s, the Kurds started to hold demonstrations and movements in resisting the government moves of dissimilating them. These movements of resistance have always included the use of peaceful demonstrations in progression for their rights as bona fide people of the country. There has also been the emergence of armed actions and rebellions of the group so that they may have their sovereign Kurdish state. As well, there are a number of documentations whereby the government military has been seen evacuating their villages so that they can stop these Kurds. In 1990s, the National Security Council of Turkey tried to announce war through the use of Special Forces and killings until this conflict was out of control (Ozbek 2). Then there is the big question of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, PKK which began as a separatist group and movement. As many refer to it, the PKK itself is known to be an armed organization in the country whose main goal has been in creating a communist, independent and purely ethnic state in Turkey and isolate itself into a sovereign state. This is the dream of the minority Kurds; however, not all the Kurds are after this isolation. The terrorism of the PKK has been through the application of indiscriminative acts of violence against military personnel and the civilians in both the country and the European continent (Radu 10). Having begun as small group over 25 years ago, it has been able to kill thousands of citizens in the country. The most affected ones include teachers, engineers, doctors, village guards of Kurdish origin and the police. Today the PKK group has over five thousand members who are heavily armed, and majority are children and the youth. Their terrorism acts include use of bombs, bombing landmines, suicide bombings and maiming or killing individuals (Cornell 11). Aim Basically, our major aim for this study will be dig deep and get the fundamentality of the Kurdish Problem and PKK terrorism and how different media corporations and newspapers have been reflecting the Kurdish problem. This will also be advanced into different western countries in order to see how different countries in the west think about the problem. In that case, it will be through the use of media information so as to note the major issues that these other countries attach to this Kurdish problem in Turkey. Argument It should be noted that the Turkish media does not provide the exact facts of about the Kurdish problem and the PKK terrorism, something which has been depicted otherwise in other western countries. This brings us to the argument that there are disparities in the manner in which this problem is given out in television and newspapers, and the reason we set out for this study. Problem The problem here is in the nature in which different media houses in both Turkey and other western countries depict this Kurdish problem and the PKK terrorism. In this case, our study will be aimed in disclosing the facts about this depiction and be able to come up with the rightful opinions about this problem and how it is pronounced in the country (Beattie 2). This study will be effective since it will help us do away with the conceptual assumptions and in that case be able to emphasize much on the facts only and be in a position of getting the right picture about this problem which we believe it is a variable situation rather than a stable one. The PKK is a significant problem for the Turkish government and citizens for many reasons, particularly the conflict of religion and Turkey’s endeavor to be a member of the European Union. The quantity of fatalities from terrorist assaults by the PKK is one reason that the Turkey wants to stop the violence, but there is also the fact that the PKK stands in the way of two important subjects for the Turkish government: secularism and membership in the European Union. As a population, Kurdish people are much more inclined to religious fundamentalism than cultural Turks. Modern Turkey was founded by Kemal Attaturk on the basis of secularism and it is an important value for most Turks. Secularism is a very important factor in Turkey’s bid to become a member of the European Union.
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    Name:xxxxxxxxxxx Institution:xxxxxxxxxxxx Title :INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS Tutor: xxxxxxxxxxx Course : xxxxxxxxxxxx @2010 Table of contents
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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