Result of "SMOKING"

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    Should Cigarette Smoking Be Legalized Or Illegalized?
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Should Cigarette Smoking Be Legalized Or Illegalized? While every adult person with sound mind is aware of the hazardous effects of cigarette smoking, it is extremely surprising that cigarette smoking is growing at an alarming rate. Why should a person choose to use something that he or she is aware that is posing a great danger to both their lives and the lives of the other innocent people? This is real a difficult question to digest, especially with regards to cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of avoidable deaths even in a developed state like the United States, where you expect to find many enlightened citizens. Much as every citizen has the right to choose between smoking and not smoking, it is quite unfortunate that cigarette smoking habits not only endanger the lives of the smokers, but also the lives of non-smokers. This draws a global concern on whether to ban cigarette smoking or not. The question on whether to legalize or illegalize cigarette smoking should be approached carefully with profound critical thinking. For instance, should the government decide to ban cigarette smoking, the smokers would feel deprived of their rights to smoking. On the other hand, legalizing cigarette smoking will directly or indirectly deny the non-smokers their rights to living in an environment free from the deadly products of smoking. This is because it is quite difficult to evade the interaction between the smokers and non-smokers. Different people from different backgrounds meet in various social areas such as public gathering areas, market places, working areas, learning institutions, religious centers, family settings and many others. The results of such interactions give rise to two main categories of smokers; the active smokers and the passive smokers. While the active smokers deliberately expose their lives to the deadly products of the cigarette smoking, the passive smokers are unfortunately exposed to a deadly environment by the active smokers. The smoke emanating from cigarette smoking has been found to harbor nearly 4000 various chemical products, each with a certain degree of harmful effects to both active and the passive smokers. Among these chemicals are: benzene, ammonia, nicotine, acrylonitrile, tar, carbon (II) oxide, acrolein, toluene, styrene, catechol, and resorcinol (Nordqvist 4). It has also been established that, among the chemical substances found in cigarette smoke, 50 of them are carcinogenic and highly poisonous. If used unconditionally, they can lead to sudden death. Furthermore, accumulation of the chemical substance found in cigarette smoke is related to many harmful effects, which are classified by scientists into individual effects, social effects, psychological effects, and economic effects. Despite all these harmful effects being taught almost in every learning institution, cigarette smoking is rising at an alarming rate that calls for the illegalization of the habit. Besides, the smokers have been misusing their right to smoking and hence endangering the lives of the innocent non-smokers. People smoke for various reasons. First, smoking helps some people alleviate their stress, induce a feeling of relaxation, improve their confidence, foster their concentration, and gain a relief of their stress (Smith & Malone 33). Some people claim that they smoke in order to mitigate the problem of boredom, through gaining a feeling of satisfaction. With such, they argue that smoking makes them feel motivated and hard to give up in life, especially in difficult situations. Peer influence is another cause of the smoking habit. This especially affects the teenagers who have a high desire of socialization. The youth are therefore pressurized by their age mates to start smoking with the aim of fostering their socialization (Jones, Schroeder & Moolchan 23). Finally, some individuals smoke as a way of spicing up their liquor drinks and beers especially during the bonding sessions. Unfortunately, the merits of smoking are short lived. Cigarette smoking gives the users a force sense of wellbeing and satisfaction, which wades up in a feel hours; taking the user back to even worse feelings of depression than before. To remain in a state of wellbeing, the user has to keep on smoking every now and then. In fact in his article titled “The Truth about Smoking Pleasure and Nicotine Addiction”, Martin (3) notes that, there is no valid reason for smoking. There is no way cigarette smoking can be justified. Despite the few sensational feelings associated with cigarette smoking, its demerits are quite overwhelming. Cigarette smoking is usually associated with high risks of different types of cancer, including lung cancer, stomach cancer, and bladder cancer. About 80% of the cancer victims are the active smokers. It is arguably that, the remaining percentage could be blamed on the passive smoker incidents. Most cases of stomach ulcers and hypertension have been blamed on irresponsible cigarette smoking. Eye cataracts, muscular degeneration, yellowing of eyes, tooth decay and foul mouth smell have also been linked with the habit of smoking. Cigarette smoking also increases the chances of leukemia, coughing and asthmatic attacks. Besides, it has been established beyond reasonable doubt that most children born of smoking mothers and fathers are usually slow learners, exhibit retarded growth, and are usually underweight. Most smokers have reduced immune system, and are therefore prone to attack by opportunistic diseases. Cigarette smoking is known to cause preterm delivery, still birth, and low birth rate as a result of impotence. Research shows that more than 480,000 Americans die every year due to cases related to cigarette smoking (Kenneth et al. 7). Cigarette smoking is also known for its social effect issues. Most family problems are as a result of irresponsible smoking behaviors. Many smokers are usually hot tempered and hardly get along with both the family members and the community at large. They are usually violent and hence a threat to both family and community security agencies. Since their main concern is on how to get the next dose, smokers usually neglect their family responsibilities leading to high levels of family conflicts. Cigarette smoking also leads to school truancy and drop outs. Smoker students skip schooling in order to work to get money for the purchase of the drug. Smoker parents on the other hand end up spending the money they were supposed to pay school fees for their children on the purchase of the drug. Additionally, smoking increases poverty level and high dependence rates. Smoking has been largely associated with economic degradation due to a number of factors. First, due to high cases of diseases caused by cigarette smoking, the government spends a lot of capital in construction and maintenance of health facilities to take care of the sick people. This money could be utilized in other developmental projects such as road constructions and importation of agricultural farming products and implements. The death of a productive member of a nation as a result of smoking also leads to the economic degradation. A smoker patient also wastes a lot of time in recovering, and also gains weakened health state, hence reducing his or her effectiveness in job performance, further leading to the deterioration of the nation’s economic growth. The environmental pollution effects posed by cigarette smoking cannot be forgotten. Cigarette smoking releases poisonous gases, such as carbon (II) oxide and ammonia, into the atmosphere rendering the air unable to support life. When these gases are inhaled by people or other animals, they accumulate in the body and may eventually reach a toxic level and become a big threat to life supporting body organs. Cigarette smoking also leads to emission of carbon (IV) oxide into the atmosphere, which together with the carbon (II) oxide pose a great threat to the ozone layer. Destruction of the ozone layer results in the greenhouse effect, which in turn causes global warming. Cigarette remains also cause soil and water pollution if dropped carelessly on the ground. In summary, cigarette smoking has inexhaustible harmful effects which collectively call for the ban of cigarette smoking for the sake of achieving a healthy nation. However, there are various reasons which make abolishing of cigarette smoking hard to achieve. First, cigarette smoking is addictive and some of the members of the nation are already prisoners of the smoking habit (Ehrman 17). Smokers are citizens and possess all the right to smoking. At the same time, the non-smokers have defined rights to stay in a clean environment free from the injurious effects of the cigarette smoking. How then can these two conflicting rights be harmonized? This has been a dilemma for centuries. Going back to the definition of the term “right”, an action is termed to be the right of a person if and only if it does not violate the right of another party. Who then violates the rights of the other, the smoker or the non-smoker? The answer is obvious; the smoker violates the rights of the non-smoker. Spitzer (21) states, “Smokers feel they have the right to smoke any time and any place they choose. They feel that they are only hurting themselves. But the increasing evidence that side-stream smoke is posing a health threat to the people surrounding the smoker has opened up a whole new controversy.” There is the need to enact laws that protect the lives of the innocent non-smoker citizens. Even with the creation of the public smoking zones, there is no divine means of restraining the harmful products of the cigarette smoking from getting into the atmosphere, and consequently the non-smokers at long last end up suffering for a mistake they have not committed. Cigarette smoking therefore ought to be abolished unless there is means of separating the smokers from the non-smokers. One may argue that if cigarette smoking is illegalized, the cigarette manufacturing companies will be closed; resulting in a massive loss of jobs for the workers; which to some extend is true. But there are other industries that should be opened in place of the cigarette manufacturing industries. Furthermore, the government ends up spending a lot of money in caring for the patients accruing from the cigarette smoking effects. This money could be invested in other areas like farming industry and provide even more jobs for the citizens. The tobacco growers should turn to growing of food crops in order to curb the problem of food shortage in the nation. The government should also consider establishing rehabilitation centers to help the addicts recover from the hook of the cigarette smoking. Surely, tobacco has no known nutritional value. It has no life forming property, neither is it a basic need such that, if one is denied the smoking right, he or she may die. In fact, non-cigarette smokers lead excellent healthy lives as opposed to the cigarette smokers. Smokers have no valid reasons to fight for their smoking rights. They have no constitutional smoking rights (Samantha 4). Any citizen arguing that smokers should be granted their smoking rights, should stop to consider how the monstrous action has violated the rights of innocent people. There is no divine ways of preventing the harmful products of smoking from reaching the respiratory systems of non-smokers. Not even the creation of the public smoking zones. Consider a child who is innocently developing in a smoker mother’s womb. The unborn has the right to develop healthily in a cigarette free zone. Consider a small child seated next to smoking father or mother. This child may not be aware of the dangers posed by the smoke he or she is inhaling, and end up suffering unfairly. Consider a wife or husband who sleeps next to a cigarette smoking partner. Since the wife or the husband has nowhere else to sleep, or is forced by circumstances to sleep next to the smoker partner, they end up becoming passive smokers unwillingly. What of passengers who lose their lives on road accidents due to the side effects of smoking on the smoking drivers? Surely, such passengers have the right to be driven safely to their destinations. How can a nation justify the rights of smokers endangering the lives of such innocent beings? Much as smokers feel that they have smoking rights, there is the need for smokers themselves to rethink of how they have and continue endangering the lives of their fellow human beings, even if they themselves don’t care about their lives. In conclusion, the disadvantages of cigarette smoking outnumber the advantages by far. In fact, there is no known valid reason for smoking. Smoking poses a great danger to the whole society and no single smoking habit affects the user only. For instance, presence of a cigarette smoker in the society means no health safety assurance for both the smoker and the rest of the society. This is true owing to a colossal dangerous effects accruing from the poisonous substances emanating from the smoke, leading to air pollution. It is very unjust for irresponsible smokers to keep on pilling health hazards to the whole society through deliberate usage of a substance that is totally harmful and has no any nutritional value to them. Generally, there is no smoking right without negative impacts to the community. Therefore, time has come when everyone, including the smokers, should stand against the monstrous action in order to realize a healthy society founded on a cigarette-free environment. Cigarette smoking should be illegalized. Works Cited Ehrman,N. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2002: 67: 185-191. Downloaded on https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871602000650 Jones, N., Schroeder, R. & Moolchan, T. Addictive behaviors: Time spent with friends who smoke and quit attempts among teen smokers, 2004: 29: 723-729. Downloaded on https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460304000073#! Kenneth, E., Ronald, M., Thomas, E., John, H., Judith, K. & Nancy, A. U.S Department of health and human service: Reducing the consequences of smoking, 1989. Downloaded on https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/X/S/ Martin, T. The Truth about Smoking Pleasure and Nicotine Addiction, 2018. (Online). Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/the-truth-about-smoking-pleasure-2824757 Nordqvist, C. What Chemicals Are In Cigarette Smoke? ,2015. (Online). Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/215420.phpfrom Samantha, K. Centre For Tobacco Control Research And Education: There Is No Constitutional Right To Smoke, 2005. Downloaded on https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2h8644m0 Smith, A. & Malone, E. European Journal of Public Health: ‘We will speak as the smoker’: the tobacco industry's smokers' rights groups, 2006. Downloaded on https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/17/3/306/722281 Spitzer, J. Joel’s Quit Smoking Library: The Right to Smoke in Public, 1984. Downloaded on https://whyquit.com/joel/Joel_05_03_spitoons_right_smoke.html
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    SMOKING CESSATION CAMPAIGN
    SMOKING CESSATION CAMPAIGN Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Smoking Cessation Campaign Background The National Quit Now smoking cessation campaign is a health promotional programme that is being supported by the Australian government. This paper critically examines its impacts on the health condition of the targeted inhabitants in Australia. On that note, the Australian Department of Health and Aging propelled national tobacco campaigns (NTC) which became a Cultural and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) components in 2011. The campaign led to the establishment of two phases of the programme; as a result, the first phase of the campaign was unleashed in 2011 while the second phase was unleashed on the 29 January 2012 up to the end of May 2012. Both stages of the campaign targeted people of age that ranged 18- 40 years (Towns et al., 2017). These people were believed to originate from varying cultural groups and were scrutinised to have a high affinity of tobacco use. The programme also encompassed people who had Korean, Chinese, Spanish, Pacific Islander and Vietnamese origin. The objectives that propagated the implementation of the programme were to reinforce and establish the intentions amid the new smokers for them to quit. Moreover, to strengthen and promote the level of awareness to people on the health dangers that are associated with the smoking habit. This is because of the lack of tobacco control measures in the nation; as a result, there were weak health warnings. The smoking cessation campaign that was conducted by the help of the media and volunteered individuals led to the Australian government to listen thus implement the cessation smoking programmes (Bala, Strzeszynski & Topor‐Madry, 2017). On that note, the government had to fund the smoking cessation programmes by including it in the Australian tobacco control budget. These initiative programmes that were supported by the government constituted of the hospital-based quit services for the families and in patients and subsidised Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) (Thomas et al., 2016). The quite smoking campaign programme is focused on regulating the number of smokers in Australia by focusing on the power of radio, online and television advertisings. These channels of advertisements are graphics, inspirational and positively framed. Moreover, these advertisements have been seen to be very useful thus encourages smokers in Australia to stop smoking to improve their health conditions. The smoking advertisements not only emphasises on the harmful effects of smoking’s and the importance of quitting smoking but also focus on the impacts that smoking or quitting smoking can have to other people or the surrounding environment that they cherish. Nevertheless, the second phase of the CALD campaign constituted of three executions which include money, family and health benefits. These led to the commissioning of the Australian government towards ORIMA research to embark on a quantitative exploration to examine the impacts of the second phase of the campaign amid the CALD audience. The CALD addressees were also incorporated in the first phase of ORIMA’s evaluation (Ashton, Rigby & Galletly, 2015). Implementation of this programme is essential since in the past the Australian government released a small portion of funds to which was devoted to the smoking cessation programmes available in the country. This made it very problematic for people to find aid in quit smoking since the majority of the cessations programmes were expensive because they were offered by the private sectors. Despite age being the primary target of the agenda, the mid-class and white smokers were also targeted. Legislative Policy Programmes The National Healthcare Agreement (NHA) dedicated territories, states and Commonwealth of Australia to recital benchmark. The NHA was obligated to ensure that that the national population smoking rate is condensed by 10%. The Australian government is on the verge of implementing regulations and legislation that will help to regulate tobacco smoking on the nation. On that note, the law to reduce the manner tobacco products are sold in particular localities of Australia will help in reducing the danger (Unger, 2018). It is essential when the regulation is reviewed continuously to respond to responses and evidence to the emerging issues. The compliance enforcement activity certifies that the legislation is enormous. The vital enforcements activities constitute of the monitoring bans on display and promotion, monitoring of smoke-free zones, testing of the retailer compliance with prohibitions on sales to the minors. The legislative policy process that led to the planning smoking cessation campaign was impacted due to the high disease and death rates that have erupted from the effect of smoking. Approximately, 150,000 Australians are hospitalised, and 20,000 perish each year as a result of smoking. Therefore, the social and economic cost of smoking in Australia is approximated to be at $AU 12, 736.2 million per capita. The smoking free legislation was introduced in two territories and six states of Australia. This has critically impacted the environment since the smoke-free environment has become rapidly universal deceit in Australia. The Australian public service adopted the smoke-free environmental policy in 1988. This gave liberty to the people to smoke freely, and it was later viewed as a mechanism that propagated the rate of smoking in Australia. The legislation led to the majority of the youth and adults to be addicts of smoking since no ban was implemented by the government at that period. Contrary, the government had to come with regulatory measures to reduce the effects of smoking. These led to the government to draft legislation to impose resource and implement the smoking cessation campaign programme. Changes In 1988 the Australian government adopted the smoke-free environmental policy. The adoption of this legislation motivated a massive population of the Australian people to smoke since there was no regulation or ban implemented by the government at that period. The change that has been witnessed is that the smoke-free legislation is not active up to date since the Australian government imposed a ban of that legislation to regulate the amount of smoking. This is because smoking had resulted in numerous deaths of the people. On the other hand, the changes that have been witnessed are in regards to smoking cessation due to the perceived barriers of smoking in the ancient period to current (Baggett et al., 2018). In the past, it was easy for the management programmes to regulate smoking since the majority of smokers engaged in smoking due to lack of knowledge of the side effects of smoking. The recent situation in Australia has been shocking since a large proportion of the population engage in smoking to manage stress and out of leisure due to the enjoyment of addiction (Rogers, 2019). This current situation has made it quite challenging for smoking cessation programmes to handle that particular group of smokers.
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    Technology
    Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Sheldon Wolin, “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” Introduction Sheldon Wolin on “Fugitive Democracy” and “Norm & Form” is concerned with the political uses and significance of democracy in regard to two entirely opposed ideas that illustrate two equally contrasting states of affairs (Wolin, 29). First, Woldin states that democracy represents of government and political authority normally referred to as a constitution. Second, he speaks of the revolution, unsettling political movement. According to Woldin, the constitution symbolizes the repression of the revolution, while the revolution the demolition of the constitution. The two opposing notions are interlinked by democracy. There is a great need to reconceived democracy not as a type of government, it should be defined as a form of being that is as a result of bitter incidents, and is destined to temporarily succeed (Wolin, 43). Democracy is a rebellious and political moment that assumes destructive and revolutionary proportions. Democracy in Ancient Times Traditionally, democracy has been defined as a type of government in which citizens are vested with supreme power. A democratic state is characterized with proper equality of privileges and rights, social or political equality, and a democratic spirit. The main role of democracy was to transform politics in speech and sight, make power visible, and make decision making open so that ordinary men could have power. Over a period of time, democratic theorists such as Woldin, have primarily concerned themselves with examining the meaning and definition of the notion of democracy, while simultaneously focusing on its obligations, moral foundations, challenges, and general allure of a democratic governance. Democracy in the modern world cannot be perceived as a whole political system, provided with the great potentialities of modern power forms, and its impact on the natural and social world (Wolin, 42). Modern Democracy There is a great difference between facets of democracy in the organizational impulses of modern and ancient constitutionalism. Democracy from primeval to modern times has allegedly weakened the power of law, and the practice of compliance to government. Initially, demos were used to change the political art practice where the elite competed for office and honors. Currently, demos are used to reverse the worldwide trends of institutionalized power systems to benefit a few and exploit many citizens (Wolin, 48). The rupture between modern and ancient democracy conceptions should be considered as the needed foundation for the development of modern democracy. This is because the social complexity, large populations, and great physical dimensions make the politics of a small polis old-fashioned. Conclusion There is a need to renew democracy through relying on voluntary associations. “Voluntary associations are often see as a key to enhancing political participation in the wider community” (Eikenberry, 7). Ordinary citizens have the capability of developing new cultural patterns of unity at any moment. People who use their power for improved healthcare, better schools, safer water, low income housing among others are (without their knowledge) renewing the democracy. “Philanthropic supporters enable the provision of a broad array of activities and activities that may not be provided otherwise” (Eikenberry, 16). Self- governing and independent voluntary associations should always replace hierarchical corporate authorities. This provides the affected interests with voices, hence promoting government through consent in the entire society, and not just in the state. Through such actions, the state complexity will be reduced and the ancient democratic representative mechanisms shall be able to function effectively.
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    Health Services Q & A Part 2
    Health Services (2) What is the correct procedure to follow if a safety breach – an injury, or personal contact with clinical waste, for example – has occurred? In cases where a safety breach such as an injury or personal contact with clinical waste has occurred, the OSH Act states that the employer must report the injury or injuries and provide first aid procedures and facilities. All serious injuries contracted during work (loss of sight, fractures), specific infectious diseases like viral hepatitis and HIV and other injuries that may prevent the worker from working for 10 consecutive days must be reported to WorkSafe (Govt. of Western Australia, 2011). Why is it important to separate waste at the point of generation? It is important to separate waste at the point of generation to reduce the risk of contaminating the personnel involved in the disposal and the public; and its potential to pollute the environment if not managed properly. The process of separation must be done at the point of generation and the separation as per type of waste must be kept during accumulation, handling, interim storage and transportation (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005). Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. Give examples of how the Australian society has changed over time. Consider the types of food, traditions, cultural diversity, and technology. The Australian society has changed over time because of the immigration and race relations. Its culture becomes multicultural and diversity was promoted, resulting to a multicultural policy recognising diversity in lifestyle (food, dress) and linguistic. The diverse migrant communities in Australia brought with them their lifestyle, food and cultural practices. An example is the invasion of the British colonists where indigenous people were dominated by force. This invasion also produced mixed European-Aboriginal descent children, where some were forcefully taken from their aboriginal mothers to be ‘civilised’ and reared in the ‘white’ society (everyculture.com, 2014). Australia is a society embracing many different cultures. These cultural differences are demonstrated and expressed in various ways. An example is the Jawoyn indigenous communities in Katherine, Northern Territory; their culture is quite different to the city culture of a capital city. Identify two (2) other cultures within Australia that are quite different from one another, and explain their differences. One is the Islamic culture in Australia. Some of the differences between Muslims and other cultures in Australia are their way of dressing, their practice of segregating men from women, the kind of foods they eat (no pork and its byproducts) and their customs and traditions in terms of marriage and burial. Muslim women generally wear hijab and cover their legs and arms. The Tiwi people or the indigenous group in Australia that live in the Tiwi islands are distinct from other cultures when it comes to their beliefs in mourning, marriage and language. The Tiwi people when mourning paint their body and require others to feed them. Body painting has been practised in the Tiwi culture as part of ceremonies since time immemorial. When it comes to marriage, their culture dictates that newborn girls are engaged to men who are at least 60 years old, but their marriage will not be consummated until the girls reach 14 years of age. Tiwi females are allowed to marry at all times because they believe that a child should not be born fatherless. When the husband dies, the girl’s new partner takes the role of father to all the children of the girl from previous marriages (Hewett et al., 1988). A person may come from a cultural background but not hold all of the same beliefs or customs as others from that background. An example is that a family may raise their children in the Jewish faith but the children may not hold this same belief themselves and may, as adults, live a life that does not uphold any of the traditional Jewish values. For example, the children might not: marry someone from the Jewish faith; celebrate Jewish festivals; speak Hebrew; follow dietary restrictions such as refraining from eating pork or shellfish.
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  • Tertiary education
    Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    GMO How are genetically modified organisms different from non-genetically modified organism? Genetically modified organisms are animals, plants and other organisms whose genetic composition was altered using genetic recombination and modification techniques performed in a laboratory. On the other hand, non-GMO organisms are those organisms that are produced naturally and were not modified (the organic & non organic report 2017; rumiano cheese 2011 & non-gmoproject 2016). The recent acts of activist intent on destruction of research plots included plants altered by molecular as well as classical genetic techniques. Is it possible to distinguish between plants altered by classical genetics and those altered by modern techniques? If it’s possible, how is it done?  It is possible and it can be distinguished by checking the DNA of the organism. Thion et al. 2002 conducted an experiment on how to extract/purify DNA of soybeans to check if the sample was transgenic and had undergone extraction and purification. The checking can be done through the use of a microscopic technology. Meanwhile, Schreiber (2013) adds that the detection could be done through a biochemical means where the present GMO will be measured. In isolating and amplifying a piece of DNA, the technique using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to make millions of copies of the strands of the DNA. It is easier to see visually the altered and non-altered DNA if there are millions of copies of the DNA. What safeguards are in place to protect Americans from unsafe food? Are these methods science-based? Mention at least 2 methods. The US government safeguards the Americans from unsafe foods through the FDA or US Food and Drug Administration. Their methods are science-based, i.e. its whole genome sequencing technology and its measures in controlling microbial hazards. The whole genome sequencing technology is used by the FDA in identifying pathogens isolated from food. The FDA also safeguards foods by controlling microbial hazards through the process of elimination of growth and reduction of growth. The elimination methods are either through heating or freezing while the reduction of growth method involves the use of acidity, temperature and water activity. (Bradsher et al. 2015, pp. 85 – 86; FDA 2007; FDA 2013). Name at least 10 examples of harm to citizens from unsafe food. What percentage of these illnesses was caused by genetically modified organisms? If so, mention any example Some examples of harm to people from unsafe foods are harmful diseases extending from diarrhea to cancer caused by eating foods contaminated with viruses, bacteria, chemical substances and parasites. Around 600 million people around the world fell ill after consumption of contaminated food; diarrheal diseases cause around 125,000 death of children 0-5 years of age (WHO 2015). Based on the studies made by IRT (2011), foods from genetically modified organisms cause damage to the immune system, gastrointestinal and other organs, infertility and accelerated aging. These happen because residue or bits of materials of the GMO food can be left inside the person’s body, which eventually can cause long-term problems. Statistics show that in 9 years after the introduction of GMOs in the market, Americans who had chronic illnesses rose from 7 to 13% and other diseases such as digestive problems, autism, and reproductive disorders are rising (IRT 2011).
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  • Tertiary education
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’
    ‘Globalisation is good’ or ‘is it not?’ Globalisation is good because it opens doors of opportunities to many. It was the reason for the broad and speedy worldwide interconnectedness of the current social life – from cultural to criminal and from financial to spiritual. This is synonymous to having a borderless world but critics argue stating that globalisation has in fact disconnected the world from its national geographical divisions – the countries (Yoong & Huff 2007). Although some are discounting the benefits of globalisation to the world, I still consider globalisation to be the driving force in the global partnerships between companies that created more opportunities and jobs. The world trade may have plunged, the dollar dwindled, commodities slumped, but overall, globalisation has brought good to the peoples of the world. Globalisation through the internet has unlocked the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must do their homework well before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people (La Coruna 2012). Moreover, globalisation has also done well to the manufacturing sector. Statistics show that the global industrial output in 2010 registered fifty-seven times more than the production in the 1900. Also, globalisation has changed the way things are produced. The manufacturers going global take advantage of the skills and the costs of producing products in different countries. This means that the design of the product may be done in the US, manufactured in China or Taiwan then assembled in the Philippines. So every item – be it an iPad, a doll or a washing machine is collaboratively produced by the best skilled workers in the world at the lowest labor cost (The economist 2012). Consequently, since the product was a collaboration of different countries so it can be also marketed and patronized in those countries (The economist 2012). However, there are some who are openly argues that it failed to deliver the many publicized benefits to the poor. A Filipino economist, Walden Bello, coins a new term to describe the present global economic situation as caused by “deglobalisation” due to the downturn of the economies of big countries such as Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, Japan and Brazil. However, the poor countries are the ones that show faster growth than the rich countries, making globalisation still good because of the opportunities it gives to the needy. On the other hand, Dunning, et al (2007) claims that the current inclinations in the global economy reflect a more distributed rather than a geographical sharing of multi-national enterprise activity and foreign direct investments and to the carrying-out of transactions that are globally oriented. Contrary to the common beliefs, globalisation is not a new thing in the global business world. According to McMahon (2004) it existed since the late parts of the fifteenth century when a society of nations consisting of the countries in Northern Europe entered the rest of the world through exploration, trade and then conquest. This process which involves the exploitation of wealth and power by the European voyagers lead to industrialization in Britain, then mass international industrialization and eventually globalisation (McMahon 2004). Sheel (2005) adds that the interchange of technology and markets between countries have been among the first human innovations since the most primitive times. Globalisation was termed that time as “exchange” where the country’s surpluses were exchanged with other surpluses of peoples from other countries. This old system of exchange was developed, continued to grow and increased to greater heights in the modern times (Waters 2001 as cited in van Krieken, et al 2006). Robertson (2003) asserts that globalisation is inherent in people, motivated by their desire for self-interest and cooperation for survival. The author theorizes that globalisation existed due to the encouragement of interconnectedness by the social, political, economic and technological growths performing as catalysts for both local and global developments (Robertson 2003). Robertson (2003) claims that globalisation has emerged in three waves – during the 1500 to 1800 for the first wave, 18th century up to the 20th century for the second wave and the third wave is after the World War 2. However, Sheel (2008) categorizes globalisation in four phases – the 1st phase took place on the 16th century, the 2nd phase on the late 18th century, the 3rd phase during the 19th to 20th century and the fourth phase is during the end of the 20th century. According to the analysis of Robertson (2003), the first wave (1500 to 1800) saw the upsurge of colonization, invasion, imperialism, misery of the indigenous people, migration and changes in politics, economy and culture. The first wave has encouraged the creation of interconnectedness between peoples, countries and cultures, as instigated by commerce and trade. The second phase (18th to 20th century) was characterized by the start of Industrial Revolution, paving the way for industrialization and increase of income and profits especially to those who had technological skills. The trade routes created during the first wave were utilized by the manufacturers in sourcing their raw materials from other countries. However, by the end of the second wave, civil conflicts in many countries arose, same with the unfortunate events of World Wars 1 and 2 and the Great Depression. The third phase of globalisation transpired after World War 2. This was the phase when European economies were down whilst USA was enjoying a flourishing economy with tough industrial foundation and strong military. The latter part of the third phase (during the middle of the 20th century), the growth of globalisation was challenged by the emergence of communist ideology and the military force of Soviet Union. This challenge resulted to cold war between USA and Soviet Union where Soviet Union collapsed in 1989 (Robertson 2003). In addition to Robertson’s analysis, Sheel (2005) adds that there exists a fourth phase of globalisation that happened during the end of the 20th century where countries the developing and developed countries merged as partners in cross border trade and investments, stimulating the convergence of India and China. However, issues about globalisation’s worthiness have surfaced, some critics consisting of anti-globalisation groups argue that globalisation in corporate organisations have increased povery and inequality (Engler 2007). A study was made by World Value Survey regarding globalisation and 57% of the survey respondents consider globalisation as good. Most of the approving respondents were optimistic that globalisation would encourage the improvement of the workers’ working conditions, economic equality, global peace, global stability and human rights (Leiserowitz, et al 2006). But still, anti-globalisation groups insist that poverty, homelessness and environmental destruction will be highlighted if globalisation continues as it only centers on increasing trade and investment but ignores environmental protections and human rights (Engler 2007). But Edwards & Usher (2008) comment that the argument of the anti-globalisation groups are only superficial because despite their protests against globalisation they still engage in globalisation practices such the use of computers, internets and mobiles in their dissemination of their opposition. This manifests that these protesters are only selective in their opposition. They are not against the good effects of globalisation in communication but only on the aspect of capitalism. The inequality of wealth and poverty is one of the issues that plagued globalisation where critics claim that it makes the poor countries poorer and the rich countries richer as they exploit and amass the wealth of the minority country. But Holmes, et al (2007) reason that there is really a big difference on the distribution of benefits as the developed country provides the money or the capital whilst the developing country (minority) offers its resources and labor. This set-up ends-up with the developed country that provided the financial capitalization getting the bigger share of the profit. However, one aspect of globalisation that really brought good benefits to the people is the technological globalisation. Dahlman (2007) describes technological globalisation as the development of knowledge and skills through research by capable engineers and scientists and offering them to countries that have no inventive capability. The acquisition of these inventions by other countries enables them of acquiring technological transfer. Technologies can be transferred through technical assistance, direct foreign investment, importation of goods and components of products, licensing, copying and reverse engineering (Dahlman 2007). The advancement of communication technology through networking has opened more opportunities and economic growth. In addition, the video of Johan Norberg entitled “Globalisation is good – the case of Taiwan” illustrates the importance of globalisation in uplifting the poor conditions of poor countries. The video presented two former poor countries – Taiwan and Kenya – and compare and contrast what have they become 50 years after. Taiwan became 20 times progressive than Kenya whilst Kenya remained a poor country. Norberg explains that the reason for this difference is the globalisation that Taiwan embraced 50 years ago. Taiwan allowed capitalists to invest in their country whilst they provide the resources and labor. Moreover, Taiwan allowed the integration of their economy to the global trade whilst Kenya continued to shun globalisation. The video also presented the value of the multinational companies like Nike that employs the labor force of Vietnam in their sweatshop. Instead of being exploited, the Vietnamese were given good working conditions, high salaries and more benefits. Contrary of the claim of anti-globalisation groups that multinational investors will only exploit local workers, Vietnamese workers were given the opportunity to rise from their poverty through the works provided for them by globalisation. Conclusion: Contrary to what most people believe, globalisation has been in existence since time immemorial through surplus “exchange” and though the people were not yet privy to the term, they were already using the method of globalisation in their interconnection with other people’s business and lives. Now that the term globalisation is out in the open, people all around the world become mindful of each other’s affairs and consequences, disapproving how the system of globalisation makes the rich countries richer and the poor countries poorer. But as Norberg (2012) has seen it, globalisation is good as it intends to improve productivity and working condition. Though critics argue that it only exploits and amass the wealth of the poor country, Norberg was right when he said that if it is exploitation, then the world’s problem is by not exploiting the poor properly. The case of Taiwan and Kenya is already an eye-opener to those who still shut the door to globalisation. There may be ups and downs in the world of business but it cannot be blamed everything to globalisation because globalisation is only a method of interaction and not the one that is making the business or the deal. Globalisation through the internet has opened the doors to the sharing of cultures, knowledge, goods and services between peoples of all countries and the modern technologies lifted the barriers for accommodating a speedy transfer. The case of Inditex in marketing their Zara brand globally manifests that in business, one formula does not fit all. Every country has its own culture and styles and a business that is going global must be well prepared before entering the new market. Inditex’s Zara brand was a success to the Europeans but struggles in America and still trying their luck with the Chinese. But despite of these differences, the company is still considering going global because they needed new markets and they knew they will be opening bigger opportunities and jobs to more people. This proves that globalization brings good to many but one must know how to diversify and take advantage of the various benefits of globalization to reach greater success in the future.
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  • Admission
    George Washington University: International Business
    George Washington University: International Business Essay Prompt 1: At George Washington University, our students frequently interact with policymakers and world leaders. These experiences and those of our alumni can shape the future of global affairs. If you had the power to change the course of history in your community or the world, what would you do and why? When BBC confirmed the process towards the Korea reunification through their breaking news in 2018, I was among those who overjoyed. And who would not? Anderson Cooper confirmed that South and North Korea were going to sign a reunification agreement that day, an indication that all the years of tension and conflict between the two Koreas would be finally put behind. Finally, the Korean Peninsula would soon be a hub of peace. As a Korean, my desire to the reunification and the promotion of peace throughout the world has led me to dream to become the South Korean Secretary of Foreign Affairs someday so I can smooth out all the problems and hindrances towards the realization of the unification. However, not everyone was in favor of the reunification; and mostly, the younger South Koreans disagree with the idea as they were afraid of the consequences such as the cost that the South Koreans would have to shoulder and the political arrangement that the two leaders would have to arrange. But if I had the power to change the course of history, I would accelerate all the process while all the current political leaders involved in the reunification, namely, President Trump and the two leaders of South and North Koreas are talking and determined to realize the unification. I will use the media and the citizens of the two Koreas in expediting the process and in telling the whole world that they are brothers and should remain as one.
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  • Tertiary education
    Explicit Teaching
    Explicit Teaching Introduction Not all students are equal. Some are fast learners; others need assistance while others are unruly – not because they are doing it intentionally, but because they are suffering from learning disabilities causing hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Some adjustments are needed in the learning environment and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual learning needs of the students. Explicit teaching provides active communication and interaction between the student and the teacher and it involves direct explanation, modeling and guided practice (Rupley & Blair 2009). This paper will demonstrate Explicit Teaching applied to a class scenario with students suffering from a learning disability known as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity. Furthermore, a lesson will be developed featuring an example of an explicit teaching approach showing how to differentiate the lesson to meet the needs of every student, with or without learning disability before finally concluding. 2A: ET Creating a Scenario One of the learning disabilities encountered is AD/HD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder that is likely instigated by biological factors that impact chemical messages (neurotransmitters) in some specific parts of the brain. In this type of learning disability, the parts of the brain that control reflective thought and the restriction of ill-considered behavior are affected by the slight imbalances in the neurotransmitters (ADCET 2014). AD/HD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention and impulsiveness. Students with ADHD are those who never seem to listen, cannot sit still, do not follow instruction no matter how clear the instructions are presented to them, or those who just interrupt others and blurt-out improper comments at improper times. Moreover, these students are oftentimes branded as undisciplined, troublemakers or lazy (NHS 2008). In managing students with AD/HD, some adjustments in the learning environment are needed and these adjustments should be tailored based on the individual needs of the student. It should be noted that persons with AD/HD have different manifestations and the nature of disability as well as its effect on the student’s learning also vary (ADCET 2014). Direct instruction is considered as one of the best approaches in teaching students with AD/HD, but it must be used skilfully and the teacher should think of strategies to prevent it from becoming boring. Killen (2003) states that in using direct instruction, the teacher should emphasise teaching in small steps so the student will be able to practice every step and their practice will be guided to come-up with high level of success. In teaching a student with AD/HD, creative presentation of course material is advisable and this could be done through the use of visual aids and hands-on experience to stimulate the student’s senses. The teacher may use personal stories such as the student’s ideas and experiences (Killen (2003). It will also help if the teacher encourages the student with AD/HD to sit in front or near in front of the classroom to limit distractions (Tait 2010). Telling the student of what the teacher wants him to learn or be able to do – such as reading, writing, etc. - will help in the student’s better understanding of the lesson. In presenting the lesson, the teacher should present the lesson at a pace that the student can handle, such as not too slow or too fast. Important points should be emphasised so the student will realise its significance. To check if the student understands the lesson, the teacher may ask questions and if the student cannot answer, the teacher should re-explain everything that the student gets confused with. New words or new terms should be explained through examples. Assigning colors to different objects is a good visual aid in processing visual information. To help the student with AD/HD process written material, the teacher may use various verbal descriptions as possible. A list of acronyms and terms will also help, as well as a variety of teaching formats like films, flow charts or handouts. At the end of the lesson, a summary should be given, stressing the important points of the lesson. 2B: ET Lesson PlanKey Learning Area: Math Stage: 7 Year level: Year 7 Unit/Topic: Algebra Learner Outcomes: This lesson focuses in essential algebraic topics intended to prepare students for the study of Algebra and its applications. Students are introduced to topics involving mathematical operations with whole numbers, decimals and integers. Upon completion of this lesson, students are expected to answer and use mathematical language to show understanding; use reasoning to identify mathematical relationships; and continue and be familiar with repeating patterns. Indicators: At the end of the lesson, students are able to recognise what comes next in repeating patterns, identify patterns used in familiar activities, recognise an error in a pattern, able to simplify algebraic fractions, factorise quadratic expressions and operate with algebraic expressions. Resources: Whiteboard, colored visual aids, workbooks and class notes where the procedures are listed. Prior Knowledge: Students possess basic math knowledge (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). They also have basic understanding of the terms such as whole numbers, positive, negative, decimals and integers. Assessment Strategies: To assess the students’ learning, students will be asked to do mathematical operations. Their answers will be checked, marked and recorded; and those who are unable to answer correctly will be asked what is it that they are getting confused. For students with learning disability, their computations will be checked and evaluated. Comments will be recorded in a record book regarding the student’s performance.
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  • Tertiary education
    Ethical Promotion Paper (Nursing)
    Ethical Promotion Paper In today’s globalization, the use of electronic health record significantly helps in sharing patient’s information to other healthcare providers across health organizations for patient’s better access to health care, decrease of costs and improvement of the quality of care (Ozair et al. 2015). However, the increasing use of electronic health record of patients over paper records sometimes generates ethical issues that should be given attention. Nurses are bound to follow the Code of Ethics and sharing of patient information, even digitally, should be done within the right conduct. This paper will discuss the article written by Ozair, Jamshed, Sharma & Aggrawal (2015) entitled, “Ethical issues in electronic health records: a general overview”, which was published in Perspectives in Clinical Research. My thoughts on the role that health care professionals should play in resolving the said ethical issue will also be discussed, as well as the specific theory that will support my position. Article’s Summary Ozair et al. (2015) aimed to explore the ethical issues created in the use of electronic health record (EHR), as well as to discuss its possible solutions. Although the use of digital health record could improve the patient’s quality of healthcare and decrease cost, transferring or sharing information through digital technology poses hazards that could lead to security breaches and endanger safety of information. When the patient’s information or health data are shared to others without the patient’s consent, then their autonomy is put at risk. Electronic health record contains the patient’s health data including his/her medical diagnoses, history, immunization dates, treatment plans and laboratory results. Every person has the right to privacy and confidentiality and his information can only be shared if he permits it or dictated by law. If the information was shared because of clinical interaction, then that information should be treated as confidential and be protected. The confidentiality of information can be protected by allowing only the authorized personnel to have access. Thus, the users are identified and assigned with passwords and usernames. However, these may not be enough to protect the confidentiality of the patient’s information and stronger policies on security and privacy are needed to secure the information. According to a survey, around 73% of doctors communicate with other doctors through text about work and when mobile devices get lost or stolen, the confidentiality of the information about patients are put at stake. Hence, security measures such as intrusion detection software, antivirus software and firewalls should be used to protect the integrity of data and maintain patient’s confidentiality and privacy. When patient data is transferred, there is a possibility of the data getting lost or destructed especially when errors are made during the “cut and paste” process. The integrity of data may also be compromised when the physician uses drop down menu and his/her choices become limited due to the choices available in the menu, causing him/her to select the wrong choice, thus, leading to huge errors. However, the authors claim that these ethical issues can be resolved through the creation of an effective EHR system, involving clinicians, educators, information technologies and consultants in the development and implementation of the ERH system. My Thoughts on the role of health care professionals The role of health care professionals is vital in ensuring that the right of patients to privacy and confidentiality are observed even in the use of electronic health record (EHR). Patient’s human rights in care include their rights to confidentiality and privacy (Cohen & Ezer 2013). To ensure that there will be no ethical issues created in the use of EHR, health care professionals should be properly informed about the importance of the system, as well as the ethical issues that could arise if the rights of the patient are not properly observed. Hence, it is vital that the knowledge of the health care professionals regarding the right implementation of EHR starts from their education curriculum, as well as in their continuous training and nurses’ participation in the workflow of EHR (Koolaee, Safdan & Bouraghi 2015). Computer literacy is a must for health care professionals to ensure that the sharing of health data information are not lost or destructed during the process and medical errors are not committed. Conclusion The use of electronic health record improves and increases efficiency in patient care, as well as patients’ access to care across health organizations. However, health care professionals should never ignore the rights of patients to their privacy and confidentiality so they should be properly informed if ever there is a need for their health data information to be shared to others to avoid ethical issues. List of References Cohen J. & Ezer T. (2013). ‘Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical
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